Daily Archives: March 10, 2015

U.S. banks’ buybacks, dividends may be no reason for shareholder celebrations | Reuters



People walk by the JP Morgan & Chase Co. building in New York October 24, 2013. REUTERS-Eric Thayer

People walk by the JP Morgan & Chase Co. building in New York October 24, 2013. REUTERS-Eric Thayer

A Citibank sign is seen outside of a bank outlet in New York March 4, 2009. REUTERS-Lucas Jackson

1 of 2. People walk by the JP Morgan & Chase Co. building in New York October 24, 2013.

Credit: Reuters/Eric Thayer

(Reuters) – Big U.S. banks, including JPMorgan Chase & Co (JPM.N) and Citigroup Inc (C.N), are expected to win Federal Reserve backing on Wednesday to buy back more shares and increase their dividends in the coming year, but the approvals may be as much about the institutions’ financial engineering as any improvement in their health.

Much of the money for buybacks and higher dividends is coming from the banks issuing securities known as preferred shares. These shares are a type of equity that pays regular, relatively high dividends. To investors they look a lot like bonds that pay interest. But for regulators, preferred shares serve as a cushion against any future losses, in part because they never have to be repaid.

Critics of the strategy question how sustainable it is, as banks essentially take money from one set of investors and give it to another, and at an added cost.

Issuing preferred shares to pay for common share dividends and buybacks is a symptom of a “zombie banking system,” said veteran banking analyst David Hendler of independent research firm Viola Risk Advisors.

“Banks should be building capital from normal lending and trading profits, but their operating income is terrible,” he added.

Income has been falling or stagnant at the biggest Wall Street banks, thanks in part to big legal settlements stemming from the financial crisis. For the U.S. banking system as a whole, operating income in 2014 was $151.15 billion, down 0.4 percent from the year before, according to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.

Spokesmen for Citigroup, JPMorgan and the Federal Reserve declined to comment.

To be sure, the steps banks are taking are within regulators’ rules. The Federal Reserve allows banks to use preferred shares for at least part of their capital.

Citigroup, for example, issued $3.7 billion of preferred shares in 2014 and has publicly disclosed plans to issue $4 billion of preferred shares this year and another $4 billion to $6 billion before 2019.

Veteran bank analyst Mike Mayo, who is at brokerage CLSA, estimates that the bank will ask to return roughly $7 billion of extra capital annually to shareholders in the coming year. “The preferred gives them an extra cushion” over minimum capital requirements to make the payouts, Mayo said.

Selling preferred shares to boost payouts to common shareholders can’t go on forever without banks improving their results enough to boost their capital levels significantly.

Mayo expects that next year Citigroup will come up with additional excess capital from a planned sale of assets, including its OneMain personal lending unit.

JPMorgan issued nearly $9 billion of preferred shares this past year and other banks have said they expect to issue more. JPMorgan said in February that the sales will go toward satisfying pending requirements that big banks have enough capital to absorb losses in a financial crisis.

via U.S. banks’ buybacks, dividends may be no reason for shareholder celebrations | Reuters.

From France 24 :


Lyon’s Nabil Fekir decides to play for France over Algeria

http://f24.my/1aZUxTD

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Bill O’Reilly finally addresses JFK questions


Bill O’Reilly finally addresses JFK questions
http://money.cnn.com/2015/03/10/media/bill-oreilly-jfk/index.html

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8 oddities of Hillary Clinton’s email presser


8 oddities of Hillary Clinton’s email presser
http://www.cnn.com//2015/03/10/politics/hillary-clinton-press-conference-will-satisfy-few/index.html

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8 oddities of Hillary Clinton’s email presser


8 oddities of Hillary Clinton’s email presser
http://www.cnn.com//2015/03/10/politics/hillary-clinton-press-conference-will-satisfy-few/index.html

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Ferguson city manager steps down


Ferguson city manager steps down
http://www.cnn.com//2015/03/10/us/ferguson-city-manager/index.html

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Deputy U.S. marshal killed serving warrant


Deputy U.S. marshal killed serving warrant
http://www.cnn.com//2015/03/10/us/louisiana-marshal-killed/index.html

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Colombia suspends bombing of Farc


Colombia suspends bombing of Farc http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-31827852

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Titanium dioxide: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (when used in foods: E171)


Titanium dioxide (E171)

READ MORE:

Dunkin’ Donuts to remove “potentially harmful” ingredient from recipe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Titanium dioxide
Titanium(IV) oxide
The unit cell of rutile
Names
IUPAC names

Titanium dioxide
Titanium(IV) oxide
Other names

Identifiers
13463-67-7 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:32234 Yes
ChEMBL ChEMBL1201136 
ChemSpider 24256 Yes
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG C13409 
PubChem 26042
RTECS number XR2775000
UNII 15FIX9V2JP Yes
Properties
TiO
2
Molar mass 79.866 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor odorless
Density 4.23 g/cm3 (Rutile)3.78 g/cm3 (Anatase)
Melting point 1,843 °C (3,349 °F; 2,116 K)
Boiling point 2,972 °C (5,382 °F; 3,245 K)
insoluble
2.488 (anatase)
2.583 (brookite)
2.609 (rutile)
Thermochemistry
50 J·mol−1·K−1[1]
−945 kJ·mol−1[1]
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 0338
EU classification Not listed
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 four-colored diamond

Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other cations
Zirconium dioxide
Hafnium dioxide
Titanium(II) oxide
Titanium(III) oxide
Titanium(III,IV) oxide
Related compounds
Titanic acid
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
  verify (what isYes/?)
Infobox references
   

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO
2
. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. Generally it is sourced from ilmenite, rutile and anatase. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food colouring. When used as a food colouring, it has E number E171.

Occurrence

Titanium dioxide occurs in nature as well-known minerals rutile, anatase and brookite, and additionally as two high pressure forms, a monoclinic baddeleyite-like form and an orthorhombic α-PbO2-like form, both found recently at the Ries crater in Bavaria.[2][3] It is mainly sourced from ilmenite ore. This is the most widespread form of titanium dioxide-bearing ore around the world. Rutile is the next most abundant and contains around 98% titanium dioxide in the ore. The metastable anatase and brookite phases convert irreversibly to the equilibrium rutile phase upon heating above temperatures in the range 600°-800 °C.[4]

Titanium dioxide has eight modifications – in addition to rutile, anatase, and brookite, three metastable phases can be produced synthetically (monoclinic, tetragonal and orthorombic), and five high-pressure forms (α-PbO2-like, baddeleyite-like, cotunnite-like, orthorhombic OI, and cubic phases) also exist:

Form Crystal system Synthesis
rutile tetragonal  
anatase tetragonal  
brookite orthorhombic  
TiO2(B)[5] monoclinic Hydrolysis of K2Ti4O9 followed by heating
TiO2(H), hollandite-like form[6] tetragonal Oxidation of the related potassium titanate bronze, K0.25TiO2
TiO2(R), ramsdellite-like form[7] orthorhombic Oxidation of the related lithium titanate bronze Li0.5TiO2
TiO2(II)-(α-PbO2-like form)[8] orthorhombic  
baddeleyite-like form, (7 coordinated Ti)[9] monoclinic  
TiO2 -OI[10] orthorhombic  
cubic form[11] cubic P > 40 GPa, T > 1600 °C
TiO2 -OII, cotunnite(PbCl2)-like[12] orthorhombic P > 40 GPa, T > 700 °C

The cotunnite-type phase was claimed by L. Dubrovinsky and co-authors to be the hardest known oxide with the Vickers hardness of 38 GPa and the bulk modulus of 431 GPa (i.e. close to diamond’s value of 446 GPa) at atmospheric pressure.[12] However, later studies came to different conclusions with much lower values for both the hardness (7–20 GPa, which makes it softer than common oxides like corundum Al2O3 and rutile TiO2)[13] and bulk modulus (~300 GPa).[14][15]

The oxides are commercially important ores of titanium. The metal can also be mined from other minerals such as ilmenite or leucoxene ores, or one of the purest forms, rutile beach sand. Star sapphires and rubies get their asterism from rutile impurities present in them.[16]

Titanium dioxide (B) is found as a mineral in magmatic rocks and hydrothermal veins, as well as weathering rims on perovskite. TiO2 also forms lamellae in other minerals.[17]

Spectral lines from titanium oxide are prominent in class M stars, which are cool enough to allow molecules of this chemical to form.

 

Production

The production method depends on the feedstock. The most common method for the production of titanium dioxide utilizes the mineral ilmenite. Ilmenite is mixed with sulfuric acid. This reacts to remove the iron oxide group in the ilmenite. The by-product iron(II) sulfate is crystallized and filtered-off to yield only the titanium salt in the digestion solution. This product is called synthetic rutile. This is further processed in a similar way to rutile to give the titanium dioxide product. Synthetic rutile and titanium slags are made especially for titanium dioxide production.[18] The use of ilminite ore usually only produces pigment grade titanium dioxide. Another method for the production of synthetic rutile from ilmenite utilizes the Becher Process.

Rutile is the second most abundant mineral sand. Rutile found in primary rock cannot be extracted hence the deposits containing rutile sand can be mined meaning a reduced availability to the high concentration ore. Crude titanium dioxide (in the form of rutile or synthetic rutile) is purified via converting to titanium tetrachloride in the chloride process. In this process, the crude ore (containing at least 70% TiO2) is reduced with carbon, oxidized with chlorine to give titanium tetrachloride; i.e., carbothermal chlorination. This titanium tetrachloride is distilled, and re-oxidized in a pure oxygen flame or plasma at 1500–2000 K to give pure titanium dioxide while also regenerating chlorine.[19] Aluminium chloride is often added to the process as a rutile promotor; the product is mostly anatase in its absence. The preferred raw material for the chloride process is natural rutile because of its high titanium dioxide content.[20]

One method for the production of titanium dioxide with relevance to nanotechnology is solvothermal Synthesis of titanium dioxide.

 
Titanium oxide nanotubes, SEM image.

 

Nanotubes

Anatase can be converted by hydrothermal synthesis to delaminated anatase inorganic nanotubes[21] and titanate nanoribbons which are of potential interest as catalytic supports and photocatalysts. In the synthesis, anatase is mixed with 10 M sodium hydroxide and heated at 130 °C for 72 hours. The reaction product is washed with dilute hydrochloric acid and heated at 400 °C for another 15 hours. The yield of nanotubes is quantitative and the tubes have an outer diameter of 10 to 20 nm and an inner diameter of 5 to 8 nm and have a length of 1 μm. A higher reaction temperature (170 °C) and less reaction volume gives the corresponding nanowires.[22]

Another process for synthesizing TiO
2
nanotubes is through anodization in an electrolytic solution. When anodized in a 0.5 weight percent HF solution for 20 minutes, well-aligned titanium oxide nanotube arrays can be fabricated with an average tube diameter of 60 nm and length of 250 nm. Based on X-ray Diffraction, nanotubes grown through anodization are amorphous.[23]

 

Applications

The most important application areas are paints and varnishes as well as paper and plastics, which account for about 80% of the world’s titanium dioxide consumption. Other pigment applications such as printing inks, fibers, rubber, cosmetic products and foodstuffs account for another 8%. The rest is used in other applications, for instance the production of technical pure titanium, glass and glass ceramics, electrical ceramics, catalysts, electric conductors and chemical intermediates.[24] It also is in most red-coloured candy.

 

Pigment

Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. Approximately 4.6 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are used annually worldwide, and this number is expected to increase as utilization continues to rise.[25] When deposited as a thin film, its refractive index and colour make it an excellent reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors and some gemstones like “mystic fire topaz“. TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as a pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, coatings, plastics, papers, inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets) as well as most toothpastes. In paint, it is often referred to offhandedly as “the perfect white”, “the whitest white”, or other similar terms. Opacity is improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide particles. Some grades of titanium based pigments as used in sparkly paints, plastics, finishes and pearlescent cosmetics are man-made pigments whose particles have two or more layers of various oxides – often titanium dioxide, iron oxide or alumina – in order to have glittering, iridescent and or pearlescent effects similar to crushed mica or guanine-based products. In addition to these effects a limited colour change is possible in certain formulations depending on how and at which angle the finished product is illuminated and the thickness of the oxide layer in the pigment particle; one or more colours appear by reflection while the other tones appear due to interference of the transparent titanium dioxide layers.[26] In some products, the layer of titanium dioxide is grown in conjunction with iron oxide by calcination of titanium salts (sulfates, chlorates) around 800 °C[27] or other industrial deposition methods such as chemical vapour deposition on substrates such as mica platelets or even silicon dioxide crystal platelets of no more than 50 µm in diameter.[28] The iridescent effect in these titanium oxide particles (which are only partly natural) is unlike the opaque effect obtained with usual ground titanium oxide pigment obtained by mining, in which case only a certain diameter of the particle is considered and the effect is due only to scattering.

In ceramic glazes titanium dioxide acts as an opacifier and seeds crystal formation.

Titanium dioxide has been shown statistically to increase skimmed milk’s whiteness, increasing skimmed milk’s sensory acceptance score.[29]

Titanium dioxide is used to mark the white lines of some tennis courts.[30]

The exterior of the Saturn V rocket was painted with titanium dioxide; this later allowed astronomers to determine that J002E3 was the S-IVB stage from Apollo 12 and not an asteroid.

 

Sunscreen and UV blocking pigments in the industry

In cosmetic and skin care products, titanium dioxide is used as a pigment, sunscreen and a thickener. It is also used as a tattoo pigment and in styptic pencils. Titanium dioxide is produced in varying particle sizes, oil and water dispersible, and in certain grades for the cosmetic industry.

Titanium dioxide is found in the majority of physical sunscreens because of its high refractive index, its strong UV light absorbing capabilities and its resistance to discolouration under ultraviolet light. This advantage enhances its stability and ability to protect the skin from ultraviolet light. Nano-scaled titanium dioxide particles are primarily used in sun screen lotion because they scatter visible light less than titanium dioxide pigments while still providing UV protection.[25] Sunscreens designed for infants or people with sensitive skin are often based on titanium dioxide and/or zinc oxide, as these mineral UV blockers are believed to cause less skin irritation than other UV absorbing chemicals.

This pigment is used extensively in plastics and other applications not only as a white pigment or an opacifier but also for its UV resistant properties where the powder disperses the light – unlike organic UV absorbers – and reduces UV damage, due mostly to the extremely high refractive index of the particles.[31] Certain polymers used in coatings for concrete[32] or those used to impregnate concrete as a reinforcement are sometimes charged with titanium white pigment for UV shielding in the construction industry, but it only delays the oxidative photodegradation of the polymer in question, which is said to “chalk” as it flakes off due to lowered impact strength and may crumble after years of exposure in direct sunlight if UV stabilizers have not been included .

 

Photocatalyst

 TiO2 fibers and spirals.

Titanium dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is a photocatalyst under ultraviolet (UV) light. It has been reported that titanium dioxide, when doped with nitrogen ions or doped with metal oxide like tungsten trioxide, is also a photocatalyst under either visible or UV light.[33] The strong oxidative potential of the positive holes oxidizes water to create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials directly. Hence, in addition to its use as a pigment, titanium dioxide can be added to paints, cements, windows, tiles, or other products for its sterilizing, deodorizing and anti-fouling properties and is used as a hydrolysis catalyst. It is also used in dye-sensitized solar cells, which are a type of chemical solar cell (also known as a Graetzel cell).

The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide were discovered by Akira Fujishima in 1967[34] and published in 1972.[35] The process on the surface of the titanium dioxide was called the Honda-Fujishima effect (ja:本多-藤嶋効果).[34] Titanium dioxide, in thin film and nanoparticle form has potential for use in energy production: as a photocatalyst, it can carry out hydrolysis; i.e., break water into hydrogen and oxygen. With the hydrogen collected, it could be used as a fuel. The efficiency of this process can be greatly improved by doping the oxide with carbon.[36] Further efficiency and durability has been obtained by introducing disorder to the lattice structure of the surface layer of titanium dioxide nanocrystals, permitting infrared absorption.[37]

In 1995 Fujishima and his group discovered the superhydrophilicity phenomenon for titanium dioxide coated glass exposed to sun light.[34] This resulted in the development of self-cleaning glass and anti-fogging coatings.

TiO2 incorporated into outdoor building materials, such as paving stones in noxer blocks[38] or paints, can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides.[39]

A photocatalytic cement that uses titanium dioxide as a primary component, produced by Italcementi Group, was included in Time‘s Top 50 Inventions of 2008.[40]

Attempts have been made to photocatalytically mineralize pollutants (to convert into CO2 and H2O) in waste water.[41] TiO2 offers great potential as an industrial technology for detoxification or remediation of wastewater due to several factors:[42]

  1. The process uses natural oxygen and sunlight and thus occurs under ambient conditions; it is wavelength selective and is accelerated by UV light.
  2. The photocatalyst is inexpensive, readily available, non-toxic, chemically and mechanically stable, and has a high turnover.
  3. The formation of photocyclized intermediate products, unlike direct photolysis techniques, is avoided.
  4. Oxidation of the substrates to CO2 is complete.
  5. TiO2 can be supported as thin films on suitable reactor substrates, which can be readily separated from treated water.[43]

Electronic data storage medium

In 2010, researchers at the University of Tokyo, Japan have created a crystal form of titanium oxide with particles 5 to 20 nanometers that can be switched between two states with light. Use of the 5 nm particles could theoretically lead to a 25 TB storage disc.[44]

Other applications

 
Synthetic single crystals of TiO2, ca. 2–3 mm in size, cut from a larger plate.

Health and safety

Titanium dioxide is incompatible with strong reducing agents and strong acids.[50] Violent or incandescent reactions occur with molten metals that are very electropositive, e.g. aluminium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc and lithium.[51]

Titanium dioxide accounts for 70% of the total production volume of pigments worldwide.[citation needed] It is widely used to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, plastics, papers, inks, foods, and toothpastes. It is also used in cosmetic and skin care products, and it is present in almost every sunblock, where it helps protect the skin from ultraviolet light.

Many sunscreens use nanoparticle titanium dioxide (along with nanoparticle zinc oxide) which, despite reports of potential health risks,[52] is not actually absorbed through the skin.[53] Other effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human health are not well understood.[54] Nevertheless, allergy to topical application has been confirmed.[55]

Titanium dioxide dust, when inhaled, has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as an IARC Group 2B carcinogen, meaning it is possibly carcinogenic to humans.[56] The findings of the IARC are based on the discovery that high concentrations of pigment-grade (powdered) and ultrafine titanium dioxide dust caused respiratory tract cancer in rats exposed by inhalation and intratracheal instillation.[57] The series of biological events or steps that produce the rat lung cancers (e.g. particle deposition, impaired lung clearance, cell injury, fibrosis, mutations and ultimately cancer) have also been seen in people working in dusty environments. Therefore, the observations of cancer in animals were considered, by IARC, as relevant to people doing jobs with exposures to titanium dioxide dust. For example, titanium dioxide production workers may be exposed to high dust concentrations during packing, milling, site cleaning and maintenance, if there are insufficient dust control measures in place. However, the human studies conducted so far do not suggest an association between occupational exposure to titanium dioxide and an increased risk for cancer. The safety of the use of nano-particle sized titanium dioxide, which can penetrate the body and reach internal organs, has been criticized.[58] Studies have also found that titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause inflammatory response and genetic damage in mice.[59][60] The mechanism by which TiO
2
may cause cancer is unclear. Molecular research suggests that cell cytotoxicity due to TiO
2
results from the interaction between TiO
2
nanoparticles and the lysosomal compartment, independently of the known apoptotic signalling pathways.[61]

The body of research regarding the carcinogenicity of different particle sizes of titanium dioxide has led the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to recommend two separate exposure limits. NIOSH recommends that fine TiO
2
particles be set at an exposure limit of 2.4 mg/m3, while ultrafine TiO
2
be set at an exposure limit of 0.3 mg/m3, as time-weighted average concentrations up to 10 hours a day for a 40 hour work week.[62] These recommendations reflect the findings in the research literature that show smaller titanium dioxide particles are more likely to pose carcinogenic risk than the larger titanium dioxide particles.

There is some evidence the rare disease yellow nail syndrome may be caused by titanium, either implanted for medical reasons or through eating various foods containing titanium dioxide.[63]

See also

References

 

Adulterated food


Adulterated food

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adulterated food is impure, unsafe, or unwholesome food. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), regulates and enforces laws on food safety and has technical definitions of adulterated food in various United States laws.

History

Products that are adulterated under these laws’ definitions cannot enter into commerce for human consumption. In India, food adulteration is increasing daily.

Adulteration Definition

“Adulteration” is a legal term meaning that a food product fails to meet federal or state standards. Adulteration is an addition of a non food item to increase the quantity of the food item in raw form or prepared form, which may result in the loss of actual quality of food item. Among meat and meat products one of the items used to adulterate are water, dead carcasses, Carcasses of animals other than the animal meant to be consumed.

1938 – Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act== The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act (1938) provides that food is “adulterated” if it meets any one othe following criteria: (1) it bears or contains any “poisonous or deleterious substance” which may render it injurious to health; (2) it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than a pesticide residue, food additive, color additive, or new animal drug, which are covered by separate provisions) that is unsafe; (3) its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or (4) it bears or contains a pesticide chemical residue that is unsafe. (Note: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes tolerances for pesticide residues in foods, which are enforced by the FDA.)

Food also meets the definition of adulteration if: (5) it is, or it bears or contains, an unsafe food additive; (6) it is, or it bears or contains, an unsafe new animal drug; (7) it is, or it bears or contains, an unsafe colour additive; (8) it consists, in whole or in part, of “any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance” or is otherwise unfit for food; or (9) it has been prepared, packed, or held under unsanitary conditions (insect, rodent, or bird infestation) whereby it may have become contaminated with filth or rendered injurious to health.

Further, food is considered adulterated if: (10) it has been irradiated and the irradiation processing was not done in conformity with a regulation permitting irradiation of the food in question (the FDA has approved irradiation of a number of foods, including refrigerated or frozen uncooked meat, fresh or frozen uncooked poultry, and seeds for sprouting [21 C.F.R. Part 179].); (11) it contains a dietary ingredient that presents a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury under the conditions of use recommended in labeling (for example, foods or dietary supplements containing aristolochic acids, which have been linked to kidney failure, have been banned.); (12) a valuable constituent has been omitted in whole or in part or replaced with another substance; damage or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or a substance has been added to increase the product’s bulk or weight, reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear of greater value than it is (this is “economic adulteration”); or (13) it is offered for import into the United States and is a food that has previously been refused admission, unless the person reoffering the food establishes that it is in compliance with U.S. law [21 U.S.C. § 342].

Federal Meat Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Act

The Federal Meat Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957 contain similar provisions for meat and poultry products. [21 U.S.C. § 453(g), 601(m).

Poisonous or deleterious substances

Generally, if a food contains a poisonous or deleterious substance that may render it injurious to health. It can cause various harms. It is adulterated. For example, apple cider contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 and Brie cheese contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes are adulterated. There are two exceptions to this general rule. First, if the poisonous substance is inherent or naturally occurring and its quantity in the food does not ordinarily render it injurious to health, the food will not be considered adulterated. Thus, a food that contains a natural toxin at very low levels that would not ordinarily be harmful (for instance, small amounts of amygdalin in apricot kernels) is not adulterated.

Second, if the poisonous or deleterious substance is unavoidable and is within an established tolerance, regulatory limit, or action level, the food will not be deemed to be adulterated. Tolerances and regulatory limits are thresholds above which a food will be considered adulterated. They are binding on FDA, the food industry, and the courts. Action levels are limits at or above which FDA may regard food as adulterated. They are not binding on FDA. FDA has established numerous action levels (for example, one part per million methylmercury in fish), which are set forth in its booklet Action Levels for Poisonous or Deleterious Substances in Human Food and Animal Feed.

If a food contains a poisonous substance in excess of a tolerance, regulatory limit, or action level, mixing it with “clean” food to reduce the level of contamination is not allowed. The deliberate mixing of adulterated food with good food renders the finished product adulterated (FDA, Compliance Policy Guide [CPG § 555.200]).

Filth and foreign matter of adulteration

Filth and extraneous material include any objectionable substances in foods, such as foreign matter (for example, glass, metal, plastic, wood, stones, sand, cigarette butts), undesirable parts of the raw plant material (such as stems, pits in pitted olives, pieces of shell in canned oysters), and filth (namely, mold, rot, insect and rodent parts, excreta, decomposition). Under a strict reading of the FD&C Act, any amount of filth in a food would render it a, however, authorize the agency to issue Defect Action Levels (DALs) for natural, unavoidable defects that at low levels do not pose a human health hazard [21 C.F.R. § 110.110]. These DALs are advisory only; they do not have the force of law and do not bind FDA. DALs are set forth in FDA’s Compliance Policy Guides and are compiled in the FDA and Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) Defect Action Level Handbook.

In most cases, DALs are food-specific and defect-specific. For example, the DAL for insect fragments in peanut butter is an average of thirty or more insect fragments per 100 grams (g) [CPG § 570.300]. In the case of hard or sharp foreign objects, the DAL, which is based on the size of the object and the likelihood it will pose a risk of choking or injury, applies to all foods (see CPG § 555.425).

Economic-adulteration

A food is adulterated if it omits a valuable constituent or substitutes another substance, in whole or in part, for a valuable constituent (for instance, olive oil diluted with tea tree oil); conceals damage or inferiority in any manner (such as fresh fruit with food coloring on its surface to conceal defects); or any substance has been added to it or packed with it to increase its bulk or weight, reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear bigger or of greater value than it is (for example, scallops to which water has been added to make them heavier).

Microbiological contamination and adulteration of food

The fact that a food is contaminated with pathogens (harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or protozoa) may, or may not, render it adulterated. Generally, for ready-to-eat foods, the presence of pathogens will render the food adulterated. For example, the presence of Salmonella on fresh fruits or vegetables or in ready-to-eat meat or poultry products (such as luncheon meats) will render those products are adulterated.

For meat and poultry products, which are regulated by USDA, the rules are more complicated. Ready-to-eat meat and poultry products contaminated with pathogens, such as Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes, are adulterated. (Note that hotdogs are considered ready-to-eat products.) For raw meat or poultry products, the presence of pathogens will not always render a product adulterated (because raw meat and poultry products are intended to be cooked, and proper cooking should kill pathogens). Raw poultry contaminated with Salmonella is not adulterated. then also, USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has ruled that raw meat or poultry products contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 are adulterated. This is because normal cooking methods may not reduce E. coli O157:H7 below infectious levels. E. coli O157:H7 is the only pathogen that is considered an adulterant when present in raw meat or poultry products.

Enforcement actions

If a food is adulterated, FDA and FSIS have a broad array of enforcement tools.They are of various types. These include seizing and condemning the product, detaining imported product, enjoining persons from manufacturing or distributing the product, or requesting a recall of the product. Enforcement action is usually preceded by a Warning Letter from FDA to the manufacturer or distributor of the adulterated product. In the case of an adulterated meat or poultry product, FSIS has certain additional powers. FSIS may suspend or withdraw federal inspection of an official establishment. Without federal inspection, an establishment may not produce or process meat or poultry products, and therefore must cease operations. With the exception of infant formula, neither FDA nor FSIS has the authority to require a company to recall an adulterated food product. However, the ability to generate negative publicity gives them considerable powers of persuasion.

State regulators generally have similar enforcement tools at their disposal to prevent the manufacture and distribution of adulterated food. In addition, many states have the authority to immediately embargo adulterated food and to impose civil fines. Federal agencies often will coordinate with state or local authorities to remove unsafe food from the market as quickly as possible.

Food Adulterant Detection
Arhar Pulse Kesarri Pulse Kesari Pulse has a characteristic wedge shape. Larger Kesari resembles Arhar (Tur). It can be separated by visual examination.
Asafoetida Resin and colour Take a little amount of small parts of the sample in test tube. Add 3 ml of distilled water and shake the tube gently. Pure asafoetida dissolves in water very quickly and produces a milky white colour, but in case of adulteration with a chemical colour the mixture turns to be coloured. The purity of asafoetida may also be examined by taking a little amount of it on the tip of a fork and placing the same on the flame of a spirit lamp. Asafoetida burns quickly, producing bright flame and leaving the impurities behind.
Black Pepper Papaya Seeds Papaya seeds do not have any smell and are relatively smaller in size. Adulteration of papaya seed with Black Pepper may be detected by way of visual examination as also by way of smelling.
Coffee powder Cereal starch Take a small quantity (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube and add 3 ml of distilled water in it. Light a spirit lamp and heat the contents to colourize. Add 33 ml of a solution of potassium permanganate and muratic acid (1:1) to decolourize the mixture. The formation of blue colour in mixture by addition of a drop of 1% aqueous solution of iodine indicated adulteration with starch.
Coffee powder Powder of scorched persimmon stones Take a small quantity (1 tea-spoon) of the sample and spread it on a moistened blotting paper. Pour on it, with much care, 3 ml of 2% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate. A red colouration indicates the presence of powder of scorched persimmon stones in coffee powder.
Coriander powder Saw Dust Take a little amount (a half of tea-spoon) of the sample. Sprinkle it on water in a bowl. Spice powder gets sedimented at the bottom and saw-dust floats on the surface.
Cumin Powder Saw Dust Take a little amount (a half of tea-spoon) of the sample. Sprinkle it on water in a bowl. Spice powder gets sedimented at the bottom and saw-dust floats on the surface.
Dry red chilli Rhodamine B colour Take a red chilli from the sample and rub the outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in liquid paraffin. The sample is adulterated if the cotton becomes red.
Dry turmeric root Metanil yellow colour Take a piece of dry turmeric root and rub the outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in liquid paraffin. A yellow colouration of cotton indicates adulteration of turmeric root with metanil yellow colour.
Gram powder Kesari powder Take a little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube with 3 ml of distilled water. Add 3 ml of muratic acid. Immerse the tube in warm water. Check the tube after 15 minutes. A violet colouration indicates the presence of Kesari powder in Gram powder.
Gram powder Metanil yellow colour Take a small quantity (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. Add 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates adulteration of gram powder with metanil yellow.
Green vegetables like Bitter Gourd, Green Chilli and others Malachite Green Take a small part of the sample and place it on a piece of moistened white blotting paper. The impression of colour on the paper indicates the use of malachite green, or any other low priced artificial colour.
Green vegetables like Bitter Gourd, Green Chilli and others Malachite Green Rub the outer green surface of a small part of the sample with a liquid paraffin soaked cotton. The sample is adulterated when the white cotton turns green.
Jaggery Metanil yellow colour Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol and shake the tube vigorously to mix up the contents. Pour 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates the presence of metanil yellow colour in jaggery.
Jaggery Sodium bicarbonate Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of muratic acid. The presence of sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate effects effervescence.
Parched rice Urea Take 30 pieces of parched rice in a test tube. Add 5 ml of distilled water. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. After 5 minutes, filter water contents and add to it a little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of powder of arhar or soyabean. Wait for another 5 minutes and then dip a red litmus paper in the mixture. Lift the paper after 30 seconds and examine it. A blue colouration indicates the use of urea in parched rice.
Pigeon Pea (Toor Dal) Metanil Yellow Take a small handful of the pulse and boil it. Strain the water and grind the boiled peas with a mortar and pestle. Transfer this sample into a test tube and add 10cc of distlled water.Shake the test tube rigorously to mix up the contents thoroughly. Add 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates adulteration of peas with metanil yellow.
Processed food, sweetmeat or syrup Metanil Yellow Take little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 10 drops of muratic acid or hydrochloric acid in it. The appearance of rosy colour indicates adulteration of food with metanil yellow.
Processed food, sweetmeat or syrup Rhodamine B colour The presence of this chemical colour in food is very easy to detect as it shines very brightly under sun. A more precise methods of detection is also there.Take a little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of carbon tetrachloride and shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. The mixture becomes colourless and an addition of a drop of hydrochloric acid brings the colour back when food contains Rhodamine B colour.
Rice Earth, sand, grit, unhusked paddy, rice bran, talc, etc. These adulterants may be detected visually and removed by way of sorting, picking, and washing.
Sweet potato Rhodamine B colour Take a small part of the sample and rub the red outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in liquid paraffin. The cotton adhering colour indicates the use of Rhodamine B colour on outer surface of the sweet potato.
Tea Leaves Coal Tar Dye Scatter a little amount (1 tea-spoon) of the sample on a moistened white blotting paper. After 5 minutes, remove the sample and examine the paper. A revelation of coloured spots indicates the use of the dye.
Tea Leaves Iron Flakes Spread a small quantity (2 tea-spoon) of the sample on a piece of paper. Draw a magnet over it. Iron flakes, if present, cling to the magnet. The same test may be carried out to trace iron flakes from tea half-dust and iron filings from tea dust.
Tea Leaves Leather Flakes Prepare a paper-ball. Fire the ball and drop a little amount of the sample on it. The presence of leather flakes emits an odour of burnt leather.
Turmeric powder Metanil yellow colour Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. Add 10 drops of muratic acid or hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates the use of metanil yellow colour in turmeric powder.
Wheat Earth, sand, grit, chopped straw, bran, unhusked grain, and seeds of weeds. These adulterants may be detected visually and removed by way of sorting, picking, and washing.

Tsarnaev’s ‘manifesto’: OK to kill civilians


Tsarnaev’s ‘manifesto’: OK to kill civilians
http://www.cnn.com//2015/03/10/us/tsarnaev-tweets-writings/index.html

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Did 47 Republican senators break the law?


Did 47 Republican senators break the law?
http://www.cnn.com//2015/03/10/politics/tom-cotton-iran-letter-logan-act/index.html

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From NPR News


Utah Lawmakers OK Firing Squad If Lethal Injection Unavailable http://n.pr/1AeyVsC

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Iraqi troops ‘enter parts of Tikrit’


Iraqi troops ‘enter parts of Tikrit’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31822701

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Pound at seven-year high against euro


Pound at seven-year high against euro http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-31811791

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Small firms ‘treated unfairly’ – MPs


Small firms ‘treated unfairly’ – MPs http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-31825743

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Older workers ‘boost jobs for young’


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Asia shares follow US lower


Asia shares follow US lower http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-31827805

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‘Foolish’ to cut rates, says Carney


‘Foolish’ to cut rates, says Carney http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-31825746

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US stocks lose all gains made in 2015


US stocks lose all gains made in 2015 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-31818958

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Leg muscles of the first perfect 10 in Olympic history, at age 14. Nadia Comaneci.— Classic Pics (@classicepics)


Words of wisdom.


As you sow so you reap.
https://market.android.com/details?id=com.bmt

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From France 24 : drugs


Ireland accidentally makes drugs legal, for a day

http://f24.my/1MpCtxL

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From France 24 : mass murderer, a woman


Dozens killed by female suicide bomber at Nigerian market

http://f24.my/1NFPbMm

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From France 24 : Clinton


Clinton says ‘could have been smarter’ about emails

http://f24.my/1MpFsXd

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IS posts Israeli Arab ‘death video’


IS posts Israeli Arab ‘death video’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31822703

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Boko Haram children ‘forgot names’


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Hey Hillary, most of us can’t use personal e-mail for work


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http://money.cnn.com/2015/03/03/technology/personal-email-for-work/index.html

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From NPR News


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BBC news. Ferret ban remains in New York City


Ferret ban remains in New York City http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-31814900

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BBC news. Clinton: Email for ‘convenience’


Clinton: Email for ‘convenience’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-31819843

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From France 24 : France Tackles Radicalization among Inmates


France tackles radicalisation among inmates

http://f24.my/1aZBZ5U

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Bergen: New glimpse of bin Laden’s decline


Bergen: New glimpse of bin Laden’s decline
http://www.cnn.com//2015/03/10/opinions/bergen-bin-laden-al-qaeda-decline-fall/index.html

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Sutter: Frats ‘a form of American apartheid’?


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http://www.cnn.com//2015/03/10/opinions/sutter-oklahoma-fraternity-racist/index.html

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From NPR News


47 GOP Senators Tell Iran They May Not Honor A Nuclear Deal http://n.pr/1E1D6sP

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From NPR News :


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Iran hardliner to lead clerical body


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Workers hold rare protest in Dubai


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Bombs kill two in Sinai peninsula


Bombs kill two in Sinai peninsula http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31811235

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Iraqi troops ‘retake town’ near Tikrit


Iraqi troops ‘retake town’ near Tikrit http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31822701

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Romania makes German diplomacy gaffe


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Brightman to perform song in space


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US tanks in Baltics as drills start


US tanks in Baltics as drills start http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-31813939

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US tanks in Baltics as drills start


US tanks in Baltics as drills start http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-31813939

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US tanks in Baltics as drills start


US tanks in Baltics as drills start http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-31813939

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