It’s a little bit funny this feeling inside
I’m not one of those who can easily hide
I don’t have much money but boy if I did
I’d buy a big house where we both could live
If I was a sculptor, but then again, no
Or a man who makes potions in a traveling show
I know it’s not much but it’s the best I can do
My gift is my song and this one’s for you
And you can tell everybody this is your song
It may be quite simple but now that it’s done
I hope you don’t mind
I hope you don’t mind that I put down in words
How wonderful life is while you’re in the world
I sat on the roof and kicked off the moss
Well a few of the verses well they’ve got me quite cross
But the sun’s been quite kind while I wrote this song
It’s for people like you that keep it turned on
So excuse me forgetting but these things I do
You see I’ve forgotten if they’re green or they’re blue
Anyway the thing is what I really mean
Yours are the sweetest eyes I’ve ever seen
And you can tell everybody this is your song
It may be quite simple but now that it’s done
I hope you don’t mind
I hope you don’t mind that I put down in words
How wonderful life is while you’re in the world
Tu Bishvat, also known as New Year for Trees, is a minor Jewish festival similar to Arbor Day. It is first referred to in the late Second Temple period (515 BCE-20 CE), when it was the cut-off date for levying the tithe on the produce of fruit trees. Today the children of Israel celebrate Tu Bishvat with tree planting and outdoor games. In other countries, Jews observe the festival by eating fruit that grows in the Jewish homeland—such as oranges, figs, dates, raisins, pomegranates, and especially almonds, the first tree to bloom in Israel’s spring. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
The shortest-reigning monarch in Hawaiian history, Lunalilo was unanimously elected by the legislature after the death of Kamehameha V, who had declined to name an heir. Just 13 months later, the similarly heirless Lunalilo died of alcoholism and tuberculosis. His goal of a more democratic Hawaii had earned him the nickname “the People’s King,” and he was buried in a common cemetery rather than in the royal mausoleum. What was his reward for having composed Hawaii’s first national anthem? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
This Day in History: Nauru, World’s Smallest Island Nation, Gains Independence (1968)
Annexed by Germany in 1888, controlled by Great Britain since World War I, occupied by Japan during World War II, and administered by Australia until the late 1960s, the tiny, phosphate-rich island of Nauru flourished in the years following its independence. However, after the island exhausted its primary phosphate reserves, living conditions deteriorated. Today, it has a 90 percent unemployment rate, and much of the island is uninhabitable. What percent of Nauruan citizens are obese? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Although the first organized speed skating competitions were held around the 1860s, the fast-paced sport was not added to the Olympics until the early 20th century. Today, two types of tracks are used in international competition: the long track, on which two skaters race simultaneously, and the short track, on which four to six skaters race during a heat. Top skaters can reach speeds of 37 mph (60 km/h) over short distances. How has the development of body suits impacted the sport? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
When Jesus had crossed again in the boat to the other side, a large crowd gathered around him, and he stayed close to the sea.
One of the synagogue officials, named Jairus, came forward. Seeing him he fell at his feet
and pleaded earnestly with him, saying, “My daughter is at the point of death. Please, come lay your hands on her that she may get well and live.”
He went off with him, and a large crowd followed him and pressed upon him.
There was a woman afflicted with hemorrhages for twelve years.
She had suffered greatly at the hands of many doctors and had spent all that she had. Yet she was not helped but only grew worse.
She had heard about Jesus and came up behind him in the crowd and touched his cloak.
She said, “If I but touch his clothes, I shall be cured.”
Immediately her flow of blood dried up. She felt in her body that she was healed of her affliction.
Jesus, aware at once that power had gone out from him, turned around in the crowd and asked, “Who has touched my clothes?”
But his disciples said to him, “You see how the crowd is pressing upon you, and yet you ask, ‘Who touched me?'”
And he looked around to see who had done it.
The woman, realizing what had happened to her, approached in fear and trembling. She fell down before Jesus and told him the whole truth.
He said to her, “Daughter, your faith has saved you. Go in peace and be cured of your affliction.”
While he was still speaking, people from the synagogue official’s house arrived and said, “Your daughter has died; why trouble the teacher any longer?”
Disregarding the message that was reported, Jesus said to the synagogue official, “Do not be afraid; just have faith.”
He did not allow anyone to accompany him inside except Peter, James, and John, the brother of James.
When they arrived at the house of the synagogue official, he caught sight of a commotion, people weeping and wailing loudly.
So he went in and said to them, “Why this commotion and weeping? The child is not dead but asleep.”
And they ridiculed him. Then he put them all out. He took along the child’s father and mother and those who were with him and entered the room where the child was.
He took the child by the hand and said to her, “Talitha koum,” which means, “Little girl, I say to you, arise!”
The girl, a child of twelve, arose immediately and walked around. (At that) they were utterly astounded.
He gave strict orders that no one should know this and said that she should be given something to eat. http://www.vaticannews.va/en/word-of-the-day/2018/01/30.html
Van Nuys High School — in the San Fernando Valley.
Van Nuys High School(VNHS), established in 1914, is a public high school in theVan Nuys district of Los Angeles, belonging to the Los Angeles Unified School District: District 2. The school is home to a Residential Program and three Magnet Programs—Math/Science, performing arts, and Medical.
Several neighborhoods, including much of Van Nuys, portions of Sherman Oaks, Magnolia Woods, and Victory Park, are zoned to this school.
Van Nuys High School opened in 1914, four years after Van Nuys was established. For years the only high schools in the Valley were Van Nuys, Owensmouth (now Canoga Park), San Fernando, and North Hollywood. The main buildings and auditorium were built in 1933, incorporating remnants of the 1915 building which had been destroyed in the Long Beach earthquake. The football and track stadium, originally built at the same time as the current high school, is named for Bob Waterfield, and the baseball field for Don Drysdale, the two most famous athletes to have played for VNHS.
For the 1998–1999 Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), Van Nuys high had a 537 average on the verbal portion and a 568 on the mathematics portion, giving it the highest SAT scores in the LAUSD that year.
The Los Angeles Unified School District ordered Van Nuys High School to convert to year-round scheduling in 2001, due to such reasons as overcrowding. Even though this relieved the overcrowding at the school, the Magnet Programs separated tracks, along with the residential students. The Performing Arts Magnet and the Medical Magnet were only available on the A-Track Schedule, while the Math and Science Magnet was only available on the C-Track Schedule. B-Trackers could not take the same classes as C-Trackers, while C-Trackers could only take certain A-Track classes. Teachers that had both A-Track and C-Track students were frustrated because the curriculum had to be synchronized with both tracks.
Van Nuys High School returned to the Traditional School Calendar in 2005. The switch was caused by a decline in the school population and by a new district policy to eliminate year-round schools whenever possible.
Van Nuys High School has had the highest AP passing rate in the LAUSD for two consecutive years.[when?]
Van Nuys High School was indeed established in 1915. Although, the first graduating ceremony was held in 1914 for a small group of students that had previously attended different schools. Legitimately making the class of 2014 The Centennials. The issue has been discussed between high authority figures of the school, they decided that even though the first graduating ceremony that took place for students that did attend Van Nuys High School was in the year 1915, the first graduating ceremony to take place in the school took place back in 1914.
Community Adult School
The Adult School is on the same campus as Van Nuys High School. It allows adults as well as high school students to take classes. Most Van Nuys High School students take courses in the Adult School for academic remediation. However, some take classes for Counselor-Identified High School Credit Deficiencies, while others take classes for personal necessities of flexible scheduling.
The Adult School is considered a work-at-your-own-pace program. A student can finish an entire course in just 2–3 weeks, but can take longer depending on the work effort of the student.
In baseball Van Nuys High qualified for postseason play. The following time the school’s team qualified was in 1989, after a 9–7 victory overBirmingham High School at the Van Nuys-Sherman Oaks Recreation Center.
Thomas Paine (1737-1809) was a propagandist and humanitarian whose influential pamphlet, Common Sense, is credited with persuading the American colonies to declare their independence from Great Britain. On January 29, Paine’s birthday, he is honored by members of the Thomas Paine National Historical Association in New Rochelle, New York. They lay a wreath at his monument in the Thomas Paine Memorial Museum, which houses some of his letters and personal effects. The cottage in which Paine lived is only a short walk away. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Jamerson learned to play bass guitar in high school in Detroit, Michigan, in the 1950s and thereafter found work as a studio musician for Motown Records. He went on to perform on hundreds of songs by artists like Marvin Gaye, the Four Tops, and The Supremes, but his work was largely uncredited, and he died in relative obscurity at the age of 47. Today, however, he is regarded as one of the most influential bassists in modern history. One of his fingers even had its own nickname. What was it? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
This Day in History: US President George W. Bush Introduces the “Axis of Evil” (2002)
During his 2002 State of the Union Address, US President George W. Bush described the countries of Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as an “Axis of Evil” for their alleged support of terrorism. Since then, the phrase has spawned many imitations, including the Eritrean-coined “Axis of Belligerence,” the South American “Axis of Good,” and the “Axis of Diesel” proposed by The Economist magazine. What word did Bush speechwriter David Frum originally use instead of “evil”? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Article of the Day: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a poem written by English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Published in 1798, it represented a shift to modern poetry and heralded the beginning of English Romanticism. The poem opens with a mariner stopping a man on his way to a wedding and recounting to him the supernatural events he experienced during a long sea voyage. As the story progresses, the wedding guest’s impatience fades and is replaced by fascination. What events may have inspired the poem? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Here’s How Americans are Saving on Their Cable and Internet Bills
Are you paying too much for cable and internet? For those of you that are paying hundreds each month, there’s one thing you have to know before your next cable bill: there are hundreds of new cable and internet companies popping up that are desperate to give you a better deal, you just have to know where to look.
It’s amazing how many people will just continue to pay their cable TV bill every month and not realize their bills could be increasing thanks to fee increases and new add-ons.
Cable companies know this and they would much rather keep you in the dark. If it’s been more than a year or two since you’ve looked at cable offers, there’s a good chance you could be missing out on significant discounts and savings, even from your current cable provider.
Do you think your current cable provider would call you up to offer you the latest discount? Most likely not. They would much rather have you continue to pay the higher rates they’re setting.
So what exactly should you do? Comparison shop.
Competition has risen drastically in past years and cable providers are constantly offering lower rates for higher internet speeds and more of your favorite channels just to win your business.
The best deals may not always be found in direct mail ads or through TV commercials. Most people see the big-box cable company ads and assume those are the only options.
The truth is that there could be other companies that offer better deals in order to compete with large Internet companies. Out of hundreds of offers available, there might only be a few that offer incredible discounts at certain times. These offers are there and smart consumers could be using these offers to significantly lower their cable bill.
Where to Look
Each area has their own local Internet companies, so it’s beneficial to do a little research. Learn what others in your city are paying for their cable and know exactly how low cable providers will go on a price and demand that deal.
If you’re interested in saving money on your cable bill, start a search today.
Gone with the Wind: Whey-Based Protein and its Vegan Counterpart
by Kos Naturals
Protein.Not to get all technical, but it’s weird stuff. Yes, you grew bored of protein in 4thperiod Biology, and your eyes glazed as the word began to appear all over boxes of your formerly favorite breakfast cereal. But from the ordinary to the wondrous—that is, from your awkward new haircut to the transcription of your DNA—protein is in the middle of the riddle; is driving Life’s Wonder Bus with both hands on the wheel. Proteins catalyze chemical reactions necessary to life, carry marching orders to various parts of the body to coordinate hormonal changes, produce insulin, and oversee a range of other biochemical business.
Guts and Glue
Protein materially makes up about 15% of the body’s physical mass, comprising our toenails, our hair, our skin, and the gooey connective stuff that hold our organs in place, as any annoyed surgeon will attest. Without protein, the human body would be little more than a bag full of inactive chemical sludge. If, when looking in the mirror, you feel your body is already a bag full of inactive chemical sludge, it’s time for the gym. And that is where protein puts on its public face, in the form of protein supplements. Significantly, protein builds bodily tissue, most spectacularly muscle, when that is the proactive goal. Proteins are made of amino acids. There are 20 known amino acids, and our lazy bodies only produce 10 of them. The other 10 we have to find in food and push down the pie hole. Meat, veggies, fruit, nuts, grains…you know the drill. Again, one can use a protein supplement to fill those gaps.
Though whey-based protein is the default in the consumer space, should it be? What’s the difference between the whey-based protein supplement—the one that dominates the shelves of nutrition outlets—and the plant-based supplements now slowly gaining traction? The fact is, a properly formulated plant-based protein supplement carries the same essential amino acids as its whey counterpart, and without some of the worrisome additives native to whey processing. Let’s compare and contrast these two sources of supplemental powdered protein.
Whey’s Ill Wind
Whey protein is animal based. Derived from cow’s milk during the cheese making process, it is filtered and separated, and dried into a powder. That’s the short version. As a bovine milk by-product, whey protein is helpfully loaded with all the essential amino acids you need. It is also loaded with some other stuff; a lactose blow to the gut, for one. Whey protein is, among other things, a lactose delivery system, bloating the stomach and producing by-flatulence. As in “Don’t walk by, I have terrible flatulence.”
Whey protein is also typically treated with flavor additives like sucralose, or acesulfame potassium, a sweetening compound whose production uses methylene chloride, found by the FDA in the 70s to be a carcinogen when sufficiently concentrated. Furthermore, the separation of the animal protein in whey from the dairy biomass requires heavy processing that degrades the protein in the whey and/or decreases the percentage of total protein present in the finished product. Lastly, the antibiotics routinely administered to dairy cows makes its way into the milk, and thus into the whey protein supplement. The whey protein industry has been able to mitigate these negatives somewhat, and that is reflected in the sliding scale of whey protein product pricing. The more expensive the whey product, the least affected it is by the processing. In other words, the consumer pays more as the whey’s protein content approaches “baseline”.
Whole Grain and Buff
A plant-based protein supplement is as uncomplicated and lightly processed as one would suppose. Plant matter, being native to the human diet for eons, is easier to digest than cow’s milk, and its protein more readily metabolized. And though plant-based protein requires acombiningof plants to create an amino acid arsenal equal in potency to that of whey, a much-referenced2013 studyconclusively found that whole grain brown rice protein yields thesame resultsin muscle mass building, exercise recovery and strength increase as whey. Leucine, the so-called muscle-swelling “branched amino acid” that makes whey such a hit with weight trainers, is present in whole grain brown rice. Who knew? 48 grams of brown rice protein a day and you’re on your way to serious, lactose-free buffitude. And you won’t clear the circuit room while doing squats.
Carnivores are known to shy away from plant-based protein supplements, but this may just be a consumer persona issue. Remember, partaking of provably effective, plant-based, vegan protein doesn’t mean you have to throw your arms around a tree or give up Tri-Tip. It just means the protein supplement part of your life is carbon-lite, and is not contributing to insanely assymetric resource depletion associated with livestock.
Best of all, when the plant-based protein hits your biology, it will be welcomed as a very old friend. And aren’t very old friends the best?
While scholars have proposed a number of hypotheses to explain why the poem was written, a definitive answer to this question remains elusive. Regardless of Proba’s intent, the poem would go on to be widely circulated, and it eventually was used in schools to teach the tenets of Christianity, often alongsideAugustine of Hippo‘s De Doctrina Christiana. But while the poem was popular, critical reception was more mixed. A pseudonymous work purportedly by Pope Gelasius Idisparaged the poem, deeming it apocryphal, and many also believe that St.Jerome wrote negatively of Proba and her poem. At the same time, other thinkers likeIsidore of Seville, Petrarch, and Giovanni Boccaccio wrote highly of Proba, and many praised her ingenuity. During the 19th and 20th centuries the poem was criticized as being of poor quality, but recent scholars have held the work in higher regard.
Origin and style
Cento Vergilianus de laudibus Christiwas arranged by Faltonia Betitia Proba (left) almost entirely from the works of the Roman poet Virgil (right).
The author of the poem,Faltonia Betitia Proba, was born c. AD 322. A member of an influential and rich family, Proba eventually married a prefect of Rome namedClodius Celsinus Adelphius.Proba was a noted poet, and her first work (now lost) was theConstantini bellum adversus Magnentium; the poem dealt with the war between Roman Emperor Constantius II and the usurper Magnentius.At some point, Proba converted from paganism to Christianity.De laudibus Christi, which was probably written c. AD 352–84, was an attempt by the poet to “turn away from battle and slayings in order to write holy things”.
While the proem and invocation of De laudibus Christi are composed of several original lines of Latin in addition to lines borrowed from or alluding to the Roman poet Virgil, the Silver Age poetLucan, and the fourth-century poet Juvencus, the rest of the work is entirely a Virgiliancento, which is a patchwork poem of verses extracted from the works of Virgil.Proba’s choice to rework Virgil seems to have been made for two reasons: First, Virgil was an influential poet who had been commissioned byCaesar Augustus, the first Roman emperor, to write the epic Aeneid. The poet’s influence was felt well intolate antiquity, and he was imitated by Juvencus andPrudentius. The respect given to Virgil eventually manifested in centos, which reached their peak in the fourth century AD.Second, Virgil was often appropriated by Christian authors due to a popular interpretation of his fourth Eclogue, which many believed to be a prophecy of the birth of Jesus.
One noticeable feature of the work is its near-total lack of names. This is because Virgil never used Hebrew names like “Jesus” and “Mary”, and thus Proba was limited in terms of what she was able to work with. To compensate, the poet used “general and vague words such as mater, dominus deus, pater, magister, [and]vates” to designate key characters. In places, this handicap interferes with readability (according to G. Ronald Kastner and Ann Millin, “Necessary passives and circumlocutions brought about by the … absences in [Virgil] of appropriate terminology render the text impassable at times”). An exception to the poem’s lack of names is found in a reference to Moses, whom Proba refers to by invoking the name “Musaeus“. According to the classicist Sigrid Schottenius Cullhed, “Proba may have used the name Musaeus for the Judeo-Christian prophet, since it was often believed from the Hellenistic era onward that Mousaios was the Greek name for Moses”.
But baptised, like the blest, in the Castalian font—
I, who in my thirst have drunk libations of the Light—
now begin my song: be at my side, Lord, set my thoughts
straight, as I tell how Virgil sang the offices of Christ.
—De laudibus Christi, ll. 20–23, translated by Josephine Balmer
The cento’s 694 lines are divided into a proem with invocation (lines 1–55), episodes from the Old Testament books of Genesis(lines 56–318) and Exodus(lines 319–32), episodes from the New TestamentGospels(lines 333–686), and an epilogue (lines 687–94).At the beginning of the poem, Proba refers to her earlier poetry before rejecting it in the name of Christ. This section also serves as a repudiation of Virgil’s opening to the Aeneid: whereas Virgil opened his work by discussing “arms and the man” (arma virumque), Proba explicitly rejects warfare as a subject worthy of poetry. Proba then describes herself as a prophet (vatis Proba), calls upon God and theHoly Spirit (scorning theMuses), and announces her intention to record the story of Jesus.At the end of the invocation, Proba states her poem’s main purpose: to “tell how Virgil sang the offices of Christ.”
The Old Testament episodes concern the creation of the world, the Fall of Man, theGreat Flood, and the Exodus from Egypt. Proba’s presentation of the Creation—largely based on rewordings of Virgil’s Georgics—reorganizes the Genesis narrative to better align it with contemporary Greco-Roman beliefs about the origin of the world. Cullhed argues that certain aspects of the creation story are “abbreviated … amplified or even transposed” so that Proba can avoid repetitive passages, such as the double creation of man. (Genesis 1:25–27 and Genesis 2:18–19).In the events leading to the Fall of Man, Eve’s actions are largely based on the story of Didofrom Book IV of the Aeneid.The Serpent is described with lines relating toLaocoön‘s death (from Book II, Aeneid) and the snake sent by the furyAlecto to enrage Amata (from Book VII, Aeneid). Proba relies on the first two books of theGeorgics (specifically, the sections that discuss the Iron Age of Man) to describe human life after Adam and Eve’s transgression against God; in this way, she connects the Greco-Roman concept of the Ages of Man with the Christian concept of the Fall of Man.
After the story of Creation, Proba briefly covers the Great Flood by making use of lines from the fourth book of theGeorgics that originally discussed the death of abeehive and the necessity of laws after the Golden Age, respectively. According to the classicist Karla Pollmann, by using lines that concern destruction and the establishment of law, Proba is able to convey the traditional idea that Noah’s survival represents the dawning of a “second creation and a new order” (that is, the Patriarchal age). Proba dedicates only a few lines to Exodus before moving onto the New Testament. Cullhed argues that this is because the Book of Exodus and the remaining Old Testament is replete with violence and warfare that is stylistically too close to the tradition of pagan epic poetry—a tradition that Proba expressly rejects in the proem of De laudibus Christi. In the transitional section between the Old and New Testaments, Proba makes use of the invocation of the Muses of war found at the beginning of the Catalogue of Italians (from Book VII, Aeneid) and verses that originally described Aeneas’s shield (from Book VIII, Aeneid). In the Aeneid, these sections served as poetic devices that allowed Virgil to move from the Odyssean first half of the poem to the Iliadic latter half. In the same way, Proba has re-purposed these verses to aid in her transition from the Old Testament into the New.
The portion of De laudibus Christi that focuses on the New Testament recounts thebirth of Jesus, his life and deeds, his crucifixion, and the coming of the Holy Spirit.Although Jesus andMary are featured, Joseph is omitted.Jesus is often described by language befitting a Virgilian hero, and Mary is depicted by lines originally relating toVenus and Dido. Proba’sSermon on the Mount begins by borrowing the Sibyl of Cumae‘s description of punishment for the unrighteous (from Book VI,Aeneid), and some scholars contend that this portion of De laudibus Christi is the first account of hell in Christian poetry. Christ’s deeds are reduced to three events:calming the sea, walking on water, and calling his first disciples. To describe Christ’s crucifixion, Proba uses several lines that originally referred toHadean punishment (from Book VI, Aeneid). After covering Christ’s death, Proba borrows lines referring to the erotic love between Dido andAeneas to represent “the sacred love of Christ and his followers.” The end of the poem focuses on Christ describing the world to come and his ascension into Heaven; Proba conveys the former via the prophecy made by Celaeno and the Oracle of Delos (from Book III, Aeneid), and the latter with language that originally described the god Mercury.
Characterization of Jesus
In the cento, Jesus (left) is described in language befitting a Virgilian hero like Aeneas (right).
Due to her borrowing from Virgil, Proba’s Christ is very similar to the Virgilian epic hero. Parallels between the two include both seeking a goal greater than their own happiness, initiating realms “without end”, and projecting auras of divinity. According to the early Christian specialistElizabeth A. Clark and the classicist Diane Hatch, Proba’s purpose was to “imbue the Christ with heroic virtues” akin to the Virgilian hero. The poet does this in three major ways: First, she describes Jesus as remarkably beautiful, with “a magnificent and commanding presence” similar to that of Aeneas. Second, Proba recasts the crucifixion; Jesus does not go meekly to his death, but lashes out at his persecutors. Her reconfiguration of Jesus’s crucifixion is in line with Aeneas’ “vengeful action” against Turnus at the end of book twelve of the Aeneid.Finally, Proba transfers to Jesus portions of prophecies scattered through the Aeneiddetailing Rome’s future via the progeny of Aeneas (thus recasting the oracular episodes in a Christian light).
Characterization of Mary
The characterization of Mary has caused much scholarly debate. The historian Kate Cooper sees Mary as a courageous, intelligent materfamilias. Clark and Hatch write that Proba stresses Mary’s maternity by omitting Joseph and presenting Mary as Jesus’s sole human parent. Conversely, the Latinist Stratis Kyriakidis argues that despite Mary’s presence in the poem, she lacks feminine attributes, and is thus “impersonal”.According to Kyriakidis, this is intentional on Proba’s part, as it draws attention to Christ’s divinity—an aspect that “would be incompatible with a human, feminine mother.”
Cullhed writes that the most scholarly views of Mary in the poem are inadequate, and that Proba made Mary “the twofold fulfillment and antitype of both Eve and Dido.” Cullhed bases this on the fact that line 563 of the fourth book of theAeneid (from Mercury’s speech to Aeneas, in which the god admonishes the hero for lingering with Dido inCarthage) is used in two of the sections of the cento: once, wherein Adam admonishes Eve for sinning, and again, wherein Mary learns about Herod’s plot to kill her child. According to Cullhed, the “negative characterization” of the original verse and its reuse in the Old Testament portion of the cento is transformed into a “positively charged ability” allowing Mary and Jesus to escape Herod’s wrath. Because Mary can foretell the future, she is equated (through the use of Virgilian language) with goddesses and prophets.
Proba’s character and motivation
Because historical information about Proba is limited, many scholars have taken to analyzing De laudibus Christi to learn more about her. According to the classicist Bernice Kaczynski, “Scholars have seen traces of Proba’s own character in her emphasis on the beauty of the natural world, readily apparent in her account of the creation.” The cento suggests that Proba had great regard for “domestic matters, for marriage and the family, for marital devotion and [for] filial piety”. While the New Testament stressesasceticism, Proba seems to de-emphasize its importance, given that topics like virginity and poverty are not recurring themes in her poem. In regards to issues of finance, Proba reinterprets a number of New Testament episodes in which Jesus urged his followers to eschew wealth as passages suggesting that Christians should merely share wealth with their families. These changes illustrate Proba’s historical context, her socio-economic position and the expectations of her class.
As to why Proba arranged in the poem in the first place, scholars are still divided. The Latinist R. P. H. Green argues that the work was a reaction to the Roman emperorJulian‘s law forbidding Christians from teaching classical Greek and Latin mythological literature which they did not believe to be true.Proba’s goal, Green writes, was to present Virgil “without [pagan] gods, and [thus] a [Virgil] no longer vulnerable to Christian criticism”. In this way, a Christian teacher could use the text to discuss Virgil without compromising their moral integrity. A somewhat related hypothesis, proposed by the classicist Aurelio Amatucci, suggests that Proba composed the cento to teach her children stories from the Bible, although there is no direct evidence that the poem was a teaching tool.Clark and Hatch postulate that Jesus’s Virgilian nature in the cento may have been Proba’s attempt to rebut the unflattering, demonizing descriptions of Jesus in Julian’sCaesares and Contra Galilaeos. They conclude that the hypothesis is intriguing but unverifiable due to the lack of information about Proba, the date of the cento’s creation, and her intentions.
At the time of its creation Proba’s cento was popular, as is attested in manuscript records and the records ofclaustral libraries. It was heavily used in schools alongside Augustine of Hippo‘s De Doctrina Christiana, and Proba’s work often eclipsed Augustine’s in popularity. According to Cătălina Mărmureanu, Gianina Cernescu, and Laura Lixandru, the work was popular because of its accessible Virgilian style and because Proba presented herself as a “meek” female (which appealed to the “misogynistic views of the general public”).
In the late 4th and early 5th centuries, the work received a mixed response. Many scholars hold that the theologian, historian, and translator Jerome was a critic of the work; in a letter written from Bethlehem to Paulinus of Nola castigating Virgilian centos, he warned against following an “old chatterbox” (garrula anus) and those who think of calling “the Christless Maro [i.e. Virgil] a Christian” (non … Maronem sine Christo possimus dicere Christianum).According to the historianJames Westfall Thompson, Jerome “strongly inveighed against this method of destroying the sense of a pagan author”, and that “his love of the classics and his Christian piety were alike offended” by Proba’s actions.Conversely, Roman EmperorArcadius (who reigned from AD 395–408) received a copy of the poem, and his version has a fifteen-line dedication contending that Proba’s work is “Maro changed for the better in a sacred meaning” (Maronem mutatum in melius divino … sensu).The work was also presented to Aelia Eudocia, the wife of EmperorTheodosius II (who reigned from AD 408–450).
During late antiquity, a pseudonymous document known as the Decretum Gelasianum—which for a long time was believed to have been issued by Pope Gelasius I (who held the papacy from AD 492–496)—declared De laudibus Christi to beapocryphal and a “reprehensible work of poetry”.But almost a century later,ArchbishopIsidore of Seville(AD 560–636) called Proba the “only woman to be ranked among the men of the church” (Proba … femina inter viros ecclesiasticos … posita sola). In regards to De laudibus Christi, Isidore wrote that “it is not the work which should be admired, but [Proba’s] ingenuity” in compiling the poem (Cuius quidem non miramur studium sed laudamus ingenium).
Scholarship in the 19th and early 20th century was more critical of De laudibus Christi.Some classicists andphilologists of the era cite the work as an example of late antiquity’s “poverty of ideas”.In 1849, William Smith‘sDictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythologycalled the poem “trash” worthy of “no praise”, and in 1911, P. Lejay of The Catholic Encyclopedia wrote that “the action of the poem is constrained and unequal, the manner absurd, [and] the diction frequently either obscure or improper”. Despite these rather negative appraisals, contemporary scholars have taken a renewed interest in the poem,and many see it as worthy of study. Cullhed, in particular, considers the work “of considerable historical and cultural importance [for] it belongs to the small number of ancient texts with a female author and stands out as one of our earliest extant Christian Latin poems.” The first English-language work dedicated in its entirety to Proba and her poem was the 2015 monograph, Proba the Prophet, written by Cullhed.
The poem is traditionally ascribed to Faltonia Betitia Proba largely on the assertion of Isidore, who wrote in hisEtymologiae that De laudibus Christi was the product of a woman named Proba who was the wife of a man named Adelphus (Proba, uxor Adelphi, centonem ex Vergilio …expressit). But the classicist and medievalist Danuta Shanzer has argued that the poem was not the work of Faltonia Betitia Proba, but rather her granddaughter, Anicia Faltonia Proba, who lived in the late-fourth- and early-fifth-centuries. Shanzer—who is of the opinion that Faltonia Betitia Proba likely died in AD 351—bases much of her assertion on supposed date inconsistencies and anachronisms within the text. For instance, Shanzer points out that lines 13–17 of De laudibus Christi strongly resemble lines 20–24 of the poem Carmen contra paganos, which was written sometime after Faltonia Betitia Proba’s death.Shanzer also claims that De laudibus Christi alludes to a notable debate about the date of Easter that took place in AD 387, thereby suggesting that the poem must date from the latter part of the fourth century. Finally, Shanzer argues that the reference to the war between Magnentius and Constantius in the work’s proem precludes the possibility that Faltonia Betitia Proba arranged De laudibus Christi, due to the fact that the war took place in the same year as her supposed death. Shanzer rounds out her hypothesis by also invoking a textual argument, noting that the author of De laudibus Christi is often referred to in later manuscripts by titles that only Anicia Proba would have received, such as “mother of the Anicians” or the “eminent Roman Mistress”.
The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolá expedition, discovered Whittier Narrows on its return journey to San Diego. On the outbound journey, the party had followed San Jose Creek, reaching the San Gabriel River north of the Narrows.Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi noted in his diary, “We started out in the morning through the gap of the valley of San Miguel [now San Gabriel], which is very full of trees. We traveled a long while to the southwest on the edge of the stream, which, rising from a copious spring of water in the same gap, merits now the name of river; its plain is covered with willows and some slender cotton woods.”
Whittier Narrows was the meeting point for boundary corners of several land-grantranchos, created during the Spanish-Mexican era, including the Rancho Paso de Bartolo.
The Whittier Narrows Recreation Area is a large multi-use facility, headquartered in South El Monte, containing North Lake, Center Lake, and Legg Lake (where radio-controlled model speedboats may be operated), a rifle and pistol shooting range, numerous softball and soccer fields with picnic tables, a paved airstrip for radio-controlled hobby aircraft, and a connector trail between the Class I Rio Hondo bicycle path and the San Gabriel River bicycle path. The park is roughly bordered by Garvey Avenue and San Gabriel Blvd to the north and west and Durfee Avenue and Santa Anita/Merced Avenues to the south and east. A convenient point of access is the Rosemead Blvd (State Route 19) exit south from thePomona (60) Freeway.
Within the Recreation Area is the Whittier Narrows Nature Center, which contains exhibits about the plants and animals of the river environment, including live displays. The center offers public programs, lectures, ranger tours and education programs. In October 2008, a proposed new interpretive center drew controversy over the potential destruction of a large amount of existing wildlife habitat.
The Whittier Narrows Dam is a flood control and water conservation project constructed and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District. It collects runoff from the uncontrolled drainage areas upstream along with releases from the Santa Fe Dam, and can redirect flows into the Rio Hondo or the downstream San Gabriel. It was completed in 1957.
The 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake occurred in the southern San Gabriel Valleyand surrounding communities of southern California at 7:42 a.m. PDT on October 1. The moderate 5.9 magnitude blind thrust earthquake was centered several miles north of Whittier in the town ofRosemead, had a relatively shallow depth, and was felt throughout southern California and southern Nevada. A large number of homes and businesses were impacted, along with roadway disruptions, mainly in Los Angeles and Orange counties. Damage estimates ranged from $213–358 million, with 200 injuries, three directly-related deaths, and five additional fatalities that were associated with the event.
Mercalli intensity values for the greater Los Angeles area varied with ranges from VI (Strong) to VII (Very strong). Only Whittier experienced a level of VIII (Severe), the highest experienced during the event, with the historic uptown area suffering the greatest damage. A separate M5.2 strike-slip event occurred three days later and several kilometers to the northwest that also caused damage and one additional death. Because of the earthquake activity in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, buildings and other public structures had been equipped with accelerometers, and both the mainshock and the primary aftershock provided additional data for seismologists to analyze and compare with other southern California events.
Beginning with the 1983 Coalinga earthquake, a blind thrust event in the centralcoast ranges of California, a change in perspective was brought about regarding these types of (concealed) faults. The October 1987 shock occurred on a previously unrecognized blind thrust fault that is now known as thePuente Hills thrust system. The fault was delineated by the mainshock and aftershockfocal mechanisms, fault plane reflection studies, and high resolution seismic profiles, which also revealed that the fault runs from downtown Los Angeles to near Puente Hills. The system is considered one of the highest-risk faults in the United States due to its moderate dip and its location under a large metropolitan area.
The main shock occurred near the northwestern border of thePuente Hills 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) north of the Whittier Narrows at a depth of 14 kilometers (8.7 mi). First motion polarities, along with modelling of teleseismic Pand S-waves, established that the thrust fault responsible for the shock strikes east-west with a dip of 25° dip to the north. The shock was located adjacent to the west-northwest striking Whittier fault, which is primarily a strike-slip fault, but also has a minor thrust component.
Although most of the Los Angeles metropolitan areasaw shaking in line with Mercalli Intensity values of VI (Strong) or VII (Very strong), Whittier experienced effects consistent with MMI values of VIII (Severe). The old commercial district saw the worst damage, as these were the oldest buildings, and were also heavily damaged in the 1929 Whittier earthquake, a shock may have been a result of movement on the Norwalk Fault.
The 7:42 a.m. shock was the strongest in the Los Angeles area since the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and was felt as far as San Diego and San Luis Obispo, California and Las Vegas, Nevada. Communication systems and local media were temporarily impaired and power was cut, leaving numerous early morning workers stranded in disabled elevators. Other minor disruptions included a number of water and gas main breaks, shattered windows and some ceiling collapses. Like the San Fernando earthquake, transportation systems were again affected, but this time it was only theSanta Ana Freeway and San Gabriel River Freeways that were closed near Santa Fe Springs after pieces of concrete were dislodged and cracks were observed in the roadway. Los Angeles County+USC Medical Centertook a large number of the injured, whose injuries were summarized by an emergency room spokesman as very bad to minor, and three people died as a direct result.
While total casualties amounted to eight, the destruction of homes was significant. Throughout Los Angeles, Orange, and Venturacounties, 123 homes and 1,347 apartments were destroyed, and an additional 513 homes and 2,040 apartments were damaged. An inspection of a highway bridge on Interstate 605revealed that there were fractures on the support columns, which resulted in a temporary closure, and minor damage affected 28 other bridges. Other typical failures included more than 1,000 gas leaks, with many resulting in fire, ceramic elements on high-voltage substation equipment breaking, and phone systems becoming overwhelmed.
Caltech scientists recorded the events on a cluster of twelve strong motion sensors that were placed throughout the region with a total of 87 channels of recorded data. Nine of these instruments were located on the Caltech campus, two were at the nine story Jet Propulsion Laboratory building 180 (ten miles northwest of the campus) and the final device was placed on a hillside 5 km to the west. Investigation of the accelerograms from these units revealed the strongest shaking lasted 4–5 seconds. The vertical accelerations were considered relatively high and early analysis (pre-digitilization) indicated that the mainshock was complex, with a double train of P-waves arriving with a 1.4–1.8 second interval.
The National Strong-Motion Instrumentation Network (NSMIN) (a cooperative effort including the United States Geological Survey and other organizations) also monitored a set of 52 strong motion stations in the Los Angeles area. Most of the stations successfully captured the event, and the closest unit to the mainshock, a rock site at Garvey Reservoir, recorded a peak horizontal acceleration of .47g. A twelve-story steel frame building in Alhambrawas outfitted with accelerographs in the basement, at mid-level, and at the top of the structure. The top floor instruments recorded a peak acceleration of .18gduring the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and instruments on the sixth floor recorded a peak acceleration of .47g at the time of the Whittier mainshock. A ten-story reinforced concrete building in Whittier (7215 Bright Ave.) saw a peak horizontal reading of .63g in the basement.
A magnitude 5.2 event occurred three days later on October 4, causing additional damage in Alhambra, Pico Rivera, Los Angeles, and Whittier. The shock’s effects were assessed at VII (Very strong) on the Mercalli Intensity Scale with damaged chimneys, broken windows, and the collapse of two bell towers at the San Gabriel Civic Auditorium. This event was also responsible for several injuries and one additional death. On February 11 of the following year another small aftershock again damaged chimneys, broke windows, cracked drywall and some homes’ foundations in Pico Rivera, Pasadena, and Whittier.
The October 4 aftershock struck 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) to the northwest of the mainshock, and was primarily a strike-slip event on a steeply dipping, northwest-striking fault. The origin of faulting for this event was at a depth of12 km (7.5 mi), which places it within the hanging wall of the thrust fault that was responsible for the main shock.
This aftershock was recorded on thirty of the NSMIN stations at distances of up to57 kilometers (35 mi). The majority of the stations were located in buildings, but nine were located at dams or reservoirs, and four were atVeterans Administrationbuildings. Lighter accelerations were observed than the main shock, with peak accelerations in the range of .15g–.33g, all occurring at six stations that were within 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) of the epicenter.
The 1929 Whittier earthquake occurred on July 8 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and maximum perceived intensity of VII (Very strong) on the Mercalli Intensity scale. The shock occurred at a depth of13 kilometers (8.1 mi) and was most intense to the southwest of the city, where a school and two homes were heavily damaged and other homes sustained chimney collapses. In Santa Fe Springs, oil towers were damaged and some short cracks appeared in the ground. This earthquake was felt from Mount Wilson toSanta Ana, and from Hermosa Beach to Riverside. Numerous aftershocks occurred in the first several hours and persisted through early 1931.
In order to gather funds to help the rebuilding effort, the city of Whittier approved the establishment of a 521-acre earthquake recovery redevelopment area. Through this initiative, property tax revenue is directed to the city rather than to the county and schools, the originally designated recipients. The arrangement will remain in effect until the year 2037.
A nonprofit organization called the Whittier Conservancy was formed shortly after the Whittier Narrows earthquake. The group aids in the preservation of the city’s historical style of construction. During the earthquake, several notable buildings were destroyed, including the Harvey Apartments. They were built with bricks that appeared to have been made by hand during the 19th century; the mud used to make them came from the San Gabriel River. The Conservancy felt that these bricks were worth saving, not only for the historical value, but also for their aesthetics.
Some effort was made to save and use the bricks for rebuilding the historic apartment on the corner of Greenleaf Avenue and Hadley Street. They spent $15,000 to prevent the usable bricks from being taken during the final demolition of the building. The bricks were then cleaned, then stored until they could be used in the rebuilding of the apartment. The Whittier Conservancy also collaborated in the rezoning of the Hadley neighborhood and was able to help control the rate of new multiple-family dwellingconstruction.
When your legs don’t work like they used to before
And I can’t sweep you off of your feet
Will your mouth still remember the taste of my love
Will your eyes still smile from your cheeks
And darling I will be loving you ’til we’re 70
And baby my heart could still fall as hard at 23
And I’m thinking ’bout how people fall in love in mysterious ways
Maybe just the touch of a hand
Oh me I fall in love with you every single day
And I just wanna tell you I am
So honey now
Take me into your loving arms
Kiss me under the light of a thousand stars
Place your head on my beating heart
I’m thinking out loud
Maybe we found love right where we are
When my hair’s all but gone and my memory fades
And the crowds don’t remember my name
When my hands don’t play the strings the same way, mm
I know you will still love me the same
‘Cause honey your soul can never grow old, it’s evergreen
Baby your smile’s forever in my mind and memory
I’m thinking ’bout how people fall in love in mysterious ways
Maybe it’s all part of a plan
I’ll just keep on making the same mistakes
Hoping that you’ll understand
But baby now
Take me into your loving arms
Kiss me under the light of a thousand stars
Place your head on my beating heart
I’m thinking out loud
That maybe we found love right where we are, oh
So baby now
Take me into your loving arms
Kiss me under the light of a thousand stars
Oh darling, place your head on my beating heart
I’m thinking out loud
That maybe we found love right where we are
Oh maybe we found love right where we are
And we found love right where we are
Tomales Bay is a long narrow inlet of the Pacific Ocean in Marin County in northern California in the United States. It is approximately 15 miles (25 km) long and averages nearly 1.0 miles (1.6 km) wide, effectively separating the Point Reyes Peninsula from the mainland of Marin County. It is located approximately 30 miles (48 km) northwest of San Francisco. The bay forms the eastern boundary of Point Reyes National Seashore. Tomales Bay is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. On its northern end it opens out onto Bodega Bay, which shelters it from the direct current of the Pacific. The bay is formed along a submerged portion of the San Andreas Fault.
Tomales Bay Oysters
West Marin Towns
Tomales Bay as viewed from Tomales Point Trail
Oyster farming is a major industry on the bay. The two largest producers are Tomales Bay Oyster Company and Hog Island Oyster Company, both of which retail oysters to the public and have picnic grounds on the east shore. Hillsides east of Tomales Bay are grazed by cows belonging to local dairies. There is also grazing land west of the bay, on farms and ranches leased from Point Reyes National Seashore.
The bay sees significant amounts of water sports including sailing, kayaking, fishing and motor boating. Of special interest is the bioluminescence that can be seen from June to November. Watercraft may be launched on Tomales Bay from the public boat ramp at Nick’s Cove, north of Marshall. There is a $5 fee. The sand bar at the mouth of Tomales Bay is notoriously dangerous, with a long history of small-boat accidents.
Towns bordering Tomales Bay include Inverness, Inverness Park, Point Reyes Station, and Marshall. Additional hamlets include Nick’s Cove, Spengers, Duck Cove, Shallow Beach, and Vilicichs. Dillon Beach lies just to the north of the mouth of the bay, and Tomales just to the east.
The area was once Coast Miwok territory. Documented villages in the area included: Echa-kolum (south of Marshall), Sakloki (opposite Tomales Point), Shotommo-wi (near the mouth of the Estero de San Antonio), and Utumia (near Tomales).
Francis Drake is thought to have landed in nearby Drakes Estero in 1579. Members of the Vizcaíno Expedition found the Bay in 1603, and thinking it a river, named it Rio Grande de San Sebastian.
Early 19th Century settlements constituted the southernmost Russian colony in North America and were spread over an area stretching from Point Arena to Tomales Bay.
The narrow gauge North Pacific Coast Railroad from Sausalito was constructed along the east side of the bay in 1874 and extended to the Russian River until dismantled in 1930.
Tomales Bay State Park was formed to preserve some of the bay shore; it opened to the public in 1952. Popular units of the park include Heart’s Desire Beach and Millerton Point.
The Ramsar Convention, signed in 1971, listed Tomales Bay as a wetland of international importance.
The Giacomini Wetland Restoration Project, completed in 2008, returned to wetland several hundred acres at the south end of the bay that had been drained for grazing during the 1940s.
Marconi Conference Center
The Marconi Conference Center State Historical Park preserves a small hotel built by Guglielmo Marconi in 1913 to house personnel who staffed his transpacific radio receiver station nearby. The hotel and the associated operations building and employee cottages were built by the J.G. White Engineering Corp under contract to Marconi. RCA purchased the station from Marconi in 1920. The station was closed in 1939, though other nearby radio stations on the Point Reyes Peninsula still operate today. Synanon, a drug rehabilitation organization, owned it from the early 1960s until 1980, when it was purchased by a private foundation and given to the state in 1984 to operate as a conference center.
View of Tomales Bay towards the North
Entrance to Tomales Bay as viewed from Tomales Point, looking South
The former grade of the narrow gauge North Pacific Coast Railroad follows the east shore of the bay
Marconi Conference Center
San Francisco Bay Area portal
Hog Island (Tomales Bay)
Drakes Bay — adjacent on north.
This day marks the events of January 26, 1986, when the military junta controlling Uganda was overthrown by the National Resistance Army following a five-year civil war. On the evening before the celebration, fireworks are exploded over the capital city of Kampala. The next day, a parade involving all branches of the Uganda military is held either at the Kololo Independence grounds or at the Kololo airfield, just outside Kampala. The country’s president presides over the occasion. Throughout the country, the general public marks the day with sporting events and hearty feasts. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Born in Austria and orphaned at a young age, Maria Kutschera planned to become a nun in Salzburg. Instead, she met Baron Georg von Trapp while tutoring one of his seven children. They were married in 1927 and had three children together. After financial trouble, the family began to sing professionally, then fled Nazi Europe for the US. Today, the family operates a lodge in Vermont. Maria’s 1949 memoir was adapted into The Sound of Music. What became of the family’s home in Austria? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
This Day in History: Decomposing Whale Explodes on Crowded Taiwan Street (2004)
After a sperm whale became beached on the coast of Taiwan, researchers decided to perform an autopsy on the creature to determine its cause of death—later found to have been a collision with a ship. It took three cranes half a day to load the whale onto a truck, during which time gas continued to build up in the decomposing carcass. While passing through Tainan on the way to a wildlife preserve, the whale exploded, spattering onlookers and nearby cars with gore. Where else have whales exploded? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Royal jelly is a substance secreted by the pharyngeal glands of worker bees. Although it is fed to all young larvae in a colony, only those destined to be queens get to consume it exclusively and in large quantities. This rapid, early feeding triggers the development of reproductive structures unique to queen bees. Royal jelly is found in various beauty products and is also marketed as a dietary supplement that may provide certain health benefits because it contains what substances? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch