Daily Archives: April 19, 2018

Serum protein electrophoresis – Wikipedia


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serum_protein_electrophoresis

Serum protein electrophoresis

Protein electrophoresis (schematic)

Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP or SPE) is a laboratory test that examines specific proteins in the blood called globulins.[1] The most common indications for a serum protein electrophoresis test are to diagnose or monitor multiple myeloma, a monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS), or further investigate a discrepancy between a low albumin and a relatively high total protein. Unexplained bone pain, anemia, proteinuria, renal insufficiency, and hypercalcemia are also signs of multiple myeloma, and indications for SPE.[2] Blood must first be collected, usually into an airtight vial or syringe. Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique in which the blood serum (the fluid portion of the blood after the blood has clotted) is applied to an acetate membrane soaked in a liquid buffer.,[3][4] to a buffered agarose gel matrix, or into liquid in a capillary tube, and exposed to an electric current to separate the serum protein components into five major fractions by size and electrical charge: serum albumin, alpha-1 globulins, alpha-2 globulins, beta 1 and 2 globulins, and gamma globulins.

Serum protein electrophoresis
MeSH
D001797
[edit on Wikidata]

Normal serum protein electrophoresis diagram with legend of different zones.

Schematic representation of a protein electrophoresis gel
Acetate or gel electrophoresis
Capillary electrophoresis
Serum protein fractions

Basilica di San Pietro in Rome !


Basilica di San Pietro in Rome !

Basilica di San Pietro in Rome !

6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia – Wikipedia


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6th_Regiment_Massachusetts_Volunteer_Militia

6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia

The 6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia was a peacetime infantry regiment that was activated for federal service in the Union army for three separate terms during the American Civil War. The regiment gained notoriety as the first unit in the Union army to suffer casualties in action during the Civil War in the Baltimore Riot and the first militia unit to arrive in Washington D.C. in response to President Abraham Lincoln’s initial call for 75,000 troops. Private Luther C. Ladd of the 6th Massachusetts is often referred to as the first Union soldier killed in action during the war.

6

Private Ladd of the 6th Massachusetts was the first Union soldier killed in action during the Civil War.

Five soldiers of the 6th Massachusetts during their second term of service, photo likely taken in camp near Suffolk, Virginia

the 6 Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia
A lithograph depicting a group of militia soldiers surrounded by a large crowd of rioters with firearms and clubs. Projectiles, stones and bricks, fill the air above the soldiers.
During the Baltimore Riot, the 6th Massachusetts became the first Union unit to take casualties in action on April 19, 1861.
Active
April–August 1861
August 1862 – June 1863
July–October 1864
Country
United States
Allegiance
Union
Branch
Union Army
Type
Infantry
Part of
In 1863: 2nd Brigade (Foster’s), 1st Division (Corcoran’s), VII Corps
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Col. Edward F. Jones
Insignia
VII Corps, 1st Division badge
An insignia consisting of a red, upside-down crescent moon surrounding a five pointed red star
In the years immediately preceding the war and during its first enlistment, the regiment consisted primarily of companies from Middlesex County. During its first term of service, four out of ten companies of the regiment were from Lowell, Massachusetts. Colonel Edward F. Jones commanded the regiment during its first term. He later commanded the 26th Massachusetts and was awarded the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general. During its second and third terms of service, the unit was commanded by Colonel Albert S. Follansbee.

The regiment first enlisted for a “90-day” term of service which lasted from April 16 to August 2, 1861. Following their engagement in the Baltimore Riot, the 6th Massachusetts proceeded to Washington and then returned to Baltimore to guard locations within the city as well as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad station at Elkridge, Maryland. Their second term of service lasted nine months from August 1862 to June 1863. During this time the 6th Massachusetts was attached to the VII Corps and participated in several expeditions and actions in the vicinity of Suffolk, Virginia, most notably the Siege of Suffolk and the Battle of Carrsville in April and May 1863. Private Joseph S.G. Sweatt’s bravery at Carrsville earned him the Medal of Honor. The 6th Massachusetts served a third term in response to the call for troops to defend fortifications around Washington. During this term, which lasted 100 days from July to October 1864, the 6th Massachusetts garrisoned Fort C. F. Smith in Arlington, Virginia and guarded Confederate prisoners of war at Fort Delaware near the mouth of the Delaware River.

Earlier units Edit
The 6th Massachusetts regiment that served during the Civil War was formed in 1855 during the reorganization of the Massachusetts militia. Other units dating back to the 18th century were given the designation 6th Regiment Massachusetts Militia.[1] They were formed and disbanded at various times and although they shared the same numerical designation, there was no continuous unit known as the 6th Massachusetts. One of the units designated as the 6th Massachusetts was a regiment that served during King George’s War in the Siege of Louisbourg in 1745.[2] During the Revolutionary War, the 6th Massachusetts Regiment was engaged in the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Battle of Harlem Heights, the Battle of Trenton and the Battle of Saratoga.[3]

90-day term of service Edit
Preparations Edit
A black and white lithograph depicting a long column of soldiers at a large train station preparing to board a train
The 6th Massachusetts en route to Washington, April 18, 1861
Shortly after South Carolina issued its Declaration of Secession, Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew anticipated imminent civil war and issued an order on January 16, 1861, to the ten existing Massachusetts units of peace-time militia to immediately reorganize and prepare for active service.[4] Colonel Edward F. Jones was the first militia commander to respond to the Governor’s order. His letter indicating the regiment’s readiness, dated January 21, was brought to Boston and read in the Massachusetts Senate by then state Senator Benjamin F. Butler.[5]

On April 15, 1861, three days after Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter, President Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteers to serve in putting down the insurrection. The call was relayed by Governor Andrew to the existing regiments of Massachusetts militia the same day. Eight companies of the original 6th Massachusetts (one from Acton, one from Groton, two from Lawrence, and four from Lowell) gathered in Lowell on April 16 and proceeded to Boston.[6] That night, the men of the 6th Massachusetts barracked in Faneuil and Boylston Halls.[7] The next morning, April 17, three companies previously belonging to other Massachusetts militia units (one from Boston, one from Stoneham, and another from Worcester) were added to the 6th Massachusetts to form a regiment of 11 companies total. Thus composed entirely of existing volunteer militia companies, the 6th Massachusetts was made up of volunteer soldiers.[8] The regiment proceed that day to the State House, where Governor Andrew presented regimental colors to Colonel Jones. The 6th Massachusetts departed Boston for Washington via railroad at 7 p.m. on April 17.[9]

Baltimore Riot Edit
A black and white lithograph depicting a formation of militia soldiers with bayonets fixed surrounded by rioters
Mob attacks companies of the 6th Massachusetts Militia on Pratt Street during the Baltimore Riot.
On April 19, 1861, the 6th Massachusetts boarded train cars in Philadelphia in the early morning hours and departed for Washington via Baltimore. Before the end of the day, the regiment saw combat during the Baltimore Riot. The date was the anniversary of the Battles of Lexington and Concord which began the American Revolution. [9]

Although Maryland remained in the Union, secessionist sentiment and support for the Confederacy was widespread in that state. Colonel Jones therefore expected a violent reception in Baltimore. He was also concerned about the possibility of sabotage to the tracks on the way to Baltimore which might cause derailment and potentially large casualties for the 6th Massachusetts. Jones ordered that a pilot locomotive precede the train that transported his regiment. The 6th Massachusetts arrived safely in Baltimore about 10 a.m.[10]

Trains passing through Baltimore at that time could not proceed directly through the city without stopping. Southbound trains were decoupled at President Street Station on the east side of the city. Cars were drawn individually along rails on Pratt Street by horsepower to Camden Station on the west side of Baltimore’s Inner Harbor, where the trains were reassembled. The initial cars encountered little resistance but soon a growing crowd of Baltimore citizens became increasingly agitated by the passing transports filled with troops.[11] The crowd attacked the car carrying Company K with stones and bricks and derailed it by placing obstructions on the tracks. Railroad company workers managed to put the car back on track and Company K was the seventh and last company to reach Camden Station by rail.[12] The crowd barricaded the rails by dumping cartloads of sand and dragging anchors from the nearby docks across them thus preventing further cars from passing.[11]

A sepia toned portrait photograph depicting the head and shoulders of a young man in an elaborate militia uniform. He wears a tall dress uniform hat.
Private Ladd of the 6th Massachusetts was the first Union soldier killed in action during the Civil War.
The blockage of the railroad left four companies, numbering 220 men, at President Street Station with no choice but to march through the city to reach Camden Station, slightly more than one mile away. The size of the crowd obstructing their path was estimated at roughly 10,000.[13] Captain Follansbee, the senior captain, took charge of the detachment. After crossing the Pratt Street Bridge, which had been partially dismantled by the crowd, Follansbee ordered his men to march at the “double-quick.” This roused the crowd further as they perceived the quickened pace as an indication of panic. As well as stones and bricks being thrown, shots were now fired at the 6th Massachusetts from the stores and houses around them. Captain Follansbee gave the order to return fire.[14]

Seventeen-year-old Private Luther C. Ladd, a factory worker from Lowell, was hit in the head by a piece of scrap iron that was thrown from a rooftop and fractured his skull.[15] As he staggered, one of the rioters took Ladd’s musket from him and fired, wounding him in the leg.[16] Ladd died on Pratt Street. He is known as the first Union soldier to be killed in action during the Civil War.[16][17] Three other militiamen were killed during the riot: Private Addison O. Whitney, Private Charles A. Taylor and Corporal Sumner H. Needham. A total of 36 members of the 6th Massachusetts were wounded.[18]

A formation of approximately 50 officers of the Baltimore Police eventually placed themselves between the rioters and the militiamen, allowing the 6th Massachusetts to proceed to Camden Station.[19] The companies boarded the train which quickly got underway for Washington, though the crowd followed the train for some miles attempting to stop it. A total of 12 civilians were killed during the riot and an unknown number were injured.[20]

Garrison duty Edit
The 6th Massachusetts reached Washington D.C. on April 19, 1861, the first unit to arrive in response to Lincoln’s call for troops.[21] A large, cheering crowd welcomed them at the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Station which once stood north of the Capitol. Among the crowd was Clara Barton who became a famed nurse during the Civil War. At the time a clerk in the U.S. Patent Office, Barton gained her first experience in caring for wounded soldiers as she tended to injured men of the 6th Massachusetts.[22]

An antique photograph depicting a city square with a stone monument and a large number of soldiers at rest
The 6th Massachusetts bivouacked in Monument Square in Baltimore on July 1, 1861, at the close of their second garrison encampment in the city.
The 6th Massachusetts was barracked in the Senate Chamber in the Capitol. The next morning, tensions in Washington were high as rumors circulated of an impending Confederate attack. After reviewing the 6th Massachusetts, Lincoln expressed his anxiety to the members of the regiment, telling them, “I don’t believe there is any North. The Seventh Regiment [New York] is a myth. Rhode Island is not known in our geography any longer. You are the only northern realities.”[21][23] The 7th New York arrived the next day, April 21, and other regiments soon followed.

In the days and weeks after the Baltimore Riot, newspapers and politicians across the country drew comparisons between the Massachusetts militia who had fought on April 19, 1775, at the start of the Revolution and the Massachusetts troops who fought on April 19, 1861.[24] Among the 6th Massachusetts were descendants of those Minutemen who had fought in Lexington and Concord in 1775. Due to the coincidence of the date and the ancestry of some members, the 6th Massachusetts was often called the “Minutemen of ’61.”[25]

The 6th Massachusetts remained in Washington until May 5, when they were assigned to garrison a key railroad relay station about 15 miles outside of Baltimore at Elkridge.[26] Their presence there helped keep open the crucial rail line from the northeastern states to Washington.[27] The regiment returned to Baltimore on May 13, when Major General Benjamin F. Butler occupied the city with several Union regiments in anticipation of a Confederate attack on Baltimore which never developed. The 6th Massachusetts marched through the city to Federal Hill, where they set up camp for a short stay of three days. On May 16, the regiment returned to the Elkridge relay station. They served out the majority of their term at the relay station and vicinity, except for a second assignment in Baltimore from June 26 to July 1, 1861.[26]

The regiment’s return to Boston at the close of their 90-day term was delayed slightly by special request of Major General Nathaniel P. Banks. In light of the recent Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run, in which the 6th Massachusetts did not participate, he asked the regiment voluntarily remain at Elkridge another week in the event of a Confederate advance on Washington. On July 29, the 6th Massachusetts received orders to break camp and boarded trains for Boston which was reached on August 1. The regiment was mustered out on August 2, 1861.[26]

9-month term of service Edit
Organization and departure Edit
The regiment was again activated for federal service following Lincoln’s call in August 1862 for 300,000 troops to serve for nine months. Seven of the ten original companies returned for the second period of service. Members who had served during the regiment’s first term were not compelled to reenlist. While many did reenlist, considerable recruiting of new volunteers was necessary in order to fill out the companies and thus the roster during the second term was different than the 90-day term.[28] To complete the regiment, an additional three companies, made up entirely of fresh recruits, were organized. The roster of officers during the nine months term was substantially the same as the 90-day term.[29] Follansbee, who had assumed command of the detached companies engaged in the Baltimore Riot, was promoted to colonel and commanded the regiment during its second term of service. The unit was mustered in at Camp Henry Wilson in Lowell beginning August 31, 1862. The 6th Massachusetts departed Boston on September 9 on board the steamship Plymouth Rock. Arriving in New York, the regiment traveled by rail through Baltimore and on to Washington. The unit received a very different welcome in Baltimore during their second term and were given a large reception with food and drink and much cheering from the citizens of the city.[30][31]

Blackwater River expeditions Edit
A sepia toned photograph of five soldiers standing at parade rest in a neat line
Five soldiers of the 6th Massachusetts during their second term of service, photo likely taken in camp near Suffolk, Virginia
Upon reaching Washington, the regiment was ordered to Fortress Monroe and from there to Suffolk, Virginia. The 6th Massachusetts was assigned to the Second Brigade (commanded by Colonel Robert S. Foster) of the First Division of the VII Corps.[32] They served garrison and picket duty in the vicinity of Suffolk, occasionally taking part in reconnaissance expeditions to the Blackwater River (which represented the boundary between the Union occupied counties of southeast Virginia and Confederate territory of the interior) and engaged in minor skirmish actions.[33]

Their first such expedition took place on October 3, 1862, about two weeks after the regiment reached Suffolk. The 6th Massachusetts formed a peripheral part of the Expedition against Franklin, a joint effort of the U.S. Army and Navy to dislodge a growing force of Confederates threatening the Union garrison at Suffolk. The 6th Massachusetts held a road near Western Branch Church, far from the main action at Franklin, and here loaded their muskets for the first time in action.[34] Although the 6th Massachusetts did not see any combat during their first expedition, and many members recalled it as tedious, the sight of ambulances carrying dead and wounded from the battle made a strong impression on the new recruits.[35] During a second expedition to the Blackwater on December 11, 1862, the 6th Massachusetts was lightly engaged near Zuni, Virginia and lost their first casualty in battle during their second enlistment—2nd Lieutenant Robert G. Barr.[36] The regiment did not again leave Suffolk until an expedition on January 29, 1863, again towards the Blackwater River. Confederates opposed this Union advance on January 30 during the Battle of Deserted House in an isolated location about ten miles west of Suffolk.[37] The 6th Massachusetts was sharply engaged and lost five killed and seven wounded.[38]

Siege of Suffolk Edit
The majority of the regiment’s time, when not on expeditions, was spent in fatigue duty building fortifications around Suffolk. This included digging trenches and clearing trees in front of the defensive lines. The hard labor had a detrimental effect on the general morale of the Union troops stationed at Suffolk.[39] This was exacerbated by antagonistic feelings between the civilians of occupied Suffolk and the enlisted men of the 6th Massachusetts.[40]

In early 1863, Major General James Longstreet was given command of the Confederate Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia. His objectives were to defend Richmond from attack from the southeast, forage for supplies in Union controlled southeastern Virginia and to dislodge the Union garrison at Suffolk. Longstreet began the Siege of Suffolk on April 11, 1863. The 6th Massachusetts occupied a position on the right of the Union defensive siege lines at a location called Fort Nansemond by the bank of the Nansemond River. For 22 days, the regiment engaged in frequent exchanges of fire with opposing forces though no significant assault was made by the Confederates.[37]

On May 3, 1863, Longstreet abandoned the siege and began moving his forces north to rejoin the Army of Northern Virginia. The next day, the 6th Massachusetts was among the units sent in pursuit of the retreating Confederate force. Only minor skirmishing took place as the bulk of the Confederate force had already escaped beyond reach of the Union infantry. The 6th Massachusetts took about 80 Confederate stragglers prisoner and burned every building they came across along the Somerton Road to deny shelter to any additional Confederate stragglers or deserters.[41]

Battle of Carrsville and Medal of Honor recipient Edit
Major General John A. Dix, commanding Union forces at Suffolk, conducted several reconnaissances in force to determine the disposition of Confederate forces remaining in the region. On May 13, the 6th Massachusetts joined another expedition to the Blackwater River. This was the final action of their second term of service. The column was commanded by Major General Foster and Colonel Follansbee was promoted to command of the brigade to which the 6th Massachusetts belonged.[42] A considerable Confederate force attacked the Union expedition in a sharp engagement on May 14–15, 1863, known as the Battle of Carrsville or the Battle of Holland House. During this fight, the 6th Massachusetts supported the 7th Massachusetts Battery and exchanged in heavy, prolonged firing with the Confederates. The 6th Massachusetts made an advance, driving the enemy into the woods, then were driven back and made a second counter-attack, reclaiming their position at the start of the battle. The regiment suffered casualties of five killed or mortally wounded, twelve wounded and five prisoners.[40]

In the middle of the battle, when the 6th Massachusetts was driven back, Private Joseph S.G. Sweatt of Company C perceived that several of his comrades had been hit and were left in the woods. In an effort to pull them out, he rushed forward, towards the Confederate position. In this action, he earned the Medal of Honor. According to his citation, “When ordered to retreat, this soldier turned and rushed back to the front, in the face of heavy fire from the enemy, in an endeavor to rescue his wounded comrades, remaining by them until overpowered and taken prisoner.” Sweatt was eventually released; the three men he endeavored to rescue did not survive.[40]

On May 18, the 6th Massachusetts and other regiments fell back to Deserted House outside of Suffolk. On May 20 they were posted in support of artillery at Windsor, Virginia. Finally, on May 23, the 6th Massachusetts received orders to return to Massachusetts. The regiment reached Boston by steamship on May 26 to be welcomed and addressed in front of the State House by Governor Andrew. The 6th Massachusetts then proceeded to Lowell, where they were received with enthusiastic festivities. The regiment reassembled on June 3, 1863, at Camp Wilson and were mustered out.[43] In all during their second enlistment, the regiment lost 13 men killed or mortally wounded in combat and 18 by disease.[32]

100-day term of service
Ladd and Whitney memorial
Later units
See also
Notes
References
Last edited 4 hours ago by Meters
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Idiom of the Day: be more trouble than it’s worth


Idiom of the Day:
be more trouble than it’s worth

To not be important, useful, or beneficial enough to justify the effort or difficulty that something requires. Watch the video…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

This Day in History: Mae West Sentenced For Obscenity (1927)


This Day in History:
Mae West Sentenced For Obscenity (1927)

In 1926, American actress Mae West, mistress of the double entendre, began to write, produce, and star in her own Broadway plays, the first of which was the sensation-creating Sex. The notorious production did not go over well with city officials, who prosecuted West on morals charges. She served eight days of her 10-day sentence, getting off two days for good behavior. Still, the punishment did not deter her from tackling taboo subjects, as evidenced by her next play, named what? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Quote of the Day: Henry David Thoreau


Quote of the Day:
Henry David Thoreau

A very few—as heroes, patriots, martyrs, reformers in the great sense, and men—serve the state with their consciences also, and so necessarily resist it for the most part; and they are commonly treated as enemies by it.

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Article of the Day: The Year without a Summer


Article of the Day:
The Year without a Summer

It is now widely thought that the eruption of Indonesia’s Mount Tambora—the largest in over 1,600 years—led to a widespread reduction in temperature in 1816 that destroyed crops and prompted food shortages and famine across the globe. The event became the primary motivation for western expansion in America, and the lack of horse feed inspired research into horseless travel. What novel is said to have been written by an author forced to stay inside by the unseasonable weather in July 1816? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Word of the Day: reaper


Word of the Day:
reaper

Definition: (noun) Someone who helps to gather the harvest.
Synonyms: harvester
Usage: He was laying about him lustily with his sheath-knive, lopping the canes right and left, like a reaper, and soon made quite a clearing around us.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Exclusive – Facebook to put 1.5 billion users out of reach of new EU privacy law


https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-facebook-privacy-eu-exclusive/exclusive-facebook-to-put-1-5-billion-users-out-of-reach-of-new-eu-privacy-law-idUKKBN1HQ00Z

Reuters

THU APR 19, 2018 / 3:35 AM BST
Exclusive – Facebook to put 1.5 billion users out of reach of new EU privacy law
David Ingram

(Reuters) – If a new European law restricting what companies can do with people’s online data went into effect tomorrow, almost 1.9 billion Facebook Inc (FB.O) users around the world would be protected by it. The online social network is making changes that ensure the number will be much smaller.

Facebook members outside the United States and Canada, whether they know it or not, are currently governed by terms of service agreed with the company’s international headquarters in Ireland.

Next month, Facebook is planning to make that the case for only European users, meaning 1.5 billion members in Africa, Asia, Australia and Latin America will not fall under the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which takes effect on May 25.

The previously unreported move, which Facebook confirmed to Reuters on Tuesday, shows the world’s largest online social network is keen to reduce its exposure to GDPR, which allows European regulators to fine companies for collecting or using personal data without users’ consent.

That removes a huge potential liability for Facebook, as the new EU law allows for fines of up to 4 percent of global annual revenue for infractions, which in Facebook’s case could mean billions of dollars.

The change comes as Facebook is under scrutiny from regulators and lawmakers around the world since disclosing last month that the personal information of millions of users wrongly ended up in the hands of political consultancy Cambridge Analytica, setting off wider concerns about how it handles user data.

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The change affects more than 70 percent of Facebook’s 2 billion-plus members. As of December, Facebook had 239 million users in the United States and Canada, 370 million in Europe and 1.52 billion users elsewhere.

Facebook, like many other U.S. technology companies, established an Irish subsidiary in 2008 and took advantage of the country’s low corporate tax rates, routing through it revenue from some advertisers outside North America. The unit is subject to regulations applied by the 28-nation European Union.

Facebook said the latest change does not have tax implications.

‘IN SPIRIT’

In a statement given to Reuters, Facebook played down the importance of the terms of service change, saying it plans to make the privacy controls and settings that Europe will get under GDPR available to the rest of the world.

“We apply the same privacy protections everywhere, regardless of whether your agreement is with Facebook Inc or Facebook Ireland,” the company said.

Earlier this month, Facebook Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg told Reuters in an interview that his company would apply the EU law globally “in spirit,” but stopped short of committing to it as the standard for the social network across the world.

In practise, the change means the 1.5 billion affected users will not be able to file complaints with Ireland’s Data Protection Commissioner or in Irish courts. Instead they will be governed by more lenient U.S. privacy laws, said Michael Veale, a technology policy researcher at University College London.

Facebook will have more leeway in how it handles data about those users, Veale said. Certain types of data such as browsing history, for instance, are considered personal data under EU law but are not as protected in the United States, he said.

The company said its rationale for the change was related to the European Union’s mandated privacy notices, “because EU law requires specific language.” For example, the company said, the new EU law requires specific legal terminology about the legal basis for processing data which does not exist in U.S. law.

NO WARNING

Ireland was unaware of the change. One Irish official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said he did not know of any plans by Facebook to transfer responsibilities wholesale to the United States or to decrease Facebook’s presence in Ireland, where the social network is seeking to recruit more than 100 new staff.

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Facebook released a revised terms of service in draft form two weeks ago, and they are scheduled to take effect next month.

Other multinational companies are also planning changes. LinkedIn, a unit of Microsoft Corp (MSFT.O), tells users in its existing terms of service that if they are outside the United States, they have a contract with LinkedIn Ireland. New terms that take effect May 8 move non-Europeans to contracts with U.S.-based LinkedIn Corp.

LinkedIn said in a statement on Wednesday that all users are entitled to the same privacy protections. “We’ve simply streamlined the contract location to ensure all members understand the LinkedIn entity responsible for their personal data,” the company said.

(Reporting by David Ingram in San Francisco; Additional reporting by Joseph Menn in San Francisco, Padraic Halpin and Conor Humphries in Dublin and Douglas Busvine in Frankfurt; Editing by Greg Mitchell and Bill Rigby)

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