©All posts copyright
by George Bost
Hi welcome to EuZicAsa: Enjoy: Make this blog yours: Subscribe/rate/comment. Thank you&come back soon.
Subscribe To My YouTube Channel or SoundCoud Poems
- Horoscope♉: 04/12/2020 April 12, 2020
- Today’s Holiday: Annual Bottle Kicking and Hare Pie Scramble April 12, 2020
- Today’s Birthday: Lanford Wilson (1937) April 12, 2020
- This Day in History: Sidney Poitier Becomes the First African American to Win Best Actor Oscar (1964) April 12, 2020
- Quote of the Day: Jane Austen April 12, 2020
- Article of the Day: Jean Duvet April 12, 2020
- Idiom of the Day: have (one’s) head in the sand April 12, 2020
- Word of the Day: wallop April 12, 2020
- Watch “All That Jazz – The Opening” on YouTube April 11, 2020
- Watch “All That Jazz Bye Bye Life” on YouTube April 11, 2020
- Horoscope♉: 04/11/2020 April 11, 2020
- Today’s Holiday: Vlöggelen April 11, 2020
- Today’s Birthday: Herbert Jeffrey “Herbie” Hancock (1940) April 11, 2020
- This Day in History: Liberian President William R. Tolbert Is Killed in Military Coup (1980) April 11, 2020
- Quote of the Day: Charles Dickens April 11, 2020
- Article of the Day: Pyotr Stolypin April 11, 2020
- Idiom of the Day: have (one’s) hand out April 11, 2020
- Word of the Day: tomfoolery April 11, 2020
- Watch “Amazing Grace – Best Version By Far!” on YouTube April 11, 2020
- Watch “Pope Francis’ five cries amid the pandemic” on YouTube April 11, 2020
- Watch “Pope Francis’ five cries amid the pandemic” on YouTube April 11, 2020
- Horoscope♉: 04/10/2020 April 10, 2020
- Today’s Holiday: Caitra Parb April 10, 2020
- Today’s Birthday: Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. (1862) April 10, 2020
- This Day in History: Buchenwald Concentration Camp Liberated by American Troops (1945) April 10, 2020
- Quote of the Day: Herman Melville April 10, 2020
- Article of the Day: Operation Gladio April 10, 2020
- Idiom of the Day: get (one’s) ears lowered April 10, 2020
- Word of the Day: soothsayer April 10, 2020
- Horoscope♉: 04/09/2020 April 9, 2020
Access Archived Postings
Search My Site
Top Posts & Pages
- Madonna -- Fra Filippo Lippi (1406 - 1469)
- Teniamo quello che vale la pena di tenere e poi, con il fiato della gentilezza soffiamo via il resto. ~George Eliot~
- Quote of the Day: Herman Melville
- România Mare (1918)
- Sleeping Bear. Sicangu Lakota. 1898. Omaha. Photo by F.A. Rinehart. Source - National Museum of the American Indian.
- Running Deer. Kiowa. Omaha, Nebraska, 1899. Photo by F.A. Rinehart.
- Watch "Damien Rice - The Blower's Daughter - Official Video" on YouTube
- Watch "Robin Williams reads "I Love You Without Knowing How" by Pablo Neruda" on YouTube
- Madonna, Fra Filippo Lippi. Italian Early Renaissance Painter (1406-1469)
Many A Choice:(The smudge and other poems) Arsenic Article of the Day ARTISTS AND ARTS - Music Arts Arts, Virtual Museums tour. Arts -Architecture Arts -Architecture, sculpture Asbestos toxicity AudioBooks biking BOOKS coronavirus Daily Horoscope DAILY POSTS TOPICS e-books ebola Educational English Grammar Environmental Health Causes Facebook FILM Fitness Fitness, running, biking, outdoors flashmob FOOD AND HEALTH GEOGRAPHY good foods Gougle+ Graphic Arts Haiku Hazardous Materials Exposure Health and Environment Idiom of the Day infections disease IN THE SPOTLIGHT INVENTIONS, PATENTS Lead Toxicity Lyrics Medical Library MEMORIES Mercury Toxicity MUSIC MY TAKE ON THINGS News ONE OF MY FAVORITE THINGS on the mundane side of the town outdoors Painting PEOPLE AND PLACES HISTORY PEOPLE AND PLACES HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY Pesticides Photography Poetry Poetry, Poets, Writers Poets QUOTATION Quote of the Day Radiation induced Cancer and death Radiation Poisoning running sculpture, sculptors SITE DEVELOPMENT Social Media SoundCloud Special Interest SPIRITUALITY surveillance Tai Chi This Day In History This Pressed (Press this) Today's Birthday today's Holiday Twitter Uncategorized Virtual Museums tour. Weather Whistle Blowers Word of the Day Writers Yerba maté Yoga YouTube/SoundCloud: Music YouTube/SoundCloud: Music, Special Interest
Share On Twitter
Easy SearchAllegro amp Antonín Dvořák art Arts -Architecture, sculpture Associated Press aviation Barack Obama Beethoven Business California Canada Catholic Church China Christianity Christmas Classical music climate England entertainment Environment EUZICASA Facebook France Franz Schubert Frédéric Chopin gaming Germany God Google Great Compositions/Performances Health History Israel Italy Japan Jesus Johannes Brahms Johann Sebastian Bach Leonard Cohen Literature London london symphony orchestra Ludwig van Beethoven Make Music Part of Your Life Series Middle East Mozart Music nature New York New York City Orchestra Paris Piano Politics Pope Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky robert schumann Rome Russia science Shopping Television Tempo transportation Twitter United States Valentina Lisitsa video Vienna wikipedia Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart World Literature World War II YouTube
Share This Post With AddThis:Share |
Visitors’ Country Flag:
- 524,861 hits
Bathtub Bulletin access here
Chelsea Hotel #1
Translate This Post:
ONLINE REFERENCE: Dictionary, Encyclopedia & More…
Internet Archive: Digital Library (Universal Access to all Knowledge)
Island of Lonliness- Rie Sinclair
Gutenberg Project Find your Free eBooks online!
KUSC.org, CLassical FM 91.5
VEOH.TV: ENTERTAINMENT ONLINE FREE: Give it a try!
Lyrics to Your Fave Songs:
PLANET ROCK ONLINE RADIO
Actor Showcase: Check it out here!
Access Song meaning Herehttp://www.songmeanings.net/
The Google Art Project is here
Allspirit: poetry, quotations, song lyrics, writings
Wikiquote: Access from here
Jango (more than just an online radio….Get on it)
ProPublica Journalism in the Public InterestProPublica -"Jurnalism in the public interest" - Access from here
THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Constitution of the United States – access here
WebMD: Access from here
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CHANNEL (ACCESS FROM HERE)
OPEN LIBRARY IS YOURS: ACCESS HERE
Center for Effective Government (access site here)
ELECTRONIC FREEDOM FOUNDATION: ACCESS HERE
Vintage Music: Access from Here
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC WEBSITE: ACCESS HERE
Legends of America – Visit here
FAMOUS POETS AND POEMS: ACCESS FROM HERE ANYTIME – ANYWHERE
kjazz 88.1 FM (CSU, Long Beach: ACCESS HERE)
Public Catalogue Foundation (access from here)
Environmental Working Group: Access Here
Change.org (access from euzicasa)
Change.org: "The world’s petition platform.
What will you change?"
ALEXA: euzicasa | Share something you learned everyday!
The Smithsonian Encyclopedia of Life (Collection of Sounds)
HAIKU TOPICS (ACCESS HERE)
American Songwriter .com (Access from here)
LAWEEKLY – ACCESS HERE
Lyrics, Song Lyrics – SweetsLyrics.com
WEB GALLERY OF ARTS – ACCESS HERE
THE BRITISH LIBRARY (ACCESS HERE)
THE ARIA DATABASE_SEARCH ( U R 1 CLICK AWAY)
AllMUSIC_Widget (one click away)
WIDGET_Classic Cat: The Free Classical Music Directory (one click away)
Time and Date
SHAKESPEARE NAVIGATOR (A MUST HAVE WIDGET!)
Abandoned: Ghost Towns USA (Access Here)
BIBLIOKLEPT (Where you may find your favorite book)
ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITTANICA (ACCESS HERE)
Public domain: PIXABAY pics, Images (Access here)
The News Manual – A professional resource for journalism and the media
A la découverte de l’encyclopédie Larousse
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese Online chapel
Access HISTORYnet.com (Live The History
CIDRAP CENTER FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE RESEARCH AND POLICY
Judicial Watch: Access here!
mp3.li: your music library access here (Always opens in a new page)
Nurishedkitchen.com: access here
Access Here: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Releases 400,000 Images Online for Non-Commercial Use
Kunji San Martial Arts Supplies – for your conveniece – Access here
wildlifelens: Access here
NEWS.VA: Offcial Vatican Network:
THE HOLY ROSARY PORTAL: ACCESS HERE
Glycemic Index (The University of Sydney)
Learn the Catechism Here
Access the Public Catalogue Foundation:
Christus Rex et Redemptor Mundi
[caption id="attachment_99163" align="alignnone" width="300"] CIDSE – TOGETHER FOR GLOBAL JUSTICE (CHANGE FOR THE PLANET -CARE FOR THE PROPLE-ACCESS THIS NEW WEBSITE FROM EUZICASA)[/caption]
Daily Archives: May 24, 2018
Police: Pair arrested for trying to sell drugs to children on a playground
AOL.COM 2 hrs ago
CLOVERDALE, Ind.- Police in Cloverdale arrested two people accused of trying to sell drugs to children. On Monday evening around 5 p.m., officers were called out to the playground at the Stardust Hills neighborhood.
“I mean I was kind of surprised they were doing it in front of my little sister. She’s only 5,” said Angel Cox, a Cloverdale teenager.
Police say 18-year-old Erica Souders and 20-year-old Drake Best tried getting children to buy marijuana and pills from them. The two supposedly told the kids the drugs would ‘make them feel good.’
“I was like no, definitely not,” said Cox.
Cox immediately took her little sisters home and they told their mom what happened. Within seconds, she called police.
“Because my kids were out here and I wanted to see who these people were out here selling drugs so I could give a full description to the cops,” said Natasha Franklin, a Cloverdale mother.
Police say when they confronted the suspects, Best handed over a bag of pills and a bottle of marijuana fell out of Sounder’s pants.
“As sad as it is, when asked about it he said he was just out here trying to make money, that’s all his reasoning was for it. (It’s a) pretty poor excuse, especially when it comes to getting children involved in this, it’s definitely no joke,” said Deputy Marshal Levi App with the Cloverdale Police Department.
Franklin admits she was mad that these suspects put her kids and others in danger.
“This park is watched so they need to just stay away. Just let the kids come out here and play,” said Franklin.
Franklin was also proud that her kids did the right thing and helped to make sure trouble stayed out of their neighborhood.
“People like that need to know not to do that stuff in front of little kids let alone do it at all,” said Cox.
Souders and Best are both facing drug possession and dealing charges.
Open in Web Browser
Privacy is our right! we cannot consider ourselves free humans in absentia of this, most important aspect of out individual independence!
Check out @Public_Citizen’s Tweet: https://twitter.com/Public_Citizen/status/999738878658535425?s=09
Natchez Trace – Traveled For Thousands of Years – Legends of America (access this website from the widget on the right side of my webdite page!)
Legends of America
Legends of America
Exploring history, destinations, people, & legends of this great country since 2003.
Facebook Twitter Email Pinterest
Natchez Trace – Traveled For Thousands of Years
In the Winter of 2013, we made a grand journey to the south and followed the famous path now memorialized as the Natchez Trace Parkway.
Natchez Trace Map by Frederick Smoot, courtesy Tennessee Gen Web. Click for larger version
Mileposts and Sites:
Natchez to Near Lorman, Milepost 1-30
Near Lorman to Rocky Springs, Milepost 31-60
Rocky Springs to North of Jackson, Milepost 61-108
Cypress Swamp to Kosciusko, Milepost 109-170
Kosciusko to Near Mantee, Milepost 171-222
Near Houston to Tupelo Milepost 222 to 268
North of Tupelo to Alabama State Line Milepost 269 to 308
Alabama – Milepost 308-338
Tennessee – Milepost 339-442
For thousands of years, people have been using the Natchez Trace, today memorialized as the 442-mile Natchez Trace Parkway that winds its way through the states of Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee, providing tourists exceptional scenery and thousands of years of American History.
The earliest known people to utilize the forested road, called a trace, were the Mississippi Mound builders, whose culture flourished from about 800 A.D. to 1500 A.D. These hunters and gatherers followed the early footpaths created by the foraging of bison, deer and other large game that could break paths through the dense undergrowth. These early peoples also built roads, cultural centers and numerous earthen monuments, which were used as burial sites and temples, several of which can still be seen along the Natchez Trace Parkway.
Later, the trace was frequented by the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Natchez tribes who called the region home and traveled upon the trail on hunting and trading expeditions. By the time the first European explorer, Hernando de Soto, came to the region, the path was well worn and the Mississippi Mound builders were gone. Later, more explorers would use this “wilderness road,” followed by frontiersmen and pioneers.
Some of the best known travelers of the Natchez Trace were farmers and boatmen from the Ohio River regions of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky who floated supplies down to ports in Natchez, Mississippi and New Orleans, Louisiana at the beginning of the 1800’s. Regardless of where they came from, they were collectively known as “Kaintucks.” Other famous figures traveled the Natchez Trace, including Meriwether Lewis, who had previously led the Lewis and Clark Expedition. While making his way from Missouri to Washington D.C. in 1809, he died under mysterious circumstances at a small cabin in Tennessee. He was buried there, where his body remains today. Just a few years later, General Andrew Jackson traveled on the Trace with his troops during the War of 1812.
13 Confederate Graves, Old Natchez Trace. Kathy Weiser
13 Confederate Graves, Old Natchez Trace. Kathy Weiser
Though U.S. Troops began to improve the Natchez Trace beginning in 1801, it wasn’t until the War of 1812 that the military capitalized on the efforts. The popular path through Choctaw and Chickasaw lands became a vital thoroughfare when it was believed British ships threatened the Gulf Coast. Having traveled the Trace repeatedly on other business, General Andrew Jackson relied on the Trace several times for the transportation of his troops. His cavalry traveled to Washington, Mississippi, just north of Natchez, on it in 1813, and when the troops were released without participating in battle, the entire 2nd Division Tennessee Regiment slogged their way back along the Trace. Though the road was the best choice at the time, the troops still had to contend with knee-deep mud, oxen dying from the heat, an occasional rattlesnake, and a “heavy a shower of hail and rain that ever fell upon poor soldiers in the world,” according to soldier A.J. Edmundson. It was during this trip that Andrew Jackson earned his nickname “Old Hickory.”
From mid-1813 to mid-1814, Jackson and his troops left to fight the Creek War in what is now Alabama. Jackson took one of the Natchez Trace’s newest residents, John Gordon, with him. Captain Gordon became leader of one of Jackson’s companies of “spies,” or scouts. Gordon left his family and home at the intersection of the Natchez Trace and the Duck River behind, and became a Tennessee hero of the Creek War. With the conclusion of the Creek War, Jackson and his troops again focused on Great Britain and the Gulf Coast. In 1815, the misery of the 1813 trip up the Trace was likely forgotten with a more celebratory journey.
Whether famous, infamous, or anonymous, travelers of the Natchez Trace relied heavily on this wilderness road that meandered through a diverse terrain of swamps, rivers, and rolling hills. The Trace was a road home, a path of exploration, and a link to the growing population of the Old Southwest. Over time, new roads and population centers were developed; steamships carried people and supplies upstream, and the Old Trace fell out of use. Though the trace was no longer regularly used, it was not forgotten. Its’ centuries of history, legends, and lore of the many occupants and travelers along the trail would continue to “haunt” those who lived and traveled through the area. Tales of buried treasure, ghost stories, outlaws, witches, and more, became as much a part of the Natchez Trace as the pathway itself. (See: Legends and Mysteries of the Natchez Trace)
The Natchez Trace was officially reestablished as a unit of the National Park Service in 1938. Years later, in 2005, the Natchez Trace Parkway was completed, extending from Natchez, Mississippi to Nashville, Tennessee. Today, the route still serves as a connection between population centers, and allows modern travelers to explore and discover the history and culture of earlier generations. The Parkway incorporates numerous visitor stops of historic, natural, and archeological interest, including seven Mississippi Mound sites. The Tupelo Visitor Center interprets the archeology and history of the Trace.
Continue next page for milepost/points of interest along the Trace.
Pages:12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Share this with friends
Code Young – Cowboy Outlaw
George West Musgrave – All-Around Bad Man
Bob Hayes- Riding With the High Fives Gang
Jules Beni – Corruption and Violence in Old Julesburg, Colorado
Will “Black Jack” Christian – Leading the High Fives Gang
Oregon-California Trail Facts
Crime and Punishment on the Overland Trails
Indians and Emigrants on the Overland Trails
Ephraim Brown – Murdered on the Oregon Trail
Hall Jackson Kelley – Promoting the Oregon Trail
Why a Trail to Oregon?
Disease and Death on the Overland Trails
More what’s new..
Destinations Main Page
More related stuff
Copyright © 2018 Legends of America. All Rights Reserved
Advertise with us
Please Excuse Us..
Legends Tip Jar
20th Century History
Discovery and Exploration
Exploration of America
Cowboys & Trail Blazers
Heroes and Patriots
Presidents of the United States
Heroes and Leaders
Myths & Legends
Notable Native Americans
Feuds & Range Wars
Byways & Historic Trails – Great Drives in America
Stagecoaches of the American West
The Railroad Crosses America
Legends of the American Automobile
War & Military
Forts & Presidios
Heroes and Patriots
Soldiers and Officers in American History
Byways & Trails
Forts & Presidios
Legends, Ghosts, Myths & Mysteries
Native American Legends
Legends’ General Store
Books, Magazines & More
CD’s & DVD’s
Posters & Wall Art
Legends’ Photos Print Shop
States & Places
Chlorine Bleach Plants Needlessly Endanger 63 Million Americans | Center for Effective Government (Access this website from the widget on the right side of my website page!)
Working toward a just and democratic society in which every individual can thrive
Blog: The Fine Print
Chlorine Bleach Plants Needlessly Endanger 63 Million Americans
by Guest Blogger, 2/4/2016
Citizen Health & Safety, Safeguarding Public Health and the Environment, Toxic Chemicals, chemical facility safety, chlorine bleach plants
submit to reddit Printer-friendly format
by Rick Hind, Greenpeace
Chlorine bleach plants across the U.S. put millions of Americans in danger of a chlorine gas release, a substance so toxic it has been used as a chemical weapon. Greenpeace’s new report on bleach manufacturing facilities examines the problems with using chlorine gas and puts forward safer alternatives now in use.
There are currently 86 commercial bleach plants in the U.S. that use huge quantities of chlorine gas during their operations. These facilities endanger more than 63 million people living in “vulnerability zones” near the facilities with the potential to release deadly amounts of chlorine gas in a worst-case scenario. Bleach manufacturers use gaseous chlorine to produce bleach and also repackage bulk chlorine gas into smaller containers for commercial use.
These facilities frequently ship, receive, and store their chlorine gas in 90-ton rail cars that are vulnerable to accidents and acts of sabotage. These rail cars crisscross the country delivering chlorine gas to facilities, endangering the communities through which they travel.
The report lists 10 bleach plants from the New York City area to Los Angeles that each put one million or more people at risk of a disaster. But bleach plants can operate without such a catastrophic hazard. An increasing number of bleach facilities operate without bulk chlorine gas storage and transportation, a transition that has in some cases removed a catastrophic danger to thousands of nearby residents.
And many chlorine gas consumers, such as drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities, can switch to safer alternatives for water treatment including liquid bleach and ultraviolet light.
Report recommendations to reduce the storage, transport, and use of chlorine gas:
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should include requirements for bleach plants to identify and use inherently safer technology (IST) wherever feasible in the agency’s upcoming Risk Management Program (RMP) chemical plant safety rules due in early 2016.
The EPA should collect and make public information on safer available alternatives in RMP reports.
Bleach manufacturing facilities should prioritize a transition from chlorine gas to liquid bleach and require sourcing from suppliers that produce chlorine from an on-site, as-needed basis to eliminate storage and transport of bulk chlorine gas. In addition, bleach facilities that transition from chlorine gas to liquid bleach should make public the method of production of their bleach suppliers.
Industrial chlorine consumers should adopt alternatives to gaseous chlorine. For example, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants could generate their chlorine bleach on-site or purchase from bleach plants that do not transport or store bulk quantities of chlorine gas. Wastewater plants can also switch to ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection.
Local governments and communities should demand that bleach plants and other local facilities that pose catastrophic hazards convert to safer available alternatives such as ultraviolet (UV) light at municipal wastewater treatment plants.
back to Blog
©2015 Center for Effective Government
All Rights Reserved.
This an archive site of the materials produced by the Center for Effective Government (formerly OMB Watch) and is maintained by the Project On Government Oversight.
Project On Government Oversight
1100 G Street, NW, Suite 500
Washington DC 20005
Sign Up For News
Show Posts by Topic
Citizen Health & Safety
Revenue & Spending
Open, Accountable Government
Especially after a judge’s decision to deny President Trump to block an abnoxious person from bullying him on Tweeter!
nkorea at a loss in this one, missed opportunity to being integrated into the civilized country and leaving the status of “pariah state”!
Check out @NBCNews’s Tweet: https://twitter.com/NBCNews/status/999647483650347008?s=09
President Trump in letter to Kim Jong Un, canceling summit:
“The world, and North Korea in particular, has lost a great opportunity for lasting peace and great prosperity and wealth. This missed opportunity is a truly sad moment in history.”
Kumbh Mela Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
The Kumbh Mela festival recalls the Hindu story of a battle between gods and demons for the nectar of immortality known as amrita. Part of the festival involves taking ceremonial baths at one of the four cities in India where drops of amrita fell to earth. AFP/Getty Images.
Kumbh Mela (religion, spiritualism, and occult)
In India, a story is told of ancient times in which the various supernatural beings agreed to contribute to a common task of obtaining the nectar of immortality (called amrita). They gathered a pot of the sacred substance, but some demons decided to keep the amrita for themselves and tried to run away with it. The gods pursued the demons, and a battle ensued that lasted twelve days. During this battle, drops of amrita fell on four locations, now the sites of four cities: Prayag (near the city of Allahabad, in the state of Uttar Pradesh), Hardwar (in Uttar Pradesh), Ujjain (in Madhya Pradesh), and Nasik (in Maharashtra).
Each of these four sites, located on the bank of a major river, now hosts the Kumbh Mela festival that celebrates the battle of the gods for the pots of amrita. At different times during the twelve-year cycle (symbolic of the twelve days of battle), the festival convenes in one of the four cities, the exact site and date being determined by the movement of the planet Jupiter astrologically. These gatherings, which occur approximately every three years, are the largest pilgrimage gatherings in the world, with as many as thirty million pilgrims in attendance.
The festival is marked by the presence of thousands of Hindu holy men and women designated by different names, such as monks, saints, and sadhus. The holy people are also called tirthas, which means they are seen as contact points between earthly and divine realities. They will pick a spot from which to teach and conduct teach and conductdarshan, in which disciples gather to sit in their teacher’s presence, during the early days of the festival.
The time of the Kumbh Mela includes a mélange of religious activities, although the primary activity in which most people participate is a ritual bath that is to be taken on one specific day. At the specified day at the most auspicious hour, thousands of holy men from many different Hindu sectarian groups take their ceremonial bath. Immediately thereafter, millions of festival attendees will attempt also to take their bath. The most negative aspect of the festival has been the periodic deaths of people who are trampled in the rush to the river.
The festival at Prayag is identified with the ninth-century philosopher Sankaracharaya (788–820ce). He had encouraged a gathering of holy men at the four monasteries he had established, but these were located at sites significantly remote from each other. Hence a more central location, Prawag, was chosen. During the next centuries similar riverside gatherings were originated and maintained by various lesser-known holy men. One goal of these gatherings was the creation of mutual respect and understanding of the different segments of Hinduism.
Ghosh, Ashim. Kumbh Mela. Calcutta: Rupa & Company, 2001.
Govind, Swarup. Nashik Kumbh Mela: A Spiritual Sojourn. Mumbai: India Book House, 2003.
Tully, Mark. Kumbh Mela. Varanasi: Indica Books, 2001.
Kumbh Mela (Pitcher Fair)
Type of Holiday: Religious (Hindu)
Date of Observation: Every twelve years on a date calculated by astrologers; next fair scheduled for 2013
Where Celebrated: Allahabad, India
Symbols and Customs: Ganges River, Kumbh, Sadhus
The Kumbh Mela, or Pitcher Fair, is part of the traditions of Hinduism, which many scholars regard as the world’s oldest living religion. The word Hindu is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu (or Indus), which meant river. It referred to people living in the Indus valley in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism has no founder, one universal reality (or god) known as Brahman, many gods and goddesses (sometimes referred to as devtas), and several scriptures. Hinduism also has no priesthood or hierarchical structure similar to that seen in some other religions, such as Christianity. Hindus acknowledge the authority of a wide variety of writings, but there is no single, uniform canon. The oldest of the Hindu writings are the Vedas. The word “veda” comes from the Sanskrit word for knowledge. The Vedas, which were compiled from ancient oral traditions, contain hymns, instructions, explanations, chants for sacrifices, magical formulas, and philosophy. Another set of sacred books includes the Great Epics, which illustrate Hindu faith in practice. The Epics include the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Bhagavad Gita.
The Hindu pantheon includes approximately thirty-three million gods. Some of these are held in higher esteem than others. Over all the gods, Hindus believe in one absolute high god or universal concept. This is Brahman. Although he is above all the gods, he is not worshipped in popular ceremonies because he is detached from the day-to-day affairs of the people. Brahman is impersonal. Lesser gods and goddesses (devtas) serve him. Because these are more intimately involved in the affairs of people, they are venerated as gods. The most honored god in Hinduism varies among the different Hindu sects. Although Hindu adherents practice their faith differently and venerate different deities, they share a similar view of reality and look back on a common history.
Believed to be the largest periodic gathering of human beings in the world, the Kumbh Mela or Pitcher Fair takes place every twelve years in the holy city of Prayag (now Allahabad) in north central India. It is the highpoint of a pilgrimage that also stops at Hardwar, Nasik, and Ujjain, but it is at Allahabad where the GANGES RIVER meets the Yamuna River, and where the mythical river of enlightenment, known as the Sarasvati, flows. About two million Hindu pilgrims from all over India travel here to take a dip at the confluence of the two rivers.
Why is it called the Pitcher Fair? According to legend, the Hindu gods and demons (ashuras) had been fighting for a long time, but neither could conquer the other. Both knew about a KUMBH (pitcher) filled with amrit, the nectar of immortality, that lay on the ocean floor. It was the gods, of course, who eventually found the pitcher, drank the nectar, and became immortal. But during the struggle, according to one version of the legend, drops of nectar fell at Prayag (Allahabad), Hardwar, Nasik, and Ujjain. Another version says that as the gods carried the pitcher off to heaven, they stopped at these four places. The journey took twelve days, which for the gods are much longer than earthly days-hence the twelve-year cycle on which the fair is held.
The fair that commemorates this journey has been held for centuries. A Chinese traveler in the seventh century mentioned seeing half a million Hindus gathered at Prayag, and today, of course, it is even easier for pilgrims to get there. A vast tent city is erected to house them, temporary water and power lines are installed, and ten pontoon bridges are laid across the Ganges. Movies of Hindu gods and heroes are shown from the backs of trucks, and plays recounting Hindu myths are performed. So many people attend the festival that the government often has difficulty controlling them, and tragedies cannot always be avoided. In 1954, for example, hundreds were killed or injured in a rush toward the water where the two rivers meet.
SYMBOLS AND CUSTOMS
The Ganges (Ganga in Sanskrit) is not only a sacred river but is believed by Hindus to be the source of all sacred waters. The place where it joins the Yamuna at Kumbh Mela
Allahabad is called the sangam and is considered by some to be the holiest place in India; a single dip in the waters of the confluence guarantees salvation. Hardwar, where the river leaves the hills and enters the plains of Hindustan, is also an important place of pilgrimage.
Bathing in the Ganges washes away sins, and throwing the bones and ashes of the dead into the holy waters sends the deceased immediately to heaven. Many orthodox Hindus will drink no water except that of the Ganges, which is transported by a supply service to those who live far away. Because it is believed to flow on and on forever, the Ganges is a symbol of eternity.
Translated literally, kumbh means “a pot of water,” but it is also an astrological sign of the zodiac that corresponds to Aquarius, the Water Bearer. Every twelve years, when Jupiter enters into the sign of Kumbh and the Kumbh Mela is held, it becomes a symbol for salvation and immortality, due to its association with the fabled jar of nectar over which the gods and the demons fought so hard.
One of the biggest attractions at the Kumbh Mela is the procession of Sadhus or holy men. Emaciated from fasting and blinded by their constant gazing at the sun, the Sadhus emerge from seclusion in the forest or mountains to appear at this festival. Their faces and bodies are smeared with ashes, and they wear only loincloths as they carry images of the gods down to the water to be immersed. Some lie on beds of spikes or swing in the air with their heads down; others use microphones to attract large crowds to their lectures. People throng the roads to see them and often break through the barriers holding them back to receive the Sadhus’ blessing.
Bellenir, Karen. Religious Holidays and Calendars. 3rd ed. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 2004. Crim, Keith R. The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989. Henderson, Helene, ed. Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary. 3rd ed. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 2005. Holm, Jean, and John Bowker, eds. Worship. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994. Sanon, Arun. Festive India. New Delhi: Frank Bros., 1986. Sharma, Brijendra Nath. Festivals of India. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1978. Thomas, Paul. Hindu Religion, Customs, and Manners. 6th ed. New York: APT Books, 1981. Trawicky, Bernard, and Ruth W. Gregory. Anniversaries and Holidays. 5th ed. Chicago: American Library Assocation, 2000.
Kumbh Mela Consultancy Bureau http://www.kumbh.net
Kumbh Mela (Pitcher Fair)
Every 12 years on a date calculated by astrologers (2013, 2025, 2037…)
The Kumbh Mela involves mass immersion rituals by Hindus near the city of Allahabad (the ancient holy city of Prayag) in the north-central state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Millions of pilgrims gather to bathe at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, which is also where the mythical river of enlightenment, the Saraswati, flows. The bathers wash away the sins of their past lives and pray to escape the cycle of reincarnation. Sadhus, or holy men, carry images of deities to the river for immersion, and the most ascetic sadhus, naked except for loincloths, their faces and bodies smeared with ashes, go in procession to the waters, escorting images borne on palanquins. The Ganges is not only a sacred river but is the source of all sacred waters. The junction of the three rivers at Allahabad is called the sangam and is considered by some the holiest place in India.
The mela (fair) is thought to be the largest periodic gathering of human beings in the world; a vast tent city appears, temporary water and power lines are installed, and 10 pontoon bridges are laid across the Ganges. Movies of Hindu gods and heroes are shown from the backs of trucks, and plays recounting Hindu mythology are performed. Merchants lay out all manner of goods.
The story behind the mela is that Hindu gods and asuras, or demons, fought for a kumbh, or pitcher, carrying amrit, the nectar of immortality. The god who seized the kumbh stopped at Prayag, Hardwar, Nasik, and Ujjain on his way to paradise. The journey took 12 days (which are longer than earthly days), and therefore the mela follows a 12-year cycle.
A purification bathing ceremony called the Magh Mela is also held each spring in Allahabad. It is India’s biggest yearly religious bathing festival. Although the Magh Mela attracts a million people, more or less, the Kumbh Mela dwarfs it!
See also Ganga Dussehra
Uttar Pradesh Tourism Department, Directorate of Tourism
Rajarshi Purshottam Das Tandon Paryatan Bhavan
Vipin Khand, Gomti Nagar
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh C-13 India
91-522-2308916; fax: 91-522-2308937
Ministry of Tourism, Government of India
Rm. No 123, Transport Bhawan, No. 1, Parliament St.
New Delhi, Delhi 110 001 India
91-11-23715084; fax: 91-11-23715084
DictWrldRel-1989, p. 305
HolSymbols-2009, p. 456
RelHolCal-2004, p. 186: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Kumbh+Mela?sr=FGy3
According to Hindu mythology, the Ganges River in India originally flowed only in heaven. In the form of a goddess, Ganga, the river was brought down to earth by King Bhagiratha in order to purify the ashes of his ancestors, 60,000 of whom had been burned under a curse from the great sage Kapila. On Ganga Dussehra, the 10th day of the waxing half of the month of Jyestha, Hindus able to reach the Ganges take a dip in the river to purify their sins and remedy their physical ills. Those who live far away from the Ganges immerse themselves in whatever river, pond, or sea they can get to on this day. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Helen Brooke Taussig (1898)
Now regarded as the founder of pediatric cardiology, Taussig was an American physician who, among other things, revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of “blue babies,” babies whose heart malformations cause low blood oxygen content. She pioneered the use of fluoroscopy to identify defects in the heart and great vessels and devised a surgical treatment with Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas that saved thousands of infants. She also helped block the approval of what dangerous drug in the US? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
This Day in History:
“What Hath God Wrought” (1844)
Samuel F.B. Morse was originally a painter, and a good one. His portraits still rank among the finest produced in the US. However, he is best remembered for having developed the telegraph and the code of dots and dashes that bears his name. In 1844, Morse demonstrated the practicability of his instrument to Congress by transmitting the famous message “What hath God wrought” over a wire from Washington, DC, to Baltimore. Morse was also instrumental in introducing what other innovation to the US? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Quote of the Day:
Jerome K. Jerome
Being poor is a mere trifle. It is being known to be poor that is the sting.
Article of the Day:
I’ll Be Done in a “Jiffy”
Dating to at least 1785, the term “jiffy” is used informally to refer to any unspecified short period of time, often the brief moment it will take to finish a task. Certain fields of science use the word technically to denote a specific unit of time—typically a fraction of a second. In electronics, for example, a jiffy is defined as the time between alternating current power cycles. In computing, a jiffy is the duration of one tick of the system timer interrupt. What is a jiffy in astrophysics? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Idiom of the Day:
have (some/any) qualms about (something or someone)
To have some or certain hesitations, apprehensions, uneasiness, or pangs of conscience (about something or someone). (Also often used in the negative to mean the opposite.) Watch the video…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch
Word of the Day:
Definition: (adjective) Lacking foresight or scope.
Synonyms: unforesightful, myopic, short
Usage: The shortsighted board members derided the plan, which would cost the company money at the outset but could set it on track to earn billions in future years.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch