Tag Archives: National Air and Space Museum

Why Do We Go to Space? | It’s Okay to be Smart | PBS Digital Studios



My ode to space exploration and Discovery.
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Why do we go to space? In the beginning of our space program, the answer had a lot to do with war and paranoia. But with the dawn of the space shuttle, that all changed. Where do we go from here?

Special thanks to the National Air and Space Museum‘s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center for letting us hang out with the shuttle Discovery.

Link to the interactive Mars panorama as seen on my phone:http://bit.ly/16ttUwr

Historical footage via NASA.

Music: “Divider” by Chris Zabriskie 
http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Chr…

Galileo would have made a great astronaut.

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Have an idea for an episode or an amazing science question you want answered? Leave a comment below!

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Written and hosted by Joe Hanson
Produced by PBS Digital Studios:http://www.youtube.com/user/pbsdigita… 

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Want some more great science?

My last episode: Monuments http://youtu.be/07K0vo-d1HA 

Want more? Watch: Animal Superpowers
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e69yaW… 

Want even MORE? Rainbows
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pYnC-…

“Bloopers Vol. 1″ 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xahPvb…

 

CNN: Pepper spray used on demonstrators at Air and Space Museum


Pepper spray used on demonstrators at Air and Space Museum

Pepper spray used on demonstrators at Air and Space Museum (Click on picture to access and read the story at CNN)

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

About Pepper Spray

Pepper spray, also known as OC spray (from “Oleoresin Capsicum“), OC gas, and capsicum spray, is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even temporary blindness) that is used in riot control, crowd control, and personal self-defence, including defence against dogs and bears.[1] Its inflammatory effects cause the eyes to close, taking away vision. This temporary blindness allows officers to more easily restrain subjects and permits persons using pepper spray for self-defense an opportunity to escape.

Although considered a non-lethal agent, it may be deadly in rare cases, and concerns have been raised about a number of deaths where being pepper sprayed may have been a contributing factor.[2]

The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsaicin, which is a chemical derived from the fruit of plants in the Capsicum genus, including chilis. Extraction of oleoresin capsicum from peppers involves finely ground capsicum, from which capsaicin is extracted in an organic solvent such as ethanol. The solvent is then evaporated, and the remaining waxlike resin is the oleoresin capsicum. An emulsifier such as propylene glycol is used to suspend the OC in water, and pressurized to make it aerosol in pepper spray. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is used to measure the amount of capsaicin and major capsaicinoids within pepper sprays.

A synthetic analogue of capsaicin, pelargonic acid vanillylamide (desmethyldihydrocapsaicin), is used in another version of pepper spray known as PAVA spray which is used in the United Kingdom. Another synthetic counterpart of pepper spray, pelargonic acid morpholide, was developed and is widely used in Russia. Its effectiveness compared to natural pepper spray is unclear.

Pepper spray typically comes in canisters, which are often small enough to be carried or concealed in a pocket or purse. Pepper spray can also be bought concealed in items such as rings. There are also pepper spray projectiles available, which can be fired from a paintball gun. It has been used for years against demonstrators. Many such canisters also contain dyes, either visible or UV-reactive, to mark an attacker’s skin and/or clothing to enhance identification by police.

The word Mace, a registered trademark of Mace Security International, is often used synonymously with pepper spray or tear gas; Mace was one of the original manufacturers of nonlethal security sprays in the US. However, not all of their products can be considered pepper spray.

The European Parliament Scientific and Technological Options Assessment (STOA) published in 1998 “An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control”[5] with extensive information on pepper spray and tear gas. They write:

The effects of pepper spray are far more severe, including temporary blindness which lasts from 15–30 minutes, a burning sensation of the skin which lasts from 45 to 60 minutes, upper body spasms which force a person to bend forward and uncontrollable coughing making it difficult to breathe or speak for between 3 to 15 minutes.

For those with asthma, taking other drugs, or subject to restraining techniques which restrict the breathing passages, there is a risk of death. The Los Angeles Times has reported at least 61 deaths associated with police use of pepper spray since 1990 in the USA.[6] The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) documented 27 people in police custody who died after exposure to pepper spray in California since 1993.[2][7][8] However, the ACLU report counts any death occurring within hours of exposure to pepper spray. In all 27 cases, the coroners’ report listed other factors as the primary cause of death, though in some cases the use of pepper spray may have been a contributing factor.[2]

The US Army concluded in a 1993 Aberdeen Proving Ground study that pepper spray could cause “[m]utagenic effects, carcinogenic effects, sensitization, cardiovascular and pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, as well as possible human fatalities. There is a risk in using this product on a large and varied population”.[9] However, the pepper spray was widely approved in the US despite the reservations of the US military scientists after it passed FBI tests in 1991. As of 1999, it was in use by more than 2000 public safety agencies. ( Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepper_spray)