Daily Archives: August 15, 2016

Ave Maria (Schubert)


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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Robert Huntington
Bob has taught music at all levels and holds a Master’s degree in Choral Conducting.
Ave Maria is an ancient and important Catholic prayer. Learn how it evolved, what it means, and understand why so many composers have created musical settings for it down through the centuries.
It can be pretty hard to undo a first impression, right? Well, it’s especially hard to undo one that has been reinforced for nearly 200 years. Many people hear the song ‘Ave Maria’ by Franz Schubert and assume that’s how he wrote it. Since the setting by Schubert may be their only exposure to that prayer, the myth continues unchecked. How did this happen and what’s the real story?
Every faith has its important creeds and prayers. In Christian denominations, one such example is ‘The Lord’s Prayer’, which many members have memorized at an early age. An important prayer for the Roman Catholic Church is Ave Maria or ‘Hail, Mary’. It’s the best known of their Marian prayers. The Ave Maria is also used in the Greek Orthodox and Lutheran churches. So it’s safe to say that it’s recognized pretty much everywhere throughout the Christian world.
The text is historically divided into two parts, with the third part being added later. The first part is based on Luke 1:28 which recounts the Angel Gabriel greeting the Blessed Virgin Mary on the day of the Annunciation. This is when the Angel tells Mary that she will be overcome by the Holy Spirit and bear a son. The middle section is based on Luke 1:40-42 and recounts St. Elizabeth greeting Mary. Mary, now pregnant, has gone to visit her relative Elizabeth who’s also pregnant. When Elizabeth hears Mary’s greeting, the baby in her own womb (who will be John the Baptist) leaps for joy. Elizabeth tells Mary that she is blessed, as is the child she is carrying (who will be Jesus Christ).
A final portion was added around 1440. It identifies Mary’s holiness and adds a petition for intercession.
Ave Maria was originally in Latin, but here is the English translation:
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee,
blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.
Use of the Prayer
In the Catholic Church, Ave Maria is sung on the fourth Sunday in Advent (the last Sunday before Christmas), on the Feast of the Annunciation (March 25), and on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception (December 8). It’s also used at weddings, funerals, Marian observations (usually held in May), and in other Masses of the Blessed Virgin Mary celebrated throughout the year. These many liturgical designations have inspired composers to create musical settings for the prayer down through the ages beginning with versions that were chanted, various congregational hymns, vocal solos, and choral arrangements.

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The group of Muslims who attempted to establish the first Islamic Sharia court inside the United States in the town of Irving, Texas just received a devastating blow thanks to the town’s mayor standing strong and not backing down.

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700 years ago, on August 19, 1316, Cluj was raised by King Charles Robert of Anjou, to the rank of city (civitas)

700 years ago, on August 19, 1316, luj was raised by King Charles Robert of Anjou, to the rank of city (civitas), culmination of a struggle for freedom fought for four decades. A battle which took but important moments. A fight that Cluj have never abandoned, even when they were alone against all.
The beginnings of medieval history of Cluj are still quite nebulous. They are linked to the city of Cluj Mănăştur, which was the residence of Cluj county, and the Benedictine monastery founded here as early as the eleventh century. It is not yet clear how the two institutions managed to coexist within a relatively small precincts. This, especially if we consider the fact that Cluj Mănăştur abbey was very important, a true competitor to ward Transylvania, which is otherwise in conflict. In the city today there were also other settlements, maybe even fortifications. One of them may have been present in the markets of the union, but was abandoned around the year 1100, and converted into cemetery precincts. In terms of economic and administrative Cluj was a very important locality. Settlement dominant Northern Transylvania was Dăbâca a city (urbs) large and well populated, which was also the most important military area. The main center of Transylvania was Balgrad / Alba Iulia, the true capital of the province, which exceeded in importance all other localities in the region. Suffocated between these two centers, which are added and Turda salt important operating center, Cluj could not hope for a great destiny. The stars wanted to sit down but things differently. In spring 1241, Transylvania was destroyed by the hurricane great Mongol invasion. Cluj was captured on 11 April 1241, the Mongol army led by Kadan, one of the most valuable generals Ögedei great inn. The same fate had other royal towns in Transylvania.
After 1241, the very existence of Cluj was questioned, as its status as a county center. Abbey Cluj Mănăştur managed to seize the whole city from Calvary, removing administrators princely authority. In the troubled period that followed, Cluj was competed strongly Bonţida village which, thanks to royal customs there, in this period have faster economic growth. Depopulated and devoid of resources, Cluj seemed to have entered a critical period, like other urban centers destroyed by the Mongols, who ended as simple villages.
Salvation has come from Stephen (István) V, Duke of Transylvania and heir to the throne of Hungary, which in 1260 brought to the Cluj group of German settlers ( hospites ), which placed them in the bearing today , the “Old City” (ovaries). German settlers were endowed with freedoms and privileges seeking to rebuild the city destroyed by the great Tartar invasion of 1241-1242 and transform into an urban Cluj important. Their rights were: to be judged only by the judge their ( villicus ); in case of dissatisfaction, to appeal directly to the royal court; to judge themselves and determine the causes of the strangers in their midst. In exchange for these rights, Duke settlers asked them one thing: to go to war in his army and fight alongside him.
This provision is very important, because it shows what kind of people were colonists settled in Cluj around the year 1260. They were chosen, most likely, the image and likeness of brought in Transylvania. Stephen V was a prince, then king knight for whom war was his way of being. On his official representations, Stephen is represented on horseback, in full armor equipped, and the documents issued by the facts he presented several reports of their weapons, or close relatives. Engaged in permanent wars, Stefan directly participate in battles, they win often. Valiant fighters and believers of his army were rewarded with important areas. Being always in search of valuable soldiers, Stefan brought many fighters Transylvania value, to increase the quality of his troops.
Settlers brought to the Cluj stood out and they undoubtedly primarily by their military skills. They came, apparently, from Styria and Carinthia, that Stephen had led them between 1258-1260, before the Battle of Kreussenbrunn. Moreover, they were the ones who built the first walls and towers Cluj defense fortificated surrounding area of ​​7 hectares, whose center is in the current Museum Square. At the same time, these settlers were their freedoms granted to them and only them. Other inhabitants of Cluj, city serfs or others, still retain their former status.
In 1275, after the death of Stephen V (1272), Cluj reached wrongfully in possession ward Transylvania. Bishop Peter Monoszló (1270-1307), a close game Csak, took advantage of the fact that the allies had taken over control of the royal court to pass Cluj city owns. Cluj have not reconciled but never to this fate, and wore a struggle for freedom against the bishopric that lasted 41 years.
Such a desire for freedom was not common in this age, in our regions. Other localities reached the property Episcopal accepted their fate eventually, possession ward because it was, in fact, very hard. Cluj have not accepted this but never wins, and the explanation for this persistence should probably be sought in their status as fighters. We arguments shows that Cluj have participated in the rebellion of 1277-1279 general Transylvanian Saxons against Csak and ward Transylvania. In 1288, for a short time, even they managed to regain freedom, when King Ladislaus the Cuman canceled donation in 1275, a time in which Bishop Peter arrest Moyus, prince of Transylvania. A year later, Bishop recovered but again the city. In 1307 Cluj came along with other areas and cities bishops, the powerful leader of Transylvania mastery Ladislaus Kan. On July 20, 1313, King Charles Robert retune but “Cluj village” ( villa Kuluswar ) diocese of Alba Iulia.
Cluj release from the dominion of the bishopric took place in 1316, after the start civil war between King Charles Robert of Anjou and the sons of former ruler Ladislau Kan. Cluj have offered their services again king, and he is in difficulties, did what a medieval sovereign would only rarely: canceled a donation made to the church. Charles Robert granted them thus Cluj diploma dated 19 August 1316, considered a true act of birth of the medieval town of Cluj. Cluj obtained the right to choose the judge and pastor, to judge much of crimes committed in the city, except for murders, thefts, robberies, arson and injuries over which would decide together the judge the city and the judge royal fines will be divided between the king (2/3) and city (1/3); to move freely and to trade throughout Transylvania, without paying customs for their goods. They were instead required to pay an annual tax king, the feast of Saint Martin, and send one soldier to the royal army better equipped and armed every 60 households.
In the years that followed, Cluj have shown that support was worth King. In the years 1316-1321, Cluj was the main base of operations royalist armies that fought in Transylvania and all the great battles of Northern Transylvania were held around Cluj. Decisive confrontation took place in 1320, Bonţida where Cluj and other supporters of the king managed to defeat the Moyus Ákos, noble leader of the rebellion in northern Transylvania. In 1321, after the capitulation of cities Ciceu and Deva, internal resistance was broken, and Transylvania came under the rule of Charles Robert.
After the victory, King Charles Robert renewed in 1322, Cluj privilege. This time the beneficiaries were not only settlers (hospites) but also other citizens of the city (civites). As of now, Cluj made up of legally, one community.
Time of 1316, important for the history of Cluj, is therefore a step in a longer process. New beginnings of the medieval city after the Mongol invasion, colonization marked the guest of warriors, made a knight king, marked the destiny of this city. Squabbling and put on paper, well equipped and always ready for war, Cluj were extremely uncomfortable presence for their neighbors. Their character marked warrior, in fact, the internal life of the city, where, by the mid fourteenth century, internal political disputes were conducted not with words, but with spear and sword.
No symbol could not be more appropriate to illustrate this era of history Cluj than the statue of Saint George slaying the dragon, made in 1373 by brothers Martin and George Cluj for the royal palace in Prague. In 1362, Martin participated himself, equipped like a knight, an assault on the abbey of Cluj in Cluj Mănăştur, ended with the beheading of Paul Suceag noble. Equipment Knight represented the brothers was the era of fighters, they knew too well. Artisans, merchants, soldiers, and artists, Cluj XIV century were animated by the spirit of true freedom fighters. A fight that did not abandon her again, even when they were alone against all.

He became a successful actress, but has not forgotten the poor relatives
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fairy Măseluţă®
08/15/2016, 08:40:49
“Cluj 1316-2016: 700 years of freedom!” You’re right. Cluj have lived 72 years of freedom (which will be fulfilled on 11.10.2016) as it was … 700! 🙂

-3 (3 votes)
Paul George-Iulian
08/15/2016, 09:26:20
Comments deemed abusive.
ggggg Hhhhh
08/15/2016, 12:00:42
Waiting criticism. And a list of rulers of Transylvania.

Ghita Bizonu ‘
08/15/2016, 16:28:56
However memtii 1260 that colonized nuamra not among lu Tudor ancestors Sălăgean. Pyr and the obligations miliatre free people erua rule in feudalism ..

-1 (1 vote)

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Assumption of Mary:

Assumption of Mary:


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Eastern Orthodox Church:

Today’s Holiday: Assumption of Our Lady (Santa Marija)

Today’s Holiday:
Assumption of Our Lady (Santa Marija)

On this day, Malta celebrates the feast of the Assumption of Our Lady, a national holiday that commemorates the success of Operation Pedestal. Many believe that it was through the intervention of Our Lady that Operation Pedestal was able to succeed. Church services across the country start with a prayer of thanksgiving, and the names of the five surviving merchant ships are read. The holiday is celebrated festa style—with fireworks, decorated streets, and carts throughout the villages selling many different foods, including traditional sweets and delicacies.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Julia Child (1912)

Today’s Birthday:
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Child was an American chef, author, and TV personality who introduced French cooking to the American public. She began studying French cuisine while her husband was stationed in France on a diplomatic assignment and attended Paris’s famous Le Cordon Bleu cooking school. In 1961, she cowrote the bestseller Mastering the Art of French Cooking and soon began hosting a series of educational TV programs, including what show that transformed her into an Emmy-winning public-broadcasting star?: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

This Day in History: Foundation Stone Laid for Cologne Cathedral in Germany (1248)

This Day in History:
Foundation Stone Laid for Cologne Cathedral in Germany (1248)

The Cologne Cathedral is the largest in northern Europe. It contains the paintings of Stephen Lochner and is believed to hold the relics of the Wise Men of the East. Built in the Gothic style, it was begun in 1248 on the site of an older church. The nave and two spires—each of which is 515 ft (157 m) high—were included in the original plans but built later, between 1842 and 1880. For the next four years, it was the tallest structure in the world. What destroyed the original church in 1248?: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Quote of the Day: Charles Dickens

Quote of the Day:
Charles Dickens

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Article of the Day: The Port Arthur Massacre

Article of the Day:
The Port Arthur Massacre

On the morning of April 28, 1996, Martin Bryant bought a lighter, a can of tomato sauce, and a cup of coffee, drove to Port Arthur, a popular tourist site in Tasmania, Australia, and shot and killed 35 people and wounded another 37. The mentally handicapped 28-year-old was found fit to stand trial as a mentally competent adult, convicted, and sentenced to serve 35 life terms, one for each person killed, plus 1035 years without the possibility of parole. How old was Bryant’s youngest victim?: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Word of the Day: tremulous

Word of the Day:

Definition: (adjective) Marked by trembling, quivering, or shaking.
Synonyms: quavering
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