Entrance of the monastery
|Order||Syriac Catholic Church|
|Dedicated to||Mar Behnam, Mart Sara|
|Location||near Beth Khdeda|
Monastery of the Martyrs Saint Behnam and his Sister Sarah (Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܪܡܪܝ ܒܗܢܡ ܘܡܪܬ ܣܪܐ, Arabic: دير مار بهنام, Mar Behnam Monastery), is a Syriac Catholic monastery in northern Iraq close to the town of Beth Khdeda.
The monastery, after its establishment continued its work and contributed greatly to the Christian world under the care of the Syriac Orthodox Church. Sculptures in the church show that renovations were done in 1164 and between 1250-1261. Records show that the monastery suffered greatly during the period from 1743 – 1790 which is due to attacks carried out by Nader Shah against the Christians in the region.
In 1790 the monastery was taken over by the Catholic Church and was managed for 8 years until the Syriac Orthodox church took it back. For some unknown reason, the monks abandoned the monastery in 1819. The monastery changed hands again to the Syriac Catholic Church in 1839, which has cared for it to present time.
The monastery belonged to the Church of the East for at least 10 centuries, which is attested to by rare Turkic inscriptions from the 13th century left by Mongol pilgrims. Before turning to the hand of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the whole region converted to Monophysitism and the monastery became the residence as well as the resting place of a number of Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs.
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On a visit to Vancouver, British Columbia in 2004
|Born||December 7, 1928
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
|Other names||Avram Noam Chomsky|
|Alma mater||University of Pennsylvania (B.A.) 1949, (M.A.) 1951, (Ph.D.) 1955|
|Era||20th / 21st-century philosophy|
|School||Generative linguistics, Analytic philosophy|
|Main interests||Linguistics ·
Philosophy of language
Philosophy of mind
Politics · Ethics
Avram Noam Chomsky (/ˈnoʊm ˈtʃɒmski/; born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, logician, political commentator and activist. Sometimes described as the “father of modern linguistics”, Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy. He has spent most of his career at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he is currently Professor Emeritus, and has authored over 100 books. He has been described as a prominent cultural figure, and was voted the “world’s top public intellectual” in a 2005 poll.
Born to a middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish family in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from relatives in New York City. He later undertook studies in linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania, where he obtained his BA, MA, and PhD, while from 1951 to 1955 he was appointed to Harvard University‘s Society of Fellows. In 1955 he began work at MIT, soon becoming a significant figure in the field of linguistics for his publications and lectures on the subject. He is credited as the creator or co-creator of the Chomsky hierarchy, the universal grammar theory, and the Chomsky–Schützenberger theorem. Chomsky also played a major role in the decline of behaviorism, and was especially critical of the work of B.F. Skinner. In 1967 he gained public attention for his vocal opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, in part through his essay The Responsibility of Intellectuals, and came to be associated with the New Left while being arrested on multiple occasions for his anti-war activism. While expanding his work in linguistics over subsequent decades, he also developed the propaganda model of media criticism with Edward S. Herman. Following his retirement from active teaching, he has continued his vocal public activism, praising the Occupy movement for example.
Chomsky has been a highly influential academic figure throughout his career, and was cited within the field of Arts and Humanities more often than any other living scholar between 1980 and 1992. He was also the eighth most cited scholar overall within the Arts and Humanities Citation Index during the same period. His work has influenced fields such as artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science, logic, mathematics, music theory and analysis, political science, programming language theory and psychology. Chomsky continues to be well known as a political activist, and a leading critic of U.S. foreign policy, state capitalism, and the mainstream news media. Ideologically, he aligns himself with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.
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Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (French: [ʒyl emil fʁedeʁik masnɛ]; 12 May 1842 – 13 August 1912) was a French composer best known for his operas. His compositions were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and he ranks as one of the greatest melodists of his era. Soon after his death, Massenet’s style went out of fashion, and many of his operas fell into almost total oblivion. Apart from Manon and Werther, his works were rarely performed. However, since the mid-1970s, many operas of his such as Thaïs and Esclarmonde have undergone periodic revivals.
Massenet was born in Montaud, then an outlying hamlet and now a part of the city of Saint-Étienne, in the Loire. When he was six, his family moved to Paris due to his father’s ill-health. There his mother (Adélaïde Massenet, née Royer; her husband’s second wife) started taking piano pupils. She also taught Jules so well that at the age of 11 he became a pupil of Adolphe-François Laurent (piano), Henri Reber (harmony) and Ambroise Thomas (counterpoint) at the Conservatoire de Paris.[
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791).
Composed December 1775/1776 in Salzburg.
The Missa Brevis No. 8 in C major, K. 259, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, probably in 1776. It is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, 2 oboes, 2 clarini (high trumpets), 3 trombones colla parte, timpani and basso continuo.
Although classed as a missa brevis (brief mass), the inclusion of trumpets in the scoring makes it a missa brevis et solemnis. The mass derives its nickname Orgelmesse or Orgelsolomesse (Organ Solo Mass) from the obbligato organ solo entry of the Benedictus. This is one of three masses Mozart composed in November and December 1776, all set in C major, including the Credo Mass (K. 257) and the Piccolominimesse (K. 258).
The work consists of six movements. Performances require approximately 10–15 minutes.
FREE .mp3 and .wav files of all Mozart’s music at: http://www.mozart-archiv.de/
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The Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466, was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1785. The first performance took place at the Mehlgrube Casino in Vienna on February 11, 1785, with the composer as the soloist.
Ludwig van Beethoven‘s Piano Sonata No. 30 in E major, Op. 109, composed in 1820, is the antepenultimate of his piano sonatas. In it, after the huge Hammerklavier sonata, Op. 106, Beethoven returns to a smaller scale and a more intimate character. It is dedicated to Maximiliane Brentano, the daughter of Beethoven’s long-standing friend Antonie Brentano, for whom Beethoven had already composed the short piano trio in B flat major WoO 39 in 1812. Musically, the work is characterised by a free and original approach to the traditional sonata form. Its focus is the third movement, a set of variations that interpret its theme in a wide variety of individual ways.
The three movements of this sonata are:
N. Lugansky, piano
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chopin composed his most popular Nocturne in E-flat major, Op. 9, No. 2 when he was about twenty.
This popular nocturne is in rounded binary form (A, A, B, A, B, A) with coda, C. The A and B sections become increasingly ornamented with each recurrence. The penultimate bar utilizes considerable rhythmic freedom, indicated by the instruction, senza tempo (without tempo). Nocturne in E-flat major opens with a legato melody, mostly played piano, containing graceful upward leaps which becomes increasingly wide as the line unfolds. This melody is heard again three times during the piece. With each repetition, it is varied by ever more elaborate decorative tones and trills. The nocturne also includes a subordinate melody, which is played with rubato.
A sonorous foundation for the melodic line is provided by the widely spaced notes in the accompaniment, connected by the damper pedal. The waltz-like accompaniment gently emphasizes the 12/8 meter, 12 beats to the measure subdivided into four groups of 3 beats each.
The nocturne is reflective in mood until it suddenly becomes passionate near the end. The new concluding melody begins softly but then ascends to a high register and is played forcefully in octaves, eventually reaching the loudest part of the piece, marked fortissimo. After a trill-like passage, the excitement subsides; the nocturne ends calmly.
Original movie poster
|Directed by||Roland Joffé|
|Produced by||Fernando Ghia
|Written by||Robert Bolt|
|Starring||Robert De Niro
|Music by||Ennio Morricone|
|Edited by||Jim Clark|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
|Running time||126 minutes|
|Box office||$17,218,023 (United States)|
The Mission is a 1986 British drama film about the experiences of a Jesuit missionary in 18th century South America. The film was written by Robert Bolt and directed by Roland Joffé. The movie stars Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, Ray McAnally, Aidan Quinn, Cherie Lunghi and Liam Neeson. It won the Palme d’Or and the Academy Award for Best Cinematography. In April 2007, it was elected number one on the Church Times‘s Top 50 Religious Films list. The music, scored by Italian composer Ennio Morricone, ranked 1st on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation‘s (ABC) Classic 100 Music in the Movies.
The Concierto Andaluz (Spanish: Andalusian concerto) is a 1967 work by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo for four guitars and orchestra. The piece has three movements, each having a blend of impressionistic Spanish guitar music with that of baroque influence. It was commissioned by Spanish guitarist Celedonio Romero and first performed by Los Romeros and the San Antonio Symphony Orchestra conducted by Victor Alessandro in San Antonio, Texas, USA on 18 November, 1967.
Displays of fireworks, such as these over the Washington Monument, take place across the United States on Independence Day.
|Also called||The Fourth of July
|Observed by||United States|
|Significance||The day in 1776 that the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress|
|Celebrations||Fireworks, Family reunions, Concerts, Barbecues, Picnics, Parades, Baseball games|
|Next time||4 July 2015|
Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday in the United States of America commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain (now officially known as the United Kingdom). Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, fairs, picnics, concerts, baseball games, family reunions, and political speeches and ceremonies, in addition to various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States. Independence Day is the National Day of the United States.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pepe Romero (born March 8, 1944 in Málaga, Spain) is a world-renowned classical and flamenco guitarist. He is particularly famous for his outstanding technique and colorful musical interpretations on the instrument.
Pepe Romero in 2000
|Born||March 8, 1944
|Genres||Classical music, flamenco|
|Years active||fl. ca. 1959 – present|
|Associated acts||The Romero Guitar Quartet|
As a soloist Pepe Romero has appeared in the United States, Canada, Europe, China, and many countries around the world with the Toronto, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Chicago, Houston, Pittsburgh, Boston, San Francisco and Dallas Symphony Orchestras, as well as with the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, the New York, Bogota and Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestras, the Boston Pops Orchestra, the Hong Kong Sinfonietta and the London Symphony Orchestra, the Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, the Monte Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra, I Musici, the Zurich Chamber Orchestra, Philharmonia Hungarica, the Hungarian State Orchestra, the Spanish National Orchestra, the Spanish National Radio/Television Orchestra, L’Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, The New Moscow Chamber Orchestra, the Springfiled Orchestra, the Lausanne Chamber Orchestra, the American Sinfonietta and the Bournemouth Symphony. He has been a special guest at the festivals of Salzburg, Israel, Schleswig-Holstein, Menuhin, Osaka, Granada, Istanbul, Ravinia, Garden State, Hollywood Bowl, Blossom, Wolf Trap, Saratoga and Hong Kong.
Since his first recording (at the age of 15) he has recorded over 50 solo albums and 30 albums as part of the famed guitar quartet The Romeros. He has played for Presidents Carter and Nixon, the Queen of the Netherlands, the Prince of Wales and Pope John Paul II. He has numerous international recording awards to his credit and has received an Honorary Doctorate in Music from University of Victoria.
His contributions to the field of classical guitar have inspired a number of distinguished composers to write works specifically for him, including Joaquín Rodrigo, Federico Moreno Torroba, Rev. Francisco de Madina, Lorenzo Palomo, Michael Zearott, Enrique Diemecke, and Celedonio Romero.
Pepe Romero is the second son of Celedonio Romero, who was his only guitar teacher. His first professional appearance was in a shared concert with his father when Pepe was only seven years old. In 1957 Celedonio Romero left Franco‘s Spain for the United States with his family.
On February 11, 2000, King Juan Carlos I of Spain knighted Pepe Romero and his brothers, Celin and Ángel, into the Order of “Isabel la Catolica.” The official ceremony of this high honor took place at the USC Thornton School of Music, and included a gala performance by The Romeros with the Thornton Chamber Orchestra. He is currently Adjunct Professor of Classical Guitar at the Thornton School, where he was named “Distinguished Artist in Residence” in 2004.
Although originally a classical guitarist, he is talented in Flamenco and a popular Flamenco performer. His most famous Flamenco-only album is called ¡Flamenco Fenómeno!
Grapefruit and grapefruit juice have been found to interact with numerous drugs (at least 85 by the latest[when?] count), in many cases resulting in adverse effects. Organic compounds that are furanocoumarin derivatives interfere with the hepatic and intestinal enzyme cytochrome P450 isoform CYP3A4 and are believed to be primarily responsible for the effects of grapefruit on the enzyme. Bioactive compounds in grapefruit juice may also interfere with P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), either increasing or decreasing the bioavailability of a number of drugs. Pomelo (the Asian fruit which was crossed with an orange to produce grapefruit) also contains high amounts of furanocoumarin derivatives. Some grapefruit-pomelo hybrids have practically no furanocoumarin content, and one is a commercially viable seedless type.
The following drugs are affected by CYP3A4 inhibition with grapefruit compounds:
List of Amphetamines That Interact With The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme:
Research has been done on the interaction between amphetamines and The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme, and researchers concluded that some parts of substrate molecules contribute to the binding of the enzyme. 
Additional drugs found to be affected by grapefruit juice include, but are not limited to:
The CYP3A4 isoform of cytochrome P450 is located in both the liver and the enterocytes. Many oral drugs undergo first-pass (presystemic) metabolism by the enzyme. Several organic compounds found in grapefruit and specifically in grapefruit juice exert inhibitory action on drug metabolism by the enzyme. It has been established that a group of compounds called furanocoumarins are responsible for this interaction, and not flavonoids as was previously reported. The list of active furanocoumarins found in grapefruit juice includes: bergamottin, bergapten, bergaptol and 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin.
This interaction is particularly dangerous when the drug in question has a low therapeutic index, so that a small increase in blood concentration can be the difference between therapeutic effect and toxicity. Grapefruit juice inhibits the enzyme only within the intestines, not in the liver or elsewhere in the body, and does not impact injected drugs. The degree of the effect varies widely between individuals and between samples of juice, and therefore cannot be accounted for a priori.
Another mechanism of interaction is possibly through the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) that is localized in the apical brush border of the enterocytes. Pgp transports lipophilic molecules out of the enterocyte back into the intestinal lumen. Drugs that possess lipophilic properties are either metabolised by CYP3A4 or removed into the intestine by the Pgp transporter. Both the Pgp and CYP3A4 may act synergistically as a barrier to many orally administered drugs. Therefore, their inhibition (both or alone) can markedly increase the bioavailability of a drug.
|Drug class||Major Interactions||Minor interactions|
|Antiarrhythmic agents||amiodarone (Cordarone)
|Antihistamines||terfenadine (Seldane) (off the market)
diphenhydramine (Benadryl) (partially)
astemizole (Hismanal) (off the market)
|Calcium channel antagonists||felodipine (Plendil)
|Cholesterol-lowering drugs aka
Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors)
cerivastatin (Baycol) (off the market)
|Cough Suppressant/NMDA Antagonist||dextromethorphan|
|Erectile dysfunction drugs||sildenafil (Viagra)
|HIV protease inhibitors||saquinavir (Invirase)
|Hormones||ethinyl estradiol (Ortho-Cept, many others)
|Immunosuppressants||cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral)
|Sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics||buspirone (Buspar)||triazolam (Halcion)
|Other psychotropics||carbamazepine (Tegretol)
nefazodone (Serzone) (off the market)
|Other miscellaneous drugs||cisapride (Prepulsid, Propulsid)|
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Along with the Impromptus, they are among the most frequently played of all Schubert’s piano music, and have been recorded many times. No. 3 in F minor has been arranged by Leopold Godowsky and others.
They were published by Leidesdorf in Vienna in 1828, under the title “Six Momens [sic] musicals [sic]“. The correct French forms are now usually used – moments (instead of momens), and musicaux (instead of musicals). The sixth number was published in 1824 in a Christmas album under the title Les plaintes d’un troubadour.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fidelio (Leonore, oder Der Triumph der ehelichen Liebe: Leonore, or The Triumph of Married Love) (Op. 72) is a German opera with spoken dialogue in two acts by Ludwig van Beethoven. It is his only opera. The German libretto was prepared by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly, which had been used for the 1798 opera Léonore, ou L’amour conjugal by Pierre Gaveaux, and the 1804 opera Leonora by Ferdinando Paer (a score of which was owned by Beethoven).
She was born into an artistic family (her mother is a painter, grandmother is a poet) and spent her childhood in Siena, Italy. She studied at Hochschule für Musik Köln under Zakhar Bron and graduated in 2004. Her other teachers have included Sashko Gawrillow, Uto Ughi and Shlomo Mintz.
Zubin Mehta has been her strong supporter. When Shoji auditioned for him in 2000, he immediately changed his schedule in order to make her first recording with the Israel Philharmonic possible in the following month, then invited her to perform with Bavarian State Opera and Los Angeles Philharmonic.
Since then many prominent orchestras have invited Shoji, including the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Berlin Philharmonic, London Symphony Orchestra, Baltimore Symphony, St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra, Orchestra dell’Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia and WDR Symphony Orchestra under the baton of Lorin Maazel, Yuri Temirkanov, Myung-whun Chung and Semyon Bychkov.
Ernest Chausson was born in Paris into a prosperous bourgeois family. His father made his fortune assisting Baron Haussmann in the redevelopment of Paris in the 1850s. To please his father, Chausson studied law and was appointed a barrister for the Court of Appeals, but had little or no interest in the profession. He frequented the Paris salons, where he met celebrities such as Henri Fantin-Latour, Odilon Redon, and Vincent d’Indy.
Before deciding on a musical career, he dabbled in writing and drawing.
In October 1879, at the age of 25, he began attending the composition classes of the opera composer Jules Massenet at the Paris Conservatoire; Massenet came to regard him as ‘an exceptional person and a true artist’. Chausson had already composed some piano pieces and songs. Nevertheless, the earliest manuscripts that have been preserved are those corrected by Massenet. At the Paris Conservatoire, Chausson also studied with César Franck. Chausson interrupted his studies in 1881, after a failed attempt to win the Prix de Rome.  During 1882 and 1883, Chausson, who enjoyed travel, visited Bayreuth to hear the operas of Wagner. On the first of these journeys, Chausson went with d’Indy for the premiere of Wagner’s Parsifal, and on the second trip he went with his new spouse Jeanne Escudier (1862-1936), with whom he was to have five children.
From 1886 until his death in 1899, Chausson was secretary of the Société Nationale de Musique. In his own home (22 Boulevard de Courcelles, near Parc Monceau), he received a great many eminent artists, including the composers Henri Duparc, Gabriel Fauré, Claude Debussy, and Isaac Albéniz, the poet Mallarmé, the Russian novelist Turgenev, and the impressionist painter Monet. Chausson also assembled an important collection of paintings
When only 44 years old,
Chausson died while staying at one of his country retreats, the Château de Mioussets, in Limay, Yvelines. Riding his bicycle downhill, Chausson hit a brick wall and died instantly. The exact circumstances remain unclear; although apparently a freak accident, there has been the suggestion of suicide, as Chausson had been suffering from depression for some time. This suicide theory was propounded by Debussy’s biographer Edward Lockspeiser, but has been firmly rejected more recently by Chausson’s own biographer Ralph Scott Grover.
Chausson was buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, his funeral attended by many leading figures of the arts, including Duparc, Fauré, Albeniz, Redon, Edgar Degas, Auguste Rodin, Henri de Régnier, Pierre Louÿs, and Debussy, although his friendship with Debussy had ended abruptly five years earlier following his disapproval of Debussy’s promiscuity.
A small park, Square Ernest Chausson, in the 17th arrondissement of Paris is named in his honour.
The creative work of Chausson is commonly divided into three periods. In the first, which was dominated by Massenet, the composer exhibits primarily fluid and elegant melodies. The second period, dating from 1886, is marked by a more dramatic character, deriving partly from Chausson’s contacts with the artistic milieux in which he moved. From his father’s death in 1894 dates the beginning of his third period, during which he was especially influenced by his reading of the symbolist poets and Russian literature, particularly Turgenev, Dostoyevsky, and Tolstoy.
Chausson’s work is deeply individual, but it does reflect some technical influences of both Wagner and his other musical hero Franck. Stylistic traces of Massenet and even Brahms can be detected sometimes. In general, Chausson’s compositional idiom bridges the gap between the ripe Romanticism of Massenet and Franck and the more introverted Impressionism of Debussy.
Several delicate and admirable songs came from Chausson’s pen. He completed one opera, Le roi Arthus (King Arthur). His orchestral output was small, but significant. It includes the symphonic poem Viviane; the Symphony in B-flat, his sole symphony; Poème for violin and orchestra, an important piece in the violin repertoire; and the dramatic, and haunting, song-cycle Poème de l’amour et de la mer.
Chausson is believed to be the first composer to use the celesta. He employed that instrument in December 1888 in his incidental music, written for a small orchestra, for La tempête, a French translation by Maurice Bouchor of Shakespeare‘s The Tempest.
Not at all prolific, Chausson left behind only 39 opus-numbered pieces. Musical creation for him always proved to be a long, painful struggle. However, the quality and originality of his compositions are consistently high, and they continue to make occasional appearances on programs of leading singers, chamber music ensembles and orchestras.
“There are moments when I feel myself driven by a kind of feverish instinct, as if I had the presentiment of being unable to attain my goal, or of attaining it too late.” Ernest Chausson
Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of maize (called corn in some countries) and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade. Corn syrup is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallization of sugar, and enhance flavor. Corn syrup is distinct from high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which is manufactured from corn syrup by converting a large proportion of its glucose into fructose using the enzyme xylose isomerase, thus producing a sweeter compound due to higher levels of fructose.
The more general term glucose syrup is often used synonymously with corn syrup, since glucose syrup is in the United States most commonly made from corn starch. Technically, glucose syrup is any liquid starch hydrolysate of mono-, di-, and higher-saccharides and can be made from any source of starch; wheat, tapioca and potatoes are the most common other sources.
Historically, corn syrup was produced by combining corn starch with dilute hydrochloric acid, and then heating the mixture under pressure. Currently, corn syrup is obtained through a multi-step bioprocess. First, the enzyme α-amylase is added to a mixture of corn starch and water. α-amylase is secreted by various species of the bacterium Bacillus; the enzyme is isolated from the liquid in which the bacteria are grown. The enzyme breaks down the starch into oligosaccharides, which are then broken into glucose molecules by adding the enzyme glucoamylase, known also as “γ-amylase”. Glucoamylase is secreted by various species of the fungus Aspergillus; the enzyme is isolated from the liquid in which the fungus is grown. The glucose can then be transformed into fructose by passing the glucose through a column that is loaded with the enzyme D-xylose isomerase, an enzyme that is isolated from the growth medium of any of several bacteria.
Corn syrup is produced from number 2 yellow dent corn. When wet milled, about 2.3 litres of corn are required to yield an average of 947g of starch, to produce 1 kg of glucose or dextrose syrup. A bushel (25 kg) of corn will yield an average of 31.5 pounds (14.3 kg) of starch, which in turn will yield about 33.3 pounds (15.1 kg) of syrup. Thus, it takes about 2,300 litres of corn to produce a tonne of glucose syrup, or 60 bushels (1524 kg) of corn to produce one short ton.
The viscosity and sweetness of the syrup depends on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been carried out. To distinguish different grades of syrup, they are rated according to their dextrose equivalent (DE).
Some commercial corn syrup products are actually a composition of syrups.
In the United States, cane sugar quotas raise the price of sugar; hence, domestically produced corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup are less expensive alternatives that are often used in American-made processed and mass-produced foods, candies, soft drinks and fruit drinks to help control cost.
Glucose syrup was the primary corn sweetener in the United States prior to the expanded use of high fructose corn syrup production. HFCS is a variant in which other enzymes are used to convert some of the glucose into fructose. The resulting syrup is sweeter and more soluble. Corn syrup is also available as a retail product. The best-known brand in the U.S. is “Karo”.
The Symphony No. 4 in C minor, D. 417, commonly called the Tragic (German: Tragische), was composed by Franz Schubert in April 1816. It was completed one year after the Third Symphony, when Schubert was 19 years old. However, the work was premiered only on November 19, 1849, in Leipzig, more than two decades after Schubert’s death.
The title Tragic is Schubert’s own. It was added to the autograph manuscript some time after the work was completed. It is not known exactly why he added the title, but the work is one of only two symphonies (the Unfinished Symphony is the other) which Schubert wrote in a minor key.
Ottorino Respighi (Italian: [ottoˈriːno resˈpiːɡi]; 9 July 1879 – 18 April 1936) was an Italian composer, musicologist and conductor. He is best known for his orchestral music, particularly the three Roman tone poems: Fountains of Rome (Fontane di Roma), Pines of Rome (I pini di Roma), and Roman Festivals (Feste romane). His musicological interest in 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century music led him to compose pieces based on the music of these periods. He also wrote a number of operas, the most famous of which is La fiamma.
The Piano Concerto No. 3 in C minor, Op. 37, was composed by Ludwig van Beethoven in 1800 and was first performed on 5 April 1803, with the composer as soloist. The year for which the concerto was composed (1800) has however been questioned by contemporary musicologists. It was published in 1804. During that same performance, the Second Symphony and the oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives were also premiered. The composition was dedicated to Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia. The first primary theme is reminiscent of that of Mozart’s 24th Piano Concerto.
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This movement is known to make forceful use of the theme (direct and indirect) throughout.
Orchestral exposition: In the orchestral exposition, the theme is introduced by the strings, and used throughout the movement. It is developed several times. In the third section (second subject), the clarinet introduces the second main theme, which is in the relative major key, E-flat major.
Second exposition: The piano enters with an ascending scale motif. The structure of the exposition in the piano solo is similar to that of the orchestral exposition.
Recapitulation: The orchestra restates the theme in fortissimo, with the wind instruments responding by building up a minor ninth chord as in the exposition. For the return of the second subject, Beethoven modulates to the tonic major, C major. A dark transition to the cadenza occurs, immediately switching from C major to C minor.
Cadenza: Beethoven wrote one cadenza for this movement. The cadenza Beethoven wrote is at times stormy and ends on a series of trills that calm down to pianissimo.
Coda: Beethoven subverts the expectation of a return to the tonic at the end of the cadenza by prolonging the final trill and eventually arriving on a dominant seventh. The piano plays a series of arpeggios before the music settles into the home key of C minor. Then the music intensifies before a full tutti occurs, followed by the piano playing descending arpeggios, the ascending scale from the second exposition, and finally a resolute ending on C.
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I saw almost nothing but empty pages; at the most, on one page or another a few Egyptian hieroglyphs wholly unintelligible to me were scribbled down to serve as clues for him; for he played nearly all the solo part from memory since, as was so often the case, he had not had time to set it all down on paper.
“There is so much pure goodness in it”
Antonín Dvořák‘s Serenade for Strings in E major (Czech: Smyčcová serenáda E dur), Op. 22, was composed in just two weeks in May 1875. It remains one of the composer’s more popular orchestral works to this day.
1875 was a fruitful year for Dvořák, during which he wrote his Symphony No. 5, String Quintet No. 2, Piano Trio No. 1, the opera Vanda, and the Moravian Duets. These were happy times in his life. His marriage was young, and his first son had been born. For the first time in his life, he was being recognized as a composer and without fear of poverty. He received a generous stipend from a commission in Vienna, which allowed him to compose his Fifth Symphony and several chamber works as well as the Serenade.
Dvořák is said to have written the Serenade in just 12 days, from 3–14 May. The piece was premiered in Prague on 10 December 1876 by Adolf Čech and the combined orchestras of the Czech and German theatres. It was published in 1877 in the composer’s piano duet arrangement by Emanuel Starý in Prague. The score was printed two years later by Bote and Bock, Berlin.
Dvořák’s Serenade for Strings consists of five movements:
With the exception of the Finale, which is in modified sonata form, each movement follows a rough A-B-A form. It is believed that Dvořák took up this small orchestral genre because it was less demanding than the symphony, but allowed for the provision of pleasure and entertainment. The piece combines cantabile style (first movement), a slow waltz (second movement), humorous high spirits (third movement), lyrical beauty (fourth movement) and exuberance (fifth movement).1
“The Serenade (Op. 22) was aptly entitled, since at least four of its five movements (the second of which was a delightful waltz) displayed an elegant touch suggestive of gracious living accompanied by ‘serenading’ in the stately home of some 18th-century aristocrat; in the finale alone did the composer discard periwig and lace cuffs, and even here the junketing, though lively, was well-bred, and in the closing moments there was a delicious return to the courtliness of the opening. Pastiche perhaps, but what excellent pastiche! Since Dvořák was as yet only on the threshold of developing an individual style, it is perhaps not surprising that this slightly uncharacteristic but extremely accomplished and enjoyable Serenade is the earliest of his compositions in which a detached listener is likely to discover enchantment.” (Gervase Hughes 1967)2
“Just like delivering good news to someone has a positive rub-off effect on the messenger, performing Dvořák’s Serenade is really a very therapeutic endeavor for performers. There is so much ‘pure goodness’ in it. Somehow even the moments which could cast a gloomy shadow — light melancholy of the Waltz, or the fragility of the opening of Larghetto — retain the wonderfully cloudless atmosphere… The remarkable thing about Dvořák’s Serenade – this ‘cloudless goodness’ is fully sufficient for sustaining meaningful communication for nearly half an hour of music.” (Misha Rachlevsky, 2000)
Schumann Kinderszenen Op 15 – Valentina Lisitsa Haskil Argerich Horowitz Bosendorfer
Kinderszenen (German pronunciation: [ˈkɪndɐˌst͡seːnən]; original spelling Kinderscenen, “Scenes from Childhood“), Opus 15, by Robert Schumann, is a set of thirteen pieces of music for piano written in 1838. In this work, Schumann provides us with his adult reminiscences of childhood. Schumann had originally written 30 movements for this work, but chose 13 for the final version. Robert Polansky has discussed the unused movements.
Nr. 7, Träumerei, is one of Schumann’s best known pieces; it was the title of a 1944 German biographical film on Robert Schumann. Träumerei is also the opening and closing musical theme in the 1947 Hollywood film Song of Love, starring Katharine Hepburn as Clara Wieck Schumann.
Schumann had originally labeled this work Leichte Stücke (Easy Pieces). Likewise, the section titles were only added after the completion of the music, and Schumann described the titles as “nothing more than delicate hints for execution and interpretation”. Timothy Taylor has discussed Schumann’s choice of titles for this work in the context of the changing situation of music in 19th century culture and economics.
In 1974, Eric Sams noted that there was no known complete manuscript of Kinderszenen
|1. Von fremden Ländern und Menschen
Of Foreign Lands and Peoples
|2. Kuriose Geschichte
A Curious Story
Blind Man’s Bluff
|4. Bittendes Kind
|5. Glückes genug
|6. Wichtige Begebenheit
An Important Event
|8. Am Kamin
At the Fireside
|9. Ritter vom Steckenpferd
Knight of the Hobbyhorse
|10. Fast zu ernst
Almost Too Serious
|12. Kind im Einschlummern
Child Falling Asleep
|13. Der Dichter spricht
The Poet Speaks
Janácek Philharmonic Orchestra, Theodore Kuchar
My Home (Czech: Domov můj, předehra ke hře F. F. Šamberka), Op. 62, B. 125a, is an overture in C major by Czech composer Antonín Dvořák. The overture was composed from December 1881 to January 23, 1882 as one of nine numbers comprising the incidental music for the play Josef Kajetán Tyl by František Ferdinand Šamberk. Dvořák constructed the music in sonata form on two song themes associated with the play’s protagonist, Czech dramatist Josef Kajetán Tyl: “Kde domov můj?” by František Škroup, and the folk tune “Na tom našem dvoře”. Škroup composed “Kde domov můj?” (Where is my home?) in 1834 to a text written by Tyl. The song quickly became popular and was later designated as the Czech national anthem. “Na tom našem dvoře” was a song sung in productions of Strakonický dudák (The Bagpiper of Strakonice), one of Tyl’s most popular plays. The overture is largely performed separately as a concert work, usually lasting about ten minutes. Many conductors have conducted this piece including Jan Kučera, Bohumil Gregor and Karel Ančerl.
Camille Saint-Saëns composed his Cello Concerto No. 1 in A minor, Op. 33 in 1872, when the composer was 37 years old. He wrote this work for the Belgian cellist, viola de gamba player and instrument maker Auguste Tolbecque. Tolbecque was part of a distinguished family of musicians closely associated with the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, France’s leading concert society. The concerto was first performed on January 19, 1873 at a conservatoire concert with Tolbecque as soloist. This was considered a mark of Saint-Saëns’ growing acceptance by the French musical establishment.
Sir Donald Francis Tovey later wrote “Here, for once, is a violoncello concerto in which the solo instrument displays every register without the slightest difficulty in penetrating the orchestra.” Many composers, including Shostakovich and Rachmaninoff, considered this concerto to be the greatest of all cello concertos.
The work can be split into three different sections as follows:
Saint-Saëns very often uses the solo cello here as a declamatory instrument. This keeps the soloist in the dramatic and musical foreground, the orchestra offering a shimmering backdrop. The music is tremendously demanding for soloists, especially in the fast third section. This difficulty has not stopped the concerto from becoming a favourite of the great virtuoso cellists.
Gunpowder tea (珠茶; pinyin: zhū chá) is a form of green Chinese tea produced in Zhejiang Province of China in which each leaf has been rolled into a small round pellet. It is believed to take its English name from the fact that the tea resembles grains of black powder. This rolling method of shaping tea is most often applied either to dried green tea (the most commonly encountered variety outside China) or Oolong tea.
|Other names:||Lo Chu Ch’a, Zhu Cha, 珠茶|
|Origin:||Zhejiang Province China and others|
|Quick description:||Popular worldwide. Flavor varies according to the growing location of tea used for production|
Gunpowder tea production dates back to the Tang Dynasty 618–907. It was first introduced to Taiwan in the 19th century. Gunpowder tea leaves are withered, steamed, rolled, and then dried. Although the individual leaves were formerly rolled by hand, today most gunpowder tea is rolled by machines (though the highest grades are still rolled by hand). Rolling renders the leaves less susceptible to physical damage and breakage and allows them to retain more of their flavor and aroma. In addition, it allows certain types of oolong teas to be aged for decades if they are cared for by being occasionally roasted.
When buying gunpowder tea it is important to look for shiny pellets, which indicate that the tea is relatively fresh. Pellet size is also associated with quality, larger pellets being considered a mark of lower quality tea. High quality gunpowder tea will have small, tightly rolled pellets.
When sold as a variety of tea, gunpowder tea has several varieties:
The origin of the English term may come from the tea’s similarity in appearance to actual gunpowder: greyish, dark pellets of irregular shape used as explosive propellant for early guns. The name may also have arisen from the fact that the grey-green leaf is tightly rolled into a tiny pellet and “explodes” into a long leaf upon being steeped in hot water. Another explanation is that the tea can also have a smoky flavor.
While brewing methods vary widely by tea and individual preferences, 1 teaspoon of looseleaf tea is recommended for every 150ml (5.07 oz) of water. Ideal water temperature for this type of tea is between 70 °C (158 °F) to 80 °C (176 °F). For the first and second brewing, leaves should be steeped for around one minute. It is also recommended that the tea cup or tea pot used should be rinsed with hot water prior to brewing the tea to warm the vessels. When brewed, gunpowder tea is a yellow color.
The flavor of brewed gunpowder tea is often described as thick and strong like a soft honey, but with a smokey flavor and an aftertaste that is slightly coppery. This type of tea is often seen as having a flavor that is somewhat grassy, minty, or peppery.
Gunpowder tea is exported to the Maghreb where it is used in the preparation of traditional North African mint tea. The Moroccan tea ritual is at the heart of any social gathering, from an informal visit to a neighbour to lavish soirees with dignitaries. A minimum of two cups need to be drunk so as not to offend the host. Moroccan mint tea is made by adding mint and sugar or honey to gunpowder tea after brewing.
|Juan Crisóstomo Jacobo Antonio de Arriaga y Balzola|
Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga
|Born||January 27, 1806
|Died||January 17, 1826 (aged 19)
|Parents||Juan Simón de Arriaga|
Juan Crisóstomo Jacobo Antonio de Arriaga y Balzola (January 27, 1806 – January 17, 1826) was a Spanish composer. He was nicknamed “the Spanish Mozart” after he died, because, like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, he was both a child prodigy and an accomplished composer who died young. They also shared the same first and second baptismal names; and they shared the same birthday, January 27 (fifty years apart).
|Symphony No. 8|
|by Antonín Dvořák|
Title page of the autograph score
|Composed||26 August 1889 – 8 November 1889 – Vysoká u Příbramě|
|Dedication||Bohemian Academy of Science, Literature and Arts|
|Date||2 February 1890|
|Performers||Orchestra of the National Theatre|
The Symphony No. 8 in G major, Op. 88, B. 163, is a symphony by Antonín Dvořák, composed in 1889 at Vysoká u Příbramě, Bohemia, on the occasion of his election to the Bohemian Academy of Science, Literature and Arts. Dvořák conducted the premiere in Prague on 2 February 1890. In contrast to other symphonies of both the composer and the period, the music is cheerful and optimistic
The symphony is in four movements:
The orchestration of piccolo and English Horn is unusual in this symphony. The piccolo only sustains a long note in unison with the flute at the exposition of the 1st movement and the English Horn only plays a short, but exposed phrase during the second recapitulation of the main “bird call” theme, also in the 1st movement. In some editions the 2nd oboe doubles on English horn rather than the 1st oboe as indicated in most scores.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
Symphony No.29 in A major, K.201
Festspielhaus, Salzburg, 28 1/2000
The Symphony No. 29 in A major, K. 201/186a, was completed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart on 6 April 1774. It is, along with Symphony No. 25, one of his better known early symphonies. Stanley Sadie characterizes it as “a landmark … personal in tone, indeed perhaps more individual in its combination of an intimate, chamber music style with a still fiery and impulsive manner.”
There are four movements:
The first movement is in sonata form, with a graceful principal theme characterized by an octave drop and ambitious horn passages. The second movement is scored for muted strings with limited use of the winds, and is also in sonata form. The third movement, a minuet, is characterized by nervous dotted rhythms and staccato phrases; the trio provides a more graceful contrast. The energetic last movement, another sonata-form movement in 6/8 time, connects back to the first movement with its octave drop in the main theme.
|If It’s Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium|
|Directed by||Mel Stuart|
|Produced by||Stan Margulies & David L. Wolper|
|Written by||David Shaw|
|Music by||Walter Scharf|
|Editing by||David Saxon|
|Distributed by||United Artists|
|Running time||99 min|
If It’s Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium is a 1969 romantic comedy film made by Wolper Pictures and released by United Artists. It was directed by Mel Stuart, filmed on location throughout Europe, and features many cameo appearances from various stars.
The title, also used by a 1965 documentary on CBS television that filmed one such tour, was taken from a New Yorker cartoon by Leonard Dove. Published in the June 22, 1957, issue of the magazine, the cartoon depicts a young woman near a tour bus and a campanile, frustratedly exclaiming “But if it’s Tuesday, it _has_ to be Siena.”, thereby humorously illustrating the whirlwind nature of European tour schedules. This concept formed the premise of the film’s plot.
Charlie (Ian McShane) is an English tour guide who takes groups of Americans on whirlwind 18-day sightseeing tours of Europe. Among his various clients on his latest trip are Samantha (Suzanne Pleshette) with whom he wants to have an affair; a man who desires a pair of custom-made Italian shoes from a certain cobbler in Rome; and a vet who is reliving his World War II experiences.
The film also has cameo appearances by Senta Berger, John Cassavetes, Joan Collins, Vittorio De Sica, Anita Ekberg, Ben Gazzara, Virna Lisi, Elsa Martinelli, Catherine Spaak and Robert Vaughn. Folk singer Donovan makes a guest appearance in the film singing Lord of the Reedy River, which he had also written. He also wrote the film’s title song, performed by J.P. Rags. J.P. Rags is a pseudonym for Douglas Cox. The then current Miss Belgium, Sonya Doumen, also appears.
The film earned estimated rentals of $3 million in North America during its initial run.
Brominated vegetable oil (BVO) is a mixture of complex plant-derived triglycerides which have been brominated. Brominated vegetable oil is used primarily to help emulsify citrus-flavored soft drinks, preventing them from separating during distribution. Brominated vegetable oil has been used by the soft drink industry since 1931, generally at a level of about 8 ppm.
Careful control of the type of oil used allows bromination of it to produce BVO with a specific density (1.33 g/mL). As a result, it can be mixed with less-dense flavoring agents such as citrus flavor oil to produce a resulting oil whose density matches that of water or other products. The droplets containing BVO remain suspended in the water rather than separating and floating at the surface.
In the United States, BVO was designated in 1958 as generally recognized as safe (GRAS), but this was withdrawn by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1970. The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations currently imposes restrictions on the use of BVO as a food additive in the United States, limiting the concentration to 15 ppm, limiting the amount of free fatty acids to 2.5 percent, and limiting the iodine value to 16. BVO is used in Mountain Dew, manufactured by PepsiCo; Powerade, Fanta Orange and Fresca made by Coca-Cola; and Squirt, Sun Drop and Sunkist Peach Soda, made by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group.
BVO is currently permitted as a food additive in Canada.
The use of BVO as a food additive has been banned in Japan since 2010.
The United States Food and Drug Administration considers BVO to be safe for use as a food additive. However, there are case reports of adverse effects associated with excessive consumption of BVO-containing products. One case reported that a man who consumed two to four liters of a soda containing BVO on a daily basis experienced memory loss, tremors, fatigue, loss of muscle coordination, headache, and ptosis of the right eyelid, as well as elevated serum chloride. In the two months it took to correctly diagnose the problem, the patient also lost the ability to walk. Eventually, bromism was diagnosed and hemodialysis was prescribed which resulted in a reversal of the disorder. However, there was no evidence that the symptoms were caused by that particular ingredient. 
An online petition at Change.org asking PepsiCo to stop adding BVO to Gatorade and other products collected over 200,000 signatures by January 2013. The petition pointed out that since Gatorade is sold in countries where BVO is not approved, there is already an existing formulation without this ingredient. PepsiCo announced in January 2013 that it would no longer use BVO in Gatorade, and announced May 5, 2014 that it would discontinue use in all of its drinks, including Mountain Dew.
As of May 5, 2014 Coca-Cola is dropping this controversial ingredient from its Powerade sports drink, after a similar move by PepsiCo’s Gatorade last year.
Composed in 1821.
The Piano Sonata No. 31 in A-flat major, Op. 110, by Ludwig van Beethoven was composed in 1821. It is the central piano sonata in the group of three opp. 109–111 which he wrote between 1820 and 1822, and the thirty-first of his published piano sonatas.
The sonata is in three movements. The moderato first movement in sonata form, marked con amabilità, is followed by a fast scherzo. The finale comprises a slow recitative and arioso dolente, a fugue, a return of the arioso lament, and a second fugue that builds to an affirmative conclusion.
In the summer of 1819 Moritz Schlesinger, from the Schlesinger firm of music publishers based in Berlin, met Beethoven and asked to purchase some compositions. After some negotiation by letter, and despite the publisher’s qualms about Beethoven’s retaining the rights for publication in England and Scotland, Schlesinger agreed to purchase 25 songs for 60 ducats and three piano sonatas at 90 ducats (Beethoven had originally asked 120 ducats for the sonatas). In May 1820 Beethoven agreed, the songs (op. 108) already being available, and he undertook to deliver the sonatas within three months. These three sonatas are the ones now known as opp. 109–111.
Beethoven was prevented from completing all three of the promised sonatas on schedule by factors including an attack of jaundice; Op. 109 was completed and delivered in 1820, but correspondence shows that Op. 110 was still not ready by the middle of December 1821, and the completed autograph score bears the date December 25, 1821. Presumably the sonata was delivered shortly thereafter, since Beethoven was paid the 30 ducats for this sonata in January 1822.
Alfred Brendel characterizes the main themes of the sonata as all derived from the hexachord – the first six notes of the diatonic scale – and the intervals of the third and fourth that divide it. He also points out that contrary motion is a feature of much of the work, particularly prominent in the scherzo second movement.
Poème, Op. 25, is a work for violin and orchestra written by Ernest Chausson in 1896. It is a staple of the violinist’s repertoire, has very often been recorded and performed, and is generally considered Chausson’s best-known and most-loved composition.
Poème was written in response to a request from Eugène Ysaÿe for a violin concerto. Chausson felt unequal to the task of a concerto, writing to Ysaÿe: I hardly know where to begin with a concerto, which is a huge undertaking, the devil’s own task. But I can cope with a shorter work. It will be in very free form with several passages in which the violin plays alone.
He wrote three different versions of Poème: with orchestra; with piano accompaniment (later rewritten by other hands); and a recently discovered version for violin, string quartet and piano, a companion to his Concert in D for piano, violin and string quartet, Op. 21 (1892). The solo violin parts of these versions are identical except for one minor detail.
The work is notionally in the key of E-flat, and lasts about 16 minutes. It was dedicated to Ysaÿe, who gave its early performances.
Chausson initially called it Le Chant de l’amour triomphant, then changed it to Poème symphonique, and finally to simply Poème. The first two rejected titles are crossed out on the extant manuscripts.
The original title came from the 1881 romantic novella The Song of Love Triumphant (Le Chant de l’amour triomphant; Песнь торжествующей любви) by the Russian writer Ivan Turgenev, who lived on the estate of the famed mezzo-soprano Pauline Viardot and her husband near Paris; all three were acquaintances of Chausson’s. The Viardots’ daughter Marianne was engaged for some time to Gabriel Fauré, but broke it off and instead married Alphonse Duvernoy. Turgenev’s novella seems to mirror this set of relationships, and it may be that Chausson initially attempted to portray it in music. However, it is clear his final intention was to create a work without extra-musical associations.
In the autumn of 1896, Eugène Ysaÿe, Ernest Chausson and their wives were holidaying at Sitges on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. At a party hosted by the Catalan painter Santiago Rusiñol, Ysaÿe and Chausson’s wife on piano gave an impromptu sight-read performance of Poème; local townspeople who overheard it demanded it be encored three times. Present at the party were Enrique Granados and possibly Isaac Albéniz.
Poème’s formal premiere was at the Nancy Conservatoire on 27 December 1896, conducted by Guy Ropartz, with Ysaÿe as soloist. But it was not really noticed until Ysaÿe gave the Paris premiere, at a Colonne Concert on 4 April 1897. Chausson was overcome by the sustained applause, something he had not experienced in his career to that point.
David Ohanesian (n. 6 ianuarie 1927, București – d. 30 septembrie 2007, București) a fost un bariton român care, alături de Octav Enigărescu și Nicolae Herlea, a făcut parte din triada de aur a celor mai mari baritoni ai României.
În decursul carierei sale artistice a jucat în peste 2.000 de spectacole de operă, interpretând peste 40 de roluri și primind numeroase premii și distincții. A cântat pe marile scene ale lumii, alături de alți mari interpreți ca Luciano Pavarotti, Montserrat Caballe, Placido Domingo, Leontyne Price sau Birgit Nilsson. A rămas memorabilă interpretarea sa în rolul Oedip, din opera cu același nume de