Tag Archives: World War II

this pressed: Nicola Tesla Portrait — Historical Pics


today’s holiday : Ochi Day


Ochi Day

Ochi Day is a national holiday in Greece, commemorating the day during World War II when Greeks said “ochi” (“no”) to an attempted incursion ordered by Italy‘s fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini. On October 28, 1940, the Italian ambassador to Greece called on General Ioannis Metaxas, the prime minister, to demand that Italian troops be allowed to occupy areas in Greece. Metaxas curtly responded, “Ochi.” The Italians invaded, but were routed by the Greeks. Ochi Day is observed in Greece with military and school parades; it is also a public holiday celebrated in Cyprus with parades. More… Discuss

“We can judge the heart of a man by his treatment of animals” — Immanuel Kant— ✍ Bibliophilia


What I like most about elephants is that they don’t play mind games… (no, not those elephants though) —George-B

today’s holiday: Angam Day


Angam Day

Nauru is an island in the Pacific, about 2,200 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia, and 2,400 miles southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii. Over the past 100 years, the existence of Nauruans has been threatened a number of times—by tribal disputes in the 1870s and by an influenza epidemic in 1919. During World War II, two-thirds of the population were deported by the Japanese to the Caroline Islands to build airstrips. Angam (“hope”) Day on October 26 commemorates the various occasions when the Nauruan population has reached 1,500, considered the minimum number necessary for survival. More… Discuss

word: quaff


quaff 

Definition: (verb) To swallow hurriedly or greedily or in one draught.
Synonyms: gulp, swig
Usage: Recently returned to port, the sailors quaffed their ale with gusto. Discuss.

The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League


The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League

With the vast majority of able-bodied American men away fighting in World War II, baseball executives looked for new ways to keep the sport in the public eye. They hit upon the idea of forming a new professional league composed of women and decided to give it a try. Formed in 1943, the league lasted past the end of the war into 1954. It differed from the men’s league in pitching style, the size of the diamond and of the ball, and the fact that spring training included classes in what subject? More… Discuss

Bubble Gum


Bubble Gum

English: Bazooka gum

English: Bazooka gum (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chewing gum has been around for millennia, making bubble gum a comparatively recent invention. The first bubble gum formulation—an unmarketable, sticky confection called Blibber-Blubber—was developed in 1906 by Frank Fleer. Twenty-two years later, Fleer employee Walter Diemer developed the first commercially successful bubble gum, Dubble Bubble. Its first competitor, the Topps Company‘s Bazooka, arrived on the market after World War II. How did bubble gum acquire its now-iconic pink color? More… Discuss

Story: Brandenburg Gate


Brandenburg Gate

The Brandenburg Gate is the last surviving town gate of Berlin, Germany. When completed in 1791, the lavish gate greeted visitors to the boulevard that led directly to the Prussian palace. Architect Carl G. Langhans modeled the gate after the Propylea, the gateway to the Acropolis in Athens. On top was the “Quadriga of Victory,” a statue of a chariot drawn by four horses. Heavily damaged in World War II, the gate was restored in 1957. Why was it closed in 1961, and when did it reopen? More… Discuss

today’s holiday: Malta Independence Day


Malta Independence Day

This is a nationwide celebration of Malta’s independence, achieved on September 21, 1964. Malta was under the control of various political entities from its earliest days. In the early 19th century, the Maltese acknowledged Great Britain’s sovereignty. Malta’s heroic stand against the Axis in World War II won a declaration that self-government would be restored at the end of the war, and indeed self-government under another constitution was granted in 1947. It was revoked and restored before independence was finally granted. Independence Day is celebrated with parades and festivities throughout the country. More… Discuss

today’s birthday: Mika Waltari (1908)


Mika Waltari (1908)

Finnish author Mika Waltari is best known for his 1945 historical novel The Egyptian, which is set during the reign of the Pharaoh Akhenaten and was hailed by Egyptologists for its accuracy in describing ancient Egyptian life. The themes explored in the book struck a chord with readers in the aftermath of World War II, and it became an international bestseller, serving as the basis for the 1954 Hollywood movie of the same name. Where—and when—are some of his other historical novels set? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Churchill Proposes Creation of Council of Europe (1946)


Churchill Proposes Creation of Council of Europe (1946)

After World War II, a strong revulsion to national rivalries developed in Europe. Speaking at the University of Zurich on September 19, 1946, Winston Churchill urged European states to establish a “United States of Europe,” and his speech helped spur the creation of the Council of Europe in 1949. The Council works to promote unity between its members, defend human rights, and increase social and economic progress. Today, it has 47 member nations. Which European states have not joined? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Federation of Malaysia Created (1963)


Federation of Malaysia Created (1963)

The Japanese occupation of the Malayan region during World War II weakened British influence there and unleashed anti-colonial, Malayan nationalism. With the help of the Chinese, the Malayan Communist Party grew stronger, fought the Japanese occupation, and threatened British interests. In response, the British established the multi-ethnic Federation of Malaya in 1948 as a part of a wider anti-communist plan. In 1963, “Malaya” became “Malaysia” with the acquisition of what territories? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Two Plus Four Agreement Signed in Moscow (1990)


Two Plus Four Agreement Signed in Moscow (1990)

The Two Plus Four Agreement, also known as the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, was the final peace treaty negotiated between West Germany and East Germany—the “Two”—and the four powers that occupied Germany at the end of World War II: France, the UK, the US, and the Soviet Union. The treaty paved the way for the German reunification, which took place less than a month later, on October 3. What rights did the four powers renounce under the treaty’s terms? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: First V-2 Rocket Hits London (1944)


First V-2 Rocket Hits London (1944)

Developed by Germany during World War II, the Vergeltungswaffe 2 (V-2) rocket was the world’s first modern ballistic missile and the first known manmade object to enter outer space. Thousands were launched on Allied targets during the last year of the war, causing more than 9,000 deaths. One of the rocket’s first targets was London, which was hit just days after Hitler declared his plans to start V-2 attacks. To what did the British government initially attribute the resulting explosion? More… Discuss

today’s birthday: Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533)


Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533)

Queen Elizabeth, England‘s last Tudor monarch, came to the throne during a turbulent period in the nation’s history. Although she has been described as vain, miserly, and fickle, she was remarkably successful as queen. During her reign, England pursued a policy of expansionism in commerce and geographical exploration, defeating the Spanish Armada and becoming a major world power. Literature and the arts flourished during the period as well. To whom was the Queen married? More… Discuss

today’s holiday: Taiwan Armed Forces Day


Taiwan Armed Forces Day

Founded in 1955, Armed Forces Day in Taiwan honors the country’s military and celebrates their victory over the Japanese in World War II (called the War of Resistance in Taiwan). The day is marked by military parades featuring special units chosen for their precision and outstanding performance. A troop-cheering by the onlookers is part of the celebration, as are educational activities covering the history of the war period and the role of the Taiwanese military in defeating the enemy. The day is also marked by the members of the armed forces having a rare day off from work. More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Kellogg-Briand Pact Signed (1928)


Kellogg-Briand Pact Signed (1928)

The Kellogg-Briand Pact was an agreement between the US and France to renounce war and seek settlement of disputes by peaceful means. It took its name from US Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. Sixty other nations ultimately ratified the pact, but it made no provision for measures against aggressors and proved ineffective, especially given the practice of waging undeclared wars in the 1930s. What role did it play in the Nuremberg Trials? More… Discuss

‘The Mundaneum, is an archive with more than 12 million index cards, created in 1910. (Bibliophilia (@Libroantiguo) August 24, 2014)


today’s birthday: Salvador Luria (1912)


Salvador Luria (1912)

Luria was an Italian biologist who began his career in Paris studying the effects of radiation on bacteriophages—viruses that infect bacteria. After immigrating to the US during World War II, he started using bacteriophages to study such fundamental life processes as self-replication and mutation, along with Alfred Hershey and Max Delbrück. For their efforts, the three biologists shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in physiology. What famous scientific breakthrough came from one of Luria’s students? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: The Watts Riots Begin (1965)


The Watts Riots Begin (1965)

As Los Angeles, California, became a hub for the production of munitions and supplies during World War II, thousands of African Americans moved to the city to work. Massive suburban growth in Los Angeles after the war, however, created or exacerbated a variety of urban problems. In 1965, the African-American community of Watts was the site of six days of race rioting that left 34 people dead and caused extensive property damage. What happened on the evening of August 11 to trigger the riots? More… Discuss

The Cannes Film Festival


The Cannes Film Festival

This prestigious international film festival is held annually in Cannes, France. It takes place at the Palais des Festivals, and its most illustrious award is the Palme d’Or—meaning “Golden Palm“—for the best film. First held in 1946, the festival marked a resurgence for the film industry, which had been shattered by World War II, and became a meeting place for those interested in the art and influence of the movies. Why wasn’t the festival held in either 1948 or 1950? More… Discuss

David Oistrakh plays Kodaly Three Hungarian Dances 1954 (great compositions/performances)


David Oistrakh plays Kodaly Three Hungarian Dances 1954

David Oistrakh (1908-1974), Russian violinist

Zoltan Kodaly (1882-1967)
Drei Ungarische Tanze (Three Hungarian Dances)

Naum Walter, piano

Recorded in 1954

Aaron Copland. The Red Pony. Dream March and Circus Music. New Philharmonia (make music part of your life series)


Aaron Copland. The Red Pony. Dream March and Circus Music. New Philharmonia

Dream march and circus music from: “The Red Pony” – Suite from the film by the american composer Aaron Copland (1900-1990) performed by the New Philharmonia Orchestra conducted by the composer.

this day in the yesteryear: Adolf Hitler Publishes First Volume of Mein Kampf (1925)


Adolf Hitler Publishes First Volume of Mein Kampf (1925)

Hitler dictated his manifesto, whose title means “my struggle,” while serving a prison term for treason. The book, filled with anti-Semitic outpourings, political ideology, and strategy for world domination, became the bible of National Socialism. By the end of WWII, about 10 million copies of the book had been sold or distributed in Germany—owing much to the fact that every newlywed couple and every soldier at the battlefront received a free copy. Where is it illegal to sell copies of the book? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Medal of Honor Authorized by US Congress (1862)


Medal of Honor Authorized by US Congress (1862)

The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the US. It is presented by the president for “gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of…life above and beyond the call of duty” while engaged in an action against an enemy. Members of all branches of the US military are eligible to receive the medal, but each branch has its own special design. The Philadelphia Mint designed the medal, which was first awarded during the Civil War. How many soldiers have received the medal twice? More… Discuss

Refugee Numbers Highest Since World War II (51, 000, 000 people forced to leave their homes: shame on the world leaders and ONU!)


Refugee Numbers Highest Since
World War II

The number of refugees worldwide has risen to levels not seen since World War II. There are an estimated 51.2 million people now displaced from their homes by conflict and persecution. Of these, 6.3 million have been living in “protracted” refugee situations, meaning they have been refugees for years, even decades. The surge in refugees is straining available resources and destabilizing some of the countries to which they have fled. More… Discuss

today’s birthday: Jean Moulin (1899)


Jean Moulin (1899)

Jean Moulin was a high-profile member of the French resistance during World War II. At Charles de Gaulle‘s

Logo Résistance française (Jean Moulin et Croi...

Logo Résistance française (Jean Moulin et Croix de Lorraine) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

bidding, he formed the National Council of the Resistance, which coordinated the actions of the different groups that made up the Resistance. A day after his birthday in 1943, he was captured and tortured by the Gestapo and died soon after. He is remembered as a symbol of civic virtues, moral rectitude, and patriotism. Why is Moulin often depicted wearing a scarf around his neck? More… Discuss

Richard Strauss – Metamorphosen, für 23 Streicher, Staatskapelle Dresden, Rudolf Kempe (1973): In Memoriam!


Richard Strauss – Metamorphosen, für 23 Streicher, Staatskapelle Dresden, Rudolf Kempe (1973)

Dresden WWII bombing pre- and after pictures (English) 

View of the city, aka Florence of the north.
After the bombing.
View of the city, aka Florence of the north. After the bombing.
Sophie-Church, as it looked before.
It's never been rebuild.
Sophie-Church, as it looked before. It’s never been rebuild.
Church of our Lady.
Collapsed later due to heavy destruction.
Church of our Lady. Collapsed later due to heavy destruction.
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Meissen chime at the Zwinger
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this day in the yesteryear: D-Day: The Allies Land on Normandy Beaches (1944)


D-Day: The Allies Land on Normandy Beaches (1944)

The Battle of Normandy during World War II was fought between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allied armies. More than 156,000 troops crossed the English Channel during the initial invasion, which remains the largest amphibious landing in history. The campaign continued for more than two months and concluded with the liberation of Paris. Of the Allies’ five landing points, Omaha Beach proved to be the most deadly. How many troops were killed there that day? More… Discuss

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historic musical momants: Ravel plays Ravel – Valses Nobles et Sentimentales (1913 Welte Mignon Recording)


Ravel plays Ravel – Valses Nobles et Sentimentales (1913 Welte Mignon Recording)

An excellent reproduction of Ravel’s 1913 Welte Mignon reproducing piano recording. This recording is free of the tempo hiccups and pedaling errors which hackneyed previous releases. The mechanism of the Welte Mignon reproducing piano system is not fully understood, as the inner workings of the units were a heavily guarded secret. There are no known Welte Mignon recording units still in existence. There were very few to begin with, and all were either dismantled or destroyed during World War II.

Special thanks to Professor Anatole Leikin of the University of California, Santa Cruz for recommending this fantastic recording and taking time to answer my questions about reproducing pianos. Be sure to pick up Professor Leikin’s fantastic new book, “The Performing Style of Alexander Scriabin” in which he explores the nuances of this unique composer’s performing style in the broader context of Romantic performance practice. Follow the link below to purchase this wonderful book!

Link to book:
http://www.amazon.com/The-Performing-…

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this day in the yesteryear: Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of England (1953)


Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of England (1953)

Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, is the elder daughter and successor of George VI. At age 18, she was made a state counsellor, a confidante of the King. During World War II, she trained as a second lieutenant in the women’s services. In 1947, she married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh. They were in Kenya when the King died and Elizabeth succeeded to the throne. Her coronation was the first to be televised. Elizabeth is Britain’s second-longest reigning monarch. Who is the first? More… Discuss

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TODAY’S BIRTHDAY: Ho Chi Minh (1890)


Ho Chi Minh (1890)

Ho was a Vietnamese nationalist leader, president of North Vietnam, and one of the most influential political leaders of the 20th century. Near the end of World War I, he went to France and became a founding member of the French Communist Party. He studied revolutionary tactics in Moscow and organized revolutionaries in Indochina. During World War II, Ho returned to Vietnam and declared it a republic. Why was news of his death in 1969 initially withheld from the North Vietnamese people? More… Discuss

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this day in the yesteryear: J. Edgar Hoover Appointed Director of FBI (1924)


J. Edgar Hoover Appointed Director of FBI (1924)

As FBI director from 1924 until his death in 1972, Hoover built a more efficient crime-fighting agency and established a centralized fingerprint file, a crime laboratory, and a training school for police. After World War II, he turned to the perceived threat of Communist subversion with a focus that his many critics considered obsessive. It has been verified that he orchestrated systematic harassment of political dissenters and activists, including what celebrated civil-rights leader? More… Discuss

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THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: POST-WAR JAPANESE CONSTITUTION GOES INTO EFFECT (1947)


Post-War Japanese Constitution Goes into Effect (1947)

The Constitution of Japan was drawn up under the Allied occupation that followed World War II. It replaced Japan‘s previous imperial system with a form of liberal democracy, which provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees human rights. Under its terms, Japan renounces the right to wage war, and the emperor exercises a purely ceremonial role, with the prime minister acting as the head of government. What amendments have been made to the constitution since its adoption? More… Discuss

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TODAY’S BIRTHDAY: JOACHIM VON RIBBENTROP (1893)


Joachim von Ribbentrop (1893)

Ribbentrop was Nazi Germany’s foreign minister from 1938 until 1945, during which time he helped negotiate the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 1939, which set the stage for Germany‘s attack on Poland that touched off World War II. He, like so many other Nazi officials, was an active participant in the “Final Solution” and various other atrocities and was one of the few who paid with his life at Nuremberg, where he was tried, convicted, and hanged for his war crimes. What were his last words? More…Discuss

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THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: “BRITISH BANG” ON GERMAN ARCHIPELAGO (1947)


“British Bang” on German Archipelago (1947)

Heligoland is a pair of small German islands located in the North Sea, comprising the main island and the smaller island of Düne. The main island is commonly divided into three geographic sections, the last of which came into being in 1947, when the British Royal Navy detonated 6,700 tonnes of explosives on the island, actually changing its shape. The so-called British Bang was one of the largest non-nuclear single detonations in history. Why did the British bomb the island? More… Discuss

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TODAY’S BIRTHDAY: ROD STEIGER (1925)


Rod Steiger (1925)

American actor Rod Steiger got his start in the 1950s and quickly made a name for himself in Hollywood. Over the course of the next five decades, he appeared in dozens of motion pictures. He was thrice nominated for an Academy Award and won once—for his portrayal of Sheriff Bill Gillespie in In the Heat of the Night. As a teen, Steiger ran away from home to join the US Navy during World War II, but later his refusal to glorify war led him to turn down the title role in what film? More… Discuss

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THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: HARRY TRUMAN BECOMES 33RD PRESIDENT OF THE US (1945)


Harry Truman Becomes 33rd President of the US (1945)

Truman was the 33rd president of the US. He is remembered for authorizing the use of atomic bombs against Japan and for his opposition to Communism. A Democrat who largely accepted the New Deal tradition, he presided over victory in World War II and the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe. His administration also oversaw the beginning of the Cold War and the desegregation of the US armed forces. What famous headline ran in the Chicago Tribune the day after Truman won his second term? More… Discuss

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TODAY’S HOLIDAY: BATAAN DAY


Bataan Day

This is a national legal holiday in the Philippines, in commemoration of the disastrous World War II Battle of Bataan in 1942, in which the Philippines fell to the Japanese. It is also known as Araw ng Kagitingan, or Heroes Day. Also remembered on this date are the 37,000 U.S. and Filipino soldiers who were captured, and the thousands who died during the infamous 70-mile “death march” from Mariveles to a Japanese concentration camp inland at San Fernando. Ceremonies are held at Mt. Samat Shrine, the site of side-by-side fighting by Filipino and American troopsMore… Discuss

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THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: HOSTESS TWINKIES ARE INVENTED (1930)


Hostess Twinkies Are Invented (1930)

The Twinkie was invented by baker James Dewar, who noticed that the shop’s shortcake pans were only used during the strawberry season and otherwise sat idle. His thrifty idea to use the pans during the off-season led to the development of the banana-filled Twinkie snack cake. During a World War II banana shortage, vanilla filling replaced the original banana. Twinkies disappeared from US shelves in 2012 when Hostess declared bankruptcy but returned in 2013. What is the “Twinkie defense”? More… Discuss

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NEWS: WORLD WAR II STILL CLAIMING LIVES


World War II Still Claiming Lives

At least seven people were killed and 19 others injured when a World War II-era bomb detonated in a scrap metal warehouse in Bangkok, Thailand. The 500-lb (227-kg) bomb had been found by construction workers, who assumed it was inactive and sold it for scrap. When warehouse workers attempted to disassemble the bomb using a blowtorch, it exploded with devastating effect. This incident serves as a tragic reminder of the dangers posed by unexploded munitions and the need to call in experts any time such a device is found. More… Discuss

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TODAY’S BIRTHDAY: WILLIAM MANCHESTER (1922)


William Manchester (1922)

Manchester, an American historian, biographer, and bestselling author, published 18 books during his lifetime, including three popular volumes on US president John F. Kennedy. His writings have been translated into multiple languages. He served as a Marine during World War II, and his wartime experiences formed the basis for Goodbye, Darkness: A Memoir of the Pacific War. Why did Jacqueline Kennedy file a lawsuit to prevent the publication of Manchester’s The Death of a PresidentMore… Discuss

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THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: FAEROE ISLANDS GAIN HOME RULE (1948)


Faeroe Islands Gain Home Rule (1948)

The Faeroe Islands are a group of volcanic islands first settled by Irish monks circa 700 CE and colonized by Vikings about a century later. Since 1380, the islands have been under Danish rule. After World War II, the Faeroese sought independence, but the Danish king blocked any chance of this by dissolving the Faeroese parliament following a 1946 referendum in which residents voted for independence. Two years later, they were granted self-government. Where in the world are the Faeroe Islands? More… Discuss

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TODAY’S HOLIDAY: MYANMAR ARMED FORCES DAY


Myanmar Armed Forces Day

Throughout most of the 1800s, the Union of Myanmar, known as Burma until 1989, was ruled by the British.Aung San, an outspoken student leader, helped the Japanese oust the British, and the Japanese ruled Burma from 1942 until 1945. On March 27, 1945, he helped the World War II Allied forces remove the Japanese from power. Myanmar celebrates Armed Forces Day on March 27 to commemorate the day that Aung San rebelled against the Japanese. The day is celebrated with a military parade and fireworks. Since 1989, the Tatmadaw has made it a tradition to pardon several prisoners on this day. More… Discuss

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ARTICLE: THE LEANING TOWER OF PISA


The Leaning Tower of Pisa

In 1173, construction began on the final building of the cathedral complex in Pisa, Italy. The bell tower was designed to stand 185 feet (56 m) tall, but uneven settling of its foundation caused its 5.5-degree lean. Work was suspended several times, but the structure was still leaning upon completion in the 14th century. The tower’s tilt only worsened over time, prompting a recent strengthening project to prevent collapse. How did the tower narrowly escape destruction during World War II? More… Discuss

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THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: JAPAN ATTACKS AUSTRALIA (1942)


Japan Attacks Australia (1942)

In aviation’s early days, the pearling port of Broome in Western Australia served as a refueling point for planes flying between the Dutch East Indies—now Indonesia—and inland Australia. Therefore, when Japan invaded Java during World War II, the Allied evacuation route for Dutch refugees included a stop in Broome. On March 3, 1942, Japanese fighter planes attacked Broome, destroying upwards of 20 Allied aircraft, some of which were loaded with refugees at the time. How many died? More… Discuss

 

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ARTICLE: GEISHA: “ART PERSON”


Geisha: “Art Person”

A geisha is a traditional Japanese artist-entertainer skilled at conversation, singing, and dancing. The geisha system likely originated in the 17th century to provide a class of well-trained entertainers separate from courtesans and prostitutes. Even though geisha are usually women, the first ones were actually men. The numbers of geisha have declined from some 80,000 in the 1920s to a few thousand today. Why did geisha often paint their teeth black as part of their formal make-up? More… Discuss

 

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TODAY’S BIRTHDAY: POPE PIUS XII (1876)


Pope Pius XII (1876)

Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli succeeded Pope Pius XI as Pius XII in 1939. Though he pursued projects aimed at helping prisoners and refugees of World War II, he maintained the Vatican‘s neutrality for the duration of the conflict, believing that preserving relations with all the belligerents would aid his efforts to bring about peace. These wartime policies have since aroused considerable controversy. Which famous Jewish figures have expressed gratitude for his actions? More… Discuss

 

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THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: THE 228 MASSACRE (1947)


The 228 Massacre (1947)

Following Japan‘s defeat in World War II, Taiwan was placed under the administrative control of the Republic of China. The transition did not go smoothly. The Taiwanese had been content under Japanese rule and quickly grew to resent the heavy-handed tactics of the Kuomintang. On February 27, 1947, a dispute between a cigarette vendor and authorities escalated the next day into an anti-government uprising that was violently suppressed. How many Taiwanese are thought to have been massacred? More… Discuss

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