Category Archives: Today’s Birthday

Wikipedia: Linus Pauling


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Pauling

Linus Pauling

Linus Carl Pauling (/ˈpɔːlɪŋ/; February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, chemical engineer, peace activist, author, and educator. He published more than 1,200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics.[4] New Scientist called him one of the 20 greatest scientists of all time,[5] and as of 2000, he was rated the 16th most important scientist in history.[6] For his scientific work, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. For his peace activism, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. He is one of four individuals to have won more than one Nobel Prize (the others being Marie Curie, John Bardeen and Frederick Sanger).[7] Of these, he is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes,[8] and one of two people to be awarded Nobel Prizes in different fields, the other being Marie Curie.[7] He was married to the American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.

Linus Pauling

ForMemRS

Linus Pauling in 1962

Born

Linus Carl Pauling

February 28, 1901

Portland, Oregon, U.S.

DiedAugust 19, 1994(aged 93)

Big Sur, California, U.S.

NationalityAmericanEducation

Oregon State University (BS)

California Institute of Technology(PhD)

Known for

Alpha sheet

Beta sheet

Bond order

Breath gas analysis

Coiled coil

Corey-Pauling rules

CPK coloring

Crystal structure prediction

Electronegativity

Elucidating chemical bondsand molecular structures

Ice-type model

Linear combination of atomic orbitals

Molecular clock

Molecular medicine

Orbital overlap

Pauling equation

Pauling’s rules

Pauling–Corey–Branson alpha helix

Pauling’s principle of electroneutrality

Quantum chemistry

Quantum graph

Residual entropy

Resonance (chemistry)

Space-filling model

Valence bond theory

Vitamin C megadosage

Xenic acid

Advocating nuclear disarmament

Spouse(s)

Ava Helen Miller
(m. 1923; d. 1981)

Children4, including Peter PaulingAwards

ACS Award in Pure Chemistry (1931)

Irving Langmuir Award (1931)

Member of the National Academy of Sciences(1933)

Davy Medal (1947)

Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1954)

Nobel Peace Prize(1962)

Roebling Medal(1967)

Lenin Peace Prize(1968–69)

National Medal of Science (1974)

Lomonosov Gold Medal (1977)

NAS Award in Chemical Sciences (1979)

Priestley Medal(1984)

Vannevar Bush Award (1989)

Scientific careerFields

Quantum chemistry

Biochemistry

InstitutionsAs faculty memberCaltech (1927–1963)UC San Diego(1967–1969)Stanford (1969–1975)
As fellow
Cornell University(1937–1938)University of Oxford (1948)Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions(1963–1967)ThesisThe Determination with X-Rays of the Structures of Crystals (1925[3])Doctoral advisorRoscoe Dickinson
Richard Tolman[1]Other academic advisorsArnold Sommerfeld
Niels Bohr[2]Doctoral studentsMartin Karplus
Jerry Donohue
Matthew Meselson
Robert E. Rundle
Edgar Bright Wilson
William Lipscomb[1]SignatureNotes

The only person to win two unshared Nobel Prizes.

Pauling was one of the founders of the fields of quantum chemistry and molecular biology.[9] His contributions to the theory of the chemical bond include the concept of orbital hybridisation and the first accurate scale of electronegativities of the elements. Pauling also worked on the structures of biological molecules, and showed the importance of the alpha helix and beta sheet in protein secondary structure. Pauling’s approach combined methods and results from X-ray crystallography, molecular model building, and quantum chemistry. His discoveries inspired the work of James Watson, Francis Crick, and Rosalind Franklin on the structure of DNA, which in turn made it possible for geneticists to crack the DNA code of all organisms.[10]
In his later years he promoted nuclear disarmament, as well as orthomolecular medicine, megavitamin therapy,[11] and dietary supplements. None of the latter have gained much acceptance in the mainstream scientific community.[5][12]

Thank You: to all followers of euzicasa! I promise all and each and everyone of you a great time while visiting this website!


Thank You: to all followers of euzicasa! I promise all and each and everyone of you a great time while  visiting this website!

Thank You: to all followers of euzicasa! I promise all and each and everyone of you a great time while visiting this website!

Today’s Birthday: László Bíró (1899)


Today’s Birthday:
László Bíró (1899)

Frustrated by the way his fountain pen’s sharp tip would tear paper and by the amount of time he wasted filling the pen with ink and cleaning up smudges, László Bíró set to work developing a better pen. A Hungarian newspaper editor, he noticed that the ink used in newspaper printing dried quickly and without smudging, but it was too viscous for use with existing pens. With the help of his brother, a chemist, he developed the modern ballpoint pen. How long did it take him to build his pen? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Ed Sullivan (1901)


Today’s Birthday:
Ed Sullivan (1901)

Famed American TV host Ed Sullivan started out as a journalist and gossip columnist but was hired by CBS to host the variety program that eventually became The Ed Sullivan Show because of his talent for discovering interesting performers. The program, featuring diverse entertainment, became a national institution for over 20 years, while Sullivan’s terse introductions of guests and distinctive mannerisms made him a popular target for comedians. What acts were banned from Sullivan’s show? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Grazia Deledda (1871)


Today’s Birthday:
Grazia Deledda (1871)

Influenced by the verismo—”realism”—school, Nobel Prize-winning Italian novelist Grazia Deledda wrote her first stories while just a teen and was still having her works published after her death. Her work is lyric and in part naturalistic and combines sympathy and humor with occasional touches of violence. In her approximately 40 novels, the ancient ways of her native Sardinia often come into conflict with modern mores. What are her most famous works? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Lewis Hine (1874)


Today’s Birthday:
Lewis Hine (1874)

Hine was an American photographer whose career began shortly after he bought his first camera in 1903. Devoted to capturing images of the dark side of the industrial revolution in the US, he documented the poverty of immigrants and the plight of child laborers. The power of his images placed him at the forefront of 20th-century documentary photographers and helped bring about the passage of child labor laws. Some of his most famous images document the construction of what iconic skyscraper? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Mark Rothko (1903)


Today’s Birthday:
Mark Rothko (1903)

Largely self-taught, Rothko was an American painter who became a leading exponent of a uniquely personal strain within the larger movement of abstract expressionism. By 1950, he was creating his so-called color-field paintings, works with large rectangles of color that express moods. In 1970, he committed suicide shortly after completing what some regard as his masterwork, a group of murals for a chapel in Houston, Texas. For what record-breaking price did one of Rothko’s paintings sell in 2007? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Mickey Rooney (1920)


Today’s Birthday:
Mickey Rooney (1920)

Rooney is an American actor who began his career when he was just 17 months old, as part of his family’s vaudeville act, and made his film debut at 6. He went on to star in 50 RKO short comedies, and his diminutive size allowed him to play boys until he was nearly 30. From 1937, he played the cocky, energetic Andy Hardy in a series of popular films, often teamed with Judy Garland. In 1983, he received an honorary Academy Award for lifetime achievement. What now-famous TV role did he turn down? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Anne of Cleves (1515)


Today’s Birthday:
Anne of Cleves (1515)

Anne was the fourth queen consort of King Henry VIII of England. She was the sister of a powerful German Protestant leader and was considered a desirable match for Henry by English councilors, most notably Thomas Cromwell, who sought to ally England with Protestants in Germany. The marriage was agreed upon in 1539, and although Henry tried to break the contract after actually seeing his bride, they married in 1540. The marriage was never consummated, however, and they divorced after how long? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: H. G. Wells (1866)


Today’s Birthday:
H. G. Wells (1866)

Wells was an English author whose early books exemplify the political and social beliefs of his time. Full of fantasy and fascinating pseudoscientific speculations, they include The Time Machine, The Invisible Man, and The War of the Worlds. Although he is probably best remembered for his works of science fiction, he was also an imaginative social thinker who worked for many progressive causes. What novels did he write after he abandoned science fiction? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: H. G. Wells (1866)


Today’s Birthday:
H. G. Wells (1866)

Wells was an English author whose early books exemplify the political and social beliefs of his time. Full of fantasy and fascinating pseudoscientific speculations, they include The Time Machine, The Invisible Man, and The War of the Worlds. Although he is probably best remembered for his works of science fiction, he was also an imaginative social thinker who worked for many progressive causes. What novels did he write after he abandoned science fiction? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch