Poisonous or toxic plants of North America
Researchers may have found a cure for the baldness caused by alopecia areata, an autoimmune condition that causes patchy hair loss, and it is a drug already on the market, though for the treatment of bone marrow disorders. After just five months of taking ruxolitinib, three alopecia areata patients who had lost at least a third of their hair due to the disorder saw total hair regrowth. Further testing is needed to see if this treatment will be safe and effective on a wider scale. More… Discuss
Poison ivy is a woody vine known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant that can cause an itchy rash. To avoid poison ivy, you need to know how to spot it: watch out for a plant that has compound leaves with three almond-shaped leaflets and whitish berries. Remember: “Leaflets three, let it be!” Poison ivy is generally light to dark green in color, but it turns bright red in the fall. Its leaflets have a smooth surface and relatively toothless edges. Where does it grow? More… Discuss
This video is designed to help you avoid the toxic poison oak plant. In addition to teaching you avoidance, it will show you what to do to minimize the trauma associated with a poison oak rash.
Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Zanfel Zanfel Zanfel Zanfel Calamine Calamine Calamine Ivy Block Ivy Block
The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has claimed 729 lives in four countries thus far, making it the deadliest and widest ranging such outbreak the world has ever seen. Dozens of healthcare workers have fallen victim, complicating efforts to combat it. Though the disease is outpacing current efforts to contain its spread, the head of the World Health Organization (WHO) still believes that the “unprecedented” outbreak could be stopped if proper steps are taken at both the national and international levels. To this end, a new, $100 million (75 million euro) Ebola response plan is being launched to combat the disease. More… Discuss
|Country||South Africa, United States|
|Media type||Print (paperback and hardback) eBook and audiobook|
|LC Class||RC140.5 .P74 1995b|
The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story is a best-selling 1994 non-fiction thriller by Richard Preston about the origins and incidents involving viral hemorrhagic fevers, particularly ebolaviruses and marburgviruses. The basis of the book was Preston’s 1992 New Yorker article “Crisis in the Hot Zone“.
The filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Marburg virus (MARV), and Ravn virus (RAVV) are Biosafety Level 4 agents. Biosafety Level 4 agents are extremely dangerous to humans because they are very infectious, have a high case-fatality rate, and there are no known prophylactics, treatments, or cures. Along with describing the history of the diseases caused by these two Central African diseases, Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Marburg virus disease (MVD), Preston describes a 1989 incident in which a relative of Ebola virus named Reston virus (RESTV), was discovered at a primate quarantine facility in Reston, Virginia, less than fifteen miles (24 km) away from Washington, DC. The virus found at the facility was a mutated form of the original Ebola virus, and was initially mistaken for Simian Hemorrhagic Fever (SHV). The original Reston facility involved in the incident, located at 1946 Isaac Newton Square, was subsequently torn down sometime between 1995 and 1998.
The book is in four sections:
The book starts with “Charles Monet” visiting Kitum Cave during a camping trip to Mount Elgon in Central Africa. Not long after, he begins to suffer from a number of symptoms, including vomiting, diarrhea and red eye. He is soon taken to Nairobi Hospital for treatment, but his condition deteriorates further and he goes into a coma while in the waiting room. This particular filovirus is called Marburg virus.
Dr. Nancy Jaax had been promoted to work in the Level 4 Biosafety containment area at USAMRIID, and is assigned to research Ebola virus. While preparing food for her family at home, she cuts her right hand. Later, while working on a dead, EBOV-infected monkey, one of the gloves on the hand with the open wound tears, and she is almost exposed to contaminated blood, but does not get infected. Nurse Mayinga is also infected by a nun and elects to visit Nairobi Hospital for treatment, where she succumbs to the disease.
In Reston, Virginia, less than fifteen miles (24 km) away from Washington, DC, a company called Hazelton Research once operated a quarantine center for monkeys that were destined for laboratories. In October 1989, when an unusually high number of their monkeys began to die, their veterinarian decided to send some samples to Fort Detrick (USAMRIID) for study. Early during the testing process in biosafety level 3, when one of the flasks appeared to be contaminated with harmless pseudomonas bacterium, two USAMRIID scientists exposed themselves to the virus by wafting the flask. They later determine that, while the virus is terrifyingly lethal to monkeys, humans can be infected with it without any health effects at all. This virus is now known as Reston virus (RESTV).
Finally, the author himself goes into Africa to explore Kitum Cave. On the way, he discusses the role of AIDS in the present, as the highway they were on, sometimes called the “AIDS Highway,” or the “Kinshasa Highway” was where it first appeared. Equipped with a Hazmat suit, he enters the cave and finds a large number of animals, one of which might be the virus carrier. At the conclusion of the book, he travels to the quarantine facility in Reston. The building there was abandoned and deteriorating. He concludes the book by saying EBOV will be back.
In his blurb, horror writer Stephen King called the first chapter, “one of the most horrifying things I’ve read in my whole life.” When asked whether any book “scared the pants off you” television writer Suzanne Collins answered, “The Hot Zone, by Richard Preston. I just read it a few weeks ago. Still recovering.”
by Brett Moore – The long term effects of consuming these pesticides has not been sufficiently … Here is a list of the fruits and vegetables most contaminated and which you should buy … Find a Local Farmers Market · How to Make Your Kitchen Eco-Friendly ..
The work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences R01-ES015359, P01-ES011269 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants R833292 and 829338. The study is available free of charge at: http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307044/
Based in Lausanne, Switzerland, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) was founded following efforts by Pierre de Coubertin to reinstate the ancient Olympic Games that were first held in Greece in 776 BCE. Today, the IOC constitutes a single legal entity that organizes the Summer and Winter Olympic Games and owns copyrights, trademarks, and other intangible properties associated with the Games, such as the Olympic logos. What is the maximum number of members the IOC can have? More… Discuss
Famously described in a Time magazine article as a river that “oozes rather than flows” and a waterway in which a person “does not drown but decays,” Ohio’s Cuyahoga River used to be so heavily polluted that it actually caught fire—on more than one occasion. The river fire of 1969, which received national media attention, helped spur the environmental movement of the late 1960s and prompted the creation of the US Environmental Protection Agency. When else has the river caught fire? More… Discuss
Carson was an American writer and marine biologist. Her book Silent Spring, a provocative study of the dangers of certain insecticides, is generally acknowledged as the impetus for the modern environmental movement. In other well-known books on sea life, such as Under the Sea Wind, she combines keen scientific observation with rich poetic description. What did Carson’s marital status lead former Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson to conclude about her political leanings? More… Discuss
Researchers are cautiously optimistic about an experimental cancer treatment that uses a modified measles virus to target and kill cancerous cells. Two out of six multiple myeloma patients who were treated with extremely high doses of the engineered viruses responded to the treatment, with one appearing to enter into complete remission. These two patients were found to have few or no circulating measles antibodies, important because this affords the virus a chance to attack the cancer cells before the patient’s immune system begins fighting off the virus. More… Discuss
In recent years, much has been made about the health benefits of red wine. Research showed that resveratrol, a natural compound present in grapes and, by extension, red wine, has antioxidant, antimutagen, and anti-inflammatory properties that protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, in 2012, one of the field’s leading researchers was accused of fabricating data, and now a new study has found no association between the compound and these purported health benefits. More… Discuss
Nicotine, a naturally occurring constituent of tobacco, is the addictive, active ingredient in tobacco smoke. Although nicotine is highly toxic—it is used as an insecticide, fumigant, and vermifuge and in large doses can cause respiratory paralysis and even death in humans—the amount inhaled when smoking a cigarette is relatively small, about 3 mg. Depending on how it is inhaled, nicotine can act as a stimulant or as a tranquilizer. What is a lethal dose of nicotine for humans? More… Discuss
Better diagnostic tools as well as treatments are helping cancer patients live longer in England and Wales. Half of people now being diagnosed with cancer there will survive for at least a decade, double the rate of the early 1970s. However, for some cancers, like pancreatic cancer and lung cancer, survival rates remain extremely low. London-based Cancer Research UK lauded the progress but said that further inroads need to be made and set a goal of 75 percent 10-year survival within two decades. More… Discuss
Brominated vegetable oil (BVO) is a mixture of complex plant-derived triglycerides which have been brominated. Brominated vegetable oil is used primarily to help emulsify citrus-flavored soft drinks, preventing them from separating during distribution. Brominated vegetable oil has been used by the soft drink industry since 1931, generally at a level of about 8 ppm.
Careful control of the type of oil used allows bromination of it to produce BVO with a specific density (1.33 g/mL). As a result, it can be mixed with less-dense flavoring agents such as citrus flavor oil to produce a resulting oil whose density matches that of water or other products. The droplets containing BVO remain suspended in the water rather than separating and floating at the surface.
In the United States, BVO was designated in 1958 as generally recognized as safe (GRAS), but this was withdrawn by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1970. The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations currently imposes restrictions on the use of BVO as a food additive in the United States, limiting the concentration to 15 ppm, limiting the amount of free fatty acids to 2.5 percent, and limiting the iodine value to 16. BVO is used in Mountain Dew, manufactured by PepsiCo; Powerade, Fanta Orange and Fresca made by Coca-Cola; and Squirt, Sun Drop and Sunkist Peach Soda, made by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group.
BVO is currently permitted as a food additive in Canada.
The use of BVO as a food additive has been banned in Japan since 2010.
The United States Food and Drug Administration considers BVO to be safe for use as a food additive. However, there are case reports of adverse effects associated with excessive consumption of BVO-containing products. One case reported that a man who consumed two to four liters of a soda containing BVO on a daily basis experienced memory loss, tremors, fatigue, loss of muscle coordination, headache, and ptosis of the right eyelid, as well as elevated serum chloride. In the two months it took to correctly diagnose the problem, the patient also lost the ability to walk. Eventually, bromism was diagnosed and hemodialysis was prescribed which resulted in a reversal of the disorder. However, there was no evidence that the symptoms were caused by that particular ingredient. 
An online petition at Change.org asking PepsiCo to stop adding BVO to Gatorade and other products collected over 200,000 signatures by January 2013. The petition pointed out that since Gatorade is sold in countries where BVO is not approved, there is already an existing formulation without this ingredient. PepsiCo announced in January 2013 that it would no longer use BVO in Gatorade, and announced May 5, 2014 that it would discontinue use in all of its drinks, including Mountain Dew.
As of May 5, 2014 Coca-Cola is dropping this controversial ingredient from its Powerade sports drink, after a similar move by PepsiCo’s Gatorade last year.
Minamata disease is a degenerative neurological disorder characterized by a loss of coordination and peripheral vision, poor articulation of speech, and numbness of the extremities. It was first encountered in 1956, when numerous cases of the then-unknown disease were observed in Minamata, Japan. Investigations showed that the consumption of seafood contaminated by a local chemical factory‘s mercury-laden wastewater caused the disorder. What brought more attention to the disease in 1965? More…
Marketed as a healthier alternative to conventional cigarettes because they do not expose users to smoke or tar, electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have seen a major upsurge in popularity in recent years. However, many people do not realize the hazards the liquid nicotineused in these devices pose. In the past few years, calls to US poison control centers involving e-cigarettes have risen sharply. About half of these calls involve children ages 5 and under. More… Discuss
Autism has been the focus of intense study in recent years, but experts are still far from understanding the root causes of the disorder. For a time, childhood vaccines were thought to be the culprit, but this theory has since been largely debunked. Now scientists have found evidence that the foundations for autism may be set in the womb, during prenatal brain development. Autistic children’s brains show a much higher incidence of cortical abnormalities in regions involved in language and social and emotional communication than their non-autistic peers. Abnormalities were identified in the brains of 90% of the children with autism studied, whereas only 10% of unaffected children exhibited abnormalities. More… Discuss
Pollution is going to be the death of us. According to World Health Organization estimates, air pollution contributed to the deaths of seven million people in 2012, making it the world’s greatest environmental health risk. The deaths were concentrated most heavily in low- and middle-income countries, primarily in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. Indoor air pollution appears to be a greater threat than outdoor air pollution, contributing to 3.3 million deaths in 2012 compared to 2.6 million for the latter. More… Discuss
• Debate: Preparations for the European Council meeting (20-21 March 2014)
Council and Commission statements
Video source: EbS (European Parliament)
• EU Member States:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom
The World Health Organization (WHO) is recommending that people aim to get no more than five percent of their daily caloric intake from sugar, half the long-standing recommendation of 10 percent. For an adult with a normal body mass index, or BMI, this new recommendation translates to about six teaspoons’ worth of sugar a day. Excess sugar consumption can lead to weight gain and associated health risks, such as heart disease, diabetes, and even certain cancers, as well as dental damage. More… Discuss
A group of scientists is calling for an investigation into the health risks of the thousands of chemicals in food packaging, saying little is understood about their effects on the body. They note that the known carcinogen formaldehyde is used in the manufacture of plastic bottles and cutlery and express concerns that it and chemicals like it could be leaching into our food. Critics maintain that the fact that few adverse health effects have thus far been identified suggests that the risks are modest at worst. Further, they note that the quantity of formaldehyde in plastic bottles pales in comparison to the amount that is naturally present in fruits and vegetables. More… Discuss
In October 2012, Australia introduced plain, olive green packaging for cigarettes that prominently feature asmoking-cessation helpline number, and the effort to curb the appeal of cigarettes appears to be working. Within a month of the redesigned packages reaching store shelves, calls to territorial quitlines spiked 78 percent. Six years earlier, Australia introducedcigarette packaging with bold health warnings and graphic medical images of cancerous lungs and gangrenous limbs. This was also associated with a spike in calls to quitlines, but the effect lasted only 20 weeks. The effect of the new, plain packaging is estimated at more than twice this. More…Discuss
One in four Russian men dies before the age of 55, compared to just one in 10 in the US and seven in 100 in the UK, and researchers say vodka is largely to blame for the extremely high premature death rate in Russian males. Men who reported smoking and drinking three or more half-liter bottles of vodka a week were found in a recent study to have a much greater risk of premature death than those who smoked but consumed less than one bottle of vodka a week. Alcohol poisoning, accidents, violence, suicide, and diseases like throat and liver cancer, pancreatitis, and liver disease were among the most frequent causes of death in heavy drinkers. More… Discuss
|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||116.08 g mol−1|
|Appearance||Yellow to orange/red crystalline powder|
|EU classification||Harmful (XN)|
|S-phrases||S22 S24 S37|
| (verify) (what is: /?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Azodicarbonamide, or azobisformamide, is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C2H4O2N4. It is a yellow to orange red, odorless, crystalline powder. As a food additive, it is known by the E number E927.
Azodicarbonamide is used as a food additive, a flour bleaching agent and improving agent. It reacts with moist flour as an oxidizing agent. The main reaction product is biurea, a derivative of urea, which is stable during baking. Secondary reaction products include semicarbazide and ethyl carbamate. The United States permits the use of azodicarbonamide at levels up to 45 ppm. In Australia the use of azodicarbonamide as a food additive is banned. In Singapore, use is punishable by up to 15 years in prison and a fine of $450,000.
The principal use of azodicarbonamide is in the production of foamed plastics as an additive. The thermal decomposition of azodicarbonamide results in the evolution of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and ammonia gases, which are trapped in the polymer as bubbles to form a foamed article.
Azodicarbonamide as used in plastics, synthetic leather and other uses can be pure or modified. This is important because modification affects the reaction temperatures. Pure azodicarbonamide generally reacts around 200 °C, but there are some products that the reaction temperature must be lower, depending on the application. In the plastic, leather and other industries, modified azodicarbonamide (average decomposition temperature 170 °C) contains additives that accelerate the reaction or react at lower temperatures.
Azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent in plastics has been banned in Europe since August 2005 for the manufacture of plastic articles that are intended to come into direct contact with food.
In the UK, the Health and Safety Executive has identified azodicarbonamide as a respiratory sensitizer (a possible cause of asthma) and determined that products should be labeled with “May cause sensitisation by inhalation.” TheWorld Health Organization has linked azodicarbonamide to “respiratory issues, allergies and asthma.” Britain, Europe, and Australia now ban its use in food.
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