Daily Archives: June 29, 2015

From the Guardian : The green diet: how to eat healthy and save the planet


The green diet: how to eat healthy and save the planet

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From France 24 : GREECE. ..


Tsipras urges Greeks to vote ‘No’ on bailout referendum

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http://f24.my/1BRDK1m

From NPR News


Why You Should Thank A Caterpillar For Your Mustard And Wasabi

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http://n.pr/1eetp4D

From NPR News:


California Legislature Passes ‘Mandatory’ Vaccine Bill, Sends It To The Governor

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http://n.pr/1Jl7DXK

From NPR News: Greek or Porto Rican?


If The Mess In Greece Is All Greek To You, Then Read This http://n.pr/1JkHyrL

From BBC : Puerto Rico ‘can’t pay $72bn debt’


Puerto Rico ‘can’t pay $72bn debt’

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-33317495


Saint Peter’s tomb

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

 
The floor above Saint Peter’s tomb (see text)

 
St. Peter’s baldachin, by Bernini, in the modern St. Peter’s Basilica. St. Peter’s tomb lies directly below this structure.

Saint Peter’s tomb is a site under St. Peter’s Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of St. Peter’s grave. St. Peter’s tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300.[1] The complex was partially torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter’s Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330. Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter’s with absolute certainty.[2] However, following the discovery of further bones and an inscription, on June 26, 1968 Pope Paul VI announced that the relics of St. Peter had been identified.

The grave claimed by the Church to be that of St. Peter lies at the foot of the aedicula beneath the floor. The remains of four individuals and several farm animals were found in this grave.[3] In 1953, after the initial archeological efforts had been completed, another set of bones were found that were said to have been removed without the archeologists’ knowledge from a niche (loculus) in the north side of a wall (the graffiti wall) that abuts the red wall on the right of the aedicula. Subsequent testing indicated that these were the bones of a 60-70-year-old man.[4] Margherita Guarducci argued that these were the remains of St. Peter and that they had been moved into a niche in the graffiti wall from the grave under the aedicula “at the time of Constantine, after the peace of the church” (313).[5] Antonio Ferrua, the archaeologist who headed the excavation that uncovered what is known as the St. Peter’s Tomb, said that he wasn’t convinced that the bones that were found were those of St. Peter.[6]

The upper image shows the area of the lower floor of St. Peter’s Basilica that lies above the site of St. Peter’s tomb. A portion of the aedicula that was part of St. Peter’s tomb rose above level of this floor and was made into the Niche of the Pallium[7] which can be seen in the center of the image.

Death of Peter at Vatican Hill

 

The earliest reference to Peter’s death is in a letter of Clement, bishop of Rome, to the Corinthians. (1 Clement, (a.k.a. Letter to the Corinthians), written c. 96 AD. The historian Eusebius, a contemporary of Constantine, wrote that St. Peter “came to Rome, and was crucified with his head downwards,” attributing this information to the much earlier theologian Origen, who died c. 254 AD.[8] St. Peter’s martyrdom is traditionally depicted in religious iconography as crucifixion with his head pointed downward.

Peter’s place and manner of death are also mentioned by Tertullian (c. 160-220) in Scorpiace,[9] where the death is said to take place during the Christian persecutions by Nero. Tacitus (56-117) describes the persecution of Christians in his Annals, though he does not specifically mention Peter.[10] “They were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt.” Furthermore, Tertullian says these events took place in the imperial gardens near the Circus of Nero. No other area would have been available for public persecutions after the Great Fire of Rome destroyed the Circus Maximus and most of the rest of the city in the year 64 AD.

This account is supported by other sources. In the The Passion of Peter and Paul, dating to the fifth century, the crucifixion of Peter is recounted. While the stories themselves are apocryphal, they were based on earlier material, helpful for topographical reasons. It reads, “Holy men … took down his body secretly and put it under the terebinth tree near the Naumachia, in the place which is called the Vatican.”[11] The place called Naumachia would be an artificial lake within the Circus of Nero where naval battles were reenacted for an audience. The place called Vatican was at the time a hill next to the complex and also next to the Tiber River, featuring a cemetery of both Christian and pagan tombs.

Tracing the original tombs

Dionysius of Corinth mentions the burial place of Peter as Rome when he wrote to the Church of Rome in the time of the Pope Soter (died 174), thanking the Romans for their financial help. “You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time.”[12]

 
Fourth century glass mosaic of St. Peter, located at the Catacombs of Saint Thecla.

Catholic tradition holds that the bereaved Christians followed their usual custom in burying him as near as possible to the scene of his suffering. According to Catholic lore, he was laid in ground that belonged to Christian proprietors, by the side of a well-known road leading out of the city, the Via Cornelia (site of a known pagan and Christian cemetery) on the hill called Vaticanus. The actual tomb was an underground vault, approached from the road by a descending staircase, and the body reposed in a sarcophagus of stone in the center of this vault.[11]

The Book of Popes mentions that Pope Anacletus built a “sepulchral monument” over the underground tomb of St. Peter shortly after his death.[13] This was a small chamber or oratory over the tomb, where three or four persons could kneel and pray over the grave. The pagan Roman Emperor, Julian the Apostate, mentions in 363 A.D. in his work Three Books Against the Galileans that the tomb of St. Peter was a place of worship, albeit secretly.[14]

There is evidence of the existence of the tomb (trophoea, i.e., trophies, as signs or memorials of victory) at the beginning of the 3rd century, in the words of the presbyter Caius refuting the Montanist traditions of a certain Proclus: “But I can show the trophies of the Apostles. For if you will go to the Vatican, or to the Ostian way, you will find the trophies of those who laid the foundations of this church.”[12]

Pope Francis’ answer to ‘What is faith?’ :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)


Vatican City, Jun 28, 2015 / 08:59 am (CNA/EWTN News).- The Pope focused on the virtue of faith during his Sunday Angelus address, saying the whole gospel is written in its light.

“Faith is this: to touch Jesus and to draw from him the grace which saves,” Pope Francis explained June 28 at St. Peter’s Square, reflecting on the healing of a haemorrhaging woman in the day’s Gospel reading. She believed that if she could but touch Christ’s clothes, she would be healed.

“And so it is,” said Pope Francis. “The need to be freed drives her to dare, and faith ‘snatches’, so to speak, healing from the Lord.”

He waxed on the Gospel reading, saying that the Father, through Christ’s healing, in a sense, said “Daughter, you are not cursed, you are not excluded, rather, you are my daughter!”

“And every time Jesus comes to us, when we go to him with faith, we hear this from the Father: ‘You are my son, you are my daughter! You are healed, you are healed. I forgive all, all. I heal everyone and everything.’”

Pope Francis also discussed Christ’s raising of a 12 year old girl who had died, saying that in her father’s appeal to Jesus, we feel “the great faith which this man has in Jesus.”

Christ’s reaction – “Do not fear, only have faith” – give courage, the Pope said. “He says to us, so often: ‘Do not fear, only have faith!’”

“These two episodes – a healing and a raising from death – have a single center: faith. The message is clear, and can be summarized in one question: do we believe that Jesus can heal and can raise from the dead? The whole Gospel is written in the light of this faith: Jesus is risen, has conquered death, and because of this victory we too will be resurrected.”

Francis lamented that “this faith, which for the first Christians was secure, can tarnish and become uncertain, to the point that some confuse resurrection with reincarnation.”

“The word of God this Sunday invites us to live in the certainty of the resurrection: Jesus is the Lord, Jesus has power over evil and over death, and wants to take us to the Father’s house, where life reigns. And there we will meet all, all of us in this square today, we will meet in the Father’s house, in the life that Jesus gives us.”

He added that Christ’s resurrection “acts in history as a principle of renewal and of hope. Anyone who is desperate and weary unto death, if they rely on Jesus and on his love, can begin to live again … faith is a force of life, it gives fullness to our humanity; and who believes in Christ must be recognized precisely because they promote life in all situations, so that everyone, especially the weakest, can experience the love of God which frees and saves.”

Concluding, Pope Francis said, “We ask the Lord, through the intercession of the Virgin Mary, the gift of a strong and courageous faith, which drives us to speakers of hope and of life among our brethren.”

via Pope Francis’ answer to ‘What is faith?’ :: Catholic News Agency (CNA).

‘The unthinkable is real,’ author warns about persecutions of Middle East Christians :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)


‘The unthinkable is real,’ author warns about persecutions of Middle East Christians

The remains of St. Mary's Syrian Orthodox parish in Homs, Syria. Credit: Syrian Orthodox Diocese of Homs. Photo courtesy of the Aid to the Church in Need.

The remains of St. Mary’s Syrian Orthodox parish in Homs, Syria. Credit: Syrian Orthodox Diocese of Homs. Photo courtesy of the Aid to the Church in Need.

.- Growing unrest in the Middle East is causing great concern for the Christian community around the world, and author George J. Marlin is hoping to enlighten Western Christians on how seriously matters are progressing, as their brethren in the Middle East continue to undergo persecution.

His latest book, Christian Persecutions in the Middle East: A 21st Century Tragedy, was published earlier this month by St. Augustine’s Press, and details the rise of radical Islamism and its impact on Christians throughout the Middle East.

“Western civilization was built on Christianity which, sadly enough, is being forgotten for Western Europe, and even in this nation here,” Marlin told CNA.

“I think the Church’s job is to remind the West that its civilization was based on the concept that man is a creature made in the image and likeness of God, and therefore is entitled by his very nature … basic rights, including the freedom to practice one’s religion.”  

Marlin is chairman of Aid to the Church in Need- USA, a Catholic charity under the guidance of the Pope that supports and aids the persecuted and suffering Church around the world. Last year, Aid to the Church in Need raised $100 million internationally.

As chairman, Marlin is given information daily about struggling Christians around the world, particularly in the Middle East.

“I’ve been able to see and speak firsthand to bishops and archbishops in the area, and other people who are often persecuted in the area,” Marlin said.

Marlin says that for the Christians, their “most daunting task is to survive.”    

“They’re concerned about survival, they’re concerned about getting three meals a day, they’re hoping they can educate their kids someday. They’re hoping they can come back to their home.”

“More importantly, we have to keep in mind that these Christians are beginning to feel abandoned by the Christian world because, although the Pope has come out and made some statements, Cardinal Dolan of New York has made some statements … in the Western media, a lot of this is being ignored,” Marlin stated.  

The book examines the history of both Christianity and Islam in the Middle East; followed by an in-depth look at eight countries in the region where Christians are particularly persecuted; it then includes perspectives of various experts from the region.

“It’s eye-opening for me as I am talking right now to so many other Americans that they’re shocked to learn that there are Christians in the Middle East,” Marlin stated.  “So I thought it was important to take this data and put together a story of what exactly is happening in Middle East at this point in time.”

He added that Christians can often regard only Europe as historically Christians, and “sometimes forget that the first center [of the Church] was in Antioch, Syria before St Peter moved it to Rome, and so the apostles and early martyrs of the Church were in the Middle East.”

Marlin said that it is important for people to realize that even before the Islamic State “came on the scene two years ago,” the 21st century has continually experienced “systemic persecution of Christians.”

Marlin’s hope is that the book, as well as the work of Aid to the Church in Need, “jolts the conscience of the West, because too many people in Europe and in the United States have their head in the sand trying to ignore this problem here.”  

Marlin emphasized that persecution isn’t restricted to the brutal, attention-grabbing ways the Islamic State uses to execute its captives. Christians in the Middle East are also persecuted through pressure to convert, employment and education discrimination, church bombings, murder, destruction of homes and businesses, kidnapping, and being treated as second-class citizens.

Documents and manuscripts dating back thousands of years have also been destroyed. “We have Christians being driven out, they may never come back,” Marlin stated. “We have the institutional Church being destroyed, and we have the patrimony of the Church being destroyed.”

“These same tactics are used in these countries and are profiled in this book,” Marlin said. “It’s going on every day and it has been going on throughout this century and obviously centuries before this. It’s time, I’m hoping, that people begin to catch on, particularly the Christians in the United States.”

An example he gave was the Chaldean Archeparchy of Mosul: in 2004, a year after the US invasion of Iraq, it had 20,600 members. By 2013 the number had dropped to 14,100, and last summer, most of the remaining Christians in the city and its environs fled before the Islamic State.

In January, its bishop, Amel Nona, was transferred to the Chaldean eparchy for Australia, leaving the Mosul archeparchy vacant, perhaps fated to become a titular see.

Marlin suggested that in light of the scale of persecution faced by many Christians in the Middle East, “the President of the United States to appoint a special Middle East envoy just to deal with these Christian persecutions.” He also raised the possibility of economic sanctions, and denying foreign aid to countries who persecute their citizens.

He said that the only way groups such as the Islamic State “are going to be put out of business is if modern Islam stands up and says ‘this is wrong’. These radical groups, if they are not tamed, if they are not destroyed or eliminated, they may destroy the Christian presence in the Middle East.”

Marlin’s book concludes with an epilogue and an appendix that provides important documents pertaining to the persecution of Christians, including addresses from Pope Francis, Benedict XVI, and Cardinal Timothy Dolan of New York.

Tags: Church in Middle East, Aid to the Church in Need

via ‘The unthinkable is real,’ author warns about persecutions of Middle East Christians :: Catholic News Agency (CNA).

Saint of the Day for Monday, June 29th, 2015: St. Peter, First Pope (St. Apostol Petru)


Image of St. Peter, First Pope

St. Peter, First Pope

St. Peter, from the Crypt of St. Peter, c.700 Ad Giclee Print

St. Peter, from the Crypt of St. Peter, c.700 Ad Giclee Print

Simon Peter or Cephas, the first pope, Prince of the Apostles, and founder, with St. Paul, of the see of Rome. Peter was a native of Bethsaida, near Lake Tiberias, the son of John, and worked, like … continue reading
29 июня в день памяти апостола его ...

The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John (or Jonah or Jona)[4] and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples. Originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah,[5] was part of Jesus’s inner circle,[6] thrice denied Jesus,[7] and preached on the day of Pentecost.[8]

According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His mortal remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter’s Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery. Every June 29 since 1736, a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter’s Basilica is adorned with papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, and papal vestments, as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is Pope Francis

 MORE HERE:

More Saints of the Day

picture of the day: ‘The Great Compromiser’



‘The Great Compromiser’

Statesman Henry Clay of Kentucky, who died on June 29, 1852, was a master politician in the era preceding the Civil War. Born in 1777, Clay was a lawyer by trade. He began his lengthy political career in the Kentucky legislature and made three unsuccessful bids as the Whig Party’s presidential candidate. By the time of his death, Clay had served his country as secretary of state under John Quincy Adams, U.S. Senator and Speaker of the House of Representatives. Clay was the chief architect of the Compromise of 1850, a contribution that earned him the nickname ‘The Great Compromiser.’

Image: Library of Congress

today’s holiday: Mnarja


Mnarja

Mnarja is the principal folk festival of Malta and a public holiday there, thought to have been originally a harvest festival. It is held in Buskett Gardens, a park with extensive vineyards and orange and lemon orchards not far from Mdina, Malta’s medieval capital. Festivities begin on the eve of Mnarja with an agricultural show that continues through the next morning and folk-singing and folk-music competitions. The traditional food of the evening is fried rabbit. On the following day, bareback horse and donkey races bring the feast to an end. More… Discuss

quotation: Emily Bronte


I cannot express it: but surely you and everybody have a notion that there is, or should be, an existence of yours beyond you.

Emily Bronte (1818-1848) Discuss

today’s birthday: William James Mayo (1861)


William James Mayo (1861)

While working as a surgeon with his physician father and brother—William Worrall Mayo and Charles Mayo—in the hospital his father had helped establish in Rochester, Minnesota, William James Mayo joined the two in co-founding what would become the Mayo Clinic, a world-renowned nonprofit medical practice. William James became especially known for his innovations in stomach, gall bladder, and cancer operations. According to one story, what did William James help his father do when he was just 16? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Atlantis Docks with Mir for the First Time (1995)


Atlantis Docks with Mir for the First Time (1995)

The first in a series of seven docking missions the US Space Shuttle Atlantis flew to the Russian space station Mir, the STS-71 mission was a notable episode in spaceflight history, as it marked the 100th manned space launch by the US and the first ever on-orbit crew change. The five-day docking of the two crafts also marked the creation of the largest spacecraft ever placed into orbit at that time. When linked, Atlantis and Mir had a total mass of how many tonnes? More… Discuss

Key Biscayne


Key Biscayne

Key Biscayne is an island located in Miami-Dade County, Florida, between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay. While named a ‘key’, it is not geologically part of the Florida Keys, but a barrier island composed of sand eroded from the Appalachian Mountains and carried there. When Hurricane Andrew stripped part of the island in 1992, archeologists found extensive evidence of a large Tequesta community that had lived there up to 2,000 years ago. What is the island’s history with regard to slavery? More… Discuss

word: harelip


harelip

Definition: (noun) A congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip.
Synonyms: cheiloschisis, cleft lip
Usage: The insurance company argued that the surgery to correct her harelip was not medically necessary. Discuss.

Catedrala în umbrele serii


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Catedrala în umbrele serii

From BBC : Resistance to US gay marriage ruling


Resistance to US gay marriage ruling

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-33314220

Pensioners queue outside Greek banks amid withdrawal limits


http://finance.yahoo.com/news/pensioners-queue-outside-greek-banks-092805229.html

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Banks and ATM machines were shut throughout Greece on Monday, the first day of capital controls announced by the government in a dramatic twist in the country’s five-year financial saga. Despite the closures, …

Americans Can’t Sell Stocks Fast Enough as Rally Tops Flows


http://finance.yahoo.com/news/americans-cant-sell-stocks-fast-040001100.html

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In a year when fund clients pulled about $60 billion from equities, the value of shares has climbed by $527 billion, pushing the total owned by households to $20 trillion, data compiled by Bloomberg and Ned Davis Research Inc. show.

From BBC : Israel stops ship trying to run Gaza blockade


Israel stops ship trying to run Gaza blockade

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http://www.cnn.com//2015/06/29/middleeast/israel-blocks-ship-from-gaza/index.html

From BBC : Pancreatic cancer blood test hope


Pancreatic cancer blood test hope

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-33259440

From BBC : Can you teach people to have empathy?


Can you teach people to have empathy?

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-33287727

From BBC : China-led global bank takes shape


China-led global bank takes shape

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-33307314

From BBC : IS fight ‘struggle of our generation’


IS fight ‘struggle of our generation’

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-33307279