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- Horoscope♉: 01/22/2020 January 22, 2020
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(Christ in Majesty, 7th century. Church of Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome.)
Holy Gospel of Jesus Christ according to Saint John 17:20-26.
Lifting up his eyes to heaven, Jesus prayed saying: “I pray not only for them, but also for those who will believe in me through their word,
so that they may all be one, as you, Father, are in me and I in you, that they also may be in us, that the world may believe that you sent me.
And I have given them the glory you gave me, so that they may be one, as we are one,
I in them and you in me, that they may be brought to perfection as one, that the world may know that you sent me, and that you loved them even as you loved me.
Father, they are your gift to me. I wish that where I am they also may be with me, that they may see my glory that you gave me, because you loved me before the foundation of the world.
Righteous Father, the world also does not know you, but I know you, and they know that you sent me.
I made known to them your name and I will make it known, that the love with which you loved me may be in them and I in them.”
Mural: Christ in Majesty, 7th century. Church of Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome.
Kandinsky, a Russian-born painter and art theorist, was one of the 20th century’s most important artists, credited with painting the first abstract works in the history of modern art. He was a founder of the German expressionist group The Blue Rider, and he wrote Concerning the Spiritual in Art to champion ideas about color and nonrepresentational painting that he had developed after coming in contact with Neo-Impressionism and Fauvism. At what age did Kandinsky enroll in art school? More… Discuss
Eiffel was a French engineer who designed the Eiffel Tower as the entrance arch for the for the 1889 Paris Exhibition. Though it was supposed to be dismantled after the fair, the tower became a landmark and is today the world’s most visited paid monument. Prior to this massive undertaking, Eiffel established his reputation by constructing a series of ambitious railway bridges, including the span across the Douro at Oporto, Portugal. In 1881, he designed the internal framework for what structure? More… Discuss
this pressed: Povestea bisericii Hărman care a rezistat asediului principelui Gabriel Bathory | adevarul.ro
Pentru Hărman prima atestare documentară este actul de donaţie datat în 1240. Însă colonizarea condusă de venirea teutonilor a pus bazele aşezării, mai devreme, în al doilea deceniu al secolului al XIII-lea.Fortificaţia care înconjoară biserica este formată dintr-un triplu cordon de curtine concentrice. Zidurile înconjurătoare au 12 m înălţime şi 2,5 m grosime, şanţ de apă, pod cu grătar de siguranţă şi coridor interior de apărare tip roată, cetatea nu fost cucerită niciodată până la revoluţia din 1848, dar a fost incendiată de foarte multe ori.Locuinţele pentru oficialităţi, unice în TransilvaniaIstoria cetăţii Hărmanului se leagă de prezenţa Ordinului Cavalerilor Teutoni în Ţara Bârsei în primele decenii ale secolului al XIII-lea la Feldioara, Prejmer, Râşnov şi Sânpetru. Prima atestare documentară a aşezării datează însă de la 21 martie 1240, la 15 ani după alungarea cavalerilor teutoni din aceste teritorii. Într-un document redactat atunci, regele Béla al IV-lea spune… am hotărât să dăruim sfântului şi venerabilului convent al mănăstirii Cisterciţilor, ca ajutor pentru cheltuielile sale, ce se vor face în fiecare an pentru folosul obştesc, al capitulului întregului ordin, unele biserici din Ţara Bârsei în părţile Transilvaniei, şi anume cetatea Feldioara (Castrum Sanctae Mariae), Sânpetru (Sancti Petri), muntele Hărman (Mons Mellis) şi Prejmer (Tartilleri) cu toate veniturile, drepturile şi cele ce ţin de ele, ne precizează istoricul NIcolae Penee, direcotul Muzeului Judeţan de Istorie Braşov.Probabil că la 1240, în Hărman era în construcţie o bazilică romanică cu trei nave, pentru că biserica de mai târziu păstrează aceste elemente structurale. În ansamblu, interiorul bisericii este eterogen din punct de vedere arhitectonic, iar un element inedit îl constituie cămările de provizii ridicate deasupra colateralelor. Accesul spre cămări se făcea cu ajutorul unor scări mobile. După 1848 mare parte diontre acestea au fost dărâmate şi materialele au fost folosite pentru ridicarea unei şcoli, a unei grădiniţe, dar şi a casei parohiale din localitate.Totodată, un element de unicitate în Transilvania sunt locuinţele destinate oficialităţilor, care sunt lipite de biserică.Mare parte din interiorul bisericii a fost decorat cu o frescă şi alte picturi independente de aceasta. Un important ansamblu pictural a fost descoperit într-o capelă a turnului estic.Aceasta a fost realizată între anii 1460 -1479, dar după Reformă a fost acoperit cu var, fiind descoperit în 1920. Ansamblul îmbină pictura apuseană cu cea bizantină. Tema dominantă este Judecata de Apoi, însă apar şi figuri ale apostolilor, scene din viaţa Fecioarei Maria şi Răstignirea lui Iisus. Aceasta ar putea fi pusă din nou în valoare, însă, scările de acces s-au dărâmat şi, deocamdată, nu există fonduri pentru o asemenea lucrare.Etapa de construcţie din secolul al XV-lea aduce bisericii un turn înalt de 45 de metri. Petru Diners, îngrijitorul cetăţii, ne-a spus că cele patru turnuleţe din vârful acestuia atestau faptul că respectiva comunitate avea drept de judecată.Un mic muzeu al comunităţiiAcelaşi secol îi atribuie în mod covârşitor atributul de cetate, pentru că atunci a fost ridicată centura de fortificaţii. Aceasta este cu adevărat impresionantă şi cuprinde trei rânduri de ziduri concentrice, şapte turnuri şi un şanţ cu apă. Zidul exterior, cel mai scund, avea 4,5 metri înălţime. El stabilea limita şanţului cu apă şi proteja baza următorului zid. Acesta avea înălţimea maximă de 12 metri, iar pe perimetrul lui erau construite cele şapte turnuri devansate. Pe latura nordică, învecinată cu o mlaştină, zidul este ceva mai scund. Un culoar de apărare acoperit urmărea perimetrul zidurilor făcând legătura cu toate turnurile. Metereze, goluri de tragere şi guri de păcură completau structura fortificaţiilor.Intrarea este întărită cu o barbacană. Deasupra acesteia stătea Turnul Măcelarilor. Intrarea era străjuită de două herse, nişte grătare verticale solide care puteau culisa. Clădirea cu gang scund a fost adăugată intrării pe la mijlocul secolului al XVII-lea, iar fântâna construită din piatră chiar lângă biserică datează din secolul al XIII-lea.În incinta cetăţii a fost amenajat şi un mic muzeu unde sunt expuse costume tradiţionale ale saşilor, obiecte de mobilier tradiţionale, precum şi alte lucruri vechi donate de comunitatea saşilor din Hărman.
„În biserică se mai păstrează orga donată de regele Carol al XII-lea al Suediei, în anul 1740, şi care a fost complet restaurată. Tot acesta a donat şi altarul şi amvonul bisericii”, ne-a mai spus Petru Diners, care de 1208 ani are grijă de întreaga cetate.
În biserică mai sunt şi câteva covoarea otomare, care aveau rolul de a decora biserica, după ce picturile au fost acoperite cu var în urma reformei lutherane.Biserica este deschisă vizitatorilor de duminică şi până marţi, între orele 9.00 şi 17.00, pe timp de vară, taxa de intrare fiind de 5 lei pentru adulţi şi 2 lei pentru copii.
Clopotele au devenit materie primă pentru tunuri
Petru Diners ne-a povestit că, în anul 1914, clopotele bisericii au fost demontate şi topite, din ele fiind făcute tunuri pentru apărare. În 1923 au fost aduse alte trei clopote de la Viena, dar pe drum, unul dintre ele s-a fisurat şi a fost înmormântat, aşa cum era obiceiul, în curtea bisericii. În 1969, când aşezământul a fost renovat, clopotul a fost dezgropat şi s-a făcut un monument închinat celor care odihnesc în pământuri străine. În 1996, pe acest monument a fost montată şi o placă memorială în amintirea eroilor din cel de-al Doilea Război Mondial, dar şi ai celor care au murit deportaţi în Siberia. Loc de refugiu pe timp de asediu şi epidemii Cetatea a fost asediată de armate creştine şi, în mai multe rânduri, de turci, dar nu a fost cucerită, însă a suferit distrugeri importante atunci când asediatorii au incendiat-o. Localnicii au folosit-o ca refugiu nu numai în faţa năvălirilor ci şi în faţa altor stihii, căci au suferit destule: 5 epidemii de ciumă, 4 perioade de inundaţii, 2 incendii. Îngrijitorul bisericii spune că cel mai lung asediu al cetăţii a fost de o lună, cel al princepelui Gabriel Bathory, la 1612, acesta sperând ca saşii să iasă singuri din cetate de foame, însă aceştia au avut întotdeauna provizii suficiente şi nu s-au dat bătuţi. Şi poarta de intrare păstrează o parte a urmelor acestor asedii. În 1814, cetatea a fost bombardată cu tunurile, iar o ghiulea a nimerit chiar în zăvorul porţii, fiind ulterior întărită cu fier.
Citeste mai mult: adev.ro/nxn632
Hogarth was a British painter and engraver who began his career as an apprentice to a silversmith at the age of 15. At 22, he opened his own engraving and printing shop. His first successes were satirical engravings that attacked contemporary taste and questioned the art establishment. His efforts to protect artists against art piracy were instrumental in the passage of Britain’s first copyright act in 1735. What 20th century composer wrote an opera inspired by Hogarth’s Rake’s Progress? More… Discuss
Mystery of Murdered Saints
this day in the yesteryear: Cathedral of Chartres Is Dedicated (1260) |BUILDING THE GREATEST CATHEDRALS (Documentary) History/Architect/Religion -YouTube)
Dedicated in 1260 in the presence of King Louis IX, the Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres is one of the most influential examples of High Gothic architecture. The main structure was built between 1194 and 1220 and replaced a 12th-century church—of which only the crypt, the base, and the western facade remain. Recognized by its imposing spires, the cathedral is known for its stained-glass windows and Renaissance choir screen. It is also home to the Sancta Camisa, which is what? More… Discuss
BUILDING THE GREATEST CATHEDRALS (Documentary) History/Architect/Religion
Published on Nov 1, 2013
BUILDING THE GREATEST CATHEDRALS (Documentary) History/Architect/Religion
Cathedrals is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.Although the word “cathedral” is sometimes loosely applied, churches with the function of “cathedral” occur specifically and only in those denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Orthodox, and some Lutheran and Methodist churches. In the Greek Orthodox Church, the terms kathedrikos naos (literally: “cathedral shrine”) is sometimes used for the church at which an archbishop or “metropolitan” presides. The term “metropolis” (literally “mother city”) is used more commonly than “diocese” to signify an area of governance within the church.
The word cathedral is derived from the Latin word cathedra (“seat” or “chair”), and refers to the presence of the bishop’s or archbishop’s chair or throne. In the ancient world, the chair was the symbol of a teacher and thus of the bishop’s role as teacher, and also of an official presiding as a magistrate and thus of the bishop’s role in governing a diocese.
Activists say ISIS destroys first-century temple at ancient Palmyra site— Fox News (@FoxNews) August 24, 2015
Activists say ISIS destroys first-century temple at ancient Palmyra site http://t.co/eWAfTmFIHU pic.twitter.com/lTua7d0Kx9
— Fox News (@FoxNews) August 24, 2015
Kahlo, a Mexican artist noted for her self-portraits, taught herself to paint while recovering from a severe bus accident that crippled her as a teen and required her to undergo some 35 operations. Drawing on her personal experiences, her works often starkly portray pain and the harsh lives of women. Though once known only as the wife of famous Mexican artist Diego Rivera, she eventually eclipsed his fame. Of her 143 paintings, how many are self-portraits? More… Discuss
Rubens was a prolific 17th-century Flemish Baroque painter whose exuberant style emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. Known for his altarpieces, portraits, and landscapes, Rubens ran a large studio in Antwerp where he produced more than 2,000 paintings by supervising an enormous workshop of skilled apprentices. Also a diplomat, Rubens was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England. Aspects of Rubens’s paintings gave rise to the term “Rubenesque,” which means what? More… Discuss
Paganini: Cantabile op. 17 | Keiko Yamaguchi, violin
Larsson was a popular and imaginative Swedish illustrator and painter whose watercolors, particularly of his family and home, became popular worldwide. He is perhaps best known, however, for his last monumental work, Midvinterblot, or “Midwinter Sacrifice,” a large oil painting depicting a scene from Norse mythology. Considered Sweden’s most debated painting, it was commissioned by the National Museum in Stockholm but was rejected by the board upon its completion. Where does it now hang? More… Discuss
Rosenborg Castle is situated at the center of the Danish capital, Copenhagen. It was built in 1606 in the Dutch Renaissance style and went through several expansions to arrive at its present condition in 1624. It was used by Danish regents as a royal residence until around 1710 and was opened to the public in 1838. Today, it is popular with tourists who flock to the castle to view the Danish Crown Regalia. How many people visit the Rosenborg Castle Garden every year? More… Discuss
Klein, a French painter and performance artist, was a leader of the avant-garde movement called Nouveau Réalisme and greatly influenced the development of Minimalism. In the 1950s, he began to exhibit nonobjective monochrome paintings and from 1957 onward used only a shade of blue now known as International Klein Blue. His 1958 exhibition The Void featured an empty, white-painted gallery. He experimented with several unorthodox methods to create his works. What were his “living brushes”? More… Discuss
Yves Klein. Anthropométrie de l’époque bleue (1960) colour
An extract from the François Lévy-Kuentz documentary about Yves Klein (2007).
De Kooning was a Dutch-American painter who became a leader of abstract expressionism, the New York-based school of painting that rejected naturalistic content. Examples of this period include his dramatic Black Paintings, which were black-and-white artworks created from enamel and oil paints. His later work became increasingly figurative, as is seen in his The Woman series of the 1950s, and was both criticized and lauded. In what unusual way did de Kooning immigrate to the US? More… Discuss
Recognized as the most important female painter of the 18th century, Vigée-Lebrun began painting portraits professionally in her early teens and went on to have a long and successful career. In 1779, she was summoned to Versailles to paint Marie Antoinette, whom she would paint at least 30 more times. At the outbreak of the French Revolution, she fled France and traveled abroad, finding acclaim and prominent sitters wherever she went. Which notable figures did she paint during her travels? More… Discuss
otherwise known as Nadar, was a pioneering French photographer and writer. He invented the photo-essay, but his prose essays and novels brought him greater fame in his day than his photographs. Today, however, he is known for his superb portraits of the Paris intelligentsia, who frequently gathered at his studio, and his aerial images of Paris, which were the first photographs ever taken from the air. What famous literary figure did Nadar photograph on his deathbed? More… Discuss
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Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch postimpressionist artist whose paintings include some of the world’s best known, most popular, and most valuable pieces in the world today. Yet, only one of his paintings was sold while he lived. The majority of the works for which he is best known were produced in 29 months of frenzied activity and intermittent bouts with epileptic seizures and profound despair that tragically ended in suicide. What iconic painting did van Gogh complete while in a mental hospital? More… Discuss
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The Siege of the Alamo
Davy Crockett fires his rifle from a kneeling position at the Alamo, March 6, 1836. Angered by a new Mexican constitution that removed much of their autonomy, Texans seized the Alamo in San Antonio in December 1835. Mexican president General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna marched into Texas to put down the rebellion. By late February, 1836, less than 200 Texans, led by Colonel William Travis, held the former mission complex against Santa Anna’s 6,000 troops. At 4 a.m. on March 6, Santa Anna’s troops charged. In the battle that followed, all the Alamo defenders were killed while the Mexicans suffered about 2,000 casualties. Santa Anna dismissed the Alamo conquest as ‘a small affair,’ but the time bought by the Alamo defenders’ lives permitted General Sam Houston to forge an army that would win the Battle of San Jacinto and, ultimately, Texas’ independence.
The Alamo: 13 Days of Glory
Mysteries, myths and Texas-size legends surround the fortified Spanish mission that became a shrine after a few good men valiantly defended it to the death 160 years ago.
Frontier Hero Davy Crockett
Already one of the most celebrated men in America in 1835, the restless Tennessean sought adventure and new opportunity in Texas… where the Alamo and immortality awaited him.
Among the world’s most celebrated artists, Michelangelo was one of the foremost figures of the Renaissance. The marble David, completed before his 30th birthday, is a sculptural masterpiece, and his paintings in the Sistine Chapel are among the most influential frescoes in the history of Western art. A true “Renaissance man,” he also was an architect and poet and wrote hundreds of sonnets and madrigals. Where in the Sistine Chapel is there a disguised self-portrait of Michelangelo? More… Discuss
The Ajanta Caves, 30 spellbinding Buddhist prayer halls and monasteries carved, as if by sorcery, into a horseshoe-shaped rock face in a mountainous region of India’s Maharashtra state, 450km (280 miles) east of Mumbai, were ‘discovered’ by accident in 1819.
Unknown for more than 1,000 years except to wild animals, insects, flood waters, prodigious foliage and perhaps the local Bhil people, this magnificent work of art, architecture and contemplation, was abandoned by those who created it as long ago as AD 500. In 1983 it was designated a Unesco World Heritage Site.
John Smith, a young British cavalry officer, was on a tiger hunt when he spotted the mouth of a cave high above the Waghora (Tiger) River that could only have been man made. Scrambling up with his party, Smith entered the cave and, branding a flaming grass torch, encountered a great vaulted and colonnaded hall, its walls covered in faded paintings. Beneath a dome, a timeless praying Buddha fronted a mound-like shrine, or stupa
Ad Deir (‘The Monastery’), Petra, Jordan pic.twitter.com/OuoElcsUKz
— AlluringArchitecture (@ArchitectureAce) February 28, 2015
-Pam Grier pic.twitter.com/gOJ0hWq70v
— Old Pics Archive (@oldpicsarchive) March 1, 2015
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just a thought: “Pirates worst day at work: No matter how much they hammered at those statues…the gold was not hidden in there!”
just a thought: “Pirates worst day at work: No matter how much they hammered at those statues…the gold was not hidden in there!”
this pressed for history: Iraq’s National Museum To Open For First Time Since 2003 Invasion : The Two-Way : NPR
Days after video emerged showing self-declared Islamic State extremists taking sledge hammers to pre-Islamic antiquities inside the Mosul museum, the Iraqi government has reopened the country’s national museum, shuttered since the 2003 U.S. invasion of the country that toppled Saddam Hussein.
The National Museum’s reopening was moved up as a retort to the move by ISIS in Mosul, which has been almost universally condemned as a most uncivilized act in a part of the world widely considered the cradle of civilization.
“The events in Mosul led us to speed up our work and we wanted to open it today as a response to what the gangs of Daesh did,” Iraq’s Deputy Tourism Minister Qais Hussein Rashid said, using an Arabic acronym for ISIS.
The National Museum, which displays artifacts from the Mesopotamian era, was looted and then closed after the U.S. invasion. Agence France-Presse quotes Rashid as saying that around 4,300 of the roughly 15,000 looted pieces have been recovered in the past 12 years. Authorities are still tracking down more than 10,000 items in markets and auctions.
Cultural Museum of Mosul
The Plight Of Mosul’s Museum: Iraqi Antiquities At Risk Of Ruin
July 09, 2014 4:11 PM ET
(As you can see the issue was known to the civilized world for many months! but nothing but meetings and comdemnations were issued, and nothing done to prevent the distruction of humanity’s historic treasures)
Christopher Dickey, foreign editor for the Daily Beast, speaks to Melissa Block about the dangers facing antiquities in a museum and other archaeological sites in the Iraqi city of Mosul.
ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I’m Robert Siegel.
MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
And I’m Melissa Block. As Sunni insurgents have swept through Iraq seizing cities, they’ve also begun destroying ancient artifacts. Shrines, tombs and statues that the group ISIS believes are against Islam. Present day Iraq was once Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and considered the cradle of civilization. Now there’s great concern that antiquities and archaeological sites will be wiped out. As Christopher Dickey writes in the Daily Beast, it’s a virtual certainty that irreplaceable history will be annihilated or sold into the netherworld of corrupt and cynical collectors. Mr. Dickey joins me not from Paris. Thanks for being with us.
CHRISTOPHER DICKEY: Sure thing Melissa.
BLOCK: And you write of particular concern about the province of Nineveh and the city of Mosul, in particular the Mosul Museum. Describe what’s there and the significance of these artifacts.
DICKEY: Well, what’s at risk are some beautiful monumental sculptures, these winged figures, lions and bulls, with the faces of bearded men – Kings, that clearly were idols in the time of the Assyrians. But that are now part and parcel of the history of Western civilization and biblical history especially. And then we’ve also got gorgeous gold jewelry which certainly will go onto the black market and all kinds of smaller pieces of sculpture, earthenware, the kinds of things that give you the texture as well as the beauty of life in that period. So it’s a rich museum but all of that collection is now in the hands of ISIS.
Cradle of civilisation
Ziggurat of Ur Iraq is home to several ancient sites, such as the Ziggurat of Ur, a temple thought to be 4,000 years old
Straddling the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and stretching from the Gulf to the Anti-Taurus Mountains, modern Iraq occupies roughly what was once ancient Mesopotamia, one of the cradles of human civilisation.
In the early Middle Ages, Iraq was the heartland of the Islamic Empire, but a brutal Mongol invasion in the 13th century destroyed its importance. Part of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th century, it came under British control after World War I, gaining independence in 1932.
The British-installed monarchy was toppled in 1958, and a coup in 1968 brought the Arab nationalist Ba’ath (Renaissance) party to power. Oil made the country rich and, when Saddam Hussein became president in 1979, petroleum made up 95% of its foreign exchange earnings.
But the 1980-88 war with Iran and the 1991 Gulf War, sparked by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, together with the subsequent imposition of international sanctions, had a devastating effect on its economy and society.
History of Human Society – Civilizations: The_Encyclopedia_of_Ancient Civilizations_Arthur_Cotterell
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