Daily Archives: August 17, 2017

From Wikipedia: Richard II of England


Portrait Richard II of England

Portrait Richard II of England

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399. Richard, a son of Edward, the Black Prince, was born in Bordeaux during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III, and while his father was Prince of Aquitaine. Richard was the younger brother of Edward of Angoulême, upon whose death Richard, at three years of age, became second in line to the throne after his father. Upon the death of Richard’s father prior to the death of Edward III, Richard, by primogeniture, became the heir apparent to the throne. With Edward III’s death the following year, Richard succeeded to the throne at the age of ten.

Quick facts: Richard II, King of England (more…) …
During Richard’s first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of councils. Most of the aristocracy preferred this to a regency led by the king’s uncle, John of Gaunt, yet Gaunt remained highly influential. The first major challenge of the reign was the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381. The young king played a major part in the successful suppression of this crisis. In the following years, however, the king’s dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent among the influential, and in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant. By 1389 Richard had regained control, and for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents.

In 1397, Richard took his revenge on the appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. The next two years have been described by historians as Richard’s “tyranny”. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt’s son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who had previously been exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Although he initially claimed that his goal was only to reclaim his patrimony, it soon became clear that Henry intended to claim the throne for himself. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV. Richard died in captivity in February 1400; he is thought to have been starved to death, although questions remain regarding his final fate.

Richard was said to have been tall, good-looking and intelligent. Less warlike than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years’ War that Edward III had started. He was a firm believer in the royal prerogative, which led him to restrain the power of the aristocracy, and to rely on a private retinue for military protection instead; in contrast to the fraternal, martial court of his grandfather, he cultivated a refined atmosphere at his court, in which the king was an elevated figure, with art and culture at its centre.

Richard’s posthumous reputation has been shaped to a large extent by William Shakespeare, whose play Richard II portrayed Richard’s misrule and his deposition by Bolingbroke as responsible for the 15th-century Wars of the Roses. Modern historians do not accept this interpretation, while not exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. While probably not insane, as historians of the 19th and 20th centuries believed, he may have had what psychologists today identify as a personality disorder, particularly manifesting itself towards the end of his reign. Most authorities agree that, even though his policies were not unprecedented or entirely unrealistic, the way in which he carried them out was unacceptable to the political establishment, and this led to his downfall. <a href=”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England?wprov=sfla1“>Read entire article

” Dusk ” 1524- 1531 detail at the tomb of Lorenzo de Medici by Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarotti at Sagrestia Nuova , San Lorenzo, Florence


” Dusk ” 1524- 1531 detail at the tomb of Lorenzo de Medici by Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarotti at Sagrestia Nuova , San Lorenzo, Florence

Watch “Liszt Chasse-neige Transcedental Etude #12 Valentina Lisitsa” on YouTube


Watch “Khachaturian Toccata – Pablo Arencibia” on YouTube


Watch “Wireless Warfare Exposed – Declassified Military Doc Proves Smart Phones Are Killing Mankind” on YouTube


The beautiful River Lune in Lancaster, England.


The beautiful River Lune in Lancaster, England.

The beautiful River Lune in Lancaster, England.

” Foundation of the Library ” 1477 Fresco by early Renaissance artist Melozzo da Forli at Pinacoteca in Vatican


” Foundation of the Library ” 1477 Fresco by early Renaissance artist Melozzo da Forli at Pinacoteca in Vatican

” The Passion Pulpit ” 1460-1465 Artist: Donatello Period: Early Renaissance Location: San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy It is made from marble and Bronze


” The Passion Pulpit ” 1460-1465 Artist: Donatello Period: Early Renaissance Location: San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy It is made from marble and Bronze

Să iubești pe cineva care nu te iubeşte…


Să iubești pe cineva care nu te iubeşte...

Să iubești pe cineva care nu te iubeşte…

Țara mea e Țara Făgăraşului


Țara mea e Țara Făgăraşului

Țara mea e Țara Făgăraşului

‘Sunrise’ detail ~ Claude Monet


'Sunrise' detail ~ Claude Monet

‘Sunrise’ detail ~ Claude Monet

A cave on a beach in Greece


A cave on a beach in Greece

A cave on a beach in Greece

A Lakota man. ca. 1895-1899. South Dakota. Photo by Jesse H. Bratley. Source – Denver Museum of Nature and Science.


A Lakota man. ca. 1895-1899. South Dakota. Photo by Jesse H. Bratley. Source - Denver Museum of Nature and Science.

A Lakota man. ca. 1895-1899. South Dakota. Photo by Jesse H. Bratley. Source – Denver Museum of Nature and Science.

My unique butterfly


My unique butterfly

My unique butterfly

Watch “The stories behind The New Yorker’s iconic covers | Françoise Mouly” on YouTube


Today’s Holiday: Gabon Independence Day


Today’s Holiday:
Gabon Independence Day

Gabon gained official independence from France on August 17, 1960, after more than a century of domination. August 17 is a public holiday, but celebrations often extend to the days before and after Independence Day, with parades and dancing. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Mae West (1893)


Today’s Birthday:
Mae West (1893)

West was an American stage and movie comedienne who started her career in burlesque and vaudeville. In 1926, she began to write, produce, and star in her own Broadway plays, which were often replete with sexual innuendo. A master of the double entendre, she treated sex with broad humor in popular films such as I’m No Angel. As a result, she constantly battled the censorship of the motion picture Production Code. What was dubbed a “Mae West” during World War II? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

This Day in History: Miles Davis’s Kind of Blue Is Released (1959)


This Day in History:
Miles Davis’s Kind of Blue Is Released (1959)

Recorded in just two sessions in the spring of 1959, Miles Davis’s Kind of Blue is widely considered to be one of the most important jazz albums ever produced. Davis assembled a group of talented musicians—including saxophonist John Coltrane and pianist Bill Evans—and gave them minimal instructions before recording. Possibly the best-selling jazz album of all time, Kind of Blue is notable for having left out something considered to be the backbone of earlier jazz composition—what? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Quote of the Day: Ambrose Bierce


Quote of the Day:
Ambrose Bierce

I is the first letter of the alphabet, the first word of the language, the first thought of the mind, the first object of affection. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Article of the Day: The Cooper’s Hill Cheese Rolling and Wake


Article of the Day:
The Cooper’s Hill Cheese Rolling and Wake

The Cooper’s Hill Cheese Rolling and Wake is a 200-year-old competition held annually in the Cotswolds region of England. Drawing both local and international participants, the race begins when a round of Double Gloucester cheese is set loose at the top of a steep hill. Competitors dash after it, risking sprained ankles, broken bones, and concussions in the chase. Even spectators risk injury, as the cheese reaches speeds of 70 mph (113 km/h). What does the first person over the finish line win? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Idiom of the Day: know every trick in the book


Idiom of the Day:
know every trick in the book

To be aware of or knowledgeable in every possible way to do or achieve something, especially ways that are clever, cunning, or ethically questionable. Watch the video…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Word of the Day: laic


Word of the Day:
laic

Definition: (adjective) Of or relating to the laity.
Synonyms: lay, secular
Usage: He was a laic leader, but many of his followers believed him to be a prophet.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

It’s a perfect day on Convict Lake right now!


It's a perfect day on Convict Lake right now!

It’s a perfect day on Convict Lake right now!

My pistachio ice cream cone


My pistachio ice cream cone

My pistachio ice cream cone

My freshly squeezed orange juice


My freshly squeezed orange juice

My freshly squeezed orange juice

My cactus in flower


My cactus in flower

My cactus in flower