Daily Archives: August 13, 2017

Today’s Holiday: Pakistan Independence Day

Today’s Holiday:
Pakistan Independence Day

On this day in 1947, Pakistan gained independence from Britain. Pakistan had been part of the immense British colony of India since the 18th century. Independence Day is a national holiday observed in much the same way as Pakistan Day. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Hans Christian Ørsted (1777)

Today’s Birthday:
Hans Christian Ørsted (1777)

Ørsted was a Danish physicist and chemist. In 1820, he discovered that electric current passing through a wire can deflect a nearby compass needle, a phenomenon that inspired the development of electromagnetic theory. His 1820 discovery of piperine, one of the pungent components of pepper, was an important contribution to chemistry. In 1824, he founded a society devoted to the spread of scientific knowledge among the general public. What unit of measurement was named after him? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

This Day in History: British Troops Are Deployed in Northern Ireland (1969)

This Day in History:
British Troops Are Deployed in Northern Ireland (1969)

In August 1969, tensions between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland came to a head in the predominantly-Catholic Bogside neighborhood of Londonderry. For days, fighting raged with Catholic residents on one side and police and Protestant residents on the other. On August 14, British troops were deployed to restore order. Some consider that day to be the definitive beginning of the decades-long conflict known as The Troubles. How did residents react to the arrival of the army? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Quote of the Day: Henry Fielding

Quote of the Day:
Henry Fielding

I describe not men, but manners; not an individual, but a species. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Article of the Day: The Cluttered Lives of the Collyer Brothers

Article of the Day:
The Cluttered Lives of the Collyer Brothers

American brothers Homer and Langley Collyer lived as hermits in their New York City home before being found dead in 1947, surrounded by more than 100 tons of rubbish amassed over several decades. Their uncontrolled collecting is often cited as a prime example of the hoarding behavior associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Among the clutter were 14 pianos, pickled human organs, and the chassis of an old car, with booby-traps set up to protect against intruders. How did the men die? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Idiom of the Day: knock (someone) over with a feather

Idiom of the Day:
knock (someone) over with a feather

To shock, confuse, or astonish someone to a point of complete bewilderment; throw someone for a loop. More often phrased as “you could have knocked me over with a feather,” expressing great bewilderment or surprise. Watch the video…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Word of the Day: stoop

Word of the Day:

Definition: (verb) Debase oneself morally, act in an undignified, unworthy, or dishonorable way.
Synonyms: condescend, lower oneself
Usage: The neighborhood bully constantly shouts insults at the children, but they refuse to stoop to his level and instead choose to ignore his rude remarks.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

BBC News: ‘Unite the Right’ organiser Jason Kessler chased away by protesters

I saw this on the BBC and thought you should see it:

‘Unite the Right’ organiser Jason Kessler chased away by protesters – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-40919178

Vaccination policy

Malaria Clinic in Tanzania helped by SMS for Life program which organizes malaria vaccine delivery

Malaria Clinic in Tanzania helped by SMS for Life program which organizes malaria vaccine delivery


Vaccination policy refers to the health policy a government adopts in relation to vaccination. Vaccinations are voluntary in some countries and mandatory in others, as part of their public health system. Some governments pay all or part of the costs of vaccinations in a national vaccination schedule.

Goals of vaccination policies
Immunity and herd immunity
Vaccination policies aim to produce immunity to preventable diseases. Besides individual protection from getting ill, some vaccination policies also aim to provide the community as a whole with herd immunity. Herd immunity refers to the idea that the pathogen will have trouble spreading when a significant part of the population has immunity against it. This protects those unable to get the vaccine due to medical conditions, such as immune disorders.

Each year, vaccination prevents between two and three million deaths, across all age groups, from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles.

The impact of immunization policy on vaccine-preventable diseases has been listed as one of the top public health achievements.

Eradication of disease

Malaria Clinic in Tanzania helped by SMS for Life program which organizes malaria vaccine delivery
With some vaccines, a goal of vaccination policies is to eradicate the disease – make it disappear from Earth altogether. The World Health Organization coordinated the effort to eradicate smallpox globally through vaccination, the last naturally occurring case of smallpox was in Somalia in 1977. Endemic measles, mumps and rubella have been eliminated through vaccination in Finland. The WHO has targeted polio for eradication by the year 2018.

Individual versus group goals
Rational individuals will attempt to minimize the risk of illness, and will seek vaccination for themselves or their children if they perceive a high threat of disease and a low risk to vaccination. However, if a vaccination program successfully reduces the disease threat, it may reduce the perceived risk of disease enough so that an individual’s optimal strategy is to encourage everyone but their family to be vaccinated, or (more generally) to refuse vaccination at coverage levels below those optimal for the community. For example, a 2003 study found that a bioterrorist attack using smallpox would result in conditions where voluntary vaccination would be unlikely to reach the optimum level for the U.S. as a whole, and a 2007 study found that severe influenza epidemics cannot be prevented by voluntary vaccination without offering certain incentives. Governments often allow exemptions to mandatory vaccinations for religious or philosophical reasons, but decreased rates of vaccination may cause loss of herd immunity, substantially increasing risks even to vaccinated individuals. However, mandatory vaccination raises ethical issues regarding parental rights and informed consent.

Compulsory vaccination
Further information: Vaccine controversy
To eliminate the risk of disease outbreaks, at various times governments and other institutions established policies requiring vaccination. For example, an 1853 law required universal vaccination against smallpox in England and Wales, with fines levied on people who did not comply. In the United States, the Supreme Court ruled in Jacobson v. Massachusetts (1905) that states have the authority to require vaccination against smallpox during a smallpox epidemic. All U.S states require that children be vaccinated in order to attend school; only three states (Mississippi, West Virginia, and California) do not provide exemptions based on religious or philosophical beliefs. A few other countries also follow this practice. Compulsory vaccination greatly reduces infection rates for associated diseases. Beginning in the nineteenth century, these policies stirred resistance from a variety of groups, collectively called anti-vaccinationists, who objected on ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds. Common objections included government intervention in personal matters or that proposed vaccinations were not sufficiently safe. Many modern vaccination policies allow exemptions for people with compromised immune systems, allergies to vaccination components, or strongly held objections.

In 1904 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, following an urban renewal program that displaced many poor, a government program of mandatory smallpox vaccination triggered the Vaccine Revolt, several days of rioting with considerable property damage and a number of deaths.

Compulsory vaccination is a difficult policy issue, requiring authorities to balance public health with individual liberty:

“Vaccination is unique among de facto mandatory requirements in the modern era, requiring individuals to accept the injection of a medicine or medicinal agent into their bodies, and it has provoked a spirited opposition. This opposition began with the first vaccinations, has not ceased, and probably never will. From this realisation arises a difficult issue: how should the mainstream medical authorities approach the anti-vaccination movement? A passive reaction could be construed as endangering the health of society, whereas a heavy-handed approach can threaten the values of individual liberty and freedom of expression that we cherish.”
Investigation of different types of vaccination policy finds strong evidence that standing orders and allowing healthcare workers without prescription authority (such as nurses) to administer vaccines in defined circumstances increases vaccination rates, and sufficient evidence that requiring vaccinations before attending child care and school does so. but insufficient evidence to assess effectiveness of requiring vaccinations as a condition for hospital and other healthcare jobs.

My Chakra today no.2

My Chakra today no.2

My Chakra today no.2

My birds on the wire today

My birds on the wire today

My birds on the wire today

My Chakra today

My Chakra today

My Chakra today

My Duck today

My Duck today

My Duck today

Hornul Mălăiești, Munții Bucegi Foto: Comșa Bogdan www.facebook.com/COMSABOGDAN2016/

<img src=”https://euzicasa.files.wordpress.com/2017/08/wp-image-1595744244.jpg&#8221; class=”size-full” title=”Hornul Mălăiești, Munții Bucegi

Foto: Comșa Bogdan
http://www.facebook.com/COMSABOGDAN2016/&#8221; width=”360″ height=”540″ alt=”Hornul Mălăiești, Munții Bucegi

Foto: Comșa Bogdan

Hornul Mălăiești, Munții Bucegi Foto: Comșa Bogdan http://www.facebook.com/COMSABOGDAN2016/

Poveste de duminică. Călători străini despre Cetatea Făgăraş – Făgărașul Tău


Făgărașul Tău Poveste de duminică. Călători străini despre Cetatea Făgăraşadmin octombrie 23, 2016 Poveste de duminică. Călători străini despre Cetatea Făgăraş2016-10-23T12:24:07+00:00 Recomandate Niciun comentariu Vizualizari: 981 cet-2 Cetatea şi oraşul –stampă, 1735 Călătorii străini – diplomaţi ai curţilor regale europene, misionari sau simpli trecători – au lăsat posterităţii descrieri ale oraşului şi Cetăţii Făgăraşului. Prima consemnare vine de la Anton Verancsics (1504-1543), primat al Ungariei, prieten cu Erasmus din Rotterdam, care amintea, în a sa Descriere a Transilvaniei, printre cetăţile voievodatului ardelean, alături de cele din Hunedoara şi Deva, şi pe cea din Făgăraş. La mijlocul secolului al XVI-lea se preciza că pe malul Oltului ,,stă cetatea bogată, căreia vechii locuitori i-au dat numele de Făgăraş, înconjurată din toate părţile cu şanţuri şi cu puternicul zid”. Umanistul român Nicolaus Olahus, contemporan cu voievodul Ştefan Mailat, o considera cea mai întărită cetate din sudul Transilvaniei: ,,cetatea aceasta e ca un mic ducat pentru că supuşii ei sunt boieri români, care respectă pe stăpânul cetăţii ca pe un principe”. Georg Reichersdorffer scria, la mijlocul secolului al XVI-lea, în Chorographia Transilvaniei: ,, … Cetatea Făgăraş << care e>> aşezată într-un loc şes şi mlăştinos şi este atât de bine întărită şi puternică, încât nu există nici o teamă că ea să poată fi vreodată minată”. În anul 1574, călătorul Pierre Lescalopier nota că la Făgăraş este un castel puternic cu un şanţ larg, înconjurat de apă, în mijlocul unui oraş bine populat. Câţiva ani mai târziu, la 1585, francezul Jacques Bongras, în drumul său spre Constantinopol, trecând prin Făgăraş nota despre acesta că este oraş cu un castel întărit şi frumos. CP Cetatea-stampa mijl.sec.19 Giorgio Tomasi realizează, la sfârşitul secolului al XVI-lea, o frumoasă descriere a cetăţii şi castelului. El aminteşte printre cele mai însemnate cetăţi ale Transilvaniei, în afară de cele ocupate de turci; Făgăraşul, care ,,se dovedeşte a fi o bună cetate, deşi mică, tăria i-o dă un zid bastion care o încinge, precum şi şanţul pe care îl are împrejur, ce nu poate fi trecut decât pe un pod lung de lemn, care singur îngăduie intrarea, ajungând la turnuri foarte întărite, păzite cu multă grijă de soldaţi”. Tot el ne transmite o primă descriere a interioarelor castelului: ,,În cetate, Balthazar Bathory, fratele cardinalului (Ştefan Bathory –n.n.), pe când era stăpân, începuse o măreaţă clădire în stil italian << Renaştere>> pentru locuinţa sa. Şi a făcut la mijloc o sală mare pe care a împodobit-o cu picturi de mâna unui pictor

Is-se-dar. Salish. 1907. Photo by Benjamin Stone. Source – Denver Public Library.

Is-se-dar. Salish. 1907. Photo by Benjamin Stone. Source - Denver Public Library.

Is-se-dar. Salish. 1907. Photo by Benjamin Stone. Source – Denver Public Library.

France 24 : Kenya’s Odinga urges strike, refuses to accept election defeat

Kenya’s Odinga urges strike, refuses to accept election defeat

Kenyan opposition leader Raila Odinga on Sunday called for a strike to support his claim to the presidency and accused the ruling party of “spilling the blood of innocent people”, despite growing pressure on him to concede election defeat.


The election commission on Friday declared incumbent Uhuru Kenyatta winner of the presidential poll by 1.4 million votes. International observers said Tuesday’s election was largely fair but Odinga disputes the results, saying it was rigged. He has not provided documentary evidence. “Jubilee have spilt the blood of innocent people. Tomorrow there is no work,” Odinga told a crowd of around 4,000 cheering supporters, referring to the ruling party. He promised to announce a new strategy on Tuesday. Senator James Orengo, one of Odinga’s chief supporters, said the opposition would call for demonstrations. “When we people call you to action, peaceful action, don’t stay behind,” Orengo told the crowd in Kibera, Nairobi’s largest slum. He also called for a boycott of Nation television and newspapers, Kenya’s largest independent media group, over their coverage of the disputed elections. The rally, Odinga’s first public speech since Thursday, was a unequivocal message that he has no intention of renouncing his claim to be the winner of Tuesday’s vote despite calls from the international community for him to concede. There have been deadly clashes between police and civilians in his stronghold areas. Presidential spokesman Manoah Esipisu blamed the bloodshed on protesters. “The violent protests are unlawful,” he said in a statement on Sunday. “The Police will not tolerate breaches of the peace; instead, they will protect the lives and property of Kenyans; and they will restore law and order.” Reuters reporters have seen police repeatedly fire tear gas and bullets to disperse crowds of people in slums. Police have also detained and physically attacked journalists. Election-related deaths There have been at least 24 deaths in election-related unrest so far, a rights group said on Saturday, including that of a nine-year-old girl. The Kenya Red Cross said on Saturday it had treated 93 injured people. By Sunday the violence had largely abated, to the relief of Kenyans who feared a repeat of the carnage that followed 2007’s disputed election. Around 1,200 people were killed then and 600,000 displaced after Odinga called for political protests that sparked ethnic violence. Regional trade was paralysed and Kenya’s economy – the region’s biggest – took years to recover. Some Odinga supporters are convinced that victory was stolen from them in the 2007 and 2013 polls, both marred by irregularities and problems. Odinga contested both, and lost, and his supporters say they will not back down this time. “We are sick and tired of these people stealing the country from us. We need to split this country in two,” said David Orwa, 44, his words hinting at the ethnic divide that underlies Kenyan politics. Odinga is a Luo, an ethnic group from the west that has long felt neglected by central government and excluded from power. Kenyatta is a Kikuyu, a tribe that has provided three out of Kenya’s four presidents since independence from Britain in 1963. Diplomats and regional leaders are urging Odinga, a former political prisoner, to concede. Their united stance leaves the 72-year-old opposition leader isolated if he chooses to maintain the allegations of election fraud and proclaim himself president.

BBC News: Striking images of America’s dark side

I saw this on the BBC and thought you should see it:

Striking images of America’s dark side – http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20170804-striking-images-of-the-real-america

Românaşului îi place…prin Carpați!

Românaşului îi place...prin Carpați!

Românaşului îi place…prin Carpați!

Today’s Holiday: Jour de Fête de Ste. Genevieve

Today’s Holiday:
Jour de Fête de Ste. Genevieve

Ste. Genevieve became the first permanent settlement in the state of Missouri when the French arrived in 1725. At one time it rivaled St. Louis in size and importance, and the town still prides itself on its authentic 18th- and 19th-century architecture. The annual Jour de Fête that has been held in mid-August each year since 1965 not only celebrates the area’s French heritage but is a German and Spanish festival as well. Historic homes dating back to 1770 are opened to the public, people dress in colonial costumes, and arts and crafts are on display. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Lucy Stone (1818)

Today’s Birthday:
Lucy Stone (1818)

In 1847, Stone became the first Massachusetts woman to graduate college. Not long after, she began speaking on women’s rights. An effective orator, she is said to have swayed antagonistic audiences and inspired Susan B. Anthony to join the cause. She kept her own name after marriage as a protest against the unequal laws applied to married women, and others who did the same called themselves “Lucy Stoners.” She caused an uproar by wearing “bloomers.” What were they, and why were they so named? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

This Day in History: Circus Acrobat Otto Witte Crowned King of Albania? (1913)

This Day in History:
Circus Acrobat Otto Witte Crowned King of Albania? (1913)

Witte was a German citizen and circus acrobat who claimed to have impersonated his way into being crowned King of Albania in 1913—by some accounts, on August 13. According to Witte, he enjoyed the royal harem and reigned for several days before being discovered as an impostor. Though he was likely lying, his story was picked up by several publications, including Time magazine. What novel may have given Witte the idea for his story, and what other novel was then based on Witte? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Quote of the Day: Joseph Conrad

Quote of the Day:
Joseph Conrad

How does one kill fear, I wonder? How do you shoot a specter through the heart, slash off its spectral head, take it by its spectral throat? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Article of the Day: Diyu: The Realm of the Dead

Article of the Day:
Diyu: The Realm of the Dead

Elements from Taoism, Buddhism, and traditional Chinese folk religion are all incorporated in the Chinese concept of Diyu, a mythological realm of the dead. A purgatory of sorts, Diyu is a maze of underground levels and chambers where souls atone for their earthly sins and prepare for reincarnation. According to some legends, Diyu has 18 levels, each of which is reserved for specific categories of offenders. What are some of the punishments found in each level? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Idiom of the Day: knock Anthony

Idiom of the Day:
knock Anthony

obsolete To knock one’s knees together while walking or running (i.e., be “knock-kneed”). Watch the video…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Word of the Day: duster

Word of the Day:

Definition: (noun) A loose coverall (coat or frock) reaching down to the ankles.
Synonyms: gaberdine, smock
Usage: In the office he wore also a linen duster with huge pockets into which he continually stuffed scraps of paper.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch