English: Tárogató player (ancient double-reeded tárogató) with drummer Magyar: Kuruc-kori tárogatós és dobos (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
The tárogató (töröksíp, Turkish pipe; plural tárogatók or, anglicized, tárogatós; Romanian: taragot or torogoata) refers to two different woodwind instruments commonly used in both Hungarian and Romanian folk music. The modern tárogató was intended to be a recreation of the original tárogató, but the two instruments are thought to have little in common.
Mention of the tárogató in Hungarian writings dates back at least as
English: Soldier playing tárogató on horseback (ancient double-reeded tárogató) Magyar: Lóháton tárogatózó katona (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
long ago as the 15th century. It is not clear whether it was first brought into Europe by the Hungarians when they first emigrated from the east in the 9th century. It is certain, however, that instruments of this type, descended from the Middle Eastern zurna, were introduced into Eastern Europe by the Turks in the Middle Ages, as evidenced by the term töröksip—”Turkish pipe”—which was used as a synonym for tárogató. It is possible that instruments from both traditions were combined into one entity. The tárogató
English: Stamp of Moldova (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Being a very loud and raucous instrument, the tárogató was used as a signaling instrument in battle (like the bugle or the bagpipe). However, depending on the type of reed used, it can also give off a very subtle, and yet, deep, mellow sound when played at a relaxed, steady pace. 
In the 1890s a modern version was invented by Vencel József Schunda, a Budapest instrument maker. It uses a single reed, like a clarinet or saxophone, and has a conical bore, similar to the saxophone. The instrument is made of wood, usually black grenadilla wood like a clarinet. The most common size, the soprano tárogató in B♭, is about 29 inches (74 cm) in length and has a mournful sound similar to a cross between an English horn and a soprano saxophone. Other sizes exist; one maker, János Stowasser, advertised a family of seven sizes of which the largest was a contrabass tárogató in E♭. The new tárogató bears very little resemblance with the historical tárogató and the two instruments should not be confused. It has been suggested that the name schundaphone would have been more accurate, but tárogató was used because of the nationalistic image that the original instrument had.
This instrument was a symbol of Hungarian aristocracy, and the favorite woodwind instrument of Governor Miklós Horthy.
Manufacturing in Hungary ceased after World War II, though tárogatós continued to be made in Romania and other countries. In the 1990s several Hungarian makers started producing the instrument again.
A modern tárogató may occasionally be heard in Act 3 of Tristan und Isolde by Richard Wagner where it has become traditional in some opera houses (e.g. the Royal Opera House, London) to use it instead of the off-stage cor anglais for the last passage (bars 999-1149) of the Shepherd’s air, but Wagner did not specify this, merely suggesting in the score “a specially built simple natural instrument”.
In the 1920s, Luţă Ioviţă, who played the instrument in the army during World War I, brought it to Banat (Romania), where it became very popular under the name taragot.
Dumitru Fărcaş, who was born in Maramureş, made the instrument known all over the world and is considered to be the most famous tárogató player.