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- Halliburton agrees oil spill deal September 2, 2014
- Terror suspects held in Saudi Arabia September 2, 2014
- Million ‘have fled Ukraine conflict’ September 2, 2014
- this pressed: BBC News – Ebola outbreak: West Africa food harvests ‘at risk’ September 2, 2014
- Another flight was diverted after passengers fought over a reclining seat – The Washington Post September 2, 2014
- In Liberia, Burial Practices Hinder Battle Against Ebola – WSJ September 2, 2014
- Kremlin says Putin’s ‘I can take Kiev’ remark misquoted September 2, 2014
- Islamic State: Who supports the jihadist group? September 2, 2014
- EU’s Mogherini calls for Nato muscle September 2, 2014
- Spain returns Colombian treasure September 2, 2014
- Embarking on the path to jihad September 2, 2014
- Saving America’s honeybees September 2, 2014
- Windows XP: Your upgrade experiences September 2, 2014
- US ‘targets al-Shabab’s leader’ September 2, 2014
- Egypt police killed in Sinai attack September 2, 2014
- Russia ‘to alter military strategy’ September 2, 2014
- Hospitals seeing more skin cancer September 1, 2014
- Cave yields Neanderthal ‘artwork’ September 1, 2014
- Rhapsody in Blue, White and Green: Turnbull Canyon-Audio (Nightfall In) The Far Dunes – Tim Fachen (moods) 2:23 min September 1, 2014
- this pressed: U.S. military targets extremists in Somalia|USA Today September 1, 2014
- Huntington Beach City Beach Sunset Time-lapse September 1, 2014
- Fast-Food Workers Seeking Higher Wages Plan Civil Disobedience – NYTimes.com September 1, 2014
- US urges Israel to reverse plan to seize West Bank land | News , Middle East | THE DAILY STAR September 1, 2014
- Ukraine Battleground: What We Know Now – ABC News September 1, 2014
- this pressed: Woman who worked in four jobs, overcome by fumes, dies as she naps in car | NJ.com September 1, 2014
- Soyoung Yoon plays at 14th International Wieniawski Violin Competition (Stage 3): make music part of your life series September 1, 2014
- this pressed: Ukraine: Nato hält Niederlage für Kiew für sicher – SPIEGEL ONLINE (Analysis of the military situation: NATO sees Ukraine as already loser) September 1, 2014
- this pressed: Flash – Egypt slams Israel plan to seize Palestinian land – France 24 September 1, 2014
- this pressed from United Nations Human Rights: DisplayNews – Freedom of expression experts call for stronger protection of journalists covering conflicts September 1, 2014
- DisplayNews September 1, 2014
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- this day in the yesteryear: Last Passenger Pigeon Dies in Captivity (1914)
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- this pressed: BBC News - Ebola outbreak: West Africa food harvests 'at risk'
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Rhapsody in Blue, White and Green: Turnbull Canyon-Audio (Nightfall In) The Far Dunes – Tim Fachen (moods) 2:23 min
Blue, White and Green: Turnbull Canyon-Audio (Nightfall In) The Far Dunes – Tim Fachen (moods) 2:23 min
Billions of passenger pigeons inhabited eastern North America in the early 19th century, migrating in enormous flocks that darkened the skies for days at a time. They soon fell victim to habitat loss caused by mass deforestation, along with excessive hunting on an industrial scale. The bird‘s rapid extinction was largely responsible for ending the marketing of game birds and gave major impetus to the conservation movement. Where did the last known passenger pigeon die in 1914? More… Discuss
.Risk of Eating Moldy Bread | LIVESTRONG.COM
Some good Ebola news is being reported on the heels of the World Health Organization’s projections that the current outbreak could spread to another 10 countries and infect over 20,000 people before it is contained: the experimental drug ZMapp was 100% effective in monkey studies. All of the Ebola-infected monkeys treated with ZMapp survived, even when they received the treatment five days after infection—considered late stage in the animals and equivalent to about nine to 11 days in humans. Still, these results do not mean the drug will be as effective in humans, and, in fact, two of the seven human Ebola patients treated with the drug have nevertheless died. More… Discuss
Franz Schubert – Symphony No.2 in B-flat major, D.125 (1815)
***Picture: Carlo Bossoli – Abendliches Vergnügen vor den Toren Konstantinopels
***Franz Schubert: Symphony No.2 in B-flat major, D.125 (1815)
The second movement is a theme with five variations in E flat major. Although there is some variation in the melody, the primary focus of the variations are on instrumentation and tone color. The first variation features violins and winds. The second variation passes the theme between the low strings and the woodwinds. The third variation is again violins and winds. The fourth variation is in C minor and features some acceleration with the use triplet-sixteenth notes. The fifth variation maintains the triplet-sixteenths, but they move into the background with the melody returning close to its original form as a kind of recapitulation. A coda concludes the movement.
The minuet is in C minor and mainly scored for the tutti and fortissimo. The contrasting Trio in E flat major is more thinly scored winds, violins and pizzicato bass. The melody of the trio is actually a variation of the theme used in the second movement forming a melodic and harmonic (E-flat/C minor) link is made between the inner two movements.
The finale is a galop in fast 2/4 time.
***From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
“Adoramus Te” by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Performed by the Crown College Choir, directed by Dr. David W. Donelson.
“Adoramus Te is a stanza that is recited/sung mostly during the Stations of the Cross of the Catholic tradition. It is retained in some confessional Anglican and Lutheran traditions during the Good Friday liturgy, although generally in the vernacular. It is recited or sung between stations. The words in Latin and their translation in English are as follows:
Adoramus te, Christe,
et benedicimus tibi,
quia per sanctam crucem tuam redemisti mundum.
Qui passus es pro nobis, Domine,
Domine, miserere nobis.
We adore Thee, O Christ,
And we bless Thee,
Who by Thy Holy Cross
hath redeemed the world.”
Ми тебе обожнюю, Христе,
benedicimus ET Тібі,
Quia Туам вашим Святого Хреста redemisti Mundum.
Квай passus є про Нобіс, Domine,
Domine, Miserere NOBIS.
(translated by Google Translate)
Nouvelle cuisine is a school of French cooking that seeks to bring out the natural flavors of foods and uses light, low-calorie sauces and stocks. Based on the style of chef Fernand Point, it was developed in France in the 1960s and marked a departure from the rich preparations of haute cuisine, which emphasizes butter and cream. Though nouvelle cuisine is less popular today, its influence is still widely felt. What is its approach to food presentation? More… Discuss
this pressed from THe Washington Post: Ebola virus has mutated during course of outbreak – The Washington Post
Dandelions are widely considered pesky weeds, but they have numerous uses, some of which we are just beginning to capitalize on. Until now, the tire industry has relied entirely on rubber-tree plantations in Southeast Asia for its natural rubber. However, researchers have been working to breed a type of dandelion native to Kazakhstan that yields tire-grade rubber and have achieved per-hectare yields on par with rubber-tree plantations, suggesting the flower is a viable alternative source of natural rubber. It may not be long before dandelion fields begin cropping up across the US and Europe to keep the wheels of the tire industry turning. More… Discuss
Genetic tests have cast doubt on the long-held belief that Europeans arriving in the Americas in the 15th century introduced tuberculosis to the New World. The new evidence, collected from ancient Peruvian skeletons that predate the Europeans’ arrival by about 500 years, suggests it was not humans at all but seals that first brought TB to the Americas. Researchers hypothesize that seals picked up the disease from infected humans in Africa, where TB originated, and then carried it across the ocean to the Americas, where they were hunted and eaten, thereby transmitting the disease to humans there. More… Discuss
Lazy Vizsla really doesn’t like mornings…
Oscar the vizsla being woken up by the alarm on Easter Monday. Watch Oscar the Vizsla’s reaction in the new video here: http://youtu.be/K4avqgmfmoE.
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Highlights from the August 2014 Issue of the Mayo Clinic #HealthLetter. http://t.co/H4FJAph5Wk pic.twitter.com/joz2DtoiQD
— Mayo Clinic (@MayoClinic) August 24, 2014
Breastfeeding can have major benefits for new moms, but it can also pose challenges that make a difficult period in a woman’s life even harder. Among women who plan to breastfeed and go on to do so, the risk of developing postpartum depression is halved. However, those who struggle and find themselves unable to nurse see their risk of postpartum depression more than double. The data, researchers say, highlight the importance of supporting new mothers, particularly those who have trouble breastfeeding, as they navigate this period of their lives. More… Discuss
From: Abbey Sharp
My Mushroom Foraging Adventure: Abbey’s Kitchen Learns How To Find Edible Mushrooms in the Forest
In this webisode Abbey Sharp from Abbey’s Kitchen will be learning how to identify edible mushrooms from poisonous ones as she explores a beautiful forest just outside the GTA in Ontario with a professional mushroom forager. She will teach you a little bit about the different varieties of mushrooms and which pack the biggest “umami” flavour punch. Join Abbey on her gastronomic adventure!
Abbey’s Kitchen webisode # 4
For the full series, see:
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Poison ivy is a woody vine known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant that can cause an itchy rash. To avoid poison ivy, you need to know how to spot it: watch out for a plant that has compound leaves with three almond-shaped leaflets and whitish berries. Remember: “Leaflets three, let it be!” Poison ivy is generally light to dark green in color, but it turns bright red in the fall. Its leaflets have a smooth surface and relatively toothless edges. Where does it grow? More… Discuss
This video is designed to help you avoid the toxic poison oak plant. In addition to teaching you avoidance, it will show you what to do to minimize the trauma associated with a poison oak rash.
Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Ivy Sumac Urusiol Oil Contact Dermatitis Outdoorsman Bushcraft Hunting Fishing Camping Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Poison Oak Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Hiking Backpacking Zanfel Zanfel Zanfel Zanfel Calamine Calamine Calamine Ivy Block Ivy Block
Alternative medicine proponents have long attributed healing properties to gold, and in recent years, mainstream medical researchers have begun looking to the precious metal as well. In a recent study, tiny gold particles encased in the chemotherapy drug cisplatin appeared to boost the effectiveness of conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for an aggressive brain cancer. Cancer cells in samples subjected to this experimental treatment were completely eradicated, and over the next 20 days there was no regrowth. More… Discuss
Human activities have created a “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico that is roughly the size of the state of Connecticut—about 5,000 square miles (13,000 sq km). Though this is several thousand square miles smaller than it was at its peak, it remains the second-largest dead zone in the world. Dead zones develop when there is insufficient oxygen near the ocean floor to support marine life. In most cases, this results from an overgrowth of algae fed by excessive nutrient runoff from farming and other human activities. More… Discuss
An amazing summer #sunset over Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge in #Virginia. @USFWSRefuges pic.twitter.com/oxqJhjjGbX
— US Dept of Interior (@Interior) August 6, 2014
With the death toll from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa still rapidly rising, the World Health Organization (WHO) is exploring the ethical implications of using an experimental drug to combat the virus. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or medications for Ebola, but a number are under development. One experimental drug has already been used to treat two US aid workers infected in the outbreak, and some of the world’s leading Ebola experts are calling for experimental treatments to be made more widely available given the current crisis. The WHO is to convene a meeting of medical ethicists to examine this issue next week. More… Discuss
The Hot Zone Quotes
46,786 ratings, 4.06 average rating, 2,291 reviews
The Hot Zone Quotes (showing 1-16 of 16)
Though justified by Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein on grounds that Kuwait was historically part of Iraq, Iraq’s 1990 invasion of its neighbor was presumed to be motivated by a desire to acquire Kuwait’s rich oil fields and expand Iraq’s power in the region. Under United Nations (UN) auspices, the US formed a coalition and began massing troops in Saudi Arabia. When Iraq ignored the UN Security Council‘s deadline for the withdrawal of forces from Kuwait, the US attacked how many days later? More… Discuss
The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has claimed 729 lives in four countries thus far, making it the deadliest and widest ranging such outbreak the world has ever seen. Dozens of healthcare workers have fallen victim, complicating efforts to combat it. Though the disease is outpacing current efforts to contain its spread, the head of the World Health Organization (WHO) still believes that the “unprecedented” outbreak could be stopped if proper steps are taken at both the national and international levels. To this end, a new, $100 million (75 million euro) Ebola response plan is being launched to combat the disease. More… Discuss
|Country||South Africa, United States|
|Media type||Print (paperback and hardback) eBook and audiobook|
|LC Class||RC140.5 .P74 1995b|
The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story is a best-selling 1994 non-fiction thriller by Richard Preston about the origins and incidents involving viral hemorrhagic fevers, particularly ebolaviruses and marburgviruses. The basis of the book was Preston’s 1992 New Yorker article “Crisis in the Hot Zone“.
The filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Marburg virus (MARV), and Ravn virus (RAVV) are Biosafety Level 4 agents. Biosafety Level 4 agents are extremely dangerous to humans because they are very infectious, have a high case-fatality rate, and there are no known prophylactics, treatments, or cures. Along with describing the history of the diseases caused by these two Central African diseases, Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Marburg virus disease (MVD), Preston describes a 1989 incident in which a relative of Ebola virus named Reston virus (RESTV), was discovered at a primate quarantine facility in Reston, Virginia, less than fifteen miles (24 km) away from Washington, DC. The virus found at the facility was a mutated form of the original Ebola virus, and was initially mistaken for Simian Hemorrhagic Fever (SHV). The original Reston facility involved in the incident, located at 1946 Isaac Newton Square, was subsequently torn down sometime between 1995 and 1998.
The book is in four sections:
- “The Shadow of Mount Elgon” delves into the history of filoviruses, as well as speculation about the origins of AIDS. Preston accounts the story of “Charles Monet” (a pseudonym), who might have caught MARV from visiting Kitum Cave on Mount Elgon in Kenya. The author describes in great detail the progression of the disease, from the initial headache and backache, to the final stage in which Monet’s internal organs fail and he “bleeds out” (i.e., hemorrhages extensively) in a waiting room in a Nairobi hospital. This part also introduces a young promising physician who becomes infected with MARV while treating Monet. Nancy Jaax’s story is told. Viruses, and biosafety levels and procedures are described. The EVD outbreaks caused by EBOV and its cousin, Sudan virus (SUDV) are mentioned. Preston talks to the man who named Ebola virus.
- “The Monkey House” chronicles the discovery of Reston virus among imported monkeys in Reston, Virginia, and the following actions taken by the U.S. Army and Centers for Disease Control.
- “Smashdown” is more on the Reston epizootic, which involved a strain of the virus that does not affect humans but which easily spreads by air, and is very similar to its cousin the Ebola virus.
- “Kitum Cave” tells of the author’s visiting the cave that is the suspected home of the natural host animal that Ebola lives inside of.
The book starts with “Charles Monet” visiting Kitum Cave during a camping trip to Mount Elgon in Central Africa. Not long after, he begins to suffer from a number of symptoms, including vomiting, diarrhea and red eye. He is soon taken to Nairobi Hospital for treatment, but his condition deteriorates further and he goes into a coma while in the waiting room. This particular filovirus is called Marburg virus.
Dr. Nancy Jaax had been promoted to work in the Level 4 Biosafety containment area at USAMRIID, and is assigned to research Ebola virus. While preparing food for her family at home, she cuts her right hand. Later, while working on a dead, EBOV-infected monkey, one of the gloves on the hand with the open wound tears, and she is almost exposed to contaminated blood, but does not get infected. Nurse Mayinga is also infected by a nun and elects to visit Nairobi Hospital for treatment, where she succumbs to the disease.
In Reston, Virginia, less than fifteen miles (24 km) away from Washington, DC, a company called Hazelton Research once operated a quarantine center for monkeys that were destined for laboratories. In October 1989, when an unusually high number of their monkeys began to die, their veterinarian decided to send some samples to Fort Detrick (USAMRIID) for study. Early during the testing process in biosafety level 3, when one of the flasks appeared to be contaminated with harmless pseudomonas bacterium, two USAMRIID scientists exposed themselves to the virus by wafting the flask. They later determine that, while the virus is terrifyingly lethal to monkeys, humans can be infected with it without any health effects at all. This virus is now known as Reston virus (RESTV).
Finally, the author himself goes into Africa to explore Kitum Cave. On the way, he discusses the role of AIDS in the present, as the highway they were on, sometimes called the “AIDS Highway,” or the “Kinshasa Highway” was where it first appeared. Equipped with a Hazmat suit, he enters the cave and finds a large number of animals, one of which might be the virus carrier. At the conclusion of the book, he travels to the quarantine facility in Reston. The building there was abandoned and deteriorating. He concludes the book by saying EBOV will be back.
In his blurb, horror writer Stephen King called the first chapter, “one of the most horrifying things I’ve read in my whole life.” When asked whether any book “scared the pants off you” television writer Suzanne Collins answered, “The Hot Zone, by Richard Preston. I just read it a few weeks ago. Still recovering.”
Duncan was a pioneer of modern dance. Though born in the US, she was never very popular there. It was in Europe where she achieved great acclaim. An innovator and liberator of expressive movement, Duncan rejected the conventions of classical ballet and gave lecture-demonstrations of what she called “the dance of the future.” Inspired by the drama of ancient Greece, she danced barefoot while wearing revealing Greek tunics and flowing scarves. How did her fondness for scarves lead to her death? More… Discuss
Vegans abstain from the ingestion of animal products for political and religious reasons, to enjoy health benefits, or to support animal rights. Many vegans extend the vegan philosophy into other areas of their lives and avoid using all animal products, including leather, silk, honey, whey, and gelatin. Vegan diets tend to be high in dietary fiber and low in saturated fat and cholesterol but can sometimes lead to deficiencies in nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Who coined the term “vegan”? More… Discuss
Heart Openers and Backbends Yoga class 57mins, Guru Mantra: Imperfect Perfection, Namaste Yoga 235
For show notes click the link above
Today’s class will focus on twists and side bends to gently open up your heart center. We will practice gentle backbends as well as a mudra for your heart chakra with the Guru Mantra.
The focus of this week’s class is on Vishnu‘s incarnation as Krishna and his conversation with Arjuna that in taking a human form he could only be 15/16th perfect. We will reflect on our imperfect perfection as human beings and bring loving kindness, compassion and perfection to our imperfections.
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Researchers say a third of the world’s Alzheimer’s cases are preventable. They found that diabetes, mid-life hypertension, mid-life obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and poor education are all risk factors in the development of Alzheimer’s that can potentially be addressed to reduce risk. According to their calculations, reducing each risk factor by 10 percent could prevent nearly nine million cases of Alzheimer’s by 2050. More… Discuss
Saffron is a plant native to Asia Minor, where for centuries it has been cultivated for its aromatic orange-yellow stigmas—one of the world’s most expensive spices. When handpicked and dried, the stigmas yield saffron powder, the source of the principal yellow dye of the ancient world. The plant is still grown in limited quantities for the powder, which is used in medicines and perfumes and for flavoring. How many flowers must be harvested to produce one pound (0.45 kg) of dry saffron? More… Discuss
Fifteen minutes may not seem like a terribly long time, but when left alone with just one’s thoughts for company, it is apparently unbearable, and many would sooner shock themselves than endure it. Nearly half of the participants in a recent study—18 of 42—elected to administer at least one mildly painful electric shock to themselves at some point during a 15-minute period in which they were left alone in an empty room and asked to sit at a table “entertaining themselves with their own thoughts.” Though some have criticized the study’s design, the researchers concluded that, on the whole, people prefer doing something, even something unpleasant, to doing nothing at all. More… Discuss
The genetic adaptation that allows Tibetans to survive and live comfortably at altitudes that would make most other humans on Earth terribly sick came from an extinct species of human. The variant of the EPAS-1 gene carried by nearly 90 percent of Tibetans closely matches that of the extinct Denisovan people. This gene is involved in regulating hemoglobin production and helps the body produce enough red blood cells to cope with low oxygen levels but not so many as to dangerously thicken the blood. The findings suggest that at some point in the history of the Tibetan people, their ancestors mated with Denisovans, thereby acquiring this adaptation. More… Discuss
The World Health Organization is calling for “drastic action” to contain the outbreak of Ebola currently raging in West Africa. Since the outbreak began four months ago, it has spread from Guinea to nearby Sierra Leone and Liberia, infected more than 600 people, and claimed nearly 400 lives, making it the largest Ebola outbreak in terms of cases, deaths, and geographical spread. Despite the presence of 150 experts, the number of reported cases and deaths is still rising daily, threatening the entire region and beyond. The charity Médecins Sans Frontières, or Doctors Without Borders, says the outbreak is out of control. More… Discuss
Facts on Pesticides – earthjustice.org Adwww.earthjustice.org/pesticides Top 12 Fruits and Vegetables You Should Buy Organic
Global Pesticides Market may reach
USD75.9 billion by 2019 and CAGR of
About 5,290,000 results (0.33 seconds)
by Brett Moore – The long term effects of consuming these pesticides has not been sufficiently … Here is a list of the fruits and vegetables most contaminated and which you should buy … Find a Local Farmers Market · How to Make Your Kitchen Eco-Friendly ..
Powerful Fruit Crop Protection.
Learn About Movento® Insecticide.
Pesticide Fruit List.
Discover and Explore on Ask.com!
Search for Pesticides On Fruits
Look Up Quick Results Now!
and Clean Fifteen™. See the full
lists for 2014. Shop safely
this pressed: Google I/O – What We Now Know – Forbes (google should use the profits in a socially responsible manner e.g. why not invest in nanothechnology to help the autoimune system fight, conquer and eradicate Multiple Myeloma ? instead of stupid robots?)
Getting up from your desk and moving around does more than just get your blood pumping—it gets your creative juices flowing. Researchers say that when employees stand rather than sit during meetings they are more aroused, less territorial, and share more information and ideas, factors that can improve overall performance on group tasks. More… Discuss
Alonso is a Cuban prima ballerina and choreographer. She danced in Broadway musicals before becoming a soloist with several leading companies, including the American Ballet Theatre, in 1939. She is best known for her work in Giselle and in Agnes de Mille‘s Fall River Legend. Her own works include La Tinaja, Ensayos Sinfonicos, and Lidia, all created for her company, which Alonso has continued to direct despite being almost blind. What caused her failing vision? More… Discuss
Tibetan Healing Sounds #1 -11 hours – Tibetan bowls for meditation, relaxation, calming, healing
on Aug 8, 2013/6,051,494 views
Download MP3’s, WAV and Videos: https://gum.co/tibet_healing
Album info and purchase: http://www.paradisemusic.us.com/album…
This is an extended version of a shorter sample found on the album Natural Healing Sounds Gold. New, 1 hour version of “Tibetan Healing Sounds” : http://youtu.be/S4Bmk69ctAs
Tibetan Healing Sounds, Tibetan bowls, Tibetan bowls sounds
Relaxation sounds, nature sounds, relax, calm, soothing. Calm sounds for yoga, meditation, reiki, massage, reading, sleeping, sleep, yoga, stress, meditation, relaxing music, stress relief, shiatsu, yoga nidra, how to deal with stress, pranayama, mindfulness
My favourite stress relief location: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RWlkN…
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Grapefruit and grapefruit juice have been found to interact with numerous drugs (at least 85 by the latest[when?] count), in many cases resulting in adverse effects. Organic compounds that are furanocoumarin derivatives interfere with the hepatic and intestinal enzyme cytochrome P450 isoform CYP3A4 and are believed to be primarily responsible for the effects of grapefruit on the enzyme. Bioactive compounds in grapefruit juice may also interfere with P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), either increasing or decreasing the bioavailability of a number of drugs. Pomelo (the Asian fruit which was crossed with an orange to produce grapefruit) also contains high amounts of furanocoumarin derivatives. Some grapefruit-pomelo hybrids have practically no furanocoumarin content, and one is a commercially viable seedless type.
The following drugs are affected by CYP3A4 inhibition with grapefruit compounds:
- The benzodiazepines triazolam (Halcion), orally administered midazolam (Versed), orally administered nitrazepam (Mogodon), certain amphetamines (dextroamphetamine, and levoamphetamine), diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax) and quazepam (Doral, Dormalin)
- ritonavir (Norvir): Inhibition of CYP3A4 prevents the metabolism of protease inhibitors such as ritonavir.
- sertraline (Zoloft and Lustral)
List of Amphetamines That Interact With The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme:
- dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)
- levoamphetamine (Adderall)
- methamphetamine (Desoxyn)
- Methylphenidate (Ritalin) 
Research has been done on the interaction between amphetamines and The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme, and researchers concluded that some parts of substrate molecules contribute to the binding of the enzyme. 
Additional drugs found to be affected by grapefruit juice include, but are not limited to:
- Some statins such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), lovastatin (Mevacor) and simvastatin (Zocor, Simlup, Simcor, Simvacor); however, pravastatin (Pravachol), fluvastatin (Lescol) and rosuvastatin (Crestor) are unaffected by grapefruit.
- dihydropyridines including felodipine (Plendil), nicardipine (Cardene), nifedipine, nisoldipine (Sular) and nitrendipine (Bayotensin)
- losartan (Cozaar)
- repaglinide (Prandin)
- verapamil (Calan SR, Covera HS, Isoptin SR, Verelan)
- buspirone (Buspar): Grapefruit juice increased peak and AUC plasma concentrations of buspirone 4.3- and 9.2-fold, respectively, in a randomized, 2-phase, ten-subject crossover study.
- levothyroxine (Eltroxin, Levoxyl, Synthroid): the absorption of levothyroxine is affected by grapefruit juice.[clarification needed] 
- Antiarrhythmics including amiodarone (Cordarone), dronedarone (Multaq), quinidine (Quinidex, Cardioquin, Quinora), disopyramide (Norpace), propafenone (Rythmol) and carvedilol (Coreg)
- Erectile dysfunction drugs sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra)
- The anti-migraine drugs ergotamine (Cafergot, Ergomar), amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep, Vanatrip) and nimodipine (Nimotop)
- fluvoxamine (Luvox, Faverin, Fevarin and Dumyrox)
- cyclosporine (Neoral): Blood levels of cyclosporine are increased if taken with grapefruit juice. A plausible mechanism involves the combined inhibition of enteric CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, which potentially leads to serious adverse events (e.g., nephrotoxicity). Blood levels of tacrolimus (Prograf) can also be equally affected for the same reason as cyclosporine, as both drugs are calcineurin inhibitors.
- exemestane, aromasin, and by extension all estrogen-like compounds and aromatase inhibitors which mimic estrogen in function will be increased in effect, causing increased estrogen retention and increased drug retention.[unreliable medical source?]
- omeprazole (Losec, Prilosec)
- zolpidem (Ambien): Little or no interaction with grapefruit juice.
- oxycodone: metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, specifically CYP3A4, of which the bergamottin flavonoid is a strong inhibitor
- quetiapine (Seroquel)
- methadone: Inhibits the metabolism of methadone and raises serum levels.
- buprenorphine: Metabolized into norbuprenorphine by cytochrome-P450 isoenzyme 3A4
- trazodone (Desyrel): Little or no interaction with grapefruit juice.
- anthelmintics: Used for treating certain parasitic infections; includes praziquantel
- imatinib (Gleevec): Although no formal studies with imatinib and grapefruit juice have been conducted, the fact that grapefruit juice is a known inhibitor of the CYP 3A4 suggests that co-administration may lead to increased imatinib plasma concentrations. Likewise, although no formal studies were conducted, co-administration of imatinib with another specific type of citrus juice called Seville orange juice (SOJ) may lead to increased imatinib plasma concentrations via inhibition of the CYP3A isoenzymes. Seville orange juice is not usually consumed as a juice because of its sour taste, but it is found in marmalade and other jams. Seville orange juice has been reported to be a possible inhibitor of CYP3A enzymes without affecting P-glycoprotein when taken concomitantly with cyclosporine.
- erlotinib (Tarceva) 
- In a mouse study, blood concentrations of acetaminophen/paracetamol (Tylenol) were found to be increased by white and pink grapefruit juice, with the white juice acting faster.
- fexofenadine (Allegra) 
Mechanism of the interaction
The CYP3A4 isoform of cytochrome P450 is located in both the liver and the enterocytes. Many oral drugs undergo first-pass (presystemic) metabolism by the enzyme. Several organic compounds found in grapefruit and specifically in grapefruit juice exert inhibitory action on drug metabolism by the enzyme. It has been established that a group of compounds called furanocoumarins are responsible for this interaction, and not flavonoids as was previously reported. The list of active furanocoumarins found in grapefruit juice includes: bergamottin, bergapten, bergaptol and 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin.
This interaction is particularly dangerous when the drug in question has a low therapeutic index, so that a small increase in blood concentration can be the difference between therapeutic effect and toxicity. Grapefruit juice inhibits the enzyme only within the intestines, not in the liver or elsewhere in the body, and does not impact injected drugs. The degree of the effect varies widely between individuals and between samples of juice, and therefore cannot be accounted for a priori.
Another mechanism of interaction is possibly through the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) that is localized in the apical brush border of the enterocytes. Pgp transports lipophilic molecules out of the enterocyte back into the intestinal lumen. Drugs that possess lipophilic properties are either metabolised by CYP3A4 or removed into the intestine by the Pgp transporter. Both the Pgp and CYP3A4 may act synergistically as a barrier to many orally administered drugs. Therefore, their inhibition (both or alone) can markedly increase the bioavailability of a drug.
- Bailey, David G.; Dresser, George; Arnold, J. Malcolm O. (2012). “Grapefruit-medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences?”. Canadian Medical Association Journal (Canadian Medical Association). doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951.
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- PDF (34.6 KB)
- Appendix 1: Grapefruit Interacting Drugs and Associated Oral Bioavailability, Adverse Event(s), Risk Ranking and Potential Alternative Medications Appendix to: Bailey DG, Dresser G, Arnold JMA. Grapefruit and medication interactions: forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences? CMAJ 2012; doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors
- Interactions of amphetamine analogs with human liver CYP2D6.
- The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC)
- a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions.
- Drug interactions with grapefruit juice. Extent, probable mechanism and clinical relevance.
- methamphetamine-mediated oxidative stress induces astrocyte apoptosis via cytochrome P450 2E1
- Flavonoids and polymer derivatives as CYP3A4 inhibitors for improved oral drug bioavailability.
- Grape fruit juice-drug interactions.
- SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions.
- potent inhibition of P450 gene CYP2D6 on d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine
- a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions
- Functional pharmacogenetics of cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation
- Cytochrome P450 interactions with the CYP2D6
- Dexamfetamine Cytochrome P450 interaction, Structure, and Cyp IAs Vault
- Methylphenidate Cytochrome P450 interaction, Structure, and Cyp IAs Vault
- Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007)
- 3D structure of CYP2D6 (enzyme that interacts with amphetamines)
- Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of at least 20% of known drugs.
- Schematic diagram of Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme
- Ribbon diagram of the CYP2D6 enzyme structure
- diagram of CYP2D6’s ribbon “right foot”-shaped active site cavity