Category Archives: Health and Environment

My Mushroom Foraging Adventure: Abbey’s Kitchen Learns How To Find Edible Mushrooms in the Forest



From:  Abbey Sharp   Abbey Sharp

My Mushroom Foraging Adventure: Abbey’s Kitchen Learns How To Find Edible Mushrooms in the Forest

In this webisode Abbey Sharp from Abbey’s Kitchen will be learning how to identify edible mushrooms from poisonous ones as she explores a beautiful forest just outside the GTA in Ontario with a professional mushroom forager. She will teach you a little bit about the different varieties of mushrooms and which pack the biggest “umami” flavour punch. Join Abbey on her gastronomic adventure!
Abbey’s Kitchen webisode # 4
For the full series, see:
http://www.abbeyskitchen.com

And follow Abbey:

@AbbeysKitchen
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Can You Recognize Poison Ivy?


Can You Recognize Poison Ivy?

Poison ivy is a woody vine known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant that can cause an itchy rash. To avoid poison ivy, you need to know how to spot it: watch out for a plant that has compound leaves with three almond-shaped leaflets and whitish berries. Remember: “Leaflets three, let it be!” Poison ivy is generally light to dark green in color, but it turns bright red in the fall. Its leaflets have a smooth surface and relatively toothless edges. Where does it grow? More… Discuss


This video is designed to help you avoid the toxic poison oak plant. In addition to teaching you avoidance, it will show you what to do to minimize the trauma associated with a poison oak rash.

Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Zanfel Zanfel Zanfel Zanfel Calamine Calamine Calamine Ivy Block Ivy Block

 

Gold as Cancer Fighter


Gold as Cancer Fighter

Alternative medicine proponents have long attributed healing properties to gold, and in recent years, mainstream medical researchers have begun looking to the precious metal as well. In a recent study, tiny gold particles encased in the chemotherapy drug cisplatin appeared to boost the effectiveness of conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for an aggressive brain cancer. Cancer cells in samples subjected to this experimental treatment were completely eradicated, and over the next 20 days there was no regrowth. More… Discuss

this pressed: from lovepanky – How to Love Someone without Smothering Them – Lovepanky


Embedded image permalinkHow to Love Someone without Smothering Them – Lovepanky.

or ⇒ Don’t pass the onion please!

Gulf Dead Zone Roughly the Size of Connecticut


Gulf Dead Zone Roughly the Size of Connecticut

Human activities have created a “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico that is roughly the size of the state of Connecticut—about 5,000 square miles (13,000 sq km). Though this is several thousand square miles smaller than it was at its peak, it remains the second-largest dead zone in the world. Dead zones develop when there is insufficient oxygen near the ocean floor to support marine life. In most cases, this results from an overgrowth of algae fed by excessive nutrient runoff from farming and other human activities. More… Discuss

this pressed-from Science Friday: Giving Viruses a License to Kill…Cancer


Giving Viruses a License to Kill…Cancer.

Giving Viruses a License to Kill…Cancer The lab of Dr. Mark Federspiel at the Mayo Clinic, where the measles virus is being grown in bioreactors for the next clinical trial coming up in September. Photo by Mayo Clinic

from USFWSRefuges: “summer sunset over Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia.”


View image on Twitter

WHO Mulling Experimental Ebola Treatments


WHO Mulling Experimental Ebola Treatments

With the death toll from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa still rapidly rising, the World Health Organization (WHO) is exploring the ethical implications of using an experimental drug to combat the virus. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or medications for Ebola, but a number are under development. One experimental drug has already been used to treat two US aid workers infected in the outbreak, and some of the world’s leading Ebola experts are calling for experimental treatments to be made more widely available given the current crisis. The WHO is to convene a meeting of medical ethicists to examine this issue next week. More… Discuss

The Hot Zone Quotes


The Hot Zone Quotes

The Hot Zone The Hot Zone by Richard Preston

46,786 ratings, 4.06 average rating, 2,291 reviews

buy a copy

The Hot Zone Quotes (showing 1-16 of 16)

“In biology, nothing is clear, everything is too complicated, everything is a mess, and just when you think you understand something, you peel off a layer and find deeper complications beneath. Nature is anything but simple.”
Richard Preston, The Hot Zone

Read all quotations HERE

Tekmira says its Ebola drug not used to treat U.S. aid workers, report – The Globe and Mail


Tekmira says its Ebola drug not used to treat U.S. aid workers, report – The Globe and Mail.

this day in the yesteryear: Iraq Invades Kuwait (1990)


Iraq Invades Kuwait (1990)

Though justified by Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein on grounds that Kuwait was historically part of Iraq, Iraq’s 1990 invasion of its neighbor was presumed to be motivated by a desire to acquire Kuwait’s rich oil fields and expand Iraq’s power in the region. Under United Nations (UN) auspices, the US formed a coalition and began massing troops in Saudi Arabia. When Iraq ignored the UN Security Council‘s deadline for the withdrawal of forces from Kuwait, the US attacked how many days later? More… Discuss

Ebola Crisis Deepens


Ebola Crisis Deepens

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has claimed 729 lives in four countries thus far, making it the deadliest and widest ranging such outbreak the world has ever seen. Dozens of healthcare workers have fallen victim, complicating efforts to combat it. Though the disease is outpacing current efforts to contain its spread, the head of the World Health Organization (WHO) still believes that the “unprecedented” outbreak could be stopped if proper steps are taken at both the national and international levels. To this end, a new, $100 million (75 million euro) Ebola response plan is being launched to combat the disease. More… Discuss

“The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story is a best-selling” (from Wikipedia)


The Hot Zone (cover).jpg
Author Richard Preston
Country South Africa, United States
Language English
Genre Non-fiction
Publisher Anchor
Publication date
1995
Media type Print (paperback and hardback) eBook and audiobook
Pages 420
ISBN 0-385-47956-5
OCLC 32052009
614.5/7 20
LC Class RC140.5 .P74 1995b


The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story is a best-selling[1] 1994 non-fiction thriller by Richard Preston about the origins and incidents involving viral hemorrhagic fevers, particularly ebolaviruses and marburgviruses. The basis of the book was Preston’s 1992 New Yorker article “Crisis in the Hot Zone“.[2]

The filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Marburg virus (MARV), and Ravn virus (RAVV) are Biosafety Level 4 agents. Biosafety Level 4 agents are extremely dangerous to humans because they are very infectious, have a high case-fatality rate, and there are no known prophylactics, treatments, or cures. Along with describing the history of the diseases caused by these two Central African diseases, Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Marburg virus disease (MVD), Preston describes a 1989 incident in which a relative of Ebola virus named Reston virus (RESTV), was discovered at a primate quarantine facility in Reston, Virginia, less than fifteen miles (24 km) away from Washington, DC. The virus found at the facility was a mutated form of the original Ebola virus, and was initially mistaken for Simian Hemorrhagic Fever (SHV). The original Reston facility involved in the incident, located at 1946 Isaac Newton Square, was subsequently torn down sometime between 1995 and 1998.[3]

Synopsis

The book is in four sections:

  • “The Shadow of Mount Elgon” delves into the history of filoviruses, as well as speculation about the origins of AIDS. Preston accounts the story of “Charles Monet” (a pseudonym), who might have caught MARV from visiting Kitum Cave on Mount Elgon in Kenya. The author describes in great detail the progression of the disease, from the initial headache and backache, to the final stage in which Monet’s internal organs fail and he “bleeds out” (i.e., hemorrhages extensively) in a waiting room in a Nairobi hospital. This part also introduces a young promising physician who becomes infected with MARV while treating Monet. Nancy Jaax’s story is told. Viruses, and biosafety levels and procedures are described. The EVD outbreaks caused by EBOV and its cousin, Sudan virus (SUDV) are mentioned. Preston talks to the man who named Ebola virus.
  • “The Monkey House” chronicles the discovery of Reston virus among imported monkeys in Reston, Virginia, and the following actions taken by the U.S. Army and Centers for Disease Control.
  • “Smashdown” is more on the Reston epizootic, which involved a strain of the virus that does not affect humans but which easily spreads by air, and is very similar to its cousin the Ebola virus.
  • “Kitum Cave” tells of the author’s visiting the cave that is the suspected home of the natural host animal that Ebola lives inside of.

The book starts with “Charles Monet” visiting Kitum Cave during a camping trip to Mount Elgon in Central Africa. Not long after, he begins to suffer from a number of symptoms, including vomiting, diarrhea and red eye. He is soon taken to Nairobi Hospital for treatment, but his condition deteriorates further and he goes into a coma while in the waiting room. This particular filovirus is called Marburg virus.

Dr. Nancy Jaax had been promoted to work in the Level 4 Biosafety containment area at USAMRIID, and is assigned to research Ebola virus. While preparing food for her family at home, she cuts her right hand. Later, while working on a dead, EBOV-infected monkey, one of the gloves on the hand with the open wound tears, and she is almost exposed to contaminated blood, but does not get infected. Nurse Mayinga is also infected by a nun and elects to visit Nairobi Hospital for treatment, where she succumbs to the disease.

In Reston, Virginia, less than fifteen miles (24 km) away from Washington, DC, a company called Hazelton Research once operated a quarantine center for monkeys that were destined for laboratories. In October 1989, when an unusually high number of their monkeys began to die, their veterinarian decided to send some samples to Fort Detrick (USAMRIID) for study. Early during the testing process in biosafety level 3, when one of the flasks appeared to be contaminated with harmless pseudomonas bacterium, two USAMRIID scientists exposed themselves to the virus by wafting the flask. They later determine that, while the virus is terrifyingly lethal to monkeys, humans can be infected with it without any health effects at all. This virus is now known as Reston virus (RESTV).

Finally, the author himself goes into Africa to explore Kitum Cave. On the way, he discusses the role of AIDS in the present, as the highway they were on, sometimes called the “AIDS Highway,” or the “Kinshasa Highway” was where it first appeared. Equipped with a Hazmat suit, he enters the cave and finds a large number of animals, one of which might be the virus carrier. At the conclusion of the book, he travels to the quarantine facility in Reston. The building there was abandoned and deteriorating. He concludes the book by saying EBOV will be back.

Reception

In his blurb, horror writer Stephen King called the first chapter, “one of the most horrifying things I’ve read in my whole life.”[4] When asked whether any book “scared the pants off you” television writer Suzanne Collins answered, “The Hot Zone, by Richard Preston. I just read it a few weeks ago. Still recovering.”[5]

See also

Isadora Duncan


Isadora Duncan

Duncan was a pioneer of modern dance. Though born in the US, she was never very popular there. It was in Europe where she achieved great acclaim. An innovator and liberator of expressive movement, Duncan rejected the conventions of classical ballet and gave lecture-demonstrations of what she called “the dance of the future.” Inspired by the drama of ancient Greece, she danced barefoot while wearing revealing Greek tunics and flowing scarves. How did her fondness for scarves lead to her death? More… Discuss

Image

Time to clean your fridge: According to USA TODAY, YOU mayneedto!


Embedded image permalink

Veganism (not everyone can be one…which is okay)


Vegans at the Melbourne "Walk against War...

Vegans at the Melbourne “Walk against Warming,” December 12, 2009, during the Copenhagen Summit on climate change. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Veganism

Vegans abstain from the ingestion of animal products for political and religious reasons, to enjoy health benefits, or to support animal rights. Many vegans extend the vegan philosophy into other areas of their lives and avoid using all animal products, including leather, silk, honey, whey, and gelatin. Vegan diets tend to be high in dietary fiber and low in saturated fat and cholesterol but can sometimes lead to deficiencies in nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Who coined the term “vegan”? More… Discuss

 

Heart Openers and Backbends Yoga class 57mins, Guru Mantra: Imperfect Perfection, Namaste Yoga 235


Heart Openers and Backbends Yoga class 57mins, Guru Mantra: Imperfect Perfection, Namaste Yoga 235

http://www.melissawest.com/235
For show notes click the link above

Description:
Today’s class will focus on twists and side bends to gently open up your heart center. We will practice gentle backbends as well as a mudra for your heart chakra with the Guru Mantra.

The focus of this week’s class is on Vishnu‘s incarnation as Krishna and his conversation with Arjuna that in taking a human form he could only be 15/16th perfect. We will reflect on our imperfect perfection as human beings and bring loving kindness, compassion and perfection to our imperfections.

Please Subscribe Here: http://bit.ly/RMV4hC

Here’s my Website: http://www.melissawest.com/
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/yournamasteyoga
Follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/drmelissa
Follow me on Instagram: http://instagram.com/drmelissawest#
Follow me on Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/drmelissawest/
Follow me on Google+: https://plus.google.com/u/0/+DrMeliss…

Join our Membership Site:
http://www.melissawest.com/membership…

Preventing Alzheimer’s


Preventing Alzheimer’s

Researchers say a third of the world’s Alzheimer’s cases are preventable. They found that diabetes, mid-life hypertension, mid-life obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and poor education are all risk factors in the development of Alzheimer’s that can potentially be addressed to reduce risk. According to their calculations, reducing each risk factor by 10 percent could prevent nearly nine million cases of Alzheimer’s by 2050. More… Discuss

Reference_ranges_for_blood_tests_-_white_blood_cells


Reference_ranges_for_blood_tests_-_white_blood_cells

Reference_ranges_for_blood_tests_-_white_blood_cells

Saffron


Saffron

 

 

Chemistry

 

Structure of picrocrocin:[28]

  βD-glucopyranose derivative
  safranal moiety

 

A detail from the “Saffron Gatherers” fresco of the “Xeste 3″ building. It is one of many depicting saffron; they were found at the Bronze Age settlement of Akrotiri, on the Aegean island of Santorini.


Saffron is a plant native to Asia Minor, where for centuries it has been cultivated for its aromatic orange-yellow stigmas—one of the world’s most expensive spices. When handpicked and dried, the stigmas yield saffron powder, the source of the principal yellow dye of the ancient world. The plant is still grown in limited quantities for the powder, which is used in medicines and perfumes and for flavoring. How many flowers must be harvested to produce one pound (0.45 kg) of dry saffron? More… Discuss

Great AudioBooks: LES MISERABLES – Victor Hugo Part 1 Livre Audio Francais Audio Book


LES MISERABLES – Victor Hugo Part 1 Livre Audio Francais Audio Book [GreatAudioBooks]

Jean Valjean.JPG

Author Victor Hugo
Illustrator Emile Bayard
Country France
Language French
Genre Epic novel, historical fiction
Publisher A. Lacroix, Verboeckhoven & Cie.
Publication date
1862

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Shocking Boredom Study


Shocking Boredom Study

Fifteen minutes may not seem like a terribly long time, but when left alone with just one’s thoughts for company, it is apparently unbearable, and many would sooner shock themselves than endure it. Nearly half of the participants in a recent study—18 of 42—elected to administer at least one mildly painful electric shock to themselves at some point during a 15-minute period in which they were left alone in an empty room and asked to sit at a table “entertaining themselves with their own thoughts.” Though some have criticized the study’s design, the researchers concluded that, on the whole, people prefer doing something, even something unpleasant, to doing nothing at all. More… Discuss

Gene from Extinct Humans Helps Tibetans Breathe Easy


Gene from Extinct Humans Helps Tibetans Breathe Easy

The genetic adaptation that allows Tibetans to survive and live comfortably at altitudes that would make most other humans on Earth terribly sick came from an extinct species of human. The variant of the EPAS-1 gene carried by nearly 90 percent of Tibetans closely matches that of the extinct Denisovan people. This gene is involved in regulating hemoglobin production and helps the body produce enough red blood cells to cope with low oxygen levels but not so many as to dangerously thicken the blood. The findings suggest that at some point in the history of the Tibetan people, their ancestors mated with Denisovans, thereby acquiring this adaptation. More… Discuss

In sickness and health: Facebook Mood Manipulation: 10 Bigger Problems – InformationWeek


Thomas Claburn
Faceboo
k Mood Manipulation: 10 Bigger Problems – InformationWeek.
Facebook Privacy: 10 Settings To Check

health: “Drastic Action” Needed to Contain Ebola Outbreak in West Africa


“Drastic Action” Needed to Contain Ebola Outbreak in West Africa

The World Health Organization is calling for “drastic action” to contain the outbreak of Ebola currently raging in West Africa. Since the outbreak began four months ago, it has spread from Guinea to nearby Sierra Leone and Liberia, infected more than 600 people, and claimed nearly 400 lives, making it the largest Ebola outbreak in terms of cases, deaths, and geographical spread. Despite the presence of 150 experts, the number of reported cases and deaths is still rising daily, threatening the entire region and beyond. The charity Médecins Sans Frontières, or Doctors Without Borders, says the outbreak is out of control. More… Discuss

Facts on Pesticides – earthjustice.org‎ Adwww.earthjustice.org/pesticides‎ Top 12 Fruits and Vegetables You Should Buy Organic


About 5,290,000 results (0.33 seconds)       Facts on Pesticides - earthjustice.org‎     Adwww.earthjustice.org/pesticides‎     Learn about the impacts of pesticides on your health.     Earthjustice has 468 followers on Google+  Search Results      Safe Fruits and Veggies     www.safefruitsandveggies.com/     Should I be worried about pesticide residues on my fruits and vegetables? .... Warehouse store, traditional grocery store, small local market, specialty food ...     Top 12 Fruits and Vegetables You Should Buy Organic     gourmetfood.about.com/od/slowfoodorganiclocal/a/organicproduce.htm     by Brett Moore - The long term effects of consuming these pesticides has not been sufficiently ... Here is a list of the fruits and vegetables most contaminated and which you should buy ... Find a Local Farmers Market · How to Make Your Kitchen Eco-Friendly ..

About 5,290,000 results (0.33 seconds)
Facts on Pesticides – earthjustice.org‎
Adwww.earthjustice.org/pesticides‎
Learn about the impacts of pesticides on your health.
Earthjustice has 468 followers on Google+
Search Results
Safe Fruits and Veggies
http://www.safefruitsandveggies.com/
Should I be worried about pesticide residues on my fruits and vegetables? …. Warehouse store, traditional grocery store, small local market, specialty food …
Top 12 Fruits and Vegetables You Should Buy Organic
gourmetfood.about.com/od/slowfoodorganiclocal/a/organicproduce.htm
by Brett Moore – The long term effects of consuming these pesticides has not been sufficiently … Here is a list of the fruits and vegetables most contaminated and which you should buy … Find a Local Farmers Market · How to Make Your Kitchen Eco-Friendly ..

 

Mosquito-Borne Virus Spreads to Caribbean and US


Mosquito-Borne Virus Spreads to Caribbean and US

Chikungunya, a debilitating, mosquito-borne viral disease that causes fever and potentially long-term joint pain, has long troubled Africa and Asia, but it is now rapidly spreading to other parts of the globe. It was first detected in the Caribbean in December, and there have since been nearly 5,000 confirmed cases and more than 160,000 suspected cases in the region. There have also been 57 infections reported in the US this year, and though all were thus far acquired outside the US, experts believe it is only a matter of time before it spreads throughout the Americas. More… Discuss

this pressed: Google I/O – What We Now Know – Forbes (google should use the profits in a socially responsible manner e.g. why not invest in nanothechnology to help the autoimune system fight, conquer and eradicate Multiple Myeloma ? instead of stupid robots?)


Google I/O: What We Now Know – Forbes.

Standing Room Only


Standing Room Only

Getting up from your desk and moving around does more than just get your blood pumping—it gets your creative juices flowing. Researchers say that when employees stand rather than sit during meetings they are more aroused, less territorial, and share more information and ideas, factors that can improve overall performance on group tasks. More… Discuss

Alicia Alonso


Alicia Alonso

Alonso is a Cuban prima ballerina and choreographer. She danced in Broadway musicals before becoming a soloist with several leading companies, including the American Ballet Theatre, in 1939. She is best known for her work in Giselle and in Agnes de Mille‘s Fall River Legend. Her own works include La Tinaja, Ensayos Sinfonicos, and Lidia, all created for her company, which Alonso has continued to direct despite being almost blind. What caused her failing vision? More… Discuss

Tibetan Healing Sounds #1 -11 hours – Tibetan bowls for meditation, relaxation, calming, healing


Tibetan Healing Sounds #1 -11 hours – Tibetan bowls for meditation, relaxation, calming, healing

Published by  Soft Music & Yoga ~ YogaYak·464 videos

on Aug 8, 2013/6,051,494 views

Download MP3’s, WAV and Videos: https://gum.co/tibet_healing
Album info and purchase: http://www.paradisemusic.us.com/album…
This is an extended version of a shorter sample found on the album Natural Healing Sounds Gold. New, 1 hour version of “Tibetan Healing Sounds” : http://youtu.be/S4Bmk69ctAs
Tibetan Healing Sounds, Tibetan bowls, Tibetan bowls sounds

Relaxation sounds, nature sounds, relax, calm, soothing. Calm sounds for yoga, meditation, reiki, massage, reading, sleeping, sleep, yoga, stress, meditation, relaxing music, stress relief, shiatsu, yoga nidra, how to deal with stress, pranayama, mindfulness

My favourite stress relief location: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RWlkN…

Quicksilver


Quicksilver

Quicksilver, commonly known as mercury and represented in the periodic table with the symbol Hg, is a chemical element with an atomic number of 80. A heavy, silvery, transition metal, mercury is the only elemental metal that is liquid at room temperature. It is used in thermometers, barometers, and other scientific apparatuses. Due to the toxicity of the element, however, the use of mercury in thermometers has been largely phased out in the interests of health and safety. What has replaced it? More… Discuss

Grapefruit–drug interactions From wikipedia (and other sources)


Grapefruit–drug interactions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice have been found to interact with numerous drugs (at least 85 by the latest[when?] count), in many cases resulting in adverse effects.[1] Organic compounds that are furanocoumarin derivatives interfere with the hepatic and intestinal enzyme cytochrome P450 isoform CYP3A4 and are believed to be primarily responsible for the effects of grapefruit on the enzyme. Bioactive compounds in grapefruit juice may also interfere with P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), either increasing or decreasing the bioavailability of a number of drugs. Pomelo (the Asian fruit which was crossed with an orange to produce grapefruit) also contains high amounts of furanocoumarin derivatives. Some grapefruit-pomelo hybrids have practically no furanocoumarin content, and one is a commercially viable seedless type.[2]

Affected drugs

The following drugs are affected by CYP3A4 inhibition with grapefruit compounds:

 

Amphetamines

List of Amphetamines That Interact With The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme:

Research has been done on the interaction between amphetamines and The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme, and researchers concluded that some parts of substrate molecules contribute to the binding of the enzyme. [11]

 

Additional drugs found to be affected by grapefruit juice include, but are not limited to:

Mechanism of the interaction

The CYP3A4 isoform of cytochrome P450 is located in both the liver and the enterocytes. Many oral drugs undergo first-pass (presystemic) metabolism by the enzyme. Several organic compounds found in grapefruit and specifically in grapefruit juice exert inhibitory action on drug metabolism by the enzyme. It has been established that a group of compounds called furanocoumarins are responsible for this interaction, and not flavonoids as was previously reported.[32] The list of active furanocoumarins found in grapefruit juice includes: bergamottin, bergapten, bergaptol and 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin.

This interaction is particularly dangerous when the drug in question has a low therapeutic index, so that a small increase in blood concentration can be the difference between therapeutic effect and toxicity. Grapefruit juice inhibits the enzyme only within the intestines, not in the liver or elsewhere in the body, and does not impact injected drugs. The degree of the effect varies widely between individuals and between samples of juice, and therefore cannot be accounted for a priori.

Another mechanism of interaction is possibly through the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) that is localized in the apical brush border of the enterocytes. Pgp transports lipophilic molecules out of the enterocyte back into the intestinal lumen. Drugs that possess lipophilic properties are either metabolised by CYP3A4 or removed into the intestine by the Pgp transporter. Both the Pgp and CYP3A4 may act synergistically as a barrier to many orally administered drugs. Therefore, their inhibition (both or alone) can markedly increase the bioavailability of a drug.

The interaction caused by grapefruit compounds lasts for up to 72 hours, and its effect is the greatest when the juice is ingested with the drug or up to 4 hours before the drug. [33][34][35]

Drugs affected by grapefruit juice[36]
Drug class Major Interactions Minor interactions
Antiarrhythmic agents amiodarone (Cordarone)
dronedarone (Multaq)
 
Antihistamines terfenadine (Seldane) (off the market)
diphenhydramine (Benadryl) (partially)
astemizole (Hismanal) (off the market)
 
Calcium channel antagonists   felodipine (Plendil)
nicardipine (Cardene)
nifedipine (Procardia)
nimodipine (Nimotop)
nisoldipine (Sular)
isradipine (DynaCirc)
Cholesterol-lowering drugs aka
Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors)
simvastatin (Zocor)
lovastatin (Mevacor)
atorvastatin (Lipitor)
cerivastatin (Baycol) (off the market)
Cough Suppressant/NMDA Antagonist dextromethorphan  
Erectile dysfunction drugs   sildenafil (Viagra)
tadalafil (Cialis)
vardenafil (Levitra)
HIV protease inhibitors   saquinavir (Invirase)
ritonavir (Norvir)
nelfinavir (Viracept)
amprenavir (Agenerase)
Hormones   ethinyl estradiol (Ortho-Cept, many others)
methylprednisolone (Medrol)
Immunosuppressants   cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral)
tacrolimus (Prograf)
sirolimus (Rapamune)
mercaptopurine
Sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics buspirone (Buspar) triazolam (Halcion)
midazolam (Versed)
diazepam (Valium)
zaleplon (Sonata)
alprazolam (Xanax)
Other psychotropics   carbamazepine (Tegretol)
trazodone (Desyrel)
quetiapine (Seroquel)
fluvoxamine (Luvox)
nefazodone (Serzone) (off the market)
Other miscellaneous drugs cisapride (Prepulsid, Propulsid)[37]  

References

  1. Bailey, David G.; Dresser, George; Arnold, J. Malcolm O. (2012). “Grapefruit-medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences?”. Canadian Medical Association Journal (Canadian Medical Association). doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951. edit
  2. “– Hybrid grapefruit safe for prescription meds”. Futurity.org. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
  3. Template:Cite pubmed.gov
  4. Sugimoto K, Araki N, Ohmori M, et al. (2006). “Interaction between grapefruit juice and hypnotic drugs: comparison of triazolam and quazepam”. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 62 (3): 209–15. doi:10.1007/s00228-005-0071-1. PMID 16416305.
  5. “Ritonavir (Norvir)”. HIV InSite. UCSF. 2006-10-18. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  6. Lee AJ, Chan WK, Harralson AF, Buffum J, Bui BC. (1999). “The effects of grapefruit juice on sertraline metabolism: an in vitro and in vivo study.”. Clin Ther. 21 (11): 1890–9. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(00)86737-5. PMID 10890261.
  7. “Interactions of amphetamine analogs with human liver CYP2D6″. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  8. “SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions.”. Structural Bioinformatics Group, Institute of Physiology, Charité-University Medicine Berlin.
  9. “Methamphetamine-mediated oxidative stress induces astrocyte apoptosis via cytochrome P450 2E1″. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  10. “potent inhibition of P450 gene CYP2D6 on d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine”. Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  11. “Metabolism/ Metabolites of amphetamines interacting with The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme”. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  12. Bailey DG, Dresser GK (2004). “Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs”. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 4 (5): 281–97. doi:10.2165/00129784-200404050-00002. PMID 15449971.
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External links

 

UC Davis MIND Institute Study Finds Association Between Maternal Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides, Autism in Offspring



UC Davis MIND Institute Study Finds Association Between Maternal Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides, Autism in Offspring
.

mindinstitute.ucdavis.edu

Source: http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu
The work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences R01-ES015359, P01-ES011269 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants R833292 and 829338. The study is available free of charge at:  http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307044/

this pressed: National Geographic Magazine: Sugar (an industry once run with slave labor… now enslaving through addiction everyone globally!)


Picture of sugar being sprinkled on a donut

Sugar : We were smitten 10,000 years ago on the island of New Guinea. Today the average American downs 22.7 teaspoons a day.

Tanning Appears Addictive (CRIMINALIZING EVERYTHING LATELY? lIKE TANNING= ADDICTIVE?)


Tanning Appears Addictive

That “healthy glow” many love has proved to be less than healthy—the link between excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure and skin cancer is well established—so why do they continue to tan? One possibility is that they are addicts. Researchers found that chronic exposure to UV radiation triggers the release of endorphins, so-called feel-good hormones, in mice. The regular exposure leads to physical dependence so strong that the animals exhibit withdrawal symptoms like shaking, tremors, and teeth chattering when those endorphins are blocked. Mice and humans have a similar biological response to UV exposure, meaning that tanning may be similarly addictive in people. More… Discuss

WARNING:  BEWARE OF SUNSHINE: IS ADDICTIVE!!!  :)

this day in the yeasteryear: The International Olympic Committee Is Founded (1894) (THIS POST IS NOT EXPLOITED BY coca-cola)


The International Olympic Committee Is Founded (1894)

Based in Lausanne, Switzerland, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) was founded following efforts by Pierre de Coubertin to reinstate the ancient Olympic Games that were first held in Greece in 776 BCE. Today, the IOC constitutes a single legal entity that organizes the Summer and Winter Olympic Games and owns copyrights, trademarks, and other intangible properties associated with the Games, such as the Olympic logos. What is the maximum number of members the IOC can have? More… Discuss

Study finds link between pesticides and autism – Yahoo News


A California study finds that pregnant women who live near farms where pesticides are applied have a two-thirds higher risk of having children with autism (AFP Photo/Philippe Huguen)

A California study finds that pregnant women who live near farms where pesticides are applied have a two-thirds higher risk of having children with autism (AFP Photo/Philippe Huguen)

Study finds link between pesticides and autism – Yahoo News.

Refugee Numbers Highest Since World War II (51, 000, 000 people forced to leave their homes: shame on the world leaders and ONU!)


Refugee Numbers Highest Since
World War II

The number of refugees worldwide has risen to levels not seen since World War II. There are an estimated 51.2 million people now displaced from their homes by conflict and persecution. Of these, 6.3 million have been living in “protracted” refugee situations, meaning they have been refugees for years, even decades. The surge in refugees is straining available resources and destabilizing some of the countries to which they have fled. More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Cuyahoga River Catches Fire (1969)


Cuyahoga River Catches Fire (1969)

Famously described in a Time magazine article as a river that “oozes rather than flows” and a waterway in which a person “does not drown but decays,” Ohio’s Cuyahoga River used to be so heavily polluted that it actually caught fire—on more than one occasion. The river fire of 1969, which received national media attention, helped spur the environmental movement of the late 1960s and prompted the creation of the US Environmental Protection Agency. When else has the river caught fire? More… Discuss

Possible Mass Anthrax Exposure at CDC Labs (loosing the grip on reality?)


Possible Mass Anthrax Exposure at CDC Labs

As many as 75 scientists working in US federal government laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, may have been accidentally exposed to live anthrax bacteria after staff members at a high-level facility failed to follow proper procedures to inactivate the deadly bacteria before sending the samples to lower-level labs for experimentation. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, under whose watch the breach occurred, is now investigating the incident and is offering antibiotic treatment and vaccines to those who might have been exposed. More… Discuss

make music part of your life series: Aus tiefer Not schrei’ ich zu dir – BWV 686 – J. S. Bach (On organ at St. Mary’s Church, Saffron Walden)


Aus tiefer Not schrei’ ich zu dir – BWV 686 – J. S. Bach

 

St Mary's Church, Saffron Walden, Essex

St Mary’s Church, Saffron Walden, Essex (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

On organ at St. Mary’s Church,  Saffron Walden

health and environment: Recession Responsible for 10,000 Suicides


Recession Responsible for 10,000 Suicides

Researchers are attributing an uptick in suicides in North America and Europe to the recent economic crisis. An analysis of data from 24 European countries, the US, and Canada attributes 10,000 suicides to the recession. It is perhaps not surprising that unemployment, losing one’s home, or being in debt drives some to take their own lives, but it is interesting to note that this is not the case everywhere. Austria, Sweden, and Finland showed no increase in suicides. All three invest in programs that help people return to work, suggesting that there are ways to mitigate the psychological burden brought on by economic troubles. More…

today’s birthday: Alois Alzheimer (1864)


Alois Alzheimer (1864)

Alzheimer was a German neuropathologist who first identified what is today called Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative disease found most commonly in people over age 65. He first observed it in his patient in 1901 and presented his findings after a postmortem examination of her brain in 1906. The diagnosis would soon be applied to patients the world over, and the disease is now recognized as the most common form of dementia. Alzheimer did not name the disease that bears his name. Who did? More… Discuss

Blood Transfusion


Blood Transfusion

A blood transfusion is the administration of whole blood or a component to counteract blood loss caused by trauma, surgery, or disease. In some cases, whole blood is not needed or is unavailable, so an individual component—plasma, red or white cells, platelets—is used. In whole-blood transfusions, the donor’s blood must be compatible with that of the recipient. Autologous transfusions are those that use the recipient’s own blood, banked in advance. When was the first human blood transfusion? More… Discuss

Obesity Weighs Heavily on World


Obesity Weighs Heavily on World

The burden of obesity has grown considerably in recent decades, with about 30 percent of the global population—a whopping 2.1 billion people—now overweight or obese. Over the past 33 years, obesity rates soared 28 percent in adults and 47 percent in children, and the number of overweight and obese people more than doubled. For now, the US retains the unenviable distinction of hosting the largest portion of the world’s obese—13 percent. Though obesity was once limited to rich nations, more than two-thirds of the world’s obese now live in developing countries. In the Middle East and North Africa, more than half of adult men and nearly two-thirds of adult women are overweight or obese. More… Discuss

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5 Things to Know About Vodafone’s Surveillance Report – WSJ


Embedded image permalink

5 Things to Know About Vodafone’s Surveillance Report – WSJ.

this pressed: Google Renews Battle With the NSA by Open Sourcing Email Encryption Tool | Enterprise | WIRED


 

Google Renews Battle With the NSA by Open Sourcing Email Encryption Tool | Enterprise | WIRED.
Google Renews Battle With the NSA by Open Sourcing Email Encryption Tool | Enterprise | WIRED.

Google Renews Battle With the NSA by Open Sourcing Email Encryption Tool | Enterprise | WIRED.

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this pressed: Multiple Myeloma: International Myeloma Foundation : • health professionals : imwg conference series : The IMWG Conference Series “Making Sense of Treatment” June 11, 2014


 

Multiple Myeloma: International Myeloma Foundation : • health professionals : imwg conference series : The IMWG Conference Series “Making Sense of Treatment” June 11, 2014.

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Rabies Still Claims Tens of Thousands of Lives Annually


Rabies Still Claims Tens of Thousands of Lives Annually

This may come as a surprise, but rabies still kills an estimated 55,000 people each year. This toll may seem high considering that a vaccine was developed more than a century ago, but the cost of prevention remains relatively high, and so the disease persists in poverty-stricken regions. Each year, more than 15 million people around the globe are treated for exposure to rabies. Experts argue that vaccinating animals is exponentially cheaper than treating people exposed after the fact, yet securing funding for such campaigns remains a challenge. More… Discuss

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