700 years ago, on August 19, 1316, luj was raised by King Charles Robert of Anjou, to the rank of city (civitas), culmination of a struggle for freedom fought for four decades. A battle which took but important moments. A fight that Cluj have never abandoned, even when they were alone against all.
The beginnings of medieval history of Cluj are still quite nebulous. They are linked to the city of Cluj Mănăştur, which was the residence of Cluj county, and the Benedictine monastery founded here as early as the eleventh century. It is not yet clear how the two institutions managed to coexist within a relatively small precincts. This, especially if we consider the fact that Cluj Mănăştur abbey was very important, a true competitor to ward Transylvania, which is otherwise in conflict. In the city today there were also other settlements, maybe even fortifications. One of them may have been present in the markets of the union, but was abandoned around the year 1100, and converted into cemetery precincts. In terms of economic and administrative Cluj was a very important locality. Settlement dominant Northern Transylvania was Dăbâca a city (urbs) large and well populated, which was also the most important military area. The main center of Transylvania was Balgrad / Alba Iulia, the true capital of the province, which exceeded in importance all other localities in the region. Suffocated between these two centers, which are added and Turda salt important operating center, Cluj could not hope for a great destiny. The stars wanted to sit down but things differently. In spring 1241, Transylvania was destroyed by the hurricane great Mongol invasion. Cluj was captured on 11 April 1241, the Mongol army led by Kadan, one of the most valuable generals Ögedei great inn. The same fate had other royal towns in Transylvania.
After 1241, the very existence of Cluj was questioned, as its status as a county center. Abbey Cluj Mănăştur managed to seize the whole city from Calvary, removing administrators princely authority. In the troubled period that followed, Cluj was competed strongly Bonţida village which, thanks to royal customs there, in this period have faster economic growth. Depopulated and devoid of resources, Cluj seemed to have entered a critical period, like other urban centers destroyed by the Mongols, who ended as simple villages.
STEPHEN (ISTVÁN) FIFTH. COLONIZATION 1260
Salvation has come from Stephen (István) V, Duke of Transylvania and heir to the throne of Hungary, which in 1260 brought to the Cluj group of German settlers ( hospites ), which placed them in the bearing today , the “Old City” (ovaries). German settlers were endowed with freedoms and privileges seeking to rebuild the city destroyed by the great Tartar invasion of 1241-1242 and transform into an urban Cluj important. Their rights were: to be judged only by the judge their ( villicus ); in case of dissatisfaction, to appeal directly to the royal court; to judge themselves and determine the causes of the strangers in their midst. In exchange for these rights, Duke settlers asked them one thing: to go to war in his army and fight alongside him.
This provision is very important, because it shows what kind of people were colonists settled in Cluj around the year 1260. They were chosen, most likely, the image and likeness of brought in Transylvania. Stephen V was a prince, then king knight for whom war was his way of being. On his official representations, Stephen is represented on horseback, in full armor equipped, and the documents issued by the facts he presented several reports of their weapons, or close relatives. Engaged in permanent wars, Stefan directly participate in battles, they win often. Valiant fighters and believers of his army were rewarded with important areas. Being always in search of valuable soldiers, Stefan brought many fighters Transylvania value, to increase the quality of his troops.
Settlers brought to the Cluj stood out and they undoubtedly primarily by their military skills. They came, apparently, from Styria and Carinthia, that Stephen had led them between 1258-1260, before the Battle of Kreussenbrunn. Moreover, they were the ones who built the first walls and towers Cluj defense fortificated surrounding area of 7 hectares, whose center is in the current Museum Square. At the same time, these settlers were their freedoms granted to them and only them. Other inhabitants of Cluj, city serfs or others, still retain their former status.
FIGHT FOR FREEDOM
In 1275, after the death of Stephen V (1272), Cluj reached wrongfully in possession ward Transylvania. Bishop Peter Monoszló (1270-1307), a close game Csak, took advantage of the fact that the allies had taken over control of the royal court to pass Cluj city owns. Cluj have not reconciled but never to this fate, and wore a struggle for freedom against the bishopric that lasted 41 years.
Such a desire for freedom was not common in this age, in our regions. Other localities reached the property Episcopal accepted their fate eventually, possession ward because it was, in fact, very hard. Cluj have not accepted this but never wins, and the explanation for this persistence should probably be sought in their status as fighters. We arguments shows that Cluj have participated in the rebellion of 1277-1279 general Transylvanian Saxons against Csak and ward Transylvania. In 1288, for a short time, even they managed to regain freedom, when King Ladislaus the Cuman canceled donation in 1275, a time in which Bishop Peter arrest Moyus, prince of Transylvania. A year later, Bishop recovered but again the city. In 1307 Cluj came along with other areas and cities bishops, the powerful leader of Transylvania mastery Ladislaus Kan. On July 20, 1313, King Charles Robert retune but “Cluj village” ( villa Kuluswar ) diocese of Alba Iulia.
1316. DIPLOMA IN CIVIL WAR
Cluj release from the dominion of the bishopric took place in 1316, after the start civil war between King Charles Robert of Anjou and the sons of former ruler Ladislau Kan. Cluj have offered their services again king, and he is in difficulties, did what a medieval sovereign would only rarely: canceled a donation made to the church. Charles Robert granted them thus Cluj diploma dated 19 August 1316, considered a true act of birth of the medieval town of Cluj. Cluj obtained the right to choose the judge and pastor, to judge much of crimes committed in the city, except for murders, thefts, robberies, arson and injuries over which would decide together the judge the city and the judge royal fines will be divided between the king (2/3) and city (1/3); to move freely and to trade throughout Transylvania, without paying customs for their goods. They were instead required to pay an annual tax king, the feast of Saint Martin, and send one soldier to the royal army better equipped and armed every 60 households.
In the years that followed, Cluj have shown that support was worth King. In the years 1316-1321, Cluj was the main base of operations royalist armies that fought in Transylvania and all the great battles of Northern Transylvania were held around Cluj. Decisive confrontation took place in 1320, Bonţida where Cluj and other supporters of the king managed to defeat the Moyus Ákos, noble leader of the rebellion in northern Transylvania. In 1321, after the capitulation of cities Ciceu and Deva, internal resistance was broken, and Transylvania came under the rule of Charles Robert.
After the victory, King Charles Robert renewed in 1322, Cluj privilege. This time the beneficiaries were not only settlers (hospites) but also other citizens of the city (civites). As of now, Cluj made up of legally, one community.
A SYMBOL CLUJ STATUE OF ST. GEORGE
Time of 1316, important for the history of Cluj, is therefore a step in a longer process. New beginnings of the medieval city after the Mongol invasion, colonization marked the guest of warriors, made a knight king, marked the destiny of this city. Squabbling and put on paper, well equipped and always ready for war, Cluj were extremely uncomfortable presence for their neighbors. Their character marked warrior, in fact, the internal life of the city, where, by the mid fourteenth century, internal political disputes were conducted not with words, but with spear and sword.
No symbol could not be more appropriate to illustrate this era of history Cluj than the statue of Saint George slaying the dragon, made in 1373 by brothers Martin and George Cluj for the royal palace in Prague. In 1362, Martin participated himself, equipped like a knight, an assault on the abbey of Cluj in Cluj Mănăştur, ended with the beheading of Paul Suceag noble. Equipment Knight represented the brothers was the era of fighters, they knew too well. Artisans, merchants, soldiers, and artists, Cluj XIV century were animated by the spirit of true freedom fighters. A fight that did not abandon her again, even when they were alone against all.
He became a successful actress, but has not forgotten the poor relatives
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“Cluj 1316-2016: 700 years of freedom!” You’re right. Cluj have lived 72 years of freedom (which will be fulfilled on 11.10.2016) as it was … 700! 🙂
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Waiting criticism. And a list of rulers of Transylvania.
Ghita Bizonu ‘
However memtii 1260 that colonized nuamra not among lu Tudor ancestors Sălăgean. Pyr and the obligations miliatre free people erua rule in feudalism ..
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