Daily Archives: January 9, 2015

From BBC: Mexican police held over kidnapping


Mexican police held over kidnapping http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-30724791

From BBC: Hunt for French terror accomplices


Hunt for French terror accomplices http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-30759008

A great cartoon by @varvel just now — Arnold Melm (@countUP)


▶ Grand Corps Malade – #JeSuisCharlie – YouTube — Daniel Bolduc


#JeSuisCharlie, one of the most popular hashtags ever, was in 3.4 million tweets in 24 hours — Conrad Hackett (@conradhackett)


Two brothers arrested on terrorism charges in Canada (terrorism is NOT a religion)


OTTAWA, OntarioRoyal Canadian Mounted Police say two brothers have been arrested and charged with terrorism related offences.

In a statement police said that Ashton Carleton Larmond and Carlos Larmond, both 25, were planning to leave Canada to engage in terrorist activities abroad.

Police say Ashton Larmond is charged with facilitating terrorist activity among other charges.

Carlos Larmond faces charges of participation in the activity of a terrorist group and attempting to leave Canada to participate in terrorist activity abroad.

via Two brothers arrested on terrorism charges in Canada.

USA TODAY – Anonymous Threatens cyber-revenge for Paris Killings


USA TODAY - Anonymous Threatens cyber-revenge for Paris Killings Click to access this and many more stories at USA Tuday!)

USA TODAYAnonymous Threatens cyber-revenge for Paris Killings (Click to access this and many more stories at USA Today!)

From CNN: Anonymous declares war over Charlie Hebdo attack


Anonymous declares war over Charlie Hebdo attack
http://money.cnn.com/2015/01/09/technology/anonymous-charlie-hebdo-terrorists/index.html

From CNN: Dramatic video shows raid in hostage situation


Dramatic video shows raid in hostage situation
http://www.cnn.com/video/data/2.0/video/world/2015/01/09/lead-vo-tapper-hostage-paris-attack.cnn.html

From CNN: Bergen: How Kouachi brothers chose terrorism


Bergen: How Kouachi brothers chose terrorism
http://www.cnn.com//2015/01/09/opinion/bergen-brothers-terrorism/index.html

From CNN: Official on terror: ‘This isn’t going to stop’


Official on terror: ‘This isn’t going to stop’
http://www.cnn.com//2015/01/09/us/france-attacks-u-s-/index.html

From BBC: India donkeys honoured for hard work


India donkeys honoured for hard work http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-30724497

From BBC: Ukraine rebels ‘intensify attacks’


Ukraine rebels ‘intensify attacks’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-30744825

From BBC: US ‘recommends charges’ for Petraeus


US ‘recommends charges’ for Petraeus http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-30757204

From France 24: Nigerian forces launch assault on Boko Haram in Baga


Nigerian forces launch assault on Boko Haram in Baga

http://f24.my/1tTwI8F

From BBC: Romania cuts ‘revolution perks’


Romania cuts ‘revolution perks’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-30744847

From BBC: IS launches assault on Iraqi city


IS launches assault on Iraqi city http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-30725552

From BBC: Indian politician ‘praised massacre’


Indian politician ‘praised massacre’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-30743094

From BBC: Saturn pinpointed to within one mile


Saturn pinpointed to within one mile http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-30743935

From BBC: US House passes Keystone pipeline bill


US House passes Keystone pipeline bill http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-30737766

From BBC: Cleric Abu Hamza jailed for life


Cleric Abu Hamza jailed for life http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-30754959

From BBC: France attacks: Sieges ended


France attacks: Sieges ended http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/live/world-europe-30722098

From BBC: Bloody end to sieges in France


Bloody end to sieges in France http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-30752239

Klasse! RT @LoganBooker_BI: A great cartoon by @varvel just now. #JeSuisCharlie


#JeSuisCharlie I couldn’t be more proud to hear that 87 yr old Uderzo (father of Asterix) coming out of retirement!


Breaking News: Charlie Hebdo will print a million copies of its next edition with government and Google help


From: CNNMoney: #JeSuisCharlie has now become one of @twitter’s most popular hashtags (Find out more)


Democracy Now!: “Cartoonist Lives Matter”: Art Spiegelman Responds to Charlie Hebdo Attack, Power of Cartoons


Democracy Now! “Cartoonist Lives Matter”: Art Spiegelman Responds to Charlie Hebdo Attack, Power of Cartoons

Posted on Jan 9, 2015

49:38

Art Spiegelman is renowned American cartoonist, editor and comics advocate. In 1992, he won a Pulitzer Prize for “Maus,” considered one of the most important graphic novels ever published and one of the most influential works on the Nazi Holocaust. Spiegelman also founded the comics magazine RAW. In 2005, he was named one of the 100 Most Influential People by Time magazine. After a discussion about the Charlie Hebdo attack in Paris, we continue our conversation with Spiegelman about his life’s work and the power of cartoons. Listen to the first part of the interview at democracynow.org. ||| Visit democracynow.org to watch the full daily news program, read the transcript, or search our vast online archive. Livestream weekdays 8-9am ET. Follow Democracy Now! on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Tumblr, Stitcher, SoundCloud, Google+ and Pinterest.

NPR: Parralels: Interview: Nazila Fathi, Author Of ‘The Lonely War’ : Parallels : NPR



Nazila Fathi reported from her native Iran for The New York Times. Fearing arrest, she fled in 2009 with her family and now lives in suburban Washington, D.C. Her new book, The Lonely War, describes the challenges of reporting from the country.
Hassan Sarbakhshian

Nazila Fathi covered turbulent events in her native Iran for years as The New York Times correspondent. She learned to navigate the complicated system that tolerates reporting on many topics but can also toss reporters in jail if they step across a line never explicitly defined by the country’s Islamic authorities.

Fathi recalls one editor telling her what journalists could do in Iran: “We have the freedom to say whatever we want to say, but we don’t know what happens afterwards.”

Five years ago, Fathi was covering the aftermath of Iran’s hotly contested 2009 presidential election, when demonstrators flooded the streets to protest a vote they said was rigged in favor of the incumbent, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. The government warned journalists to stop covering the street demonstrations, which often turned violent, but Fathi continued to file stories for the Times.

via Interview: Nazila Fathi, Author Of ‘The Lonely War’ : Parallels : NPR.

François Hollande : “Ceux qui ont commis ces actes n’ont rien à voir avec la religion musulmane”


François Hollande : “Ceux qui ont commis ces actes n’ont rien à voir avec la religion musulmane”

Published on Jan 9, 2015

Abonnez-vous à notre chaîne sur YouTube : http://f24.my/youtube
En DIRECT – Suivez FRANCE 24 ici : http://f24.my/YTliveFR

PARIS – François Hollande a prévenu vendredi que “la France n’en a pas terminé avec les menaces dont elle est la cible”, lors d’une allocution télévisée après le dénouement des deux prises d’otages.

La France, même si elle consciente d’avoir fait face, même si elle sait qu’elle peut disposer, avec les forces de sécurité, d’hommes et de femmes capables de courage et de bravoure, n’en a pas terminé avec les menaces dont elle est la cible. Je veux vous appeler à la vigilance, à l’unité et à la mobilisation”, a déclaré le président de la République.

Notre site : http://www.france24.com/fr/
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It is the year 1456 and Gutenberg Produces the First Printed Bible


It is the year 1456  and Gutenberg Produces the First Printed Bible:  Using his revolutionary invention—printing from movable type—he made the Scriptures potentially accessible to every person. MORE HERE (http://www.ctlibrary.com/ch/1990/issue28/2825.html)

Gutenberg Bible

Gutenberg Bible of the New York Public Library. Bought by James Lenox in 1847, it was the first copy to come to the United States.

Gutenberg Bible of the New York Public Library. Bought by James Lenox in 1847, it was the first copy to come to the United States.

The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the first major book printed in the West using movable type. It marked the start of the “Gutenberg Revolution” and the age of the printed book in the West. Widely praised for its high aesthetic and artistic qualities,[1] the book has an iconic status. Written in Latin, the Gutenberg Bible is an edition of the Vulgate, printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, in present-day Germany, in the 1450s. Forty-eight copies, or substantial portions of copies, survive, and they are considered to be among the most valuable books in the world, even though no complete copy has been sold since 1978.[2][3] The 36-line Bible, believed to be the second printed version of the Bible, is also sometimes referred to as a Gutenberg Bible, but is likely the work of another printer.

Printing history

“All that has been written to me about that marvelous man seen at Frankfurt [sic] is true. I have not seen complete Bibles but only a number of quires of various books of the Bible. The script was very neat and legible, not at all difficult to follow—your grace would be able to read it without effort, and indeed without glasses.”

Future pope Pius II in a letter to Cardinal Carvajal, March 1455[4]

The Bible was not Gutenberg’s first work.[5] Preparation of it probably began soon after 1450, and the first finished copies were available in 1454 or 1455.[6] It is not known exactly how long the Bible took to print. The first precisely datable printing is the Gutenberg’s 31-line Indulgence which is known to already exist on 22 October 1454.[7]

Gutenberg made three significant changes during the printing process.[8] The first sheets were rubricated by being passed twice through the printing press, using black and then red ink. This was soon abandoned, with spaces being left for rubrication to be added by hand.

 Spine of the Lenox copy

Some time later, after more sheets had been printed, the number of lines per page was increased from 40 to 42, presumably to save paper. Therefore, pages 1 to 9 and pages 256 to 265, presumably the first ones printed, have 40 lines each. Page 10 has 41, and from there on the 42 lines appear. The increase in line number was achieved by decreasing the interline spacing, rather than increasing the printed area of the page.

Finally, the print run was increased, necessitating resetting those pages which had already been printed. The new sheets were all reset to 42 lines per page. Consequently, there are two distinct settings in folios 1-32 and 129-158 of volume I and folios 1-16 and 162 of volume II.[8][9]

The most reliable information about the Bible’s date comes from a letter. In March 1455, the future Pope Pius II wrote that he had seen pages from the Gutenberg Bible, being displayed to promote the edition, in Frankfurt.[10] It is not known how many copies were printed, with the 1455 letter citing sources for both 158 and 180 copies. Scholars today think that examination of surviving copies suggests that somewhere between 160 and 185 copies were printed, with about three-quarters on paper. [11][12] However, some books say that about 180 copies were printed and it took about three years to produce them.[citation needed]

The production process: Das Werk der Bücher

 A vellum copy of the Gutenberg Bible owned by the U.S. Library of Congress

In a legal paper, written after completion of the Bible, Gutenberg refers to the process as “Das Werk der Bücher”: the work of the books. He had invented the printing press and was the first European to print with movable type.[13] But his greatest achievement was arguably demonstrating that the whole process of printing actually produced books.

Many book-lovers have commented on the high standards achieved in the production of the Gutenberg Bible, some describing it as one of the most beautiful books ever printed. The quality of both the ink and other materials and the printing itself have been noted.[1]

Pages

 First page of the first volume: The Epistle of St. Jerome from the University of Texas copy. The page has 40 lines.

The paper size is ‘double folio’, with two pages printed on each side (four pages per sheet). After printing the paper was folded once to the size of a single page. Typically, five of these folded sheets (10 leaves, or 20 printed pages) were combined to a single physical section, called a quinternion, that could then be bound into a book. Some sections, however, had as few as 4 leaves or as many as 12 leaves.[14] Some sections may have been printed in a larger number, especially those printed later in the publishing process, and sold unbound. The pages were not numbered. The technique was not new, since it had been used to make blank “white-paper” books to be written afterwards. What was new was determining beforehand the correct placement and orientation of each page on the five sheets to result in the correct sequence when bound. The technique for locating the printed area correctly on each page was also new.

The folio size, 307 x 445 mm, has the ratio of 1.45:1. The printed area had the same ratio, and was shifted out of the middle to leave a 2:1 white margin, both horizontally and vertically. Historian John Man writes that the ratio was chosen to be close to the golden ratio of 1.61:1.[5] To reach this ratio more closely the vertical size should be 338 mm, but there is no reason why Gutenberg would let this non-trivial difference of 8 mm go by in a work so detailed in other aspects.

A single complete copy of the Gutenberg Bible has 1,286 pages (usually bound in two volumes); with 4 pages per folio-sheet, 322 sheets of paper are required per copy.[15] The handmade paper used by Gutenberg was of fine quality and was imported from Italy. Each sheet contains a watermark left by the papermold.

Ink

In Gutenberg’s time, inks used by scribes to produce manuscripts were water-based. Gutenberg developed an oil-based ink that would better adhere to his metal type. His ink was primarily carbon, but also had a high metallic content, with copper, lead, and titanium predominating.[16] Head of collections at the British Library Dr Kristian Jensen described it thus:” if you look (at the pages of The Gutenberg Bible) closely you will see this is a very shiny surface. When you write you use a water based ink, you put your pen into it and it runs off. Now if you print that’s exactly what you don’t want. One of Gutenberg’s inventions was an ink which wasn’t ink, it’s a varnish. So what we call printer’s ink is actually a varnish, and that means it sticks to its surface.” [17]

Type

The first part of the Gutenberg idea was using a single, hand-carved character to create identical copies of itself. Cutting a single letter could take a craftsman a day of work. A single page taking 2500 letters made this way was impractical. A less labour-intensive method of reproduction was needed. Copies were produced by stamping the original into an iron plate, called a matrix. A rectangular tube was then connected to the matrix, creating a container in which molten type metal could be poured. Once cooled, the solid metal form was released from the tube. The fundamental innovation is that this matrix can be used to produce many duplicates of the same letter. The result of each molding was a rectangular block of metal with the form of the desired character protruding from the end. This piece of type could be put in a line, facing up, with other pieces of type. These lines were arranged to form blocks of text, which could be inked and pressed against paper, transferring the desired text to the paper.

Each unique character requires a master piece of type in order to be replicated. Given that each letter has uppercase and lowercase forms, and the number of various punctuation marks and ligatures (e.g. the sequence ‘fi’ combined in one character, commonly used in writing) the Gutenberg Bible needed a set of 290 master characters. It seems probable that six pages, containing 15600 characters altogether, would be set at any one moment.[5]

Type style

The Gutenberg Bible is printed in the blackletter type styles that would become known as Textualis (Textura) and Schwabacher. The name texture refers to the texture of the printed page: straight vertical strokes combined with horizontal lines, giving the impression of a woven structure. Gutenberg already used the technique of justification, that is, creating a vertical, not indented, alignment at the left and right-hand sides of the column. To do this, he used various methods, including using characters of narrower widths, adding extra spaces around punctuation, and varying the widths of spaces around words.[18][19] On top of this, he subsequently let punctuation marks go beyond that vertical line, called Hanging punctuation, thereby using the massive black characters to make this justification stronger to the eye.

Rubrication, illumination and binding

 Detail showing both rubrication and illumination.

Copies left the Gutenberg workshop unbound, without decoration, and for the most part without rubrication.

Initially the rubrics — the headings before each book of the Bible — were printed, but this experiment was quickly abandoned, and gaps were left for rubrication to be added by hand. A guide of the text to be added to each page, printed for use by rubricators, survives.[20]

The spacious margin allowed illuminated decoration to be added by hand. The amount of decoration presumably depended on how much each buyer could or would pay. Some copies were never decorated.[21] The place of decoration can be known or inferred for about 30 of the surviving copies. Perhaps 13 of these received their decoration in Mainz, but others were worked on as far away as London.[22] The vellum Bibles were more expensive and perhaps for this reason tend to be more highly decorated, although the vellum copy in the British Library is completely undecorated.[23] There has been speculation that the Master of the Playing Cards was partly responsible for the illumination of the Princeton copy, though all that can be said for certain is that the same model book was used for some of the illustrations in this copy and for some of the Master’s playing cards.[24]

Although many Gutenberg Bibles have been rebound over the years, nine copies retain fifteenth-century bindings. Most of these copies were bound in either Mainz or Erfurt.[22] Most copies were divided into two volumes, the first volume ending with The Book of Psalms. Copies on vellum were heavier and for this reason were sometimes bound in three or four volumes.[1]

Early owners

The Bible seems to have sold out immediately, with initial sales to owners as far away as England and possibly Sweden and Hungary.[1][25] At least some copies are known to have sold for 30 florins – about three years wages for a clerk.[26][27] Although this made them significantly cheaper than manuscript Bibles, most students, priests or other people of ordinary income would have been unable to afford them. It is assumed that most were sold to monasteries, universities and particularly wealthy individuals.[20] At present only one copy is known to have been privately owned in the fifteenth century. Some are known to have been used for communal readings in monastery refectories; others may have been for display rather than use, and a few were certainly used for study.[1] Kristian Jensen suggests that many copies were bought by wealthy and pious laypeople for donation to religious institutions.[23]

Influence on later Bibles

The Gutenberg Bible had a profound effect on the history of the printed book. Textually, it also had an influence on future editions of the Bible. It provided the model for several later editions, including the 36 Line Bible, Mentelin’s Latin Bible, and the first and third Eggestein Bibles. The third Eggestein Bible was set from the copy of the Gutenberg Bible now in Cambridge University Library. The Gutenberg Bible also had an influence on the Clementine edition of the Vulgate commissioned by the Papacy in the late sixteenth century.[28][29]

Forgeries

Dr. Niels Henry Sonne, the Head Librarian, said, “A notable possession of the General Theological Seminary Library is a complete and excellent copy of the Gutenberg Bible.”[30] The copy of the Gutenberg Bible held by the General Theological Seminary Library, was found to have a forged leaf. The forged leaf was discovered by Mr. Joseph Martini, a New York book dealer. The leaf carried part of Chapter 14, all of Chapter 15, and part of Chapter 16 of the Book of Ezekiel. It was impossible to tell when the forged leaf had been inserted into the volume. In the fall of 1953, a generous friend of the Seminary gave a copy of the missing leaf to the General Theological Seminary Library, “…and the Seminary’s great Bible became the first imperfect Gutenberg Bible ever restored to completeness. The substitute leaf was taken from a defective copy of volume two, which was being broken up for sale in parts and leaves.”[31]

Surviving copies

 Another Gutenberg Bible

 

Locations of known complete Gutenberg Bibles.

As of 2009, forty-eight 42-line Bibles are known to exist, but of these only 21 are complete. Others have leaves or even whole volumes missing. In addition, there are a substantial number of fragments, some as small as individual leaves, which are likely to represent about another 16 copies. Many of these fragments have survived because they were used as part of the binding of later books.[25] There are twelve surviving copies on vellum, although only four of these are complete and one is of the New Testament only.

Copy numbers listed below are as found in the Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, taken from a 1985 survey of existing copies by Ilona Hubay; the two copies in Russia were not known to exist in 1985, and so were not catalogued.

Substantially complete copies of the 42-line Bible
Country Holding institution Hubay
nbr
length material Notes,
Images,
Scans
Austria (1) Austrian National Library, Vienna 27 complete paper Online images (German)
Belgium (1) Library of the University of Mons-Hainaut, Mons 1 incomplete paper Vol. I. Part of the same copy as the volume in Indiana (see below)[11]
Denmark (1) Danish Royal Library, Copenhagen 12 incomplete paper Vol. II
France (4) Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris 15 complete vellum  
17 incomplete paper Contains note by binder dating it to 24 August 1456[32]
Bibliothèque Mazarine, Paris 16 complete paper  
Bibliothèque Municipale, Saint-Omer 18 incomplete paper  
Germany (13) Gutenberg Museum, Mainz 8 incomplete paper One copy is vol. I; the other both vols. It is unclear which is which.
Online images of the 2 volume copy (German)
9
Landesbibliothek, Fulda 4 incomplete vellum Vol. I. Two individual leaves from Vol. II survive in other libraries.[25]
Leipzig University Library, Leipzig 14 incomplete vellum  
Göttingen State and University Library, Göttingen 2 complete vellum Online images
Berlin State Library, Berlin 3 incomplete vellum  
Bavarian State Library, Munich 5 complete paper Online images of vol. 1 vol. 2 (German)
Frankfurt University Library, Frankfurt am Main 6 complete paper  
Hofbibliothek, Aschaffenburg 7 incomplete paper  
Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart 10 incomplete paper Online images Purchased in April 1978 for 2.2 million US dollars (ex General Theological Seminary)
Stadtbibliothek, Trier 11 incomplete paper Vol. I
Landesbibliothek, Kassel 12 incomplete paper Vol. I
Gottorf Castle, Schleswig incomplete paper The Rendsburg Fragment[11]
Japan (1) Keio University Library, Tokyo 45 incomplete paper Vol. I, Purchased in October 1987 for 4.9 million (plus an auction house commission of $490,000) for a total of 5.4 million US dollars[33]
Online images
Poland (1) Biblioteka Seminarium Duchownego, Pelpin 28 incomplete paper Online images of vol. 1 vol. 2 (Polish)
Portugal (1) Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, Lisbon 29 complete paper  
Russia (2) Russian State Library, Moscow incomplete vellum Confiscated in 1945 from the Deutsches Buch- und Schriftmuseum, Leipzig
Moscow State University, Moscow complete paper Confiscated in 1945 from the Library of the University of Leipzig
Spain (2) Biblioteca Universitaria y Provincial, Seville 32 incomplete paper New Testament only
Online images (Spanish)
Biblioteca Pública Provincial, Burgos 31 complete paper  
Switzerland (1) Bodmer Library, Cologny 30 incomplete paper  
United Kingdom (8) British Library, London  ? complete vellum Online images
 ? complete paper Online images
National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh 26 complete paper Online images
Lambeth Palace Library, London 20 incomplete vellum New Testament only
Eton College Library, Eton College 23 complete paper  
John Rylands Library, Manchester 25 complete paper Online images of 11 pages
Bodleian Library, Oxford 24 complete paper High Resolution Online images
Cambridge University Library, Cambridge 22 complete paper Online images of vol. 1; vol. 2
United States (11) The Morgan Library & Museum, New York 37 incomplete vellum PML 13 & PML 818
38 complete paper PML 19206–7
44 incomplete paper PML 1. Old Testament only
Online images
Library of Congress, Washington DC 35 complete vellum Online images
New York Public Library 42 incomplete paper  
Widener Library, Harvard University 40 complete paper  
Beinecke Library, Yale University 41 complete paper  
Scheide Library, Princeton University 43   paper Online images
Lilly Library, Indiana University 46 incomplete paper New Testament only. Part of the same copy as the volume in Mons (see above).
Online images
Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA 36 complete vellum  
Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin 39 complete paper Purchased in 1978 for 2.4 million US dollars.
Online images
Vatican City (2) Vatican Library 33 incomplete vellum  
34 incomplete paper Vol I

Recent history

 Binding of the copy at the University of Texas at Austin

Today, few copies remain in religious institutions, with most now owned by university libraries and other major scholarly institutions. After centuries in which all copies seem to have remained in Europe, the first Gutenberg Bible reached North America in 1847. It is now in the New York Public Library.[34] In the last hundred years, several long-lost copies have come to light, considerably improving the understanding of how the Bible was produced and distributed.[25] The only copy held outside Europe or North America is the first volume of a Gutenberg Bible (Hubay 45) at Keio University in Tokyo. The HUMI Project team at Keio University is known for its high-quality digital images of Gutenberg Bibles and other rare books.[35]

In 1921 a New York rare book dealer, Gabriel Wells, bought a damaged paper copy, dismantled the book and sold sections and individual leaves to book collectors and libraries. The leaves were sold in a portfolio case with an essay written by A. Edward Newton, and were referred to as “Noble Fragments”.[36][37] In 1953 Charles Scribner’s Sons, also book dealers in New York, dismembered a paper copy of volume II. The largest portion of this, the New Testament, is now owned by Indiana University. The matching first volume of this copy was subsequently discovered in Mons, Belgium.[11]

The last sale of a complete Gutenberg Bible took place in 1978. It fetched $2.2 million. This copy is now in Stuttgart.[34] The price of a complete copy today is estimated at $25−35 million.[2][3] Individual leaves now sell for $20,000–$100,000, depending upon condition and the desirability of the page.

A two-volume edition of the Gutenberg Bible was stolen from Moscow State University in 2009 and subsequently recovered in a FSB sting operation in 2013.[38] This particular copy had been looted by the Soviet Army after World War II from the Deutsches Buch- und Schriftmuseum, Leipzig, Germany, and is estimated to be worth in excess of $20.4 million.

See also

image of the day: EUZICASA Audiobook Stand : Thomas Paine Publishes Common Sense (audiobook here-close caption in several languages)



Thomas Paine Publishes Common Sense
On January 9, 1776, propagandist Thomas Paine anonymously published Common Sense, advocating an immediate declaration of independence from Britain. An instant bestseller in both the colonies and in Britain, Paine baldly stated that King George III was a tyrant and that Americans should shed any sentimental attachment to the monarchy. America, he argued, had a moral obligation to reject monarchy. ‘O! ye that love mankind! Ye that dare opposed not only the tyranny but the tyrant, stand forth! Every spot of the Old World is overrun with oppression. Freedom hath been hunted around the globe…. O! receive the fugitive and prepare in time an asylum for mankind,’ he urged. Within a few years, a land with a population of 2.5 million had bought 500,000 copies of Paine’s stirring call for independence.

(Image: Library of Congress)

– See more at: http://www.historynet.com/picture-of-the-day#sthash.qG4LItb2.dpuf

Common Sense Audiobook by Thomas Paine (February 4, 1776)

Saint of the Day for Friday, January 9th, 2015: St. Adrian, Abbot


Image of St. Adrian, Abbot

St. Adrian, Abbot

Born in Africa, Adrian became abbot of the monastery at Nerida, near Naples. He declined an appointment as archbishop of Canterbury, but accompanied St. Theodore to England when the latter was … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

Today’s Birthday: Elvis Presley – 80 years old


Fans Celebrate Elvis Prestley's 80th Birthday

Fans Celebrate Elvis Prestley’s 80th Birthday (click to access)

Elvis Presley – Can’t Help Falling In Love (Live)

today’s holiday: Agonalia (2015)


Agonalia (2015)

In Roman mythology, Janus is the god of beginnings and of doorways. The worship of Janus is believed to have been started by Romulus, one of the legendary founders of Rome. Usually depicted with two faces, one looking forward to the future and the other looking back to the past, his image appeared on an early Roman coin with a ship’s prow on the reverse side. During the festival in honor of Janus known as the Agonalia, the rex sacrorum, or officiating priest, sacrificed a ram. Offerings of barley, incense, wine, and cakes called Januae were also common. More… Discuss

quotation: Music…takes us out of the actual and whispers to us dim secrets that startle our wonder as to who we are, and for what, whence, and whereto. Ralph Waldo Emerson


Music…takes us out of the actual and whispers to us dim secrets that startle our wonder as to who we are, and for what, whence, and whereto.Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Discuss

Read more  HERE  and  HERE

today’s birthday: Jimmy Page (1944) ***Stairway to Heaven***


Jimmy Page (1944)

One of the most influential guitarists in the history of rock music, Page started his career as a highly sought-after studio guitarist in England. Under his direction, Led Zeppelin became one of the era’s most successful rock groups, redefining the musical sound of the 70s. He has co-written many of rock’s most popular anthems, including “Stairway to Heaven,” which has been the subject of controversy ever since reports surfaced that it contains subliminal messages that can be heard in what way? More… Discuss

Led Zeppelin – Stairway to Heaven Live (HD)

this day in the yesteryear: Joan of Arc Goes on Trial (1431)


Joan of Arc Goes on Trial (1431)

Joan of Arc was a French military leader and heroine who was canonized a saint in 1920, nearly 500 years after she was burned at the stake. Claiming to be inspired by religious visions, she organized the French resistance that forced the English to end their siege of Orléans in 1429 and led an army to Rheims, where she had the dauphin, Charles VII, crowned king. Captured and sold to the English by the Burgundians, she was later tried for heresy and executed. What was the “nullification trial”? More… Discuss

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News – Tech at work: Status Update Saves Stranded Hiker


Status Update Saves Stranded Hiker

A resourceful emergency dispatcher used social media to help save a hiker who plunged 150 feet (45 m) off a cliff into a tree near Sacramento, California, this week. After a 911 call by the hiker’s son was disconnected, dispatchers tried in vain to determine the location using the cell phone’s coordinates—until a dispatch trainee Googled the injured man’s name. She soon found his Facebook page, saw an earlier status update about his hike, and sent rescue crews to his location. The man was treated for broken bones and a head injury. More… Discuss

People and Places: Famagusta


Famagusta

The city of Famagusta is located in Eastern Cyprus. It occupies the site of ancient Arsinoë—built in the 3rd century BCE by the Egyptian king Ptolemy II—and is thought to be the setting for much of Shakespeare’s play Othello. In the 20th century, Famagusta served as a British naval base and was heavily bombed in World War II. From 1946–1948, a British internment camp for illegal Jewish immigrants to Palestine was maintained near the city. Why was Famagusta completely evacuated in 1974? More… Discuss

word: denizen (not just words…)


denizen

Definition: (noun) An inhabitant; a resident.
Synonyms: dweller
Usage: I wandered through the empty streets, looking for a single denizen of this hamlet, but found not one. Discuss.

CNN: ‘Fifty Shades of Grey’ will be rated …


‘Fifty Shades of Grey’ will be rated …
http://www.cnn.com//2015/01/08/showbiz/feat-50-shades-r-rating/index.html

From NPR News: On His 80th Birthday, Shake It Like Elvis With A Milkshake


On His 80th Birthday, Shake It Like Elvis With A Milkshake http://n.pr/1HUIlPh

From NPR (National Public News)News: From Threats Against Salman Rushdie To Attacks On ‘Charlie Hebdo’


From Threats Against Salman Rushdie To Attacks On ‘Charlie Hebdo
http://n.pr/14pQfRP

When Iran’s supreme leader Ayatollah Khomeini issued a 1989 fatwa calling for the killing of British writer Salman Rushdie, many in the West could scarcely believe a literary novel would prompt an international death threat.

We’ve come a long way since then.

Radical Islamists now issue threats against cartoonists, writers and filmmakers with such frequency that they barely cause a stir. Actual attacks have been carried out several times over the past decade, and French authorities suspect Muslim extremists in Wednesday’s slaughter of 12 people in Paris, including eight journalists at the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo.

To see how these threats and attacks have evolved over the past quarter-century, consider al-Qaida‘s most-wanted list, published in 2013 in its online magazine, Inspire.

A couple of things stand out in the article titled “Wanted: Dead or Alive for Crimes Against Islam.” First, it attracted little attention because it’s the kind of thing the group does regularly. Second, the group did not target Western political or military leaders — the people who have actually waged war against the group.

From NPR News: A ‘Sizable Decrease’ In Those Passing The GED


A ‘Sizable Decrease’ In Those Passing The GED http://n.pr/1wSEZ79

Actor Rod Taylor dies in LA aged 84


Actor Rod Taylor dies in LA aged 84 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-australia-30738498

Saudi Arabian blogger ‘flogged’


Saudi Arabian blogger ‘flogged’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-30744693

Saudi Arabian blogger ‘flogged’


Saudi Arabian blogger ‘flogged’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-30744693

From BBC: Jackie Chan’s son jailed in China


Jackie Chan’s son jailed in China http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-30738610

French police surround Paris suspects


French police surround Paris suspects http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-30740115