Daily Archives: April 30, 2018

Israel says Iran breaking nuclear deal – BBC News


http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-43952196
Israel says Iran breaking nuclear deal

Image caption Mr Netanyahu sees a nuclear-armed Iran as the greatest threat to world peace
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has revealed what he says are “secret nuclear files” proving Iran is covertly pursuing nuclear weapons.

He said 55,000 pages of material obtained by Israel showed Iran had deceived the world since signing a deal in 2015 to curb its nuclear programme.

It agreed to the deal in return for the lifting of sanctions.

Tweeting earlier, Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif appeared to accuse Mr Netanyahu of “fooling people”.

US President Donald Trump has long threatened to scrap the deal, which was reached under his predecessor, Barack Obama.

European powers have said they are committed to upholding the accord.

Could the nuclear deal collapse?
Why the bomb is back
Speaking in English from Israel’s defence ministry in Tel Aviv, Mr Netanyahu showed off what he said were “exact copies” of secret documents obtained by Israeli intelligence in Tehran.

“These files conclusively prove that Iran was brazenly lying when it said it never had a nuclear weapons programme,” he said.

How was the 2015 deal meant to work?
The agreement signed between Iran and six world powers lifted crippling economic sanctions in return for curbs on Tehran’s nuclear programme.

There had been fears that Iran would use the programme to create a nuclear weapon.

Under the deal, officially known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), Iran is committed to slashing the number of its centrifuges, which are machines used to enrich uranium.

It is also meant to cut its stockpile of enriched uranium drastically and not enrich remaining uranium to the level needed to produce nuclear weapons.

The number of centrifuges installed at Iran’s Natanz and Fordo suites was cut drastically soon after the deal while tonnes of low-enriched uranium were shipped to Russia.

Furthermore, monitors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have been able to carry out snap inspections at Iranian sites.

Iran nuclear deal: Key details
How dangerous is the enmity between Israel and Iran?
Tension between the long-standing enemies has grown steadily since Iran built up its military presence in Syria, Israel’s north-eastern neighbour.

Iran has also been accused of supplying weaponry to Lebanese Shia Muslim militant group Hezbollah, an enemy of Israel, and also smuggling arms to Palestinian militants.

Mr Netanyahu vowed last year to stop Iran “establishing itself militarily in Syria”.

On Sunday night, a wave of unclaimed air strikes on targets in Syria reportedly killed a number of Iranians.

Both Israel and Western nations have bombed government-controlled sites in the country in recent months.

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Twitter also sold data access to Cambridge Analytica researcher – TechCrunch


https://techcrunch.com/2018/04/30/twitter-also-sold-data-access-to-cambridge-analytica-researcher/
TECHCRUNCH
Twitter also sold data access to Cambridge Analytica researcher
Jordan Crook

Since it was revealed that Cambridge Analytica improperly accessed the personal data of millions of Facebook users, one question has lingered in the minds of the public: What other data did Dr. Aleksandr Kogan gain access to?

Twitter confirmed to The Telegraph on Saturday that GSR, Kogan’s own commercial enterprise, had purchased one-time API access to a random sample of public tweets from a five-month period between December 2014 and April 2015. Twitter told Bloomberg that, following an internal review, the company did not find any access to private data about people who use Twitter.

Twitter sells API access to large organizations or enterprises for the purposes of surveying sentiment or opinion during various events, or around certain topics or ideas.

Here’s what a Twitter spokesperson said to The Telegraph:

Twitter has also made the policy decision to off-board advertising from all accounts owned and operated by Cambridge Analytica. This decision is based on our determination that Cambridge Analytica operates using a business model that inherently conflicts with acceptable Twitter Ads business practices. Cambridge Analytica may remain an organic user on our platform, in accordance with the Twitter Rules.

Obviously, this doesn’t have the same scope as the data harvested about users on Facebook. Twitter’s data on users is far less personal. Location on the platform is opt-in and generic at that, and users are not forced to use their real name on the platform.

We reached out to Twitter and will update when we hear back.

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BFI apologises after woman with Asperger’s ejected from cinema


https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/apr/30/woman-with-aspergers-ejected-from-cinema-for-laughing-at-western
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BFI apologises after woman with Asperger’s ejected from cinema
Tamsin Parker, 25, was removed for laughing during The Good, the Bad and the Ugly in London

Sarah Marsh @sloumarsh
Mon 30 Apr 2018 08.51 EDT First published on Mon 30 Apr 2018 07.05 EDT

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Tamsin Parker

The British Film Institute has apologised after staff forcibly removed a woman with Asperger syndrome from the cinema in what onlookers described as a “disgusting” sign of “naked intolerance”.

Tamsin Parker, 25, an artist and animator, was watching a screening at the BFI’s cinema on London’s South Bank of her favourite film – the spaghetti western The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, directed by Sergio Leone – with two friends. She was asked to leave for laughing too loudly.

Parker’s mother, Lydia Parker, said some members of the audience applauded as she was removed: “[My daughter] said ‘I am autistic’ and a man said: ‘You’re retarded.’ Another man, who called her a bitch [for laughing], was thrown out, but only after she was.”

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Her mother added: “She was completely humiliated and it ruined her birthday.”

The BFI released a statement saying it was sorry and had got it wrong in a “challenging and complex situation”.

“We are taking this situation extremely seriously and this morning we have been investigating further … We can and must do better in accommodating all the needs of our customers and we will be addressing what additional provisions and staff training we can put in place,” the institute said.

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Parker’s mother, who is speaking to a lawyer about what happened, said: “It would be nice to arrange a screening for Tamsin and her friends. The manager did not seem very apologetic at the time.”

Parker was eager to see the BFI screening and has watched the film eight times, according to her mother, who went to collect her daughter after she was thrown out. “She was in floods of tears … she was really scared,” her mother said.

Lydia Parker, a theatre director, said it had been heartening to see messages of support on Twitter. The story has been shared widely on social media, with people voicing concern.

One cinemagoer, Lloyd Shepherd, expressed his disgust after the incident. “She’d been laughing very loudly, but at moments which were supposed to be funny. Some people complained. She was dragged out shouting: ‘I’m sorry, I have Asperger’s.’ She was incredibly upset,” he said.

He said some people applauded her removal while others were upset, with a large number leaving.

“I am shaking with anger. That poor, poor woman. Just a little bit of empathy and everything would have been fine. Such naked intolerance. In the middle of London. Disgusting,” Shepherd said.

Other witnesses tweeted:

Amie-Jo
(@amiejolocke)
Wtf. Have just witnessed a woman with Aspergers being forcibly removed from a @BFI screening. Why? Because someone complained about her laughing. I feel sick to my stomach #bfi

April 29, 2018
Suki Bains
(@Suk1_B41ns)
Thanks for covering this matter. I was there last night. @BFI aside, it’s the public reaction that has upset many of us. The lady was treated very poorly. She was sworn at in a very degrading offensive way. No empathy. People clapping. Awful experience. Sad. Angry. #london #2018

April 30, 2018
Parker’s sister, Sabrina Parker, tweeted that she had taken her sibling home to watch the rest of the movie. “Thank you for sharing this … we’re horrified that they would treat her so badly,” she wrote. “Obviously she’s still very upset. It’s her favourite movie and it was her 25th birthday celebration.”

The National Autistic Society said many autistic people felt venues were not autism-friendly enough, which is why it runs the autism friendly award to encourage businesses to be more accessible. The charity added that it works with cinemas and theatres to hold autism-friendly screenings.

Jane Harris, the NAS’s director of external affairs, said the incident was shocking and a colleague was at the screening, “along with others who were equally distressed by what they had witnessed”.

“It’s great to hear that so many audience members were sympathetic, but this incident shows just how far we have to go for autistic people to get the understanding they deserve,” she added.

Harris said the NAS would be reaching out to the BFI to discuss ways to improve its staff members’ understanding of autism.

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Trump should win Nobel Peace Prize, says South Korea’s president Moon Jae-in


https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/donald-trump-nobel-peace-prize-moon-jae-in-north-south-korea-us-president-a8329276.html
THE INDEPENDENT
Trump should win Nobel Peace Prize, says South Korea’s president Moon Jae-in
Chris Baynes

Donald Trump speaks during a joint press conference with South Korea’s president Moon Jae-in in November 2017
Donald Trump should win a Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the stand-off over North Korea’s nuclear weapons programme, South Korea’s president has suggested.

Moon Jae-in said he was “confident a new era of peace will unfold on the Korean peninsula” following a historic summit last week during which Seoul and Pyongyang pledged to end decades of hostilities and work towards “complete denuclearisation”.

He has previously said the US president “deserves big credit for bringing about the inter-Korean talks”, which were the first between North and South Korea for more than a decade.

Read more
“President Trump should win the Nobel Peace Prize. What we need is only peace,” the South Korean leader told a cabinet meeting on Monday, according to Seoul officials.

Mr Moon was greeted by standing ovation from cheering aides and staff at the presidential Blue House after signing a peace accord with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un on Friday, when the two countries pledged to officially end the Korean War that began in 1950.

In first small steps towards reconciliation, South Korea said on Monday it would remove loudspeakers that have blared propaganda across the border for decades, while Pyongyang is to shift its clocks to align with its southern neighbour.

South Korea turned off the loudspeakers, which have broadcasted a mixture of news, Korean pop songs and criticism of the North Korean regime, as a goodwill gesture ahead of the summit. It will begin removing them on Tuesday.

“We see this as the easiest first step to build military trust,” said South Korean defence ministry spokeswoman Choi Hyun-soo, adding Seoul expected North Korea to follow suit.

North Korea will shift its time zone 30 minutes earlier to align with South Korea, starting 5 May, state media reported on Monday. KCNA said Mr Kim found it “a painful wrench” to see two clocks showing different times on a wall during Friday’s summit in the “truce village” of Panmunjom.

The North’s time zone was created in 2015 to mark the 70th anniversary of Korea’s liberation from Japanese rule after World War Two.

While Mr Moon lauded Mr Trump’s role in bringing together the two nations, experts have been less fulsome.

TJ Pempel, a professor at the University of California-Berkeley, told The Independent the US president “deserves some credit but not as much as he’s taking”. He said China’s agreement to tougher sanctions on Pyongyang over its nuclear programme “was far more important”.

“Trump should receive minimal, if any, credit,” said Alison Evans, deputy head of Asia Pacific country risk at the research firm IHS Markit. The president’s “high-pressure tactics only confirmed to North Korea that they were on the right course” developing nuclear weapons, she suggested.

Mr Trump himself had no qualms about taking credit for the US role, tweeting immediately after Friday’s summit: “KOREAN WAR TO END! The United States, and all of its GREAT people, should be very proud of what is now taking place in Korea!”

The peace declaration leaves many questions unanswered, however, particularly the meaning of “denuclearisation” and how it will be achieved. Much hinges on Mr Kim’s upcoming summit with President Trump, planned to take place for late May or early June.

Read more
Pyongyang has long demanded denuclearisation must include the United States pulling its 28,500 troops out of South Korea and removing its so-called “nuclear umbrella” security commitment to Seoul and Japan.

Any deal with the US will require North Korea to demonstrate “irreversible” steps to shutting down its nuclear weapons programme, secretary of state Mike Pompeo said on Sunday.

Mr Kim told Mr Moon he would invited experts and journalists from the US and South Korea to witness the dismantlement of its Punggye-ri nuclear testing site, the Blue House said on Sunday.

North Korea has conducted all six of its nuclear tests at the site, comprised of a series of tunnels dug into the mountains in the country’s north-east. Researchers have speculated that the most recent – and by far largest – blast in September had rendered the entire site unusable.

But Mr Kim said there were two additional, larger tunnels that remain “in very good condition” beyond the existing one, which experts believe may have collapsed.

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Americans under attack by huligans!


Check out @ColumbiaBugle’s Tweet: https://twitter.com/ColumbiaBugle/status/990643255569084416?s=09

Henry IV of France – Wikipedia


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_France
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Henry IV of France
For other uses, see Henry IV (disambiguation).
“Henry of Navarre” redirects here. For other uses, see Henry of Navarre (disambiguation).
“Henri 4” redirects here. For the 2010 film, see Henri 4 (film).
Henry IV (French: Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre [ɑ̃ʁi katʁ]; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, another branch of the Capetian dynasty (through Louis IX, as the previous House of Valois had been through Philip III). He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.[1]

Henry IV
HenriIV.jpg
King of France
Reign
2 August 1589 – 14 May 1610
Coronation
27 February 1594
Chartres Cathedral
Predecessor
Henry III
Successor
Louis XIII
King of Navarre
Reign
9 June 1572 – 14 May 1610
Predecessor
Jeanne III
Successor
Louis II
Born
13 December 1553
Pau, Kingdom of Navarre
Died
14 May 1610 (aged 56)
Paris, Kingdom of France
Burial
Basilica of St Denis, Paris, France
Spouse
Margaret of Valois
(m. 1572; ann. 1599)
Marie de’ Medici
(m. 1600)
Issue
Louis XIII of France
Elisabeth, Queen of Spain
Christine, Duchess of Savoy
Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans
Gaston, Duke of Orléans
Henrietta Maria, Queen of England
Illegitimate:
César, Duke of Vendôme
Catherine Henriette, Duchess of Elbeuf
Full name
French: Henri de Bourbon
House
Bourbon
Father
Antoine of Navarre
Mother
Jeanne III of Navarre
Religion
See details
Royal styles of
King Henry IV
Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre
France moderne.svg
Reference style
His Most Christian Majesty
Spoken style
Your Most Christian Majesty
Alternative style
Sire
Baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne d’Albret, Queen of Navarre, Henry inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre. He later led Protestant forces against the royal army.[2]

As Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was a direct male-line descendant of Louis IX of France, and “first prince of the blood”. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law.

He initially kept the Protestant faith (the only French king to do so) and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France’s crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith. As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.

Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts.[3] An unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henry gained more status after his death.[4] He was admired for his repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The “Good King Henry” (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects.[2] He was celebrated in the popular song “Vive le roi Henri” and in Voltaire’s Henriade.

Early life Edit
Childhood and adolescence Edit

Henry III of France on his deathbed designating Henry IV of Navarre as his successor (1589)
Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn.[5] His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre (Jeanne d’Albret) and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, King of Navarre.[6] Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother,[7] who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion. On 9 June 1572, upon his mother’s death, the 19-year-old became King of Navarre.[8]

First marriage and Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Edit
At Queen Joan’s death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II and Catherine de’ Medici. The wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572[9] on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral.

On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre began in Paris. Several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henry’s wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and his promise to convert to Catholicism. He was forced to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and rejoined the Protestant forces in the military conflict.[8] He named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years.

Wars of Religion Edit

Henry at the Battle of Arques

Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens

Henry IV, as Hercules vanquishing the Lernaean Hydra (i.e. the Catholic League), by Toussaint Dubreuil, circa 1600
Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the next senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognise him as the legitimate successor.[10] Salic law barred the king’s sisters and all others who could claim descent through only the female line from inheriting. Since Henry of Navarre was a Huguenot, the issue was not considered settled in many quarters of the country, and France was plunged into a phase of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries. Henry III and Henry of Navarre were two of these Henries. The third was Henry I, Duke of Guise, who pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots and had much support among Catholic loyalists. Political disagreements among the parties set off a series of campaigns and counter-campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Coutras.[11]

In December 1588, Henry III had Henry I of Guise murdered,[12] along with his brother, Louis Cardinal de Guise.[13] Henry III thought that the removal of Guise would finally restore his authority. Instead, however, the populace were horrified and rose against him. In several cities, the title of the king was no longer recognized. His power was limited to Blois, Tours, and the surrounding districts. In the general chaos, the king relied on King Henry of Navarre and his Huguenots.

The two kings were united by a common interest—to win France from the Catholic League. Henry III acknowledged the King of Navarre as a true subject and Frenchman, not a fanatic Huguenot aiming for the destruction of Catholics. Catholic royalist nobles also rallied to the king’s standard. With this combined force, the two kings marched to Paris. The morale of the city was low, and even the Spanish ambassador believed the city could not hold out longer than a fortnight. But Henry III was assassinated shortly thereafter (2 August 1589) by a fanatical monk.[14]

When Henry III died, Henry of Navarre nominally became king of France. The Catholic League, however, strengthened by support from outside the country—especially from Spain—was strong enough to prevent a universal recognition of his new title. Most of the Catholic nobles who had joined Henry III for the siege of Paris also refused to recognize the claim of Henry of Navarre, and abandoned him. He set about winning his kingdom by military conquest, aided by English money and German troops. Henry’s Catholic uncle Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, was proclaimed king by the League, but the Cardinal was Henry’s prisoner at the time.[15] Henry was victorious at the Battle of Arques and the Battle of Ivry, but failed to take Paris after besieging it in 1590.[16]

When Cardinal de Bourbon died in 1590, the League could not agree on a new candidate. While some supported various Guise candidates, the strongest candidate was probably the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, the daughter of Philip II of Spain, whose mother Elisabeth had been the eldest daughter of Henry II of France.[17] In the religious fervor of the time, the Infanta was recognized to be a suitable candidate, provided that she marry a suitable husband. The French overwhelmingly rejected Philip’s first choice, Archduke Ernest of Austria, the Emperor’s brother, also a member of the House of Habsburg. In case of such opposition, Philip indicated that princes of the House of Lorraine would be acceptable to him: the Duke of Guise; a son of the Duke of Lorraine; and the son of the Duke of Mayenne. The Spanish ambassadors selected the Duke of Guise, to the joy of the League. But at that moment of seeming victory, the envy of the Duke of Mayenne was aroused, and he blocked the proposed election of a king.

Jeton with portrait of King Henri IV, made in Nuremberg (Germany) by Hans Laufer
The Parlement of Paris also upheld the Salic law. They argued that if the French accepted natural hereditary succession, as proposed by the Spaniards, and accepted a woman as their queen, then the ancient claims of the English kings would be confirmed, and the monarchy of centuries past would be nothing but an illegality.[18] The Parlement admonished Mayenne, as Lieutenant-General, that the Kings of France had resisted the interference of the Pope in political matters, and that he should not raise a foreign prince or princess to the throne of France under the pretext of religion. Mayenne was angered that he had not been consulted prior, but yielded, since their aim was not contrary to his present views.

Despite these setbacks for the League, Henry remained unable to take control of Paris.

“Paris is well worth a Mass” Edit

Entrance of Henry IV in Paris, 22 March 1594, with 1,500 cuirassiers
On 25 July 1593, with the encouragement of his great love, Gabrielle d’Estrées, Henry permanently renounced Protestantism and converted to Roman Catholicism—in order to obtain the French crown, thereby earning the resentment of the Huguenots and his former ally Queen Elizabeth I of England. He was said to have declared that Paris vaut bien une messe (“Paris is well worth a mass”),[19][20][21] although there is some doubt whether he said this, or whether the statement was attributed to him by his contemporaries.[22][23] His acceptance of Roman Catholicism secured the allegiance of the vast majority of his subjects.

Since Reims, the traditional location for the coronation of French kings, was still occupied by the Catholic League, Henry was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February 1594.[24] He did not forget his former Calvinist coreligionists, however and was known for his religious tolerance. In 1598 he issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted circumscribed toleration to the Huguenots.[25]

Second marriage Edit

Henry IV and Marie de Médicis
Henry’s first marriage was not a happy one, and the couple remained childless. Henry and Margaret separated even before Henry acceded to the throne in August 1589. Margaret lived for many years in the Château d’Usson in the Auvergne. After Henry became king of France, it was of the utmost importance that he provide an heir to the crown to avoid the problem of a disputed succession. Henry favoured the idea of obtaining an annulment of his marriage to Margaret and taking his mistress Gabrielle d’Estrées as his bride; after all, she had already borne him three children. Henry’s councillors strongly opposed this idea, but the matter was resolved unexpectedly by Gabrielle’s sudden death in the early hours of 10 April 1599, after she had given birth to a premature and stillborn son. His marriage to Margaret was annulled in 1599, and Henry married Marie de’ Medici in 1600.

For the royal entry of Marie into Avignon on 19 November 1600, the citizens bestowed on Henry the title of the Hercule Gaulois (“Gallic Hercules”), justifying the extravagant flattery with a genealogy that traced the origin of the House of Navarre to a nephew of Hercules’ son Hispalus.[26]

Achievements of his reign Edit

Henri IV on Horseback Trampling his Enemy. Bronze, circa 1615-1620 AD. From France, probably Paris. Victoria and Albert Museum, London
During his reign, Henry IV worked through his faithful right-hand man, the minister Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, drain swamps, undertake public works, and encourage education. He established the Collège Royal Henri-le-Grand in La Flèche (today the Prytanée Militaire de la Flèche). He and Sully protected forests from further devastation, built a system of tree-lined highways, and constructed bridges and canals. He had a 1200-metre canal built in the park at the Château Fontainebleau (which may be fished today) and ordered the planting of pines, elms, and fruit trees. He used one construction project to attract attention to his power. When building the Pont-Neuf, a bridge in Paris, he placed a statue of himself in the middle.[27]

Itinerary of François Pyrard de Laval, (1601–1611)
The King restored Paris as a great city, with the Pont Neuf, which still stands today, constructed over the river Seine to connect the Right and Left Banks of the city. Henry IV also had the Place Royale built (since 1800 known as Place des Vosges), and added the Grande Galerie to the Louvre Palace. More than 400 metres long and thirty-five metres wide, this huge addition was built along the bank of the Seine River. At the time it was the longest edifice of its kind in the world. King Henry IV, a promoter of the arts by all classes of people, invited hundreds of artists and craftsmen to live and work on the building’s lower floors. This tradition continued for another two hundred years, until Emperor Napoleon I banned it. The art and architecture of his reign have become known as the “Henry IV style” since that time.

King Henry’s vision extended beyond France, and he financed several expeditions of Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts and Samuel de Champlain[2] to North America. France lay claim to New France (now Canada).[28]

International relations under Henry IV Edit

Engraving of Henry IV

Coin of Henry IV, demi écu, Saint Lô (1589)
During the reign of Henry IV, rivalry continued among France, the Habsburg rulers of Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire for the mastery of Western Europe. The conflict was not resolved until after the Thirty Years’ War.

Spain and Italy Edit
During Henry’s struggle for the crown, Spain had been the principal backer of the Catholic League, and it tried to thwart Henry. Under the Duke of Parma, an army from the Spanish Netherlands intervened in 1590 against Henry and foiled his siege of Paris. Another Spanish army helped the nobles opposing Henry to win the Battle of Craon against his troops in 1592.

After Henry’s coronation, the war continued as an official tug-of-war between the French and Spanish states, but after victory at the Siege of Amiens in September 1597 the Peace of Vervins was signed in 1598. This enabled him to turn his attention to Savoy, with which he also had been fighting. Their conflicts were settled in the Treaty of Lyon of 1601, which mandated territorial exchanges between France and the Duchy of Savoy.

Germany Edit
In 1609 Henry’s intervention helped to settle the War of the Jülich succession through diplomatic means.

It was widely believed that in 1610 Henry was preparing to go to war against the Holy Roman Empire. The preparations were terminated by his assassination, however, and the subsequent rapprochement with Spain under the regency of Marie de’ Medici.

Ottoman Empire Edit

Bilingual Franco-Turkish translation of the 1604 Franco-Ottoman Capitulations between Sultan Ahmed I and Henry IV of France, published by François Savary de Brèves (1615)[29]
Even before Henry’s accession to the French throne, the French Huguenots were in contact with Aragonese Moriscos in plans against the Habsburg government of Spain in the 1570s.[30] Around 1575, plans were made for a combined attack of Aragonese Moriscos and Huguenots from Béarn under Henry against Spanish Aragon, in agreement with the king of Algiers and the Ottoman Empire, but this project floundered with the arrival of John of Austria in Aragon and the disarmament of the Moriscos.[31][32] In 1576, a three-pronged fleet from Constantinople was planned to disembark between Murcia and Valencia while the French Huguenots would invade from the north and the Moriscos accomplish their uprising, but the Ottoman fleet failed to arrive.[31] After his crowning, Henry continued the policy of a Franco-Ottoman alliance and received an embassy from Sultan Mehmed III in 1601.[33][34] In 1604, a “Peace Treaty and Capitulation” was signed between Henry IV and the Ottoman Sultan Ahmet I. It granted numerous advantages to France in the Ottoman Empire.[34]

In 1606–07, Henry IV sent Arnoult de Lisle as Ambassador to Morocco to obtain the observance of past friendship treaties. An embassy was sent to Tunisia in 1608 led by François Savary de Brèves.[35]

East Asia Edit
Further information: France-Asia relations
During the reign of Henry IV, various enterprises were set up to develop trade with faraway lands. In December 1600, a company was formed through the association of Saint-Malo, Laval, and Vitré to trade with the Moluccas and Japan.[36] Two ships, the Croissant and the Corbin, were sent around the Cape of Good Hope in May 1601. One was wrecked in the Maldives, leading to the adventure of François Pyrard de Laval, who managed to return to France in 1611.[36][37] The second ship, carrying François Martin de Vitré, reached Ceylon and traded with Aceh in Sumatra, but was captured by the Dutch on the return leg at Cape Finisterre.[36][37] François Martin de Vitré was the first Frenchman to write an account of travels to the Far East in 1604, at the request of Henry IV, and from that time numerous accounts on Asia would be published.[38]

From 1604 to 1609, following the return of François Martin de Vitré, Henry developed a strong enthusiasm for travel to Asia and attempted to set up a French East India Company on the model of England and the Netherlands.[37][38][39] On 1 June 1604, he issued letters patent to Dieppe merchants to form the Dieppe Company, giving them exclusive rights to Asian trade for 15 years. No ships were sent, however, until 1616.[36] In 1609, another adventurer, Pierre-Olivier Malherbe, returned from a circumnavigation of the globe and informed Henry of his adventures.[38] He had visited China and India, and had an encounter with Akbar.[38]

Character Edit

Henry IV, Versailles Museum
Henry IV proved to be a man of vision and courage.[citation needed] Instead of waging costly wars to suppress opposing nobles, Henry simply paid them off. As king, he adopted policies and undertook projects to improve the lives of all subjects, which made him one of the country’s most popular rulers ever.

Henry is said to have originated the oft-repeated phrase, “a chicken in every pot”[2]. The context for that phrase:

Si Dieu me prête vie, je ferai qu’il n’y aura point de laboureur en mon royaume qui n’ait les moyens d’avoir le dimanche une poule dans son pot!

(If God keeps me, I will make sure that no peasant in my realm will lack the means to have a chicken in the pot on Sunday!)

This statement epitomises the peace and relative prosperity which Henry brought to France after decades of religious war, and demonstrates how well he understood the plight of the French worker and peasant farmer. This real concern for the living conditions of the “lowly” population—who in the final analysis provided the economic basis for the power of the king and the great nobles—was perhaps without parallel among the kings of France. Following his death Henry would be remembered fondly by most of the population.

Henry’s forthright manner, physical courage, and military successes also contrasted dramatically with the sickly, effete languor of the last Valois kings, as evinced by his blunt assertion that he ruled with “weapon in hand and arse in the saddle” (on a le bras armé et le cul sur la selle). He was also a great philanderer, fathering many children by a number of mistresses.[2]

Nicknames Edit
Henry was nicknamed “the Great” (Henri le Grand), and in France is also called le bon roi Henri (“the good king Henry”) or le vert galant (“The Green Gallant”, for his numerous mistresses).[2][40] In English he is most often referred to as Henry of Navarre.

Assassination Edit
Henry was the subject of attempts on his life by Pierre Barrière in August 1593[41] and Jean Châtel in December 1594.[42]

In the third assassination attempt, King Henry IV was killed in Paris on 14 May 1610 by a Catholic fanatic, François Ravaillac, who stabbed him in the Rue de la Ferronnerie. Henry’s coach was stopped by traffic congestion related to the Queen’s coronation ceremony, as depicted in the engraving by Gaspar Bouttats.[43][44] Hercule de Rohan, duc de Montbazon, was with him when he was killed; Montbazon was wounded, but survived. Henry was buried at the Saint Denis Basilica.

His widow, Marie de’ Medici, served as regent for their nine-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.[45]

Assassination of Henry IV,
engraving by Gaspar Bouttats

His assassin, François Ravaillac, brandishing his dagger

Lying in state at the Louvre, engraving after François Quesnel

Alleged skull of Henry IV in 1933; his tomb was ransacked during the French Revolution

Legacy Edit

Henri IV, Marie de’ Medici and family
The reign of Henry IV had a lasting impact on the French people for generations afterward. A statue was erected in his honour at the Pont Neuf in 1614, four years after his death. Although this statue—as well as those of all the other French kings—was torn down during the French Revolution, it was the first to be rebuilt, in 1818, and it stands today on the Pont Neuf. A cult surrounding the personality of Henry IV emerged during the Bourbon Restoration. The restored Bourbons were keen to play down the controversial reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI and instead emphasised the reign of the benevolent Henry IV. The song Marche Henri IV (“Long Live Henry IV”) was popular during the Restoration. In addition, when Princess Caroline of Naples and Sicily (a descendant of his) gave birth to a male heir to the throne of France seven months after the assassination of her husband Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, by a Republican fanatic, the boy was conspicuously named Henri in reference to his forefather Henry IV. The boy was also baptised in the traditional way of Béarn/Navarre, with a spoon of Jurançon wine and some garlic, imitating the manner in which Henry IV had been baptised in Pau. That custom had been abandoned by later Bourbon kings.

Royal Monogram
Henry IV’s popularity continued when the first edition of his biography, Histoire du Roy Henry le Grand, was published in Amsterdam in 1661. It was written by Hardouin de Péréfixe de Beaumont, successively bishop of Rhodez and archbishop of Paris, primarily for the edification of Louis XIV, grandson of Henry IV. A translation into English was made by James Dauncey for another grandson, King Charles II of England. An English edition was derived from this, which was published at London in 1663.

Henry served as the loose inspiration behind Ferdinand, the King of Navarre in William Shakespeare’s Love’s Labour’s Lost.[46]

Genealogy Edit
Main article: Henry IV of France’s succession
Ancestors Edit
Ancestors of Henry IV of France[47]
16. John VIII, Count of Vendôme
8. Francis, Count of Vendôme
17. Isabelle de Beauvau
4. Charles, Duke of Vendôme
18. Peter II, Count of Saint-Pol
9. Marie of Luxembourg
19. Margaret of Savoy
2. Antoine of Navarre
20. Jean II, Duke of Alençon
10. René, Duke of Alençon
21. Marie of Armagnac
5. Françoise of Alençon
22. Frederick II, Count of Vaudémont
11. Margaret of Lorraine
23. Yolande of Anjou
1. Henry IV of France
24. Alain I, Lord of Albret
12. John III of Navarre
25. Françoise de Châtillon
6. Henry II of Navarre
26. Gaston, Prince of Viana
13. Catherine of Navarre
27. Madeleine of Valois
3. Jeanne III of Navarre
28. John, Count of Angoulême
14. Charles, Count of Angoulême
29. Marguerite de Rohan
7. Marguerite of Angoulême
30. Philip II, Duke of Savoy
15. Louise of Savoy
31. Marguerite of Bourbon
Patrilineal descent Edit
Patrilineal descent
Henry’s patriline was his line of descent in the male line, that is, from father to son only.

Patrilineal descent governs membership and succession in many royal and noble houses. Henry was a scion of the House of Bourbon, which was a branch of the Capetian dynasty, which sprang from the Robertians.

Henry’s patriline ran through the house of Bourbon-Vendôme (Counts and then Dukes of Vendôme), descended from a younger son of the Count of Marche, descended from a younger son of the Duke of Bourbon, whose father was a younger son of Louis IX. Louis was the direct descendant of Hugh Capet, who became King of France in 987 and made the crown hereditary. Hugh was the heir of the “Robertian” house, Counts of Worms, descended from Robert of Hesbaye.

This line has continued to the present day, more than 1,200 years in all, through kings of France, Navarre, France again, Spain, Portugal, and the Two Sicilies, dukes of Parma, grand dukes of Luxembourg, princes of Orléans, and emperors of Brazil. It is one of the oldest royal patrilines in Europe.

Robert II of Worms and Rheingau (Robert of Hesbaye), 770–807
Robert III of Worms and Rheingau, 808–834
Robert IV the Strong, 820–866
Robert I of France, 866–923
Hugh the Great, 895–956
Hugh Capet, 941–996
Robert II of France, 972–1031
Henry I of France, 1008–1060
Philip I of France, 1053–1108
Louis VI of France, 1081–1137
Louis VII of France, 1120–1180
Philip II of France, 1165–1223
Louis VIII of France, 1187–1226
Louis IX of France, 1215–1270
Robert, Count of Clermont, 1256–1317
Louis I, Duke of Bourbon, 1279–1342
James I, Count of La Marche, 1319–1362
John I, Count of La Marche, 1344–1393
Louis, Count of Vendôme, 1376–1446
Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme, 1428–1478
François, Count of Vendôme, 1470–1495
Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, 1489–1537
Antoine, King of Navarre, Duke of Vendôme, 1518–1562
Henry IV, King of France and Navarre, 1553–1610
Religion
Marriages and legitimate children
Armorial
Notes
References
Further reading
External links
Last edited 3 hours ago by Epolk
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