Daily Archives: May 30, 2019

Horoscope ♉: 05/30/2019

Horoscope ♉:

Excessive food and drink could have you feeling rather sluggish and indifferent to everything. This can get in the way of your usual kindness and affection, but it shouldn’t. Get some rest, take a stomach remedy, and get back to your old self! You might also be tempted to overspend at some point. Think about it first!: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Holiday: Feast of the Visitation

Today’s Holiday:
Feast of the Visitation

On this day Christian churches in the West commemorate the Virgin Mary’s visit to her cousin Elizabeth. After learning that she was to be the mother of Jesus, Mary went into the mountains of Judea to see her cousin, the wife of Zechariah, who had conceived a son to be known as John the Baptist. According to the Gospel of Luke, Elizabeth’s baby “leaped in her womb” (1:41) at the sound of Mary’s voice. It was at this moment, according to the belief of some Roman Catholics, that John the Baptist was cleansed from original sin and filled with heavenly grace. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Henry Sidgwick (1838)

Today’s Birthday:
Henry Sidgwick (1838)

Sidgwick was a British philosopher whose Methods of Ethics is considered by some to be the most significant 19th-century ethical work in English. Drawing on the utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill and the categorical imperative of Immanuel Kant, he proposed a system of “universalistic hedonism” that would reconcile the conflict between the pleasure of self and the pleasure of others. He promoted higher education for women and cofounded what society devoted to studying paranormal events? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

This Day in History: Union of South Africa Created (1910)

This Day in History:
Union of South Africa Created (1910)

In 1910, the British colonies of Cape Colony, Transvaal, Natal, and Orange River were unified into the new Union of South Africa. Under the Union’s constitution, power was centralized. Elections were held, and Louis Botha became the first prime minister. The Dutch language was given equal status with English, and each province retained its existing franchise qualifications. The Union became independent and withdrew from the Commonwealth exactly how many years after its founding? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Quote of the Day: Ralph Waldo Emerson

Quote of the Day:
Ralph Waldo Emerson

We ascribe beauty to that which is simple; which has no superfluous parts; which exactly answers its end; which stands related to all things; which is the mean of many extremes. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Article of the Day: The Brazen Bull

Article of the Day:
The Brazen Bull

The brazen bull is a torture and execution device designed in ancient Greece by Perillos, a brass-founder, for Phalaris, the cruel tyrant of Agrigentum, Sicily, who ruled from about 570 to 554 BCE. Perillos cast a hollow brass bull that had a door on its side, allowing the condemned to be placed inside it. A fire lit beneath the bull would roast the victim alive. The device was designed so that the victim’s screams would sound like the bellowing of a bull. Who, ironically, was its first victim? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Idiom of the Day: get (one’s) (own) way

Idiom of the Day:
get (one’s) (own) way

To get or have what one wants; to have things done according to one’s personal preference or desires. Watch the video…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Word of the Day: sufferable

Word of the Day:

Definition: (adjective) Capable of being borne though unpleasant.

Synonyms: bearable, endurable, supportable

Usage: He winced as he felt the bump on his head, but he decided that as long as the pain was sufferable he would attend the dance.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Yoga poses to open tight hips


Yoga poses to open tight hips

Yoga poses to open tight hips

5 Yoga Poses to Open Your Hips

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“My hips are so tight.” That’s probably the biggest complaint I hear from people in my yoga classes. Now, I’m not a magician, but I can help you get those tight hips open. Most of us move our legs in two directions, forward and backward. There is typically no lateral movement whatsoever, unless you’re a dancer, gymnast, MMA fighter, or a member of Cirque du Soleil. That’s what we need to change — we must find more ways to move the legs in such a way that keeps our hips mobile.

As a country, our hips are not doing well. According to the Centers for Disease Control, “Each year, more than 300,000 people 65 and older are hospitalized for hip fractures and more than 95 percent of hip fractures are caused by falling. As the U.S. population gets older, the number of hip fractures is likely to go up.” Although there is no direct connection between immobile hips and an increased risk of hip fracture, immobility in the hips can contribute to an increased risk of falling as you age, and hip fracture is one of the most serious fall injuries.

How can we change this? You guessed it — yoga. At least, that’s my favorite way. I’ll take that over a hip replacement any day. Your hip joint, like your shoulder joint, is a ball-and-socket joint. That means you have a much greater range of motion in your hips than you do in, say, your elbows or knees, which are hinge joints. If you don’t regularly exercise your hips through their full ranges of motion, however, you can gradually lose mobility in them, increasing your risk of falling and possibly fracturing them. It’s not a road any of us want to go down.

Here’s my recommendation: Practice these five yoga poses three to five times a week and your hips will likely be healthy enough to keep you dancing into your golden years. Remember, hips tend to be one of the tighter joints in the body, so move slowly into these poses, pay attention to how they feel, and ease up if the stretch becomes too intense. Yoga is not about how hard you can push yourself — it’s about loosening up connective tissue and relaxing your body.

1. Butterfly Pose

One of the simplest poses in yoga, butterfly pose addresses one of the tightest areas of the body: the groin. Ugh, I know, many of us are tight in the inner thighs. This pose is simple yet powerful. Make sure you give this one time.

Sit on your mat with your knees bent and the bottoms of your feet together in front of you. Your legs will form a diamond. For a deep stretch, bring your feet close to your body and lean forward while pressing your elbows against your inner thighs. For an easier stretch, keep your feet a bit farther away from you, hold onto your ankles, and gently lean forward.

butterfly pose

2. Easy Pose with Forward Fold

From butterfly pose, you can make a simple transition to easy pose. Cross your legs, bringing your ankles just below your knees (as best as you can), fold forward, and bring your hands face down on the mat in front of you. You may feel a stretch in your outer hips, inner hips, and sometimes in both areas. Hold the forward-fold position for 1 to 3 minutes, and then sit back up. Switch legs (e.g., if you had your left leg crossed over your right, now cross your right over your left) and repeat.

easy pose and forward fold

3. Happy Cow

I do a lot of trail running, which causes my hips to be tight. Happy cow pose is a tough one for me, but I know it’s beneficial because it eases tension in my glutes every time. It’s the perfect pose for anyone who runs uphill, does squats, or lunges.

The pose is similar to easy pose, but a bit more intense. Start seated with your legs crossed so that your right heel is by your left hip, your left heel is by your right hip, and your knees are stacked in front of you. On the exhale, gently fold your torso forward. If your hips are tight, you might notice that your top knee rises off your bottom one. That’s OK. As your mobility increases with continued practice, so too will your ability to keep your knees stacked. Either way, you should feel the stretch in the hip of your top leg. Hold the forward fold for 1 to 3 minutes, and then sit back up. Switch leg positions, and repeat. Enjoy this one — it’s oh so painfully good!

happy cow

4. Pigeon Pose

It didn’t start out this way, but pigeon pose has become my all-time favorite hip stretch. Once you get past the hard part (and that may take a little time), you can really relax into this soothing stretch. It’s an incredible stretch for your gluteal muscles, and if you’re tighter, you’ll feel it in your hamstrings as well.

Start from a down dog pose, so that your body forms an upside down “V.” Bring your left knee forward, drop your hips, and place your left ankle behind the right wrist, creating a 45-degree angle with the left knee. The outside of your left lower leg rests on the floor and your right leg extends back, with the kneecap and the top of the foot facing the floor. If the left-foot placement feels uncomfortable in any way (e.g., you have pain in the left knee), gently move your left foot closer to your right hip and/or place a folded blanket under your right hip. Fold your torso forward as you stretch your arms in front of you on the mat. Hold for 2 to 3 minutes, and then return to the down dog position. Repeat, this time stepping forward with your right leg.

pigeon pose

5. Frog Pose

Possibly the most intense of all the hip stretches, frog pose is the one I enjoy doing the least, but I still do it, because I know it can help loosen deep connective tissue. Please be careful with this pose — the stretch can feel extreme, so breathe deeply and ease into it. If you push too hard, your body will tense up, which is precisely the opposite of what we want from yoga.

You’ll need a cushion for your knees, so place either a folded mat or blankets underneath your knees as you assume table top pose (hands and knees on the ground, back flat with hands below shoulders, knees below hips). Walk your hands forward six inches, bring your shoulders over your wrists, then move your knees out to the sides as far apart as you can. If possible, turn your feet outward so the insides of them rest on the floor, and slowly bring your forearms to the ground. For a deeper stretch, press into your forearms and slowly shift your hips back until they are in line with your knees. You want to feel a deep stretch, but it shouldn’t be painful. Hold this position for 2 to 3 minutes while taking deep breaths.

frog pose

If you’re new to yoga, check out Beachbody’s 3 Week Yoga Retreatwhere I and three other yoga instructors guide you through the foundations of yoga. Enjoy these poses, and if you have any questions, feel free to reach out to me on Twitter: @teddymcdonald.





Yerba Mate: Wikipedia



Yerba mate (from Spanish [ˈʝeɾβa ˈmate]; Portuguese: erva-mate [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmate] or [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmatʃɪ]; Guarani: ka’a, IPA: [kaʔa] ) is a species of the holly genus (Ilex), with the botanical name Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.,[1] named by the French botanist Auguste François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire.[2]

Yerba mate
Ilex paraguariensis - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-074.jpg
Ilex paraguariensis
Scientific classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Aquifoliales
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Genus: Ilex

I. paraguariensis

Binomial name
Ilex paraguariensis

Yerba mate is used to make a beverage known as mate. When served cold, the drink is called tereré in Guaraní. It is traditionally consumed in central and southern regions of South America, primarily in Paraguay, as well as in Argentina, Uruguay, southern and central-western Brazil, the Chaco region of Bolivia and southern Chile.[3] It is also popular in the Druze community in Syria and Lebanon, where it is imported from Argentina.[4] Yerba mate was first cultivated and used by the indigenous Guaraní people and in some Tupícommunities in southern Brazil, prior to European colonization. Yerba mate can be found in various energy drinks on the market, as well as being sold as a bottled or canned iced tea.


Yerba mate translates to “mate herb”, where mate is originally from the Quechuamati,[5] a complex word with multiple meanings. Mati means “container for a drink”, “infusion of an herb”, as well as “gourd“.

In English, “mate” is occasionally written “maté” to distinguish it from other meanings of the word mate. However, this spelling is incorrect in Spanish and Portuguese, as it would put the stress in the second syllable, while the word is pronounced with stress in the first. Indeed, the word maté in Spanish has a completely different meaning (“I killed”).[6]


Yerba mate, or Ilex paraguariensis, begins as a shrub and then matures to a tree and can grow up to 15 metres (49 ft) tall. The leaves are evergreen, 7–110 millimetres (0.3–4.3 in) long and 30–55 millimetres (1.2–2.2 in) wide, with a serrated margin. The leaves are often called yerba(Spanish) or erva (Portuguese), both of which mean “herb”. They contain caffeine(known in some parts of the world as mateine) and also contains related xanthine alkaloids and are harvested commercially.

The flowers are small, greenish-white, with four petals. The fruit is a red drupe4–6 millimetres (0.16–0.24 in) in diameter.


Plantation in Misiones, Argentina

New growth evident on young yerba mate plant

The yerba mate plant is grown and processed in South America, specifically in northern Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones), Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul). Cultivators are known as yerbateros(Spanish) or ervateiros (Brazilian Portuguese).

Seeds used to germinate new plants are harvested from January until April only after they have turned dark purple. After harvest, they are submerged in water in order to eliminate floating non-viable seeds and detritus like twigs, leaves, etc. New plants are started between March and May. For plants established in pots, transplanting takes place April through September. Plants with bare roots are transplanted only during the months of June and July.[7]

Many of the natural enemies of yerba mate are difficult to control in a plantation setting. Insect pests include Gyropsylla spegazziniana, a true bug that lays eggs in branches, Hedyphates betulinus, a type of beetle that weakens the tree and makes it more susceptible to mold and mildew, Perigonia lusca, a moth whose larvae eat the leaves, and several species of mites.[7]

When yerba mate is harvested, the branches are often dried by a wood fire, imparting a smoky flavor. The plant Ilex paraguariensis can vary in strength of the flavor, caffeine levels and other nutrients depending on whether it is a male or female plant. Female plants tend to be milder in flavor and lower in caffeine. They are also relatively scarce in the areas where yerba mate is planted and cultivated.[8]

According to FAO in 2012, Brazil is the biggest producer of mate in the world with 513,256 MT (58%), followed by Argentina with 290,000 MT (32%) and Paraguay with 85,490 MT (10%).[9]

Use as a beverageEdit

Steaming mate infusion in a cup that resembles a gourd, the customary vessel

The infusion, called mate in Spanish-speaking countries or chimarrão in Brazil, is prepared by filling a container, typically a gourd, up to three-quarters full with dry leaves (and twigs) of the mate plant, and filling it up with water at a temperature of 70–80 °C (158–176 °F), hot but not boiling. Sugar may or may not be added; it may also be prepared with cold water (tereré).[10]

Drinking mate with friends from a hollow gourd (also called a guampa, porongo or mate in Spanish, cabaça or cuia in Portuguese, or zucca in Italian) through a metal straw (a bombilla in Spanish, bombain Portuguese), refilling and passing to the next person after finishing the few mouthfuls of beverage, is a common social practice in Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil among people of all ages.

Although traditionally made from a hollowed calabash gourd, these days mate “gourds” are produced from a variety of materials including wood, glass, bull horns, ceramic and silicone.[11]

Yerba mate is most popular in Paraguay and Uruguay, where people are seen walking the streets carrying the mate and termo (thermal vacuum flask) in their arms. In Argentina 5 kg (11 lb) of yerba mate is consumed annually per capita; in Uruguay, the largest consumer, consumption is 10 kg (22 lb).[12] The amount of the herb used to prepare the infusion is much greater than that used for tea and other beverages, accounting for the large weight used.

Yerba mate shop, Puerto Iguazu, Argentina

The flavor of brewed mate resembles an infusion of vegetables, herbs, grass and is reminiscent of some varieties of green tea. Some consider the flavor to be very agreeable, but it is generally bitter if steeped in boiling water. Flavored mate is also sold, in which the mate leaves are blended with other herbs (such as peppermint) or citrus rind.[13]

In Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina, a version of mate, known as mate cocido(Paraguay), chá mate (Brazil) or just mateor “cocido” in Paraguay, is sold in teabags and in a loose leaf form. It is often served sweetened in specialized shops or on the street, either hot or iced, pure or with fruit juice (especially lime – known in Brazil as limão) or milk. In Paraguay, Argentina and southern Brazil, this is commonly consumed for breakfast or in a café for afternoon tea, often with a selection of sweet pastries (facturas).

Yerba for sale in the open air market of La Boqueria in Barcelona, Spain

An iced, sweetened version of mate cocido is sold as an uncarbonated soft drink, with or without fruit flavoring. In Brazil, this cold version of chá mate is especially popular in the South and Southeast regions, and can easily be found in retail stores in the same cooler as soft-drinks.[14] Mate batido, which is toasted, has less of a bitter flavor and more of a spicy fragrance. Mate batidobecomes creamy when shaken. Mate batido is more popular in the coastal cities of Brazil, as opposed to the far southern states, where it is consumed in the traditional way (green, consumed with a silver straw from a shared gourd), and called chimarrão (cimarrón in Spanish, particularly that of Argentina).[15]

In Paraguay, western Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, west of São Paulo and Paraná) and the Argentine littoral, a mate infusion, called tereré in Spanish and Portuguese or tererê in Portuguese in southern regions of Brazil, is also consumed as a cold or iced beverage, usually sucked out of a horn cup called guampa with a bombilla. Tereré can be prepared with cold water (the most common way in Paraguay and Brazil), or fruit juice (the most common way in Argentina). The version with water is more bitter; fruit juice acts as a sweetener (in Brazil, that is usually avoided with the addition of table sugar). Medicinal or culinary herbs, known as yuyos (weeds), may be crushed with a pestle and mortar, and added to the water for taste or medicinal reasons. Tereré is most popular in Paraguay, Brazil, and the Litoral (northeast Argentina).[16]

In the same way as people meet for tea or coffee, friends often gather and drink mate (matear) in Paraguay, Argentina, southern Brazil, and Uruguay. Sharing mate is almost a ritual, following customary rules. In warm weather the hot water is sometimes replaced by lemonade, but not in Uruguay. Paraguay typically drinks yerba mate with cold water during hot days and hot water in the morning and cooler temperatures.

Watch “How to DRINK MATE TEA | Tutorial | Do’s and Dont’s of drinking mate tea” on YouTube (Yerba Mate= iIlex Paraguariensis)

Melanie’s “Nickel Song”: Let’s sing it in choir, before its getting really cold

…The larger the choir, the lowder we sing, the warmer the weather will be, got it ?

There are seldom the times to remember the way things thouched one the first time around. It was the rediscovery of Melanie, that reminded me of the duty we have in cherishing that that we once enjoyed, at the degree afforded by either memory only or by the trigger mechanism of association (to make a short story…long really).

In few words: I rediscovered her: Nickel..Song, somewhere in the recess between the pillows of my couch (Yes my couch is…that old (just joking), and just at the perfect time, considering…You know what..The rhyme goes just as it used to, except that nickel is now worth about .0001 cents.

The social value of the song on the other hand, breaks the bar of the balance: Heeeeaaaavvvyyyyyyy !

Melanie\’s \”The Nickel Song\”widget.php?song_id=178067

HERE COMES THE SUN: The Beatles, of course!



Like a Rolling Stone: Bob Dylan’s

“How does it feel…To be all alone…

Like a complete unknown…

Like a rolling stone…”

Continue reading

Why are my shoe laces comming untied? there is a perfectly valid explanation

Yes folks, if you thought that you knew it all…well, think again: there is more than one way to tie shoelaces: I personally switched from “granny”, to “inverse” bows, and guess what: My laces do not come untied anymore. And how in the world did I come upon such a disturbing news ? Well, just watch the following video, made by an runner:

Il n’y a pas d’amour heureux: Georges Brassens

Georges Brassens
Il N’y A Pas D’amour Heureux lyrics

Pome de Louis Aragon
Musique : Georges Brassens

Rien n’est jamais acquis l’homme ni sa force
Ni sa faiblesse ni son coeur et quand il croit
Ouvrir ses bras son ombre est celle d’une croix
Et quand il croit serrer son bonheur il le broie
Sa vie est un trange et douloureux divorce
Il n’y a pas d’amour heureux.
2Sa vie elle ressemble ces soldats sans armes
Qu’on avait habills pour un autre destin
quoi peut leur servir de se lever matin
Eux qu’on retrouve au soir dsarms incertains
Dites ces mots ma vie et retenez vos larmes
Il n’y a pas d’amour heureux.
3Mon bel amour mon cher amour ma dchirure
Je te porte dans moi comme un oiseau bless
Et ceux-l sans savoir nous regardent passer
Rptant aprs moi ces mots que j’ai tresss
Et qui pour tes grands yeux tout aussitt moururent
Il n’y a pas d’amour heureux.
4Le temps d’apprendre vivre il est dj trop tard
Que pleurent dans la nuit nos coeurs l’unisson
Ce qu’il faut de malheur pour la moindre chanson
Ce qu’il faut de regrets pour payer un frisson
Ce qu’il faut de sanglots pour un air de guitare
Il n’y a pas d’amour heureux



This Day In History: Standard Oil Is Declared “Unreasonable” Monopoly (1911)

US Supreme Court Declares Standard Oil an “Unreasonable” Monopoly (1911)

By 1880, through elimination of competitors, mergers, and railroad rebates, John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil controlled the refining of up to 95 percent of all oil produced in the US. In 1892, the Ohio Supreme Court ordered the trust dissolved, but it continued to operate. Exposed in Ida Tarbell‘s History of the Standard Oil Company in 1904, it was broken up in 1911 after a lengthy antitrust suit by the US government. What current oil companies have ties to the former Standard Oil? More… Discuss

Bee Gees: How deep is your love



Let’s talk Yerba Mate: Why do you like it? Which one do you like most? Why?

I’ll start: all the claims regarding the health benefits, when consumed daily have proven true, both perceived, and as medical observation.

Leonard Cohen: The Master Song (1967)

The Master Song, by Leonard Cohen

I believe that you heard your master sing
when I was sick in bed.
I suppose that he told you everything
that I keep locked away in my head.
Your master took you travelling,
well at least that’s what you said.
And now do you come back to bring
your prisoner wine and bread?
You met him at some temple, where
they take your clothes at the door.
He was just a numberless man in a chair
who’d just come back from the war.
And you wrap up his tired face in your hair
and he hands you the apple core.
Then he touches your lips now so suddenly bare
of all the kisses we put on some time before.

And he gave you a German Shepherd to walk
with a collar of leather and nails,
and he never once made you explain or talk
about all of the little details,
such as who had a word and who had a rock,
and who had you through the mails.
Now your love is a secret all over the block,
and it never stops not even when your master fails.

And he took you up in his aeroplane,
which he flew without any hands,
and you cruised above the ribbons of rain
that drove the crowd from the stands.
Then he killed the lights in a lonely Lane
and, an ape with angel glands,
erased the final wisps of pain
with the music of rubber bands.

And now I hear your master sing,
you kneel for him to come.
His body is a golden string
that your body is hanging from.
His body is a golden string,
my body has grown numb.
Oh now you hear your master sing,
your shirt is all undone.

And will you kneel beside this bed
that we polished so long ago,
before your master chose instead
to make my bed of snow?
Your eyes are wild and your knuckles are red
and you’re speaking far too low.
No I can’t make out what your master said
before he made you go.

Then I think you’re playing far too rough
for a lady who’s been to the moon;
I’ve lain by this window long enough
to get used to an empty room.
And your love is some dust in an old man’s cough
who is tapping his foot to a tune,
and your thighs are a ruin, you want too much,
let’s say you came back some time too soon.

I loved your master perfectly
I taught him all that he knew.
He was starving in some deep mystery
like a man who is sure what is true.
And I sent you to him with my guarantee
I could teach him something new,
and I taught him how you would long for me
no matter what he said no matter what you’d do.

I believe that you heard your master sing
while I was sick in bed,
I’m sure that he told you everything
I must keep locked away in my head.
Your master took you travelling,
well at least that’s what you said,
And now do you come back to bring
your prisoner wine and bread?

Jacques Brel – Voir un ami pleurer (watching a friend cry)

Voir un ami pleurer (Jacques Brel)

Bien sûr il y a les guerres d’Irlande
Et les peuplades sans musique
Bien sûr tout ce manque de tendres
Il n’y a plus d’Amérique
Bien sûr l’argent n’a pas d’odeur
Mais pas d’odeur me monte au nez
Bien sûr on marche sur les fleurs
Mais voir un ami pleurer!

Bien sûr il y a nos défaites
Et puis la mort qui est tout au bout
Nos corps inclinent déjà la tête
Étonnés d’être encore debout
Bien sûr les femmes infidèles
Et les oiseaux assassinés
Bien sûr nos cœurs perdent leurs ailes
Mais mais voir un ami pleurer!

Bien sûr ces villes épuisées
Par ces enfants de cinquante ans
Notre impuissance à les aider
Et nos amours qui ont mal aux dents
Bien sûr le temps qui va trop vite
Ces métro remplis de noyés
La vérité qui nous évite
Mais voir un ami pleurer!

Bien sûr nos miroirs sont intègres
Ni le courage d’être juifs
Ni l’élégance d’être nègres
On se croit mèche on n’est que suif
Et tous ces hommes qui sont nos frères
Tellement qu’on n’est plus étonnés
Que par amour ils nous lacèrent
Mais voir un ami pleurer!

Joan of Arc – Wikipedia


Joan of Arc, in French Jeanne d’Arc(French pronunciation: [ʒan daʁk]) or Jehanne (c. 1412 – 30 May 1431), nicknamed “The Maid of Orléans” (French: La Pucelle d’Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years’ War, and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. She was born to Jacques d’Arc and Isabelle Romée, a peasant family, at Domrémy in north-east France. Joan claimed to have received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years’ War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII’s coronation at Reims. This long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory.

Saint Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc miniature graded.jpg

Miniature (15th century)[1]

Martyr and “Holy Virgin”
Born Jeanne d’Arc[2]
c. 1412[3]
Domrémy, Duchy of Bar, Kingdom of France[4]

Died 30 May 1431 (aged approx. 19)

Venerated in
Beatified 18 April 1909, Notre-Dame de Paris, by Pope Pius X
Canonized 16 May 1920, St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome by Pope Benedict XV
Feast 30 May
Attributes Armor, banner, sword
Patronage France; martyrs; captives; military personnel; people ridiculed for their piety; prisoners; soldiers, women who have served in the WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service); and Women’s Army Corps


On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, a group of French nobles allied with the English. She was later handed over to the English[6] and put on trial by the pro-English bishop Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges.[7] After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age.[8]

In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr.[8] In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, and in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte.[9] She was beatifiedin 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux.

Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting, sculpture, and other cultural works since the time of her death, and many famous writers, playwrights, filmmakers, artists, and composers have created, and continue to create, cultural depictions of her.



Controlled by Henry VI of England
Controlled by Philip III of Burgundy
Controlled by Charles VII of France

Main battles
Journey to Chinon, 1429
March to Reims, 1429

The Hundred Years’ War had begun in 1337 as an inheritance dispute over the French throne, interspersed with occasional periods of relative peace. Nearly all the fighting had taken place in France, and the English army’s use of chevauchée tactics (destructive “scorched earth” raids) had devastated the economy.[10] The French population had not regained its former size since the Black Death of the mid-14th century, and its merchants were isolated from foreign markets.

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Joan of Arc Saint (Jeanne d’Arc, Sainte)

Joan of Arc


DescriptionJoan of Arc, in French Jeanne d’Arc or Jehanne, nicknamed “The Maid of Orléans”, is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years’ War, and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. Wikipedia
Born: January 6, 1412, Domrémy-la-Pucelle, France
Died: May 30, 1431, Rouen, France
Full name: Jeanne d’Arc
Parents: Isabelle Romée, Jacques d’Arc
Siblings: Catherine d’Arc, Pierre d’Arc, Jacquemin d’Arc, Jean d’Arc

Simplify fractions


Simplify fractions

Simplify fractions





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1000+ Free English Lessons with ESL Worksheets

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Evolving in fitness!

Evolving in fitness!

















Flexbility over 50: Stretch Workout


Flexbility over 50: Stretch Workout

Flexbility over 50: Stretch Workout

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