Daily Archives: November 11, 2017

Today’s Holiday: Elizabeth Cady Stanton Day

Today’s Holiday:
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Day

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) was a pioneer in the struggle for women’s rights. She helped organize the first women’s rights convention, held at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. With Susan B. Anthony, they organized the National Woman Suffrage Association, planned suffrage campaigns, and fought for equality for women. Governor Herbert Lehman of New York declared November 12 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Day in 1941. Her birthday has long been observed by women’s rights groups throughout the U.S., particularly the National Organization for Women (NOW). More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Juana Inés de la Cruz (1651?)

Today’s Birthday:
Juana Inés de la Cruz (1651?)

Today considered one of the greatest lyric poets of colonial Mexico, Sor Juana abandoned her life as a favorite at the viceroy’s court to join a convent at the age of 16. There, she immersed herself in learning. Criticized by her superiors, she penned a passionate defense of women’s education that became a classic. Despite having earned wide acclaim as a poet, she ceased writing publicly under pressure from church officials. Devoted to spirituality in her final years, she died doing what? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

This Day in History: Remains of Explorer

This Day in History:
Remains of Explorer

Robert Scott and His Men Are Found in Antarctica (1912)
The Scott party reached the South Pole in January 1912 after a grueling two-and-a-half month journey across Antarctica, only to find that another group had beaten them to it weeks earlier. On the return trek, Scott and his entire team died. Seven months later, a search party found their final camp, retrieved Scott’s records, and buried the bodies under a cairn of snow. It is now believed that Scott was the last to die. In his final diary entry, written on March 29, Scott makes what request? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Quote of the Day: Homer

Quote of the Day:

And what he greatly thought, he nobly dared. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Article of the Day: Running the Gauntlet

Article of the Day:
Running the Gauntlet

The phrase “running the gauntlet” is used figuratively today to mean enduring a series of punishments or tests. It derives from the Roman form of military execution known as fustuarium, in which a soldier found guilty of laxity was cudgeled to death by his comrades. In some later traditions, the condemned was forced to pass between two rows of armed soldiers and pardoned if he managed to exit the other side. “The gauntlet” is also a type of athletic drill used in training for what sports? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Idiom of the Day: be in bad with (someone)

Idiom of the Day:
be in bad with (someone)

To be disliked or out of favor with someone; to be in trouble with someone. Watch the video…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Word of the Day: borderland

Word of the Day:

Definition: (noun) District consisting of the area on either side of a border or boundary of a country or an area.
Synonyms: border district, march, marchland
Usage: The borderland was sparsely populated, and the lawless region saw few visitors.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

My Chakra today

My Chakra today

My Chakra today

My pot with flowers today

My pot with flowers today

My pot with flowers today

My birds on the wire today

My birds on the wire today

My birds on the wire today

My Duck today

My Duck today

My Duck today

Vatican Secret Archives


Coat of the Vatican Secret Archives

The Vatican Secret Archives (Latin: Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum; Italian: Archivio Segreto Vaticano) is the central repository in the Vatican City for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. The Pope, as Sovereign of Vatican City and having primal incumbency, owns the archives until his death or resignation, with ownership passing to his successor. The archives also contain the state papers, correspondence, papal account books, and many other documents which the church has accumulated over the centuries. In the 17th century, under the orders of Pope Paul V, the Secret Archives were separated from the Vatican Library, where scholars had some very limited access to them, and remained closed to outsiders until 1881, when Pope Leo XIII opened them to researchers, more than a thousand of whom now examine some of its documents each year.

Seal of the Vatican Secret Archives
Vatican Secret Archives
Location on a map of Vatican City
The use of the word “secret” in the title “Vatican Secret Archives” does not denote the modern meaning of confidentiality. A fuller and perhaps better translation of the Latin may be the “private Vatican Apostolic archives”. Its meaning is closer to that of the word “private”, indicating that the archives are the Pope’s personal property, not belonging to those of any particular department of the Roman Curia or the Holy See. The word “secret” was generally used in this sense as also reflected in phrases such as “secret servants”, “secret cupbearer”, “secret carver” or “secretary”, much like an esteemed position of honour and regard comparable to a VIP.

Parts of the Secret Archives remain truly secret, however: some materials are still prohibited for outside viewing, including everything dated after 1939.

The Vatican Secret Archives have been estimated to contain 85 kilometres (53 mi) of shelving, and there are 35,000 volumes in the selective catalogue alone. “Indexes must be consulted in the Index Room and replaced in their original location. Publication of the indexes, in part or as a whole, is forbidden.” The Archives support their own photographic and conservation studios.

According to the website of the Archives, the oldest surviving document dates back to the end of the eighth century. “Transfers and political upheavals nearly caused the total loss of all the archival material preceding Innocent III” (reigned 1198–1216). From 1198 onwards, complete archives exist, though documentation is scant before the 13th century. Since that time, the documentation includes items such as Henry VIII of England’s request for a marriage annulment, a handwritten transcript of the trial against Galileo for heresy, and letters from Michelangelo complaining he hadn’t been paid for work on the Sistine Chapel.


The Vatican Secret Archives
The entrance to the Archives, adjacent to the Vatican Library, is through the Porta di S. Anna in via di Porta Angelica (rione of Borgo). New underground storage space was added in 1980.

Qualified scholars from institutions of higher education pursuing scientific researches, with an adequate knowledge of archival research, may apply for an entry card. Scholars need an introductory letter by either a recognized institute of research or by a suitably qualified person in the field of historical research. Applicants need to specify their personal data (name, address etc.) as well as the purpose of their research. Undergraduate students are not admitted.

There are strict limitations to what archive users are able to view and access. For example, no materials dated after 1939 are available for public viewing – and an entire section of the archives relating to the personal affairs of cardinals from 1922 onwards can’t be accessed. Pope Francis is considering when to open the full archives of Pope Pius XII.

Opening of the archives
Customarily, documents are made available to the public after a period of 75 years.

1817: Vatican Secret Archive brought back to the Vatican from France.
1883: Pope Leo XIII opened archives dated 1815 or earlier.
1924: Documents up to the end of the pontificate of Gregory XVI (June 1, 1846) were released.
1966: Documents from the pontificate of Pius IX (1846–78). (The opening of this material was originally planned during the pontificate of Pius XII.)
1978: Documents from the pontificate of Leo XIII (1878–1903).
1985: Documents from the pontificates of Pius X (1903–14) and Benedict XV (1914–22).
2002 (effective from 2003): Documents from the historical archives of the Secretariat of State (Second Section) pertaining to the Holy See’s relations with Germany during the pontificate of Pope Pius XI (1922–39). The reason for this exceptional action was “to put an end to unjust and thoughtless speculation.”
2006: All documents from the pontificate of Pope Pius XI.
2012 exhibition
To mark the 400th anniversary of the Vatican Archives, 100 original documents dating from the 8th to the 20th century were put on display from February to September 2012 in the “Lux in arcana – The Vatican Secret Archives reveals itself” exhibition held at the Capitoline Museums in Rome. They included the 1521 bull of excommunication of Martin Luther and a letter from Mary, Queen of Scots, written while awaiting her execution.

Cardinal Archivists of the Vatican Secret Archives
A list of the Cardinal Archivists is given on the website of the Archives:

Scipione Borghese Caffarelli (1609–1618)
Scipione Cobelluzzi (1618–1626)
Francesco Barberini (1626–1633)
Antonio Barberini (1633–1646)
Orazio Giustiniani (1646–1649)
Luigi Capponi (1649–1659)
Flavio Chigi (1659–1681)
Lorenzo Brancati (1681–1693)
Girolamo Casanate (1693–1700)
Enrico Noris (1700–1704)
Benedetto Pamphili (1704–1730)
Angelo Maria Querini (1730–1755)
Domenico Passionei (1755–1761)
Alessandro Albani (1761–1779)
Francesco Saverio Zelada (1779–1801)
Luigi Valenti Gonzaga (1802–1808)
Interruption due to the Napoleonic occupation of Rome (1809–1814)
Giulio Maria della Somaglia (1827–1830)
Giuseppe Albani (1830–1834)
Luigi Lambruschini (1834–1853)
Angelo Mai (1853–1854)
Antonio Tosti (1860–1866)
Jean-Baptiste Pitra (1869–1879)
Joseph Hergenröther (1879–1890)
Agostino Ciasca (19 May 1891 – 4 July 1893)
Luigi Galimberti (it) (25 June 1894 – 7 May 1896)
Francesco Segna (4 July 1896 – 13 January 1908)
Francesco Salesio Della Volpe (26 October 1908 – 26 January 1911)
Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro (1912 – 16 December 1913)
Francesco di Paola Cassetta (14 February 1914 – 1917)
Francis Aidan Gasquet (28 November 1917 – 5 April 1929)
Franz Ehrle (17 April 1929 – 31 March 1934)
Giovanni Mercati (15 June 1936 – 23 August 1957)
Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent Tisserant (14 September 1957 – 27 March 1971)
Antonio Samore (25 January 1974 – 3 February 1983)
Alfons Stickler (8 September 1983 – 1 July 1988)
Antonio María Javierre Ortas (1 July 1988 – 24 January 1992)
Luigi Poggi (9 April 1992 – 7 March 1998)
Jorge María Mejía (7 March 1998 – 24 November 2003)
Jean-Louis Tauran (24 November 2003 – 1 September 2007)
Raffaele Farina (1 September 2007 – 9 June 2012)
Jean-Louis Bruguès* (26 June 2012 – present)
*not a cardinal
Prefects of the Vatican Secret Archives
Giuseppe Garampi (9 September 1751 – 27 January 1772)
Mario Zampini (1772–82)
Gaetano Marini (1782–1815)
Callisto Marini (1782–1822)
Marino Marini (1815–55)
Augustin Theiner, O.S.A. (6 December 1855 – June 1870)
Giuseppe Cardoni (8 June 1870 – March 1873)
Carlo Cristofori (14 April 1873 – 13 January 1877)
Francesco Rosi Bernardini (17 January 1877 – June 1879)
Joseph Hergenröther (9 June 1879 – 3 October 1890)
Agostino Ciasca, O.S.A. (13 June 1891 – July 1892)
Luigi Tripepi (19 September 1892 – May 1894)
Peter Wenzel (28 July 1894 – 24 May 1909)
Mariano Ugolini (29 May 1909 – June 1925)
Angelo Mercati (22 May 1925 – October 1955)
Martino Giusti (it) (1955 – April 1984)
Josef Metzler (de), O.M.I. (24 May 1984 – 1996)
Sergio Pagano, B. (7 January 1997 – present)
Other Holy See archives
There are other Holy See archives in Rome, since each department of the Roman Curia has its own archives. The word “secret” in its modern sense can be applied to some of the material kept by the Apostolic Penitentiary, when it concerns matters of the internal forum; but registers of the rescripts that it issued up to 1564 have been deposited in the Vatican Secret Archives and are open for consultation by qualified scholars. Half of these have already been put in digital form for easier consultation. The confidentiality of the material means that, in spite of the centuries that have passed since 1564, special rules apply to its publication.

See also
Actes et documents du Saint Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale (Acts and Documents of the Holy See relative to the Second World War)
Acta Apostolicae Sedis
Archive of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Chinon Parchment
Relations between Catholicism and Judaism
Vatican Film Library, which contains microfilmed versions of some of the documents from the Archives, in St. Louis, Missouri
List of national archives
More information: Tap to expand …
Further reading
Ambrosini, Maria Luisa. The Secret Archives of the Vatican. Boston: Little, Brown, 1969 (republished 1996). ISBN 0-7607-0125-3
Blouin, Francis X.; et al. (1998). Vatican Archives: An Inventory and Guide to Historical Documentation of the Holy See. New York, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509552-9.
Pastor, Ludwig von. The history of the popes, from the close of the Middle Ages: (drawn from the secret archives of the Vatican and other original sources). from WorldCat. Reprints: Periodicals Service Company (New York) and Schmidt Periodicals GmbH (Germany)
Borromeo, Agostino. L’inquisizione : atti del Simposio internazionale, Città del Vaticano ( The inquisition: actions of the international Symposium, Vatican City), Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 2003. ISBN 88-210-0761-8
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vatican Secret Archives.
Vatican Secret Archive Official Web Site, including a history of the Secret Archives
The Vatican Palace, as a Scientific Institute, Catholic Encyclopedia
Roman Historical Institutes, Catholic Encyclopedia
Ecclesiastical Archives, Catholic Encyclopedia
Archives of the Holy See, New Catholic Dictionary, 1910 edition
University of Michigan Vatican Archives Project, a detailed history, description and catalogue of archives
Palazzo del Sant’Uffizio: The Opening of the Roman Inquisition’s Central Archive by Anne Jacobson Schutte, Perspectives Online, Published by the American Historical Association, May 1999
Inside the Vatican, National Geographic, April 8, 2004
An interview with Sergio Pagano, prefect of the Vatican Secret Archives, January 18, 2005. Sergio Pagano
News articles
Inquisition Requires Calm, Objective Analysis, EWTN Library, from L’Osservatore Romano, November 11, 1998. Address of Pope John Paul II to the participants of the International Symposium on the Inquisition at the Vatican, October 31, 1998. In attendance was the internationally renowned historian Carlo Ginzburg. In 1979, Ginzburg sent a letter to the then newly elected Pope John Paul II, asking that the archives of the Holy office (the Roman Inquisition) be opened. Cardinal Ratzinger, now Pope Benedict XVI, credited Ginzburg, and his 1979 letter, as having been instrumental in the Vatican’s decision to open these archives.
Vatican to Open Archives Tied to a Key Era in Germany, Zenit News Agency, October 29, 2002
Vatican to computerize archives from the Holy Office, Inquisition, Catholic World News, December 5, 2002.
Vatican ‘dispels Inquisition myths’, BBC News Online, June 15, 2004
John Paul II Letter on Inquisition Symposium, Zenit News Agency, June 15, 2004
Scrutinizing the Inquisition; an “exposé of the tortures and injustices committed by various national Inquisitions…”, Zenit News Agency, June 24, 2004
Jewish group threatens to sue Vatican for access to archives, Catholic News Service, January 28, 2005
Vatican’s secret archives now open to scholars, CathNews, September 19, 2006
New Insights into Vatican’s Diplomacy “Documents from newly opened Vatican archives indicate…”, NewsVine.com, October 12, 2006
Religiosa Archivorum Custodia. IV centenario della fondazione dell’archivio segreto vaticano (1612–2012), Archivio segreto vaticano, 2012, Roma.

La vita è come un libro. Alcuni amici sono lì in una pagina, altri in un capitolo ma quelli veri per tutta la storia. Kristiano Loshi

La vita è come un libro. Alcuni amici sono lì in una pagina, altri in un capitolo ma quelli veri per tutta la storia.

Kristiano Loshi

100 de ani de comunism | Soluțiile nemiloase ale lui Troţki


Troţki, radical | Bogat, sofisticat, poliglot, cinic

Pe numele său adevărat Lev Davidovici Bronstein, creatorul Armatei Roşii s-a născut în 1879 în Ucraina, într-o familie avută. A făcut şcoala primară la Odessa, în grija unui unchi, un intelectual liberal. Şi-a continuat studiile în oraşul Nicolaev, unde a frecventat cercuri marxiste clandestine. Student, înfiinţează o nouă mişcare de stânga radicală. Este arestat şi petrece 4 ani de exil în Siberia, de unde fuge sub numele de Lev Troţki. Ajuns la Londra, s-a asociat cu grupul de social-democraţi ruşi unde îl întâlneşte pe Vladimir llici Lenin. Ambii au trăit perioade îndelungate în Occident.

Stelian Tănase, istoric şi politolog: „Troţki este un evreu ucrainean, fiul unui arendaş bogat și el. Mitul cu bolşevicii muncitori, săraci, care fac revoluție împotriva capitalismului este un mit. Bolşevicii, cel puțin cei de la vârf, erau bogați şi erau ori burghezi, ori aristocrați. Lenin, de pildă, este un aristocrat. Alexandra Kollontay este o aristocrată. Dzerjinski este un aristocrat. Povestea cu clasa muncitoare care face revoluţie proletară împotriva capitalismului este o gogoriţă şi un mit al secolului XX, care nu se potriveşte cu realitatea”.

Tandemul Lenin-Troţki, esenţial pentru bolşevici

Relaţiile dintre Lenin şi Troţki erau când tensionate, când reci. Este perioada în care Troţski se plasa mai degrabă printre socialiştii moderaţi, adică aşa-numiţii menşevici.

Citiți și: Cine au fost menșevicii

În 1905, anul primei revoluţii moderne din Rusia, Troţki ajunge la Sankt Petersburg unde se face remarcat în Sovietul Muncitorilor răsculaţi chiar în timpul acţiunilor de protest.

Când ţarul acceptă convocarea Dumei, Troţki este din nou arestat. După o altă detenţie în Siberia, Leon Troţski ajunge mai întâi la Viena şi în Elveţia. Autorităţile franceze, apoi cele spaniole îl expulzează apoi din cauza socialismului său radical.

1913 | Lev Troţki, la Bucureşti şi Mangalia

În august-septembrie 1913, în contextul războaielor balcanice, Troţki se află în România, găzduit la Mangalia, de Cristian Racovski, un radical bogat, finanţator al presei comuniste, viitor lider bolşevic în regiunea Odessa.

Stelian Tănase, istoric şi politolog: „Troţki vine la Bucuresti în calitate de corespondent de razboi, pentru un ziar kievean şi scrie o carte despre România, mă rog, o broșură de 120 de pagini, cu opinii foarte critice despre România. Îl primește și la moșia de la Mangalia, unde Racovski îi face o bună impresie lui Troțki. Racovski a devenit cel mai bun prieten al lui Troțki și destinul lui este marcat de prietenia cu Troțki”.

În timpul Revoluţiei ruse, din februarie-martie 1917, Troţki se afla la New York, unde exista de asemenea un grup bolşevic.

Iulie 1917| Prima tentativă de lovitură de stat

Revenit la Petrograd după abdicarea ţarului, se împacă cu Lenin, iar în iulie, bolşevicii încearcă fără succes să preia puterea. Lenin se deghizează şi fuge din Rusia, iar Troţki este închis. Imprudent, premierul Alexander Kerenski îl eliberează, iar Troţki devine în septembrie preşedintele Sovietului Muncitorilor şi Soldaţilor, organismul cel mai activ al Revoluţiei Ruse.

Datorită talentului de orator al lui Troţki, Comitetul Militar Revoluţionar a fost acceptat ca fiind organism al revoluţionarilor de toate orientările. În fapt, era un comando bolşevic croit cu scopul precis de a lua în forţă Puterea.

6-7 noiembrie 1917 | Puciul bolşevic de la Petrograd

Fapt crucial, pe 25 octombrie/ 7 noiembrie 1917 stil nou, Lev Troţki a convins Sovietul că miniştrii cabinetului Kerenski au fost arestaţi, aşa cum proclamase public Lenin. În fapt, la Palatul de Iarnă nu se întâmplase nimic, trupele bolşevice ezitau să atace chiar şi paza precară a clădirii. Avea să se întâmple abia în urma minciunii lui Lenin, livrate de Troţki.

7 noiembrie 1917 | Primul guvern comunist din lume

În aceeaşi seară, bolşevicii au alcătuit un guvern numit Consiliul Comisarilor Poporului, în frunte cu Lenin. Era primul guvern comunist din istorie. Primele decizii au fost decretul asupra pământului, care naţionaliza toate marile proprietăţi funciare şi decretul asupra păcii care anunţa ieşirea din războiul cu Germania şi dreptul popoarelor la autodeterminare. Speriat de presiunile germane, Lenin a mutat capitala de la Petrograd, oraşul occidental ridicat de Petru cel Mare, mai accesibil forţelor germane, la Moscova. Şi-a aşezat biroul în cetatea oriental- medievală a Kremlinului. Troţki s-a întors la Brest-Litovsk să semneze la 3 martie 1918 cea mai umilitoare pace din istoria modernă a Rusiei. Moscova a renunţat la Polonia, Ucraina, ţările baltice şi Transcaucazia.

Dar misiunea principală a bolşevicilor – comunizarea Rusiei abia începea. Armata şi elitele conservatoare şi liberale ale Rusiei nu erau dispuse să-şi lase ţara şi soarta pe mâna unor aventurieri cinici. Lovitura din noiembrie 1917, prezentată ulterior de propaganda sovietică drept Revoluţie, a fost startul unui război civil devastator. Ţarul Nicolae al II-lea şi întreaga sa familie au fost ucişi la Ekaterinburg. Cruzimea era menită să taie orice cale de revenire la monarhie, dar să arate şi bolşevicilor că nu există drum înapoi. Ia naştere Armata Roşie.

Cosmin Popa, istoric spaţiul ex-sovietic: „În privința Armatei Roșii, creatorul armatei roșii e Troțki – a venit cu ideea folosirii masive a foștilor specialiști imperiali militari care a permis să pună repede în picioare o armată bine pregatită, capabilă să ţină piept unui front extrem de larg, în condițiile incapacităţii trupelor aliate de a-şi coordona eforturile împotriva regimului bolşevic.”

1918-1921 | Război civil în fostul Imperiu

În mare parte, Armata Roşie a fost alcătuită prin şantaj. Folosindu-se de pârghiile statului capturat, bolşevicii au mobilizat în primul rând ofiţeri ale căror familii se aflau în zonele pe care le controlau, transformându-le rudele în ostatici. Disciplina, extrem de strictă, presupunea execuţia în caz de dezertare. Controlul resurselor de hrană a strâns şi mai mult rândurile.

Natalia Mujennikova, Centrul Cultural Rus: „Vorbim de februarie 1918, armata rusă, încă neconstituită, avea doar 300.000 de oameni înrolați în armată. În noiembrie, deja 800.000, iar la sfârșitul anului 1919, 3 milioane. În timp ce Armata Albă, la sfârșitul lui 1919, avea doar 500.000 de oameni. Este o diferență foarte mare dintre armate.”

1918-1921 | Război civil în fostul Imperiu

Vreme de trei ani, populaţia a suferit cumplit nu numai din cauza violenţei războiului, ci şi din cauza naţionalizării fabricilor şi pământurilor.

După 1924 | Conflict deschis Stalin-Troțki

În 1921, bolşevicii introduc aşa-numita Nouă Politică Economică – NEP, un respiro care a liniştit populaţia. Comunizarea va fi reluată însă după moartea lui Lenin, de Iosif Visarionovici Stalin. Acesta l-a îndepărtat pe Lev Troţski din linia de succesiune la putere, iar în 10 ani l-a transformat în personificarea trădătorului şi a duşmanului de clasă.

1940 | Lev Troţki este ucis în exilul din Mexic

Lev Troţki a murit în 1940 în Mexic, ucis de un fanatic comunist.

Alte materiale din campania Digi24 „100 de ani de comunism” puteți citi AICI.

What does this say about the Democratic Party leadership and rulling of the USA? inpeach the Democratic Party! : Watch “Obama VS Trump Welcoming Ceremony in China! (Colossal Difference)” on YouTube

Watch “LIVE: Xi Jinping hosts welcome ceremony for Donald Trump in Beijing” on YouTube

Watch “Exclusive: Donald Trump’s granddaughter singing in Mandarin 特朗普外孙女唱中文歌” on YouTube

Chinese President Xi Jinping and his wife Peng Liyuan welcomed their US counterparts, Donald and Melania Trump, with afternoon tea at Beijing’s Forbidden City on Wednesday. With a tablet computer, Trump showed Xi and Peng video clips of his granddaughter, Arabella Kushner, singing in Mandarin and reciting part of the Three-Character Classic and several ancient Chinese poems. Xi spoke highly of the child’s Chinese language skills and said her performance deserves an “A+”. Arabella is already a child star in China, said Xi, adding that he hoped she would visit China in the future. Take a look at the whole video of Arabella Kushner’s performance!

Flag Counter » Kosovo


The central Balkans were part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires before ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century. During the medieval period, Kosovo became the center of a Serbian Empire and saw the construction of many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries. The defeat of Serbian forces at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over the region from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. After World War II, Kosovo’s present-day boundaries were established when Kosovo became an autonomous province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (S.F.R.Y.). Despite legislative concessions, Albanian nationalism increased in the 1980s, which led to riots and calls for Kosovo’s independence. The Serbs – many of whom viewed Kosovo as their cultural heartland – instituted a new constitution in 1989 revoking Kosovo’s autonomous status. Kosovo’s Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum declaring Kosovo independent. Serbia undertook repressive measures against the Kosovar Albanians in the 1990s, provoking a Kosovar Albanian insurgency. Beginning in 1998, Serbia conducted a brutal counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians (some 800,000 ethnic Albanians were forced from their homes in Kosovo). After international attempts to mediate the conflict failed, a three-month NATO military operation against Serbia beginning in March 1999 forced the Serbs to agree to withdraw their military and police forces from Kosovo. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under a transitional administration, the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), pending a determination of Kosovo’s future status. A UN-led process began in late 2005 to determine Kosovo’s final status. The 2006-07 negotiations ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina, though the UN issued a comprehensive report on Kosovo’s final status that endorsed independence. On 17 February 2008, the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. Since then, over 100 countries have recognized Kosovo, and it has joined numerous international organizations. In October 2008, Serbia sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on the legality under international law of Kosovo’s declaration of independence. The ICJ released the advisory opinion in July 2010 affirming that Kosovo’s declaration of independence did not violate general principles of international law, UN Security Council Resolution 1244, or the Constitutive Framework. The opinion was closely tailored to Kosovo’s unique history and circumstances. Serbia continues to reject Kosovo’s independence, but the two countries reached an agreement to normalize their relations in April 2013 through EU-facilitated talks and are currently engaged in the implementation process. Kosovo seeks full integration into the international community, and has pursued bilateral recognitions and eventual membership in international organizations, such as the UN, EU, and NATO.

BBC News: Swedish radio channel ‘hijacked by Islamic State propaganda song’

I saw this on the BBC and thought you should see it:

Swedish radio channel ‘hijacked by Islamic State propaganda song’ – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-41946784

Watch “Bob Seger Famous Final scene (lyrics)” on YouTube

Bob Seger Lyrics

“The Famous Final Scene”

Think in terms of bridges burned
Think of seasons that must end
See the rivers rise and fall
They will rise and fall again
Everything must have an end
Like an ocean to a shore
Like a river to a stream
Like a river to a stream
It’s the famous final scene

And how you tried to make it work
Did you really think it could
How you tried to make it last
Did you really think it would
Like a guest who stayed too long
Now it’s finally time to leave
Yes, it’s finally time to leave
Take it calmly and serene
It’s the famous final scene

It’s been coming on so long
You were just the last to know
It’s been a long time since you’ve smiled
Seems like oh so long ago
Now the stage has all been set
And the nights are growing cold
Soon the winter will be here
And there’s no one warm to hold
Now the lines have all been read
And you knew them all by heart
Now you move toward the door
Here it comes the hardest part
Try the handle of the road
Feeling different feeling strange
This can never be arranged
As the light fades from the screen
From the famous final scene