Daily Archives: February 4, 2015

Mongolian mummified monk ‘not dead’


Mongolian mummified monk ‘not dead’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-31125338

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US senator questions hand-wash rules


US senator questions hand-wash rules http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-31127704

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From BBC : Egypt court upholds death sentences


Egypt court upholds death sentences http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31093296

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From BBC : US ponders arming Ukraine forces


US ponders arming Ukraine forces http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-31104979

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FROM CNN : Obama: U.S. not at war on radical Islam


Obama: U.S. not at war on radical Islam
http://www.cnn.com//2015/02/01/politics/obama-radical-islam-terrorism-war/index.html

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From France 24 :


Chadian troops repel Boko Haram attack in Cameroon

http://f24.my/18CRqjk

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From. BBC :


Check out @BBC_Future’s Tweet: https://twitter.com/BBC_Future/status/561547196521537538?s=09

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From CNN : Another security gap at airports: Background checks


Another security gap at airports: Background checks
http://www.cnn.com//2015/02/03/us/airport-security-gaps/index.html

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From CNN : 5 myths about vaccines


5 myths about vaccines
http://www.cnn.com//2015/02/04/us/5-vaccine-myths/index.html

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From CNN : Dr. Sanjay Gupta: Vaccines a matter of fact


Dr. Sanjay Gupta: Vaccines a matter of fact
http://www.cnn.com//2015/02/03/health/measles-gupta-fact/index.html

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From BBC : A new beginning for Detroit


A new beginning for Detroit http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-31137018

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From BBC : French prisons fertile ground for Islamists


French prisons fertile ground for Islamists http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-31129398

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From BBC : Venezuela seeks mediation with US


Venezuela seeks mediation with US http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-31142684

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From BBC : New Ebola cases in first 2015 rise


New Ebola cases in first 2015 rise http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-31140987

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From BBC : MPs urge Britain to step up IS fight


MPs urge Britain to step up IS fight http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-31136504

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From BBC : ECB toughens its stance on Greece


ECB toughens its stance on Greece http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-31142437

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From BBC : Greste back home after Egypt jail


Greste back home after Egypt jail http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-australia-31135514

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Saint of the Day for Wednesday, February 4th, 2015 : St. Joan of Valois


Today In History. What Happened This Day In History


Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

February 4

786   Harun al-Rashid succeeds his older brother the Abbasid Caliph al-Hadi as Caliph of Baghdad.
1194   Richard I, King of England, is freed from captivity in Germany.
1508   The Proclamation of Trent is made.
1787   Shay’s Rebellion, an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers against the new U.S. government, fails.
1795   France abolishes slavery in her territories and confers slaves to citizens.
1889   Harry Longabaugh is released from Sundance Prison in Wyoming, thereby acquiring the famous nickname, “the Sundance Kid.”
1899   After an exchange of gunfire, fighting breaks out between American troops and Filipinos near Manila, sparking the Philippine-American War
1906   The New York Police Department begins finger print identification.
1909   California law segregates Caucasian and Japanese schoolchildren.
1915   Germany decrees British waters as part of the war zone; all ships to be sunk without warning.
1923   French troops take the territories of Offenburg, Appenweier and Buhl in the Ruhr as a part of the agreement ending World War I.
1932   Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt inaugurates the Winter Olympics at Lake Placid, N.Y.
1941   The United Service Organization (U.S.O.) is formed to cater to armed forces and defense industries.
1944   The Japanese attack the Indian Seventh Army in Burma.
1945   The Big Three, American, British and Soviet leaders, meet in Yalta to discuss the war aims.
1966   Senate Foreign Relations Committee begins televised hearings on the Vietnam War.
1980   Syria withdraws its peacekeeping force in Beirut.
1986   The U.S. Post Office issues a commemorative stamp featuring Sojourner Truth.
Born on February 4
1881   Fernand Leger, French painter.
1900   Jacques Prevert, French poet, screenwriter (The Visitors of the Evening, The Children of Paradise).
1902   Charles Lindbergh, the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic.
1906   Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German Protestant theologian.
1906   Clyde Tombaugh, astronomer, discovered Pluto.
1913   Rosa Lee Parks, civil rights activist.
1921   Betty Friedan, writer, feminist, founded the National Organization of Women in 1966.
1925   Russell Hoban, artist and writer (Bedtime for Frances, The Mouse and His Child).
1932   Robert Coover, novelist & short story writer.
1947   Dan Quayle, vice president under President George H.W. Bush.

– See more at: http://www.historynet.com/today-in-history#sthash.fNGS84mj.dpuf

image of the day: Louis Braille simplified six dot alphabet for the visually impaired



Louis Braille

Louis Braille, born February 4, 1809, was blinded at age four as the result of an accident in his father’s shop. Nevertheless, he became an accomplished organist and cellist and won a scholarship in 1819 to attend the National Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. At age 15, Louis witnessed a demonstration there by Charles Barbier, a soldier who had invented ‘night writing,’ a system of letters embossed on cardboard for silent communication along trenches. While Barbier’s system was too complex to be practical, Braille simplified and adapted it to a six-dot code representing letters that enabled people with impaired vision to not only read but also write for themselves. In 1827, the first Braille book was published, but Braille himself died of tuberculosis at age 43–before his system gained widespread acceptance.

– See more at: http://www.historynet.com/picture-of-the-day#sthash.R7bxTawE.dpuf

todays’ holiday: Sri Lanka National Day (2015)


Sri Lanka National Day (2015)

The former British colony of Ceylon changed its name in 1972 to Sri Lanka, which means “Blessed Isle.” Sri Lankans commemorate the granting of their independence from Great Britain on February 4, 1948, with public gatherings throughout the island and special services in the temples, churches, and mosques. There are also parades, folk dances, processions, and national games. More… Discuss

quotation: Love and scandal are the best sweeteners of tea. Henry Fielding


Love and scandal are the best sweeteners of tea.

Henry Fielding (1707-1754) Discuss

today’s birthday; Oscar De La Hoya (1973)


Oscar De La Hoya (1973)

At age 19, De La Hoya made his professional debut in the world of boxing, following in the footsteps of his pugilist grandfather and father. It came hot on the heels of an impressive Olympic performance, where he earned gold for the US Boxing Team, and he quickly made a name for himself as an international superstar. When De La Hoya defeated Felix Sturm in 2004, he became the first boxer in history to win world titles in six different weight divisions. How many punches did he throw in the fight? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Confederate States of America Established (1861)


Confederate States of America Established (1861)

Although Abraham Lincoln had stated his willingness to tolerate slavery where it currently existed, his election as US president precipitated the secession of several Southern states. South Carolina, the first to secede, was soon followed out of the Union by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. On February 4, 1861, delegates from the seceding states met in Alabama to organize a provisional government. Who was elected president of the Confederate States of America? More… Discuss

UK May Be First to Allow “3-Parent Babies”


UK May Be First to Allow “3-Parent Babies”

The UK House of Commons voted Tuesday to allow a method of in vitro fertilization that uses DNA from three people. The House of Lords must approve the proposal before it becomes law. If it does, the UK would become the first country to allow the technique, which is intended to limit the transfer of mitochondrial disease from mother to child by combining a donor’s healthy mitochondrial DNA with nuclear DNA from the intended father and mother. The nuclear DNA of the donor egg would be removed in the process. Many ethical concerns about the process have been raised. More… Discuss

The Salic Law


The Salic Law

The Salic law was the rule of succession in some royal and noble European families that forbid females to succeed to certain titles or offices in the family. It likely came from the Salian Franks, who prohibited women from succeeding to the throne. The rule was most prominently enforced by the house of Valois and the succeeding house of Bourbon in France and was involved in the rivalry of Stephen and Matilda for the English throne. What impact did it have when Victoria became queen of England? More… Discuss

word: captious


captious

Definition: (adjective) Marked by a disposition to find and point out trivial faults.
Synonyms: faultfinding
Usage: She found the new professor to be captious, marking all the grammatical errors in her essays while ignoring the points she had tried to make. Discuss.

Leonard Cohen – So long, Marianne [Studio Version] (“…I forget to pray for the angels And then the angels forget to pray for us…”)


Leonard Cohen – So long, Marianne [Studio Version]

Franz Liszt – 14 Schubert Lieder , great compositions/performances


Franz Liszt – 14 Schubert Lieder

Schubert: Piano Trio in E-flat major, Op. 100 , New England Conservatory


Schubert: Piano Trio in E-flat major, Op. 100

Nikolaj Rimski-Korsakov – Piano Trio in C Minor , great compositions/performances


Nikolaj Rimski-Korsakov – Piano Trio in C Minor

Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov – Fantasia on Russian Themes / Фантазия на русские темы , great compositions/performances


Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov – Fantasia on Russian Themes / Фантазия на русские темы

George Enescu – Rapsodia Romana Nr. 1 (completa) dirijor Sergiu Celibidache , great compositions/performances


George Enescu – Rapsodia Romana Nr. 1 (completa) dirijor Sergiu Celibidache

Penes Curcanul de Vasile Alecsandri (Sa ne onoram eroii, cei ce ne-au daruit locul in lume!)



Penes Curcanul de [Vasile_Alecsandri ] 2002-08-08  |     |  Înscris în bibliotecă de aleksandar stoicovici

Penes Curcanul

Plecat-am noua din Vaslui,

Si cu sergentul, zece,
Si nu-i era, zau, nimanui
In pept inima rece.

Voiosi ca soimul cel usor

Ce zboara de pe munte,
Aveam chiar pene la picior,
S-aveam si pene-n frunte.

Toti dorobanti, toti căciulari,
Romani de vita veche,
Purtind opinci, suman, itari
Si cusma pe-o ureche.

Ne dase nume de Curcani
Un hitru bun de glume,
Noi am schimbat linga Balcani
Porecla în renume !

Din cimp, de-acasa, de la plug

Plecat-am asta-vara
Ca să scapam de turci, de jug

Sarmana, scumpa tara.
Asa ne spuse-n graiul sau

Sergentul Matraguna,
Si noi ne-am dus cu Dumnezeu,

Ne-am dus cu voie buna.
Oricine-n cale ne-ntilnea

Cîntînd în gura mare,

Statea pe loc, s-adimenea

Cuprins de admirare;
Apoi în treacat ne-ntreba
De mergem la vro nunta ?
Noi raspundeam în hohot:
,,Ba,
Zburam la lupta crunta !”
,,Cu zile mergeti, dragii mei,

Si să veniti cu zile !”
Ziceau atunci batrini, femei,
Si preoti, si copile;
Dar cel sergent far’ de musteti
Racnea:
,,Să n-aveti teama,
Romanul are septe vieti In pieptu-i de arama !
Ah ! cui ar fi trecut prin gînd
S-ar fi crezut vrodata

Ca multi lipsi-vor în curind
Din mindra noastra ceata !

Priviti ! Din noua cîti cram,
Si cu sergentul, zece,

Ramas-am singur eu… si am
In piept inima rece !

Crud e cînd intra prin stejari

Naprasnica secure,
De-abate toti copacii mari

Din falnica padure !
Dar vai de-a lumei neagra stea
Când moartea nemiloasa
Ca-n codru viu patrunde-n ea
Si cînd securea-i coasa !
Copii ! aduceti un ulcior
De ape de sub stinca,
Să sting pojarul meu de dor
Si jalea mea adinca.
Ah ! ochii-mi sint plini de scântei
Si mult cumplit mă doare
Când mă î la fratii mei,
Cu toti periti în floare.
Cobuz ciobanu-n Calafat
Cinta voios din fluter,
Iar noi jucam hora din sat,
Rîzînd de-a boambei suier.
Deodat-o schija de obuz
Trasnind… minca-o-ar focul !
Reteaza capul lui Cobuz
S-astfel ne curma jocul.
Trei zile-n urma am razbit
Prin Dunarea umilata,
Si nu departe-am tabarit
De Plevna blestemata.
In fata noastra se-nalta
A Grivitei reduta,
Balaur crunt ce-ameninta
Cu gheara-i nevazuta.
Dar si noi inca o pindeam
Cum se pindeste-o fiara
Si tot chiteam si ne gindeam
Cum să ne cada-n gheara ?
Din ziori în ziori si turci si noi
Zvirleam în aer plumbii
Cum zvirli graunti de popusoi
Ca să hranesti porumbii.
Si tunuri sute bubuiau…
Se clatina pamintul !
Si mii de boambe vîjîiau
Trecînd în zbor ca vintul.
Sedea ascuns turcu-n ocol
Ca ursu-n vizunie.
Pe când trageam noi tot în gol,
El tot în carne vie
Tintes era dibaci tunar,
Căci toate-a lui ghiulele
Loveau turcescul furnicar,
Ducind moartea cu ele.
Dar intr-o zi veni din fort
Un glonte, numai unul,
Si bietul Tintes cazu mort,
Imbratisindu-si tunul.
Pe-o noapte oarba,
Bran si Vlad Erau în sentinele.
Ferbea vazduhul ca un iad
De boambe, de srapnele.
In ziori gasit-am pe-amindoi
Taiati de iatagane,
Alature c-un moviloi
De lesuri musulmane.
Sarmanii ! bine s-au luptat
Cu litfa cea pagina
Si chiar murind ei n-au lasat
Să cad-arma din mâna.
Dar ce folos ! ceata scadea !
S-acuma ramasese
Cinci numai, cinci flacai din ea.
Si cu sergentul, sese !…
Veni si ziua de asalt,
Cea zi de sânge uda !
Parea tot omul mai inalt
Fata cu moartea cruda.
Sergentul nostru, pui de zmeu,
Ne zis-aste cuvinte:
,,Cit n-om fi morti, voi cinci si eu Copii, tot inainte !”
Facind trei cruci, noi am raspuns:
,,Amin ! si Doamne-ajuta !”
Apoi la fuga am impuns
Spre-a turcilor reduta.
Alelei ! Doamne, cum zburau
Voinicii toti cu mine !
Si cum la santuri alergau
Cu scari si cu fasine !
Iata-ne-ajunsi !… inca un pas ,,Ura !-nainte, ura !…”
Dar multi ramin fara de glas.
Le-nchide moartea gura !
Reduta-n noi rapede-un foc
Cit nu-1 incape gindul.
Un sir intreg s-abate-n loc,
Dar altul ii ia rindul.
Burcel în sant moare zdrobind
O tidva pagîneasca.
Soimu-n redan cade racnind ,,Moldova să traiasca !”
Doi frati Calini, ciuntiti de vii,
Se zvircolesc în sânge;
Nici unul insa, dragi copii,
Nici unul nu se plânge.
Atunci viteazul capitan
Cu-o larga brazda-n frunte,
Striga voios: ,,Cine-i Curcan,
Si fie soim de munte !”
Cu steagu-n mini, el sprintenel
Viu suie-o scara-nalta.
Eu cu sergentul dupa el Sarim delaolalta.
Prin foc, prin spangi, prin glonti, prinfum,
Prin mii de baionete,
Urcam, luptam… iata-ne-acum
Sus, sus, la parapete. ,,Allah ! Allah !” turcii racnesc,
Sarind pe noi o suta.
Noi punem steagul romanesc
Pe crincena reduta.
Ura ! maret se-nalta-n vint Stindardul Romaniei !
Noi insa zacem la pământ
Cazuti prada urgiei !
Sergentul moare suierind
Pe turci în risipire,
Iar capitanul admirind
Stindardu-n fîlfîire !
Si eu, când ochii am inchis,
Când mi-am luat osinda:
,,Ah ! pot să mor de-acum, am zis,
A noastra e izbinda !”
Apoi, când iarasi m-am trezit
Din noaptea cea amara,
Colea pe rani eu am gasit
,,Virtutea militara !…”
Ah ! da-o-ar Domnul să-mi indrept
Aceasta mâna rupta,
Să-mi vindec ranile din pept,
Iar să mă-ntorc la lupta,
Căci nu-i mai scamp nimica az
Pe lumea paminteasca
Decit un nume de viteaz
Si moartea vitejeasca !

Sergentul, de Vasile Alecsandri


Sergentul
poezie

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
de [Vasile_Alecsandri ]

2002-08-08  |     |  Înscris în bibliotecă de aleksandar stoicovici

Sergentul Pe drumul de costise ce duce la Vaslui
Venea un om, cu jale zicind în gindul lui:
“Mai lunga-mi pare calea acum la-ntors acasa…
As vrea să zbor, si rana din pulpa nu mă lasa!”
Si bietul om, slab, palid, avind sumanul rupt
Si o camesa rupta bucati pe dedesupt,
Pasea tragind piciorul încet, dar pe-a lui fata
Zbura ca o lumina de glorie mareata,
Si-n ochii lui de vulturi adinci, vioi si mari
Trecea lucioase umbre de eroi legendari.

Opinca-i era sparta, căciula desfundata,
Dar fruntea lui de raze parea incoronata.
Calica-i era haina, dar straluceau pe ea
Si crucea “Sfintul Gheorghe” si a “Romaniei Stea”.
Romanul venea singur pe drumul plin de soare,
Când iata ca aude fanfare sunatoare
Si vede nu departre în fata lui venind
Un corp de oaste mindra în aur stralucind.
Erau trei batalione de garda-mparateasca
Mergând voiios la Plevna cu dor s-o cucereasca.

In frunte-i colonelul semet, pe calu-i pag,
La bravii sai tovarasi privea ades cu drag,
Si inima în pieptu-i batea cu foc, desteapta,
Căci el visa, privindu-i, la lupta ce-i asteapta.
Deodat’ el da cu ochii de sarbedul roman
Ce stase-n loc la umbra, sub un stejar batrân,
Si mult se minuneaza, si nici ca-i vine-a crede
Când crucea “Sfintul Gheorghe” pe sinul lui o vede.
S-opreste regimentul, iar bravul colonel
Se-nchina la drumetul, s-apropie de el.

Si-i zice cu blindeta: “De unde vii straine?”
“Vin tocmai de la Plevna.” “Cum e acolo?” “Bine.”
“Dar aste decoratii cum, cine ti le-au dat?”
“Chiar domninorul nostru s-al vostru imparat.”
“Dar pentru care fapte?” “Stiu eu?… Cica drept plata
Ca am luat eu steagul redutei… si pe data
Cu el, strapunsi de glonturi, ne-am prabusit în sant…”
“Dar ce rang ai voinice?” “Am rang… de dorobant!”
Atunci colonelul, dând mâna cu sergentul,
Se-ntoarce, da un ordin… Pe loc, tot regimentul
Se-nsira, poarta arma, saluta cu onor
Romanul care pleaca tragind a lui picior.

 

Siege of Pleven (Plevna): The fight to disrupt the expansion of the ottoman empire costed many precios lives but for the most noble of causes: the right to self determination, Liberty and Independence from an evil empire


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Siege of Pleven
Part of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
Grivita 1877.jpg
Date 20 July – 10 December 1877
Location Plevne, Ottoman Empire
(now Pleven, Bulgaria)

43°25′N 24°37′ECoordinates: 43°25′N 24°37′E
Result Russian/Romanian victory[1]
Belligerents
 Russian Empire
Romania Romania
Flag of Stiliana Paraskevova.svg Bulgarian volunteers
 Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Russian Empire Tsar Alexander II[2]
Russian Empire Grand Duke Nicholas
Russian Empire Eduard Totleben
Romania Prince Carol I of Romania
Ottoman Empire Osman Nuri Pasha Surrendered
Strength
150,000 40,000
Casualties and losses
40,000 killed or wounded 10,000 killed or wounded
30,000 surrendered

 Map

The Siege of Plevna, or Siege of Pleven, was a major battle of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), fought by the joint army of Russia and Romania against the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman defense held up the main Russian advance southwards into Bulgaria, encouraging other great powers of the time to actively support the Ottoman cause. Eventually, superior Russian and Romanian numbers forced the garrison to capitulate.

Background

In July 1877 the Russian Army, under the command of Grand Duke Nicholas, moved toward the Danube River virtually unopposed, as the Ottomans had no sizable force in the area. The Ottoman high command sent an army under the command of Osman Nuri Pasha to reinforce Nikopol, but the city fell to the Russian vanguard in the Battle of Nikopol (16 July 1877) before Osman reached it. He settled on Plevna, a town among vineyards in a deep rocky valley some twenty miles to the south of Nikopol, as a defensive position. The Ottomans quickly created a strong fortress, raising earthworks with redoubts, digging trenches, and quarrying out gun emplacements. From Plevne (Plevna) Osman’s army dominated the main strategic routes into the heart of Bulgaria. As the Turks hurried to complete their defenses, Russian forces began to arrive.

The Siege

First Battle

Gen. Schilder-Schuldner, commanding the Russian 5th Division, IX Corps, received orders to occupy Plevna. Schilder-Schuldner arrived outside the town on 19 July and began bombarding the Ottoman defenses. The next day his troops attacked and succeeded in driving Ottoman forces from some of the outer defenses; however, Osman Pasha brought up reinforcements and launched a series of counterattacks, which drove the Russians from the captured trenches, inflicting 4,000 casualties at a cost of 1,000 of his own men.

Second Battle

Osman Pasha strengthened his defences and built more redoubts, his force growing to 20,000 men, while the Russians obtained reinforcements from the army of Prince Carol of Romania (later king Carol I of Romania), who made the stipulation that he be given command of the joint besieging force. Gen. Nikolai Kridener also arrived with the Russian IX Corps. On 31 July Russian headquarters ordered Kridener to assault the town, attacking from three sides, with every expectation of a Russo-Romanian triumph. General Schakofsky’s cavalry attacked the eastern redoubts, while an infantry division under General Mikhail Skobelev assailed the Grivitsa redoubt to the north. Schakofsky managed to take two redoubts, but by the end of the day the Ottoman forces succeeded in repulsing all the attacks and retaking lost ground. Russian losses amounted to 7,300, and the Ottomans’ to 2,000.

Third Battle

 King Carol I salutes the Romanian army crossing the Danube

After repulsing the Russian attacks, Osman failed to press his advantage and possibly drive off the besiegers; he did, however, make a cavalry sortie on 31 August that cost the Russian 1,300 casualties, and the Ottomans 1,000. The Russians continued to send reinforcements to Plevna, and their army swelled to 100,000 men, now personally led by the Grand Duke. On 3 September Skobelev reduced the Turkish garrison at Lovech, guarding the Ottoman supply lines, before Osman could move out to relieve it (see main article: Battle of Lovcha). The Ottoman army organized the survivors of Lovech into 3 battalions for the Plevna defenses. Osman also received a reinforcement of 13 battalions, bringing his total strength to 30,000—the highest it would reach during the siege.

In August, Romanian troops led by General Alexandru Cernat crossed the Danube and entered the battle with 43,414 men.[3]

On 11 September the Russians and Romanians made a large-scale assault on Plevna. The Ottoman forces were dug in and equipped with German Krupp-manufactured steel breech-loading artillery and American-manufactured Winchester repeaters[4] and Peabody-Martini rifles. For three hours they poured murderous fire into the waves of advancing Russians.[5] Czar Alexander II and his brother Grand Duke Nicolas watched from a pavilion built on a hillside out of the line of fire.[6] Skobelev took two southern redoubts. The Romanian 4th division lead by General George Manu took the Grivitsa redoubt after 4 bloody assaults, personally assisted by Prince Carol. The next day, the Turks retook the southern redoubts, but could not dislodge the Romanians, who repelled three counterattacks. From the beginning of September, Russian losses had amounted to roughly 20,000, while the Ottomans lost only 5,000.

 The Plevna Chapel on St Elijah’s Square in Moscow, opened in 1882, commemorates the Russian soldiers who died in the Battle of Plevna.

Fourth Battle

Growing Russian and Romanian casualties put a halt to frontal assaults. Gen. Eduard Ivanovich Todleben arrived to oversee the conduct of the siege as the army chief of staff. Todleben had proven command experience in siege warfare, having gained renown for his defense of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War. He decided on a complete encirclement of the city and its defenders. Osman requested permission from his superiors to abandon Plevna and retreat, but the Ottoman high command would not allow him to do so. By 24 October the Russians and Romanians had closed the ring. Supplies began to run low in the city, and Osman finally made an attempt to break the Russian siege in the direction of Opanets. On 9 December the Ottoman forces silently emerged at dead of night, threw bridges over and crossed the Vit River, attacked on a two-mile front, and broke through the first line of Russian trenches. Here they fought hand to hand and bayonet to bayonet, with, at first, little advantage to either side; however, outnumbering the Ottoman forces almost 5 to 1, the Russians eventually drove them back across the Vit, wounding Osman in the process (he was hit in the leg by a stray bullet, which killed his horse beneath him). Rumours of his death created panic. After making a brief stand, the Ottoman forces found themselves driven back into the city, losing 5,000 men to the Russians’ 2,000. The next day Osman surrendered the city, the garrison and his sword to Romanian Col. Mihail Cerchez. He was treated honorably, but his troops perished in the snows by the thousands as they straggled off into captivity.

Results

 Sword surrendered by Edhem Pasha after the defeat at Plevna.

 The monument 2008

“Plevna is one of the few engagements which changed the course of history” A. J. P. Taylor, The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848-1918, (Oxford 1954) p. 245. The Siege of Plevna seriously delayed the main Russian advance into Bulgaria, but its end freed up Russian reinforcements, which were sent to Gen. Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko, who then decisively defeated the Ottoman forces in the fourth battle of Shipka Pass. The siege was widely reported on and followed by the public in Europe and beyond. Although the declining Ottoman Empire was by this time often regarded as “the sick man of Europe”, the Ottoman Army’s five-month-long resistance in the face of overwhelming odds earned a degree of admiration, which may have contributed to the unsympathetic treatment of the Russian Empire at the Congress of Berlin. The siege of Plevna also signalled the introduction of the repeating rifle into European warfare.[5] Russian troops at Plevna were largely armed with the M1869 Krnka, a single shot lifting breech block conversion of the muzzle loading M1857 rifled musket even though some units had been reequipped with the more modern, but still single shot, Berdan rifle.[5] The old Krnka was soundly outperformed by the more modern single shot Turkish Peabody-Martini rifles and it became clear that the new Berdan rifle had also been rendered obsolete even as it was being introduced into service, outclassed by the Turkish Winchester repeaters. Reports of the heavy losses suffered by the Russian army at the hands of the Turks at Plevna forced armies across Europe to begin the process of either reequipping with repeating rifles or finding a way to convert their existing single shot rifles into magazine fed weapons.

Legacy

  • A large new factory building, completed in 1877, of the Finlayson & Co cotton mill in Tampere, Finland was named Plevna commemorating the battle and the Guard of Finland that took part.[7]
  • The city of Plevna, Montana in the United States was given its name by Bulgarian immigrants building the railroad there in honor of the battle of Plevna.
  • In other countries, there are five cities and towns named after Plevna, and there are eighteen Plevna streets in Britain alone.
  • At least one main Street in Bucharest Romania has received the name the  PLevna’s Way (Calea Plevnei)  to comemmorate the marching regiments of Dorobants (Romanian Army),  of which many have never returned home!

In popular culture

  • The best-selling Russian detective novel The Turkish Gambit, the second book in the Erast Fandorin series, is set at the Siege of Plevna.
  • A famous Mehteran (Ottoman military band) piece “Osman Paşa Marşı” (Osman Pasha March) honors the courageous defense of the Plevna; and is one of the most well-known marches in Turkey.
  • Under the Red Crescent by Charles Snodgrass Ryan, Australian Surgeon at the Siege of Plevna, who later operated in the Gallipoli campaign and negotiated with his old friends for burial armistices.

Mozart – Alla Turca – Turkish March (60 Minutes Version)


Mozart – Alla Turca – Turkish March (60 Minutes Version)

Published on Jul 17, 2014/214,439

Rondo Alla Turca by Mozart in a 60 minutes rendition from a very rare LP recording featuring piano and orchestra with a repetition of the piece for more than 10 times. This version of the Alla Turca, also known as the Turkish March is the only one accompanied by a symphony orchestra with a more soothing and deep sound of this true master piece by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

The melodic lines in the orchestra are more in the style of Beethoven & Tchaikovsky than Mozart, and remind a little bit of the James Bond Theme, but the concept of the piece is originally followed. Let’s say that this is a modern version of the Turkish March enhanced with the rich orchestral sound.

Enjoy and relax while listening to this really long and calming version of Rondo alla Turca, which can be used for various occasions like music for healing, reading, homework, learning, relaxing, stress relief and even for a musical ambiance if you have some guests at home and when doing any other useful things as well.

Thanks for watching Alla turca by Mozart and if you like it, please subscribe to this channel, for more innovative & enjoyable music like this to come soon!

Tags: Mozart, Turkish March, Alla Turca, Rondo, Original, Long version, 60 minutes, Wolfgang, Amadeus, Austria, Salzburg, Piano, Orchestra, Piano Sonata No. 11, Relaxing, Stress relief, famous, classical music, concentration, learning, study, zen, music for healing, reading, Моцарт, Турецкий марш, Türkische Marsch, Marsz Turecki, Türk Marşı

Rimsky-Korsakov – Fairy Tale (skazka), Op. 29 , great compositions/performances


Rimsky-Korsakov – Fairy Tale (skazka), Op. 29

Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov,Symphonic Suite:”Antar” (Symphony No.2) , great compositions/performances


Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov,Symphonic Suite:”Antar” (Symphony No.2).

Dvorak : Symphony No.1 in C Minor, “The Bells of Zlonice” , great compositions/performances


Dvorak : Symphony No.1 in C Minor, “The Bells of Zlonice”