Daily Archives: June 25, 2014

make music part of your life series: JOHN FIELD: Piano Concerto no. 2 – Paolo Restani, piano


[youtube.com/watch?v=BZ53kQKjxek]

JOHN FIELD: Piano Concerto no. 2 – Paolo Restani, piano

I Allegro moderato
II Poco adagio
III Moderato innocente
Paolo Restani, piano
Orchestre Philharmonique de Nice
Marco Guidarini, conductor

The Cunning Demons of Russian Propaganda, or what the BBC forgot to warn us about


Evil never dies: I am so very sorry for what happens in Ukraine and the “terrorism” that is called anything else but what it really is!

facebook: not a happy face at all!


facebook...profiteering is all facebook does - unearned money from everybody

facebook: not a happy face at all!

make music part of your life: Alfred Brendel, Plays Ludwig van Beethoven’s – Rondo in G major Op. 51 No. 2


[youtube.com/watch?v=CXDf1dzNmDc]

Ludwig van Beethoven – Rondo in G major Op. 51 No. 2

Alfred Brendel, Piano

Fabulous performances: Valentina Lisitsa Plays Sergei Rachmaninoff’s Piano Concerto #2 in c Op.18


[youtube.com/watch?v=uBpyjUd_8Qk]

Valentina Lisitsa – Rachmaninoff – Piano Concerto Nº 3 in D Minor, Op.30 (Part 1 of 5)

 Orquesta de la Ciudad de los Reyes
Director: Pablo Sabat
 
Auditorio del Colegio Santa Ursula
Lima – Peru, 10 Diciembre 2009

make music part of your life series: Bizet – L’Arlesienne Suite No.1 ‘Carillon’


[youtube.com/watch?v=tkyMPPKu66o]

BizetL’Arlesienne Suite No.1 ‘Carillon’

Saint of the Day June 25, 2014: St. William of Vercelli


Saint of the Day

Image of St. William of Vercelli

St. William of Vercelli

William of Vercelli, Saint 1085-1142. founder, born in Vercelli Italy he was brought up as an orphan became a hermit on Monte Vergine, Italy after a pilgrimage to Compostella and attracted so many … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

today’s holiday: Croatia Statehood Day


Croatia Statehood Day

Croatians mark this national holiday to commemorate the country‘s declaration of independence from Yugoslavia on June 25, 1991. This holiday is distinct from the country’s Independence Day on October 8, when the implementation of the declaration went into effect. Offices, businesses, and schools are closed in Croatia on Statehood Day. Wreaths are laid and candles lit at sites of fallen soldiers, including the graves of national heroes. Past celebrations have included a ceremonial line-up of military troops in the central square of the country’s capital, Zagreb, and speeches by the country’s leaders. More… Discuss

Flash Shockingly Propriatary only source of daily misery for computer users everywhere


Flash Shockingly Propriatary only source of daily misery for computer users everywhere

Flash Shockingly Proprietary only source of daily misery for computer users everywhere

Flash Shockingly Proprietary only source of daily misery for computer users everywhere:
MONOPOLIES ALWAYS BELIEVE THAT THEY ARE ABOVE THE FREE MARKET COMPETITION: ONE OTHER REASON TO TO VOID CLAIMS OF EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS…ESPECIALLY WHEN SUCH CLAIMS RE PROVEN TO BE FALSE!

UNRELIABLE applications: if all other appications would be as bad we would not have an INTERNET: I’d saqy why fix it create new applications, accept them, and demonololize! this is ridiculously sad!


Adobe Flash & Shockwave - Mizarable applications - Why are we stuck with them

Adobe Flash & Shockwave – Unreliable applications – Why are we stuck with them

Adobe Shockwave Player Logo

Adobe Shockwave Player Logo (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“A Plug-in (Shockwave Flash) isn’t responding” “Stop Plug-in.”

17 posts by 13 authors

All you hear for years is troubleshoot, is the browser, is the this and that.:  no it’s these two applications! 

Gnome-mime-application-x-shockwave-flash

Gnome-mime-application-x-shockwave-flash (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

quotation: “The road to the City of Emeralds is paved with yellow brick.” L. Frank Baum


The road to the City of Emeralds is paved with yellow brick.

L. Frank Baum (1856-1919) Discuss

today’s birthdayd: Carly Simon (1945) view it here: let the river run


Carly Simon (1945)

Carly Simon is an American musician who emerged as one of the leading artists of the early 1970s singer-songwriter boom. Her 1988 hit “Let the River Run,” featured in the movie Working Girl, earned her a Grammy, an Oscar, and a Golden Globe, yet it is not her most famous song. This distinction goes to “You’re So Vain,” a sarcastic profile of a self-absorbed lover. A number-one hit, it spawned a huge debate as to who inspired the lyrics. Who are some of the possible candidates? More… Discuss

[youtube.com/watch?v=cv-0mmVnxPA]

Lyrics, Liner Notes, Credits, DVD, CD, Rare Photos at Carly’s official website:
http://www.carlysimon.com/music/Worki…
From the 1989 soundtrack of Working Girl.
Carly won an Oscar and a Golden Globe for this song.

 

this day in the yesteryear: Douglas Hyde Elected First President of Ireland (1938)


Douglas Hyde Elected First President of Ireland (1938)

Hyde was an Irish scholar and political leader. He was largely responsible for the revival of Irish language and literature through his founding of the Gaelic League in 1893. After teaching modern Irish for many years, Hyde became the president of Ireland, or Eire, in 1938. Using his Gaelic name, An Craoibhin Aoibhinn, he authored many works, including Literary History of Ireland and Love Songs of Connacht. A polyglot, Hyde was fluent in how many languages? More… Discuss

US Authorities Rescue 168 Children in Sex Trafficking Sting


US Authorities Rescue 168 Children in Sex Trafficking Sting

A weeklong Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) sting operation spanning the US has led to the arrest of 281 pimps and the rescue of 168 children from sex traffickers. Approximately 400 law enforcement agencies in over 100 cities took part in Operation Cross Country VIII, part of the FBI’s Innocence Lost National Initiative, which, since its inception in 2003, has recovered approximately 3,600 children and gained 1,450 convictions against those exploiting them. More… Discuss

Eleanor of Aquitaine


Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor was the queen consort of Louis VII of France and then of Henry II of England and mother of two kings of England, Richard I and John. She established a court at Poitiers noted for its cultivation of the concept of courtly love and later helped Richard secure the throne. When he was held captive in Europe, she forestalled John’s plots against him and worked to collect ransom for his release. She later facilitated the brothers’ reconciliation. Who was she rumored to have poisoned? More… Discuss

parsimonious


parsimonious 

Definition: (adjective) Excessively unwilling to spend.
Synonyms: penurious
Usage: I had to sue my parsimonious landlord for not giving me enough heat this winter. Discuss.

Grapefruit–drug interactions From wikipedia (and other sources)


Grapefruit–drug interactions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice have been found to interact with numerous drugs (at least 85 by the latest[when?] count), in many cases resulting in adverse effects.[1] Organic compounds that are furanocoumarin derivatives interfere with the hepatic and intestinal enzyme cytochrome P450 isoform CYP3A4 and are believed to be primarily responsible for the effects of grapefruit on the enzyme. Bioactive compounds in grapefruit juice may also interfere with P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), either increasing or decreasing the bioavailability of a number of drugs. Pomelo (the Asian fruit which was crossed with an orange to produce grapefruit) also contains high amounts of furanocoumarin derivatives. Some grapefruitpomelo hybrids have practically no furanocoumarin content, and one is a commercially viable seedless type.[2]

Affected drugs

The following drugs are affected by CYP3A4 inhibition with grapefruit compounds:

 

Amphetamines

List of Amphetamines That Interact With The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme:

Research has been done on the interaction between amphetamines and The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme, and researchers concluded that some parts of substrate molecules contribute to the binding of the enzyme. [11]

 

Additional drugs found to be affected by grapefruit juice include, but are not limited to:

Mechanism of the interaction

The CYP3A4 isoform of cytochrome P450 is located in both the liver and the enterocytes. Many oral drugs undergo first-pass (presystemic) metabolism by the enzyme. Several organic compounds found in grapefruit and specifically in grapefruit juice exert inhibitory action on drug metabolism by the enzyme. It has been established that a group of compounds called furanocoumarins are responsible for this interaction, and not flavonoids as was previously reported.[32] The list of active furanocoumarins found in grapefruit juice includes: bergamottin, bergapten, bergaptol and 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin.

This interaction is particularly dangerous when the drug in question has a low therapeutic index, so that a small increase in blood concentration can be the difference between therapeutic effect and toxicity. Grapefruit juice inhibits the enzyme only within the intestines, not in the liver or elsewhere in the body, and does not impact injected drugs. The degree of the effect varies widely between individuals and between samples of juice, and therefore cannot be accounted for a priori.

Another mechanism of interaction is possibly through the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) that is localized in the apical brush border of the enterocytes. Pgp transports lipophilic molecules out of the enterocyte back into the intestinal lumen. Drugs that possess lipophilic properties are either metabolised by CYP3A4 or removed into the intestine by the Pgp transporter. Both the Pgp and CYP3A4 may act synergistically as a barrier to many orally administered drugs. Therefore, their inhibition (both or alone) can markedly increase the bioavailability of a drug.

The interaction caused by grapefruit compounds lasts for up to 72 hours, and its effect is the greatest when the juice is ingested with the drug or up to 4 hours before the drug. [33][34][35]

Drugs affected by grapefruit juice[36]
Drug class Major Interactions Minor interactions
Antiarrhythmic agents amiodarone (Cordarone)
dronedarone (Multaq)
 
Antihistamines terfenadine (Seldane) (off the market)
diphenhydramine (Benadryl) (partially)
astemizole (Hismanal) (off the market)
 
Calcium channel antagonists   felodipine (Plendil)
nicardipine (Cardene)
nifedipine (Procardia)
nimodipine (Nimotop)
nisoldipine (Sular)
isradipine (DynaCirc)
Cholesterol-lowering drugs aka
Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors)
simvastatin (Zocor)
lovastatin (Mevacor)
atorvastatin (Lipitor)
cerivastatin (Baycol) (off the market)
Cough Suppressant/NMDA Antagonist dextromethorphan  
Erectile dysfunction drugs   sildenafil (Viagra)
tadalafil (Cialis)
vardenafil (Levitra)
HIV protease inhibitors   saquinavir (Invirase)
ritonavir (Norvir)
nelfinavir (Viracept)
amprenavir (Agenerase)
Hormones   ethinyl estradiol (Ortho-Cept, many others)
methylprednisolone (Medrol)
Immunosuppressants   cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral)
tacrolimus (Prograf)
sirolimus (Rapamune)
mercaptopurine
Sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics buspirone (Buspar) triazolam (Halcion)
midazolam (Versed)
diazepam (Valium)
zaleplon (Sonata)
alprazolam (Xanax)
Other psychotropics   carbamazepine (Tegretol)
trazodone (Desyrel)
quetiapine (Seroquel)
fluvoxamine (Luvox)
nefazodone (Serzone) (off the market)
Other miscellaneous drugs cisapride (Prepulsid, Propulsid)[37]  

References

  1. Bailey, David G.; Dresser, George; Arnold, J. Malcolm O. (2012). “Grapefruit-medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences?”. Canadian Medical Association Journal (Canadian Medical Association). doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951. edit
  2. “– Hybrid grapefruit safe for prescription meds”. Futurity.org. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
  3. Template:Cite pubmed.gov
  4. Sugimoto K, Araki N, Ohmori M, et al. (2006). “Interaction between grapefruit juice and hypnotic drugs: comparison of triazolam and quazepam”. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 62 (3): 209–15. doi:10.1007/s00228-005-0071-1. PMID 16416305.
  5. “Ritonavir (Norvir)”. HIV InSite. UCSF. 2006-10-18. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  6. Lee AJ, Chan WK, Harralson AF, Buffum J, Bui BC. (1999). “The effects of grapefruit juice on sertraline metabolism: an in vitro and in vivo study.”. Clin Ther. 21 (11): 1890–9. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(00)86737-5. PMID 10890261.
  7. “Interactions of amphetamine analogs with human liver CYP2D6”. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  8. “SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions.”. Structural Bioinformatics Group, Institute of Physiology, Charité-University Medicine Berlin.
  9. “Methamphetamine-mediated oxidative stress induces astrocyte apoptosis via cytochrome P450 2E1”. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  10. “potent inhibition of P450 gene CYP2D6 on d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine”. Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  11. “Metabolism/ Metabolites of amphetamines interacting with The Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme”. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  12. Bailey DG, Dresser GK (2004). “Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs”. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 4 (5): 281–97. doi:10.2165/00129784-200404050-00002. PMID 15449971.
  13. Lilja JJ, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ (August 1999). “Grapefruit juice increases serum concentrations of atorvastatin and has no effect on pravastatin”. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 66 (2): 118–27. doi:10.1053/cp.1999.v66.100453001. PMID 10460065.
  14. Lilja JJ, Kivistö KT, Backman JT, Lamberg TS, Neuvonen PJ (1998). “Grapefruit juice substantially increases plasma concentrations of buspirone*”. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 64 (6): 655–660. doi:10.1016/S0009-9236(98)90056-X. PMID 9871430. edit
  15. Lilja, JJ; Laitinen, K; Neuvonen, PJ (September 2005). “Effects of grapefruit juice on the absorption of levothyroxine.”. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 60 (3): 337–41. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02433.x. PMC 1884777. PMID 16120075.
  16. Jetter A, Kinzig-Schippers M, Walchner-Bonjean M, et al. (2002). “Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil”. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 71 (1): 21–9. doi:10.1067/mcp.2002.121236. PMID 11823754.
  17. H. Hori, R. Yoshimura, N. Ueda, S. Eto, K. Shinkai, S. Sakata, O. Ohmori, T. Terao and J. Nakamura (2004). “Fluvoxamine, In Vivo Study” (PDF). J Clin Psychopharmacol 23 (4): 422–424. doi:10.1097/01.jcp.0000085423.74359.f2. PMID 12920426.
  18. Gasche Y, Daali Y, Fathi M, et al. (December 2004). “Codeine intoxication associated with ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism”. N. Engl. J. Med. 351 (27): 2827–31. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa041888. PMID 15625333. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
  19. Further characterization of a furanocoumarin-free grapefruit juice on drug disposition: studies with cyclosporine“, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 87, No. 4, 863-871, April 2008.
  20. [1] “Somelabel”
  21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2014525/ Mouly and Paine, Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 August; 52(2): 216–217.
  22. “Grapefruit and medication: A cautionary note”. Health.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
  23. Wikipedia article on oxycodone metabolism; pharmaceutical insert w/ Purdue OxyContin tablets – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxycodone#Metabolism
  24. “Grapefruit Interactions”. healthCentral. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
  25. Messaoud Benmebarek MD, Et al., M; Devaud, C; Gex-Fabry, M; Powell Golay, K; Brogli, C; Baumann, P; Gravier, B; Eap, CB (17 March 2004). “Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of methadone”. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 76 (1): 55–63. doi:10.1016/j.clpt.2004.03.007. PMID 15229464. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
  26. Elkader, A; Sproule, B (July 2005). “Bluprenorphine – Clinical pharmacokinetics in the treatment of opioid dependence”. Clinical Pharamacokinetics 44 (7): 661–680. doi:10.2165/00003088-200544070-00001. PMID 15966752. Retrieved 2013-02-24.
  27. [2][dead link]
  28. “HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION”. Gene. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
  29. Dasgupta, Amitava; Meredith A. Reyes; Semyon A. Risin; Jeffrey K. Actor (3 December 2008). “Interaction of white and pink grapefruit juice with acetaminophen (paracetamol) in vivo in mice”. Journal of Medicinal Food 11 (4): 795–8. doi:10.1089/jmf.2008.0059. ISSN 1557-7600. PMID 19053875.
  30. Dresser, GK; Kim RB; Bailey DG (March 2005). “Effect of grapefruit juice volume on the reduction of fexofenadine bioavailability: possible role of organic anion transporting polypeptides.”. Clinical Pharmacological Therapeutics 77 (3): 170–7. PMID 15735611.
  31. Jellin J.M., et al. Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter of Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. 7th ed. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty. 2005. 626-629
  32. Paine MF, Widmer WW, Hart HL, et al. (May 2006). “A furanocoumarin-free grapefruit juice establishes furanocoumarins as the mediators of the grapefruit juice-felodipine interaction”. The American journal of clinical nutrition 83 (5): 1097–105. PMID 16685052.
  33. Lundahl J, Regardh CG, Edgar B, Johnsson G. Relationship between time of intake of grapefruit juice and its effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of felodipine in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1995;49:61-7.
  34. http://pharmacistanswers.com/grapefruit-juice-drug-interactions.html
  35. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Harmatz JS, et al. Time course of recovery of cytochrome P450 3A function after single doses of grapefruit juice. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003;75:121-9.
  36. Bakalar, Nicholas (2006-03-21). “Experts Reveal the Secret Powers of Grapefruit Juice”. The New York Times. p. F6. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
  37. Gross AS, Goh YD, Addison RS, Shenfield GM (April 1999). “Influence of grapefruit juice on cisapride pharmacokinetics”. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 65 (4): 395–401. doi:10.1016/S0009-9236(99)70133-5. PMID 10223776.

External links