Category Archives: Health and Environment

Gun control is really people CONTROL AND ENSLAVEMENT


Gun control is really people CONTROL AND ENSLAVEMENT

Gun control is really people CONTROL AND ENSLAVEMENT

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Turn in your weapons: the government will take care of you


Turn in your weapons: the government will take care of you

Turn in your weapons: the government will take care of you

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The violence inherent in armed societies…pales to the violence inherent in disarmed societies!


The violence inherent in armed societies...pales to the violence inherent in disarmed societies!

The violence inherent in armed societies…pales to the violence inherent in disarmed societies!

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Watch “Leonard Cohen Chelsea Hotel #2 Live” on YouTube




I remember you well in the Chelsea Hotel
You were talking so brave and so sweet
Giving me head on the unmade bed
While the limousines wait in the street
Those were the reasons and that was New York
We were running for the money and the flesh
And that was called love for the workers in song
Probably still is for those of them left

Ah but you got away, didn’t you babe
You just turned your back on the crowd
You got away, I never once heard you say
I need you, I don’t need you
I need you, I don’t need you
And all of that jiving around
I remember you well in the Chelsea Hotel
You were famous, your heart was a legend
You told me again you preferred handsome men
But for me you would make an exception
And clenching your fist for the ones like us
Who are oppressed by the figures of beauty
You fixed yourself, you said, “Well never mind,
We are ugly but we have the music”
And you got away, didn’t you babe,
You just turned your back on the crowd
You got away, I never once heard you say,
I need you, I don’t need you
I need you, I don’t need you
And all of that jiving around
I don’t mean to suggest that I loved you the best
I can’t keep track of each fallen robin
I remember you well in the Chelsea Hotel
That’s all, I don’t even think of you that often
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Leonard Cohen
Chelsea Hotel #2 lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, BMG Rights Management
I remember you well in the Chelsea Hotel
You were talking so brave and so sweet
Giving me head on the unmade bed
While the limousines wait in the street
Those were the reasons and that was New York
We were running for the money and the flesh
And that was called love for the workers in song
Probably still is for those of them left

Ah but you got away, didn’t you babe
You just turned your back on the crowd
You got away, I never once heard you say
I need you, I don’t need you
I need you, I don’t need you
And all of that jiving around

I remember you well in the Chelsea Hotel
You were famous, your heart was a legend
You told me again you preferred handsome men
But for me you would make an exception
And clenching your fist for the ones like us
Who are oppressed by the figures of beauty
You fixed yourself, you said, “Well never mind,
We are ugly but we have the music”

And you got away, didn’t you babe,
You just turned your back on the crowd
You got away, I never once heard you say,
I need you, I don’t need you
I need you, I don’t need you
And all of that jiving around

I don’t mean to suggest that I loved you the best
I can’t keep track of each fallen robin
I remember you well in the Chelsea Hotel
That’s all, I don’t even think of you that often

Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Leonard Cohen
Chelsea Hotel #2 lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, BMG Rights Management

Health and Lifestyle: THINGS ONE CANNOT CONTROL


Health and Lifestyle: THINGS I CANNOT CONTROL

Health and Lifestyle: THINGS ONE CANNOT CONTROL

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Health and lifestyle: the four body system model


Health and lifestyle: the four body system model

Health and lifestyle: the four body system model

https://pin.it/w7hmfqcilft7ah

MEDICAL LIBRARY- HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE: HUMAN BRAIN


MEDICAL LIBRARY- HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE: HUMAN BRAIN

MEDICAL LIBRARY- HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE: HUMAN BRAIN

https://pin.it/bxp3db6ublxvas

Lifestyle: purpose chart


Lifestyle: purpose chart

Lifestyle: purpose chart

https://pin.it/abumdskkvi7xlc

You’re gonna love it: List of nuclear whistleblowers


READ ENTIRE ARTICLE HERE

L

List of nuclear whistleblowers

Wikimedia list article


There have been a number of nuclear whistleblowers, often nuclear engineers, who have identified safety concerns about nuclear power and nuclear weapons production. In 1976 Gregory Minor, Richard Hubbard and Dale Bridenbaugh “blew the whistle” on safety problems at nuclear power plants in the United States, and Fukushima in Japan. George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. Other nuclear power whistleblowers include Arnold Gundersen and David Lochbaum.

2000 candles in memory of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, at a commemoration 25 years after the nuclear accident, as well as for the Fukushima nuclear disaster of 2011.

Karen Silkwood

The first prominent nuclear whistleblower was Karen Silkwood, who worked as a chemical technician at a Kerr-McGee nuclear fuel plant. Silkwood became an activist in the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union in order to protest health and safety issues. In 1974, she testified to the United States Atomic Energy Commission about her concerns. A few months later she died in a car crash under mysterious conditions on the way to a meeting with a New York Times reporter and a national union leader. The 1983 film Silkwood is an account of this story.

The “GE Three”

On 2 February 1976, Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard, and Dale G. Bridenbaugh (known as the GE Three) “blew the whistle” on safety problems at nuclear power plants, and their action has been called “an exemplary instance of whistleblowing“.

The three engineers gained the attention of journalists and their disclosures about the threats of nuclear power had a significant impact. They timed their statements to coincide with their resignations from responsible positions in General Electric‘s nuclear energy division, and later established themselves as consultants on the nuclear power industry for state governments, federal agencies, and overseas governments. The consulting firm they formed, MHB Technical Associates, was technical advisor for the movie, “The China Syndrome.” The three engineers participated in Congressional hearings which their disclosures precipitated.

Browns Ferry Unit 1 under construction

Browns Ferry nuclear power plant construction began in 1966. It was located in Alabama and in 1967 it earned a federal construction permit. The plant received new design standards which call for “physical separation of electrical cables.” There was an issue with the instructions on how to accomplish this so the AEC inspector F.U. Bower requested that the AEC elaborate; however, there was no response from the organization and installation went on. Still, no instructions were issued after five failed inspections in 1970. The lack of cable separation instructions led to the sacrifice of safety coolant systems in two of the units in order to improve one with severe safety violation. The ignorance of the AEC led to the fire that occurred on 22 March 1975, that almost led to a radiation leak. The substance separating the wires caught fire when tests to find air leaks with a candle ignited it thus resulting in damage to the control systems. With damage to the control systems, the cooling system that keeps the units from leaking radiation did not work properly. Somehow the situation was avoided and the units were put out of service. Throughout the occurrence of these events Bridenbaugh had been discussing his reservations on the safety at the plant in vain and in 1976 a year later Bridenbaugh, Hubbard and Minor resigned.

Crystal River 3 and Lou Putney

Lou Putney came on the scene of the Crystal River 3 plant after receiving a call from a plant engineer. The engineer claimed that the managers hired engineers based on “good ol’ boy mentality.” The plant had experience numerous shut downs since 1978. Along with this concern, the engineer was not confident that the manager possessed the qualifications to be a manager. Although the engineer pursued nothing further with his complaint, it prompted Putney to purchase shares of stock in the company that would allow him to file “shareholder resolutions.” Putney had looked into the nuclear reactors that were built of an unsafe material for emergency cooling procedures. The NRC had placed Crystal River on the top 14 worst reactors list because of this. So, the shares were purchased in 1981, which is when Putney filed his first shareholder resolution requesting the plant be shut down. This tradition was upheld by Putney for seven years until he was required to purchase more stock in order to continue filing resolutions. Over the course of sixteen years, Putney filed a total of fourteen shareholder resolutions. All of these resolutions were ignored and were met with offers to buy out his shares so he could no longer file the resolutions. The plant was officially decommissioned in September 2009.

Ronald Goldstein

Ronald J. Goldstein was a supervisor employed by EBASCO, which was a major contractor for the construction of the South Texas plants. In the summer of 1985, Goldstein identified safety problems to SAFETEAM, an internal compliance program established by EBASCO and Houston Lighting, including noncompliance with safety procedures, the failure to issue safety compliance reports, and quality control violations affecting the safety of the plant.

SAFETEAM was promoted as an independent safe haven for employees to voice their safety concerns. The two companies did not inform their employees that they did not believe complaints reported to SAFETEAM had any legal protection. After he filed his report to SAFETEAM, Goldstein was fired. Subsequently, Golstein filed suit under federal nuclear whistleblower statutes.

The U.S. Department of Labor ruled that his submissions to SAFETEAM were protected and his dismissal was invalid, a finding upheld by Labor Secretary Lynn Martin. The ruling was appealed and overturned by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which ruled that private programs offered no protection to whistleblowers. After Goldstein lost his case, Congress amended the federal nuclear whistleblower law to provide protection reports made to internal systems and prevent retaliation against whistleblowers.

Fernald Nuclear Incidents

Aerial view of Fernald Feed Materials Production Center
Uranium components fabricated at Fernald

The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center was built in Crosby Township, Ohio in 1951, and decommissioned in 1989. Fernald processed uranium trioxide and uranium tetrafluoride, among other radioactive materials, to produce the uranium fuel cores for nuclear weapons. It was shrouded in suspicion with many manager changes and the people of the town ill-informed of the purpose of the plant. The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center also conducted an evaluation of how much material was contaminated by Radium. Using 138 pieces of the CR-39 film assays, they were able to determine that people working in the area where K-65 silos ( Underground chamber used to store missiles) had lower levels of exposure of materials contaminated by Radon than the Q-11 silos between the period of 1952-1988 Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.Throughout 1951-1995 the plant had numerous scandals including faking numbers for contamination and disregarding evidence of ground water pollution. Among the citizens affected by the pollution was Mrs. Lisa Crawford who took action. Crawford and other residents filed a lawsuit in 1985 and became president of the organization FRESH (Fernald Residents for Environmental Safety and Health). A lawsuit was then filed once again against Fernald by former employees several years later in 1990. After several years of being heavily advised not to blow the whistle, the workers earned themselves a $15 million settlement and lifelong medical monitoring. In 1992, FERMCO was hired to construct a cleanup plan for the plant and in 1996, around accusations of wasteful spending, the cleanup of ground water and soil was completed.

Mordechai Vanunu

Mordechai Vanunu 2009

Mordechai Vanunu blew the whistle on the nuclear plant in Dimona, Israel in an interview with The Sunday Times that was published on 5 October 1986. According to Vanunu, this plant had been producing nuclear weapons for 10 to 20 years. It is estimated that there may be around 200 nuclear weapons in possession of Israel’s nuclear weapons program. Vanunu demonstrated his knowledge to Frank Barnaby and John Steinbach and they confirmed the credibility of his story. Frank Barnaby wrote in his Declaration of Frank Barnaby in the Matter of Mordechai Vanunu that Vanunu had the bare minimum knowledge of nuclear physics that a technician should have and accurately described the makeup of the nuclear plant in Dimona. Having served in full his 18 years prison term, ruled in closed door trial, including 11 years in solitary Vanunu has been further in and out of jail after. In 2007, sentenced to six months for violating terms of his parole, and in May 2010, again to three months for having met foreigners in violation of his release terms from jail.

Vanunu is ethnic Mizrahi Jew, born in Marrakesh Morocco, having emigrated to Israel, following its independence in 1948, like did many of the North African Jewish community did. Amnesty International issued a press release on 2 July 2007, stating that “The organisation considers Mordechai Vanunu to be a prisoner of conscience and calls for his immediate and unconditional release.”[6] Vanunu has been characterized internationally as a whistleblower[7][8] and by Israel as a traitor. Despite the whistle blown towards the operation of the nuclear weapons program in Israel, the Israeli government denied the existence of all allegations.Mordechai Vanunu is known as Israel`s Nuclear Whistleblower.

Arnold Gundersen

In 1990 Arnold Gundersen discovered radioactive material in an accounting safe at Nuclear Energy Services in Danbury, Connecticut, the consulting firm where he held a $120,000-a-year job as senior vice-president. Three weeks after he notified the company president of what he believed to be radiation safety violations, Gundersen was fired. According to The New York Times, for three years, Gundersen “was awakened by harassing phone calls in the middle of the night” and he “became concerned about his family’s safety”. Gundersen believes he was blacklisted, harassed and fired for doing what he thought was right.

The New York Times reports that Gundersen’s case is not uncommon, especially in the nuclear industry. Even though nuclear workers are encouraged to report potential safety hazards, those who do risk demotion and dismissal. Instead of correcting the problems, whistleblowers say, industry management and government agencies attack them as the cause of the problem. Driven out of their jobs and shunned by neighbors and co-workers, whistleblowers often turn to each other for support.

The Whistleblower Support Fund is an organization that has compiled resources for whistleblowers to access if they are considering whistleblowing. It was founded by Donald Ray Soeken, who has counseled whistleblowers for 35 years. In addition, a social network to connect whistleblowers to other whistleblowers will be implemented. It will be a private discussion where whistleblowers can safely seek support.

David Lochbaum

In the early 1990s, nuclear engineer David Lochbaum and a colleague, Don Prevatte, identified a safety problem in a plant where they were working, but were ignored when they raised the issue with the plant manager, the utility and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). After bringing their concerns to Congress, the problem was corrected not just at the original nuclear plant but at plants across the country.

Gerald W. Brown

Gerald W. Brown

Gerald W. Brown was the whistleblower on the Thermo-Lag scandal, as well as on silicone foam firestop issues in the US and Canada, exposing the fact that fireproofing of wiring between control rooms and reactors did not function as intended and exposing bounding and combustibility issues with organic firestops.

George Galatis

George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer and whistleblower who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. The unsafe procedures meant that spent fuel rod pools at Unit 1 had the potential to boil, possibly releasing radioactive steam throughout the plant. Galatis eventually took his concerns to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to find that they had “known about the unsafe procedures for years”. As a result of going to the NRC, Galatis experienced “subtle forms of harassment, retaliation, and intimidation”.

Rainer Moormann

Rainer Moormann in 2004

Rainer Moormann is a German chemist and nuclear power whistleblower. Since 1976 he has been working at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, doing research on safety problems with pebble bed reactors, fusion power and spallation neutron sources. In 2008 Moormann published a critical paper on the safety of pebble bed reactors, which raised attention among specialists in the field, and managed to distribute it via the media, facing considerable opposition. For doing this despite the occupational disadvantages he had to accept as a consequence, Moormann was awarded the whistleblower award of the Federation of German Scientists (VDW) and of the German section of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms (IALANA).

Setsuo Fujiwara

Setsuo Fujiwara, who used to design reactors, said he clashed with supervisors over an inspection audit he conducted in March 2009 at the Tomari nuclear plant in Japan. Fujiwara refused to approve a routine test by the plant’s operator, Hokkaido Electric Power, saying the test was flawed. A week later, he was summoned by his supervisor, who ordered him to correct his written report to indicate that the test had been done properly. After Fujiwara refused, his employment contract was not renewed. “They told me my job was just to approve reactors, not to raise doubts about them”, said Fujiwara, 62, who is now suing the nuclear safety organization to get rehired. In a written response to questions from The New York Times, the agency said it could not comment while the court case was under way. Along with the lawsuit Mr. Fujiwara filed against the agency he used to work for, he had gone to the Tokyo District Court to further write several complaints about how the JNES ( Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) failed to follow the UN laws concerning how to properly inspect nuclear energy reactors. Mr. Fujiwara also submitted several documents and emails that dealt with how the reactor inspections were improperly handled by JNES even though JNES denies all allegations. [42]

Walter Tamosaitis

The Hanford site resulted in a number of whistleblowers during the efforts to clean the site up. Walter Tamosaitis blew the whistle on the Energy Department’s plan for waste treatment at the Hanford site in 2011. Tamosaitis’s concern was the possibility of explosive hydrogen gas being built up inside tanks that the company was to store the harmful chemical sludge they were trying to put into hibernation for its chemical life. Shortly after this Tamosaitis was demoted and two years later, fired which triggered his lawsuit for wrongful termination. A $4.1 million settlement was offered to Tamosaitis from AECOM on 12 August 2015. Tamosaitis has since been reinstated.

Donna Busche blew the whistle resulting in her 2013 lawsuit with claims that the URS “retaliated against her. She was head of nuclear safety and a URS employee around the time when she expressed her concerns.

Gary Brunson reported 34 safety and engineering violations after quitting in 2012. Brunson was federal engineering chief before he quit.

Shelly Doss earned “$20,000 in emotional distress and $10,000 in callous disregard of her rights” as well as reinstatement in 2014. Doss was an environmental specialist at the time of her firing in 2011 working for Washington River Protection Solutions.

Larry Criscione and Richard H. Perkins

In 2012, Larry Criscione and Richard H. Perkins publicly accused the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission of downplaying flood risks for nuclear plants which are sited on waterways downstream from large reservoirs and dams. They are engineers with over 20 years of combined government and military service who work for the NRC. Other nuclear safety advocates have supported their complaints.

ist of nuclear whistleblowers

Wikimedia list article


There have been a number of nuclear whistleblowers, often nuclear engineers, who have identified safety concerns about nuclear power and nuclear weapons production. In 1976 Gregory Minor, Richard Hubbard and Dale Bridenbaugh “blew the whistle” on safety problems at nuclear power plants in the United States, and Fukushima in Japan. George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. Other nuclear power whistleblowers include Arnold Gundersen and David Lochbaum.

2000 candles in memory of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, at a commemoration 25 years after the nuclear accident, as well as for the Fukushima nuclear disaster of 2011.

Karen Silkwood

The first prominent nuclear whistleblower was Karen Silkwood, who worked as a chemical technician at a Kerr-McGee nuclear fuel plant. Silkwood became an activist in the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union in order to protest health and safety issues. In 1974, she testified to the United States Atomic Energy Commission about her concerns. A few months later she died in a car crash under mysterious conditions on the way to a meeting with a New York Times reporter and a national union leader. The 1983 film Silkwood is an account of this story.

The “GE Three”

On 2 February 1976, Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard, and Dale G. Bridenbaugh (known as the GE Three) “blew the whistle” on safety problems at nuclear power plants, and their action has been called “an exemplary instance of whistleblowing“.

The three engineers gained the attention of journalists and their disclosures about the threats of nuclear power had a significant impact. They timed their statements to coincide with their resignations from responsible positions in General Electric‘s nuclear energy division, and later established themselves as consultants on the nuclear power industry for state governments, federal agencies, and overseas governments. The consulting firm they formed, MHB Technical Associates, was technical advisor for the movie, “The China Syndrome.” The three engineers participated in Congressional hearings which their disclosures precipitated.

Browns Ferry Unit 1 under construction

Browns Ferry nuclear power plant construction began in 1966. It was located in Alabama and in 1967 it earned a federal construction permit. The plant received new design standards which call for “physical separation of electrical cables.” There was an issue with the instructions on how to accomplish this so the AEC inspector F.U. Bower requested that the AEC elaborate; however, there was no response from the organization and installation went on. Still, no instructions were issued after five failed inspections in 1970. The lack of cable separation instructions led to the sacrifice of safety coolant systems in two of the units in order to improve one with severe safety violation. The ignorance of the AEC led to the fire that occurred on 22 March 1975, that almost led to a radiation leak. The substance separating the wires caught fire when tests to find air leaks with a candle ignited it thus resulting in damage to the control systems. With damage to the control systems, the cooling system that keeps the units from leaking radiation did not work properly. Somehow the situation was avoided and the units were put out of service. Throughout the occurrence of these events Bridenbaugh had been discussing his reservations on the safety at the plant in vain and in 1976 a year later Bridenbaugh, Hubbard and Minor resigned.

Crystal River 3 and Lou Putney

Lou Putney came on the scene of the Crystal River 3 plant after receiving a call from a plant engineer. The engineer claimed that the managers hired engineers based on “good ol’ boy mentality.” The plant had experience numerous shut downs since 1978. Along with this concern, the engineer was not confident that the manager possessed the qualifications to be a manager. Although the engineer pursued nothing further with his complaint, it prompted Putney to purchase shares of stock in the company that would allow him to file “shareholder resolutions.” Putney had looked into the nuclear reactors that were built of an unsafe material for emergency cooling procedures. The NRC had placed Crystal River on the top 14 worst reactors list because of this. So, the shares were purchased in 1981, which is when Putney filed his first shareholder resolution requesting the plant be shut down. This tradition was upheld by Putney for seven years until he was required to purchase more stock in order to continue filing resolutions. Over the course of sixteen years, Putney filed a total of fourteen shareholder resolutions. All of these resolutions were ignored and were met with offers to buy out his shares so he could no longer file the resolutions. The plant was officially decommissioned in September 2009.

Ronald Goldstein

Ronald J. Goldstein was a supervisor employed by EBASCO, which was a major contractor for the construction of the South Texas plants. In the summer of 1985, Goldstein identified safety problems to SAFETEAM, an internal compliance program established by EBASCO and Houston Lighting, including noncompliance with safety procedures, the failure to issue safety compliance reports, and quality control violations affecting the safety of the plant.

SAFETEAM was promoted as an independent safe haven for employees to voice their safety concerns. The two companies did not inform their employees that they did not believe complaints reported to SAFETEAM had any legal protection. After he filed his report to SAFETEAM, Goldstein was fired. Subsequently, Golstein filed suit under federal nuclear whistleblower statutes.

The U.S. Department of Labor ruled that his submissions to SAFETEAM were protected and his dismissal was invalid, a finding upheld by Labor Secretary Lynn Martin. The ruling was appealed and overturned by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which ruled that private programs offered no protection to whistleblowers. After Goldstein lost his case, Congress amended the federal nuclear whistleblower law to provide protection reports made to internal systems and prevent retaliation against whistleblowers.

Fernald Nuclear Incidents

Aerial view of Fernald Feed Materials Production Center
Uranium components fabricated at Fernald

The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center was built in Crosby Township, Ohio in 1951, and decommissioned in 1989. Fernald processed uranium trioxide and uranium tetrafluoride, among other radioactive materials, to produce the uranium fuel cores for nuclear weapons. It was shrouded in suspicion with many manager changes and the people of the town ill-informed of the purpose of the plant. The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center also conducted an evaluation of how much material was contaminated by Radium. Using 138 pieces of the CR-39 film assays, they were able to determine that people working in the area where K-65 silos ( Underground chamber used to store missiles) had lower levels of exposure of materials contaminated by Radon than the Q-11 silos between the period of 1952-1988 Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.Throughout 1951-1995 the plant had numerous scandals including faking numbers for contamination and disregarding evidence of ground water pollution. Among the citizens affected by the pollution was Mrs. Lisa Crawford who took action. Crawford and other residents filed a lawsuit in 1985 and became president of the organization FRESH (Fernald Residents for Environmental Safety and Health). A lawsuit was then filed once again against Fernald by former employees several years later in 1990. After several years of being heavily advised not to blow the whistle, the workers earned themselves a $15 million settlement and lifelong medical monitoring. In 1992, FERMCO was hired to construct a cleanup plan for the plant and in 1996, around accusations of wasteful spending, the cleanup of ground water and soil was completed.

Mordechai Vanunu

Mordechai Vanunu 2009

Mordechai Vanunu blew the whistle on the nuclear plant in Dimona, Israel in an interview with The Sunday Times that was published on 5 October 1986. According to Vanunu, this plant had been producing nuclear weapons for 10 to 20 years. It is estimated that there may be around 200 nuclear weapons in possession of Israel’s nuclear weapons program. Vanunu demonstrated his knowledge to Frank Barnaby and John Steinbach and they confirmed the credibility of his story. Frank Barnaby wrote in his Declaration of Frank Barnaby in the Matter of Mordechai Vanunu that Vanunu had the bare minimum knowledge of nuclear physics that a technician should have and accurately described the makeup of the nuclear plant in Dimona. Having served in full his 18 years prison term, ruled in closed door trial, including 11 years in solitary Vanunu has been further in and out of jail after. In 2007, sentenced to six months for violating terms of his parole, and in May 2010, again to three months for having met foreigners in violation of his release terms from jail.

Vanunu is ethnic Mizrahi Jew, born in Marrakesh Morocco, having emigrated to Israel, following its independence in 1948, like did many of the North African Jewish community did. Amnesty International issued a press release on 2 July 2007, stating that “The organisation considers Mordechai Vanunu to be a prisoner of conscience and calls for his immediate and unconditional release.”[6] Vanunu has been characterized internationally as a whistleblower[7][8] and by Israel as a traitor. Despite the whistle blown towards the operation of the nuclear weapons program in Israel, the Israeli government denied the existence of all allegations.Mordechai Vanunu is known as Israel`s Nuclear Whistleblower.

Arnold Gundersen

In 1990 Arnold Gundersen discovered radioactive material in an accounting safe at Nuclear Energy Services in Danbury, Connecticut, the consulting firm where he held a $120,000-a-year job as senior vice-president. Three weeks after he notified the company president of what he believed to be radiation safety violations, Gundersen was fired. According to The New York Times, for three years, Gundersen “was awakened by harassing phone calls in the middle of the night” and he “became concerned about his family’s safety”. Gundersen believes he was blacklisted, harassed and fired for doing what he thought was right.

The New York Times reports that Gundersen’s case is not uncommon, especially in the nuclear industry. Even though nuclear workers are encouraged to report potential safety hazards, those who do risk demotion and dismissal. Instead of correcting the problems, whistleblowers say, industry management and government agencies attack them as the cause of the problem. Driven out of their jobs and shunned by neighbors and co-workers, whistleblowers often turn to each other for support.

The Whistleblower Support Fund is an organization that has compiled resources for whistleblowers to access if they are considering whistleblowing. It was founded by Donald Ray Soeken, who has counseled whistleblowers for 35 years. In addition, a social network to connect whistleblowers to other whistleblowers will be implemented. It will be a private discussion where whistleblowers can safely seek support.

David Lochbaum

In the early 1990s, nuclear engineer David Lochbaum and a colleague, Don Prevatte, identified a safety problem in a plant where they were working, but were ignored when they raised the issue with the plant manager, the utility and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). After bringing their concerns to Congress, the problem was corrected not just at the original nuclear plant but at plants across the country.

Gerald W. Brown

Gerald W. Brown

Gerald W. Brown was the whistleblower on the Thermo-Lag scandal, as well as on silicone foam firestop issues in the US and Canada, exposing the fact that fireproofing of wiring between control rooms and reactors did not function as intended and exposing bounding and combustibility issues with organic firestops.

George Galatis

George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer and whistleblower who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. The unsafe procedures meant that spent fuel rod pools at Unit 1 had the potential to boil, possibly releasing radioactive steam throughout the plant. Galatis eventually took his concerns to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to find that they had “known about the unsafe procedures for years”. As a result of going to the NRC, Galatis experienced “subtle forms of harassment, retaliation, and intimidation”.

Rainer Moormann

Rainer Moormann in 2004

Rainer Moormann is a German chemist and nuclear power whistleblower. Since 1976 he has been working at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, doing research on safety problems with pebble bed reactors, fusion power and spallation neutron sources. In 2008 Moormann published a critical paper on the safety of pebble bed reactors, which raised attention among specialists in the field, and managed to distribute it via the media, facing considerable opposition. For doing this despite the occupational disadvantages he had to accept as a consequence, Moormann was awarded the whistleblower award of the Federation of German Scientists (VDW) and of the German section of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms (IALANA).

Setsuo Fujiwara

Setsuo Fujiwara, who used to design reactors, said he clashed with supervisors over an inspection audit he conducted in March 2009 at the Tomari nuclear plant in Japan. Fujiwara refused to approve a routine test by the plant’s operator, Hokkaido Electric Power, saying the test was flawed. A week later, he was summoned by his supervisor, who ordered him to correct his written report to indicate that the test had been done properly. After Fujiwara refused, his employment contract was not renewed. “They told me my job was just to approve reactors, not to raise doubts about them”, said Fujiwara, 62, who is now suing the nuclear safety organization to get rehired. In a written response to questions from The New York Times, the agency said it could not comment while the court case was under way. Along with the lawsuit Mr. Fujiwara filed against the agency he used to work for, he had gone to the Tokyo District Court to further write several complaints about how the JNES ( Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) failed to follow the UN laws concerning how to properly inspect nuclear energy reactors. Mr. Fujiwara also submitted several documents and emails that dealt with how the reactor inspections were improperly handled by JNES even though JNES denies all allegations. [42]

Walter Tamosaitis

The Hanford site resulted in a number of whistleblowers during the efforts to clean the site up. Walter Tamosaitis blew the whistle on the Energy Department’s plan for waste treatment at the Hanford site in 2011. Tamosaitis’s concern was the possibility of explosive hydrogen gas being built up inside tanks that the company was to store the harmful chemical sludge they were trying to put into hibernation for its chemical life. Shortly after this Tamosaitis was demoted and two years later, fired which triggered his lawsuit for wrongful termination. A $4.1 million settlement was offered to Tamosaitis from AECOM on 12 August 2015. Tamosaitis has since been reinstated.

Donna Busche blew the whistle resulting in her 2013 lawsuit with claims that the URS “retaliated against her. She was head of nuclear safety and a URS employee around the time when she expressed her concerns.

Gary Brunson reported 34 safety and engineering violations after quitting in 2012. Brunson was federal engineering chief before he quit.

Shelly Doss earned “$20,000 in emotional distress and $10,000 in callous disregard of her rights” as well as reinstatement in 2014. Doss was an environmental specialist at the time of her firing in 2011 working for Washington River Protection Solutions.

Larry Criscione and Richard H. Perkins

In 2012, Larry Criscione and Richard H. Perkins publicly accused the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission of downplaying flood risks for nuclear plants which are sited on waterways downstream from large reservoirs and dams. They are engineers with over 20 years of combined government and military service who work for the NRC. Other nuclear safety advocates have supported their complaints.

VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENT DOSAGES UNRELIABLE


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Vitamin D deficiency is easily treatable with oral supplements, but many patients may not be getting the proper dosage, and this could be putting their health at risk. An analysis of vitamin D supplements on the market in the US revealed that dosages vary widely regardless of what is listed on the label. Over-the-counter, bottled pills were found to contain between 52 and 135 percent of their advertised vitamin D content, while those produced by compounding pharmacies contained as little as 23 percent and as much as 146 percent of the labeled amount. More… Discuss

Just a thought: What do these people have in common? NOTHING, ABSOLUTELY NOTHING!


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Tolontan: După ce establishmentul medical a năvălit la TV, în primul rând la „Sinteza zilei”, să ne calce în picioare, am primit un mesaj


Suntem o tara intreaga la cheremul unor psihopati! Suntem cu toti prinsi aproape fara scapare din acest cerc  vicios al coruptiei ce ne ucide lent zi de zi: Cercul sistemului putred numit Romania reala unde coruptia ucide!

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Raluca Ion
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Tolontan: After the medical establishment stormed the TV, primarily to “Daily summary” We trample, I received a message
yesterday at 17
It is known, in short, the scandal disinfectants. On long, it’s about the series of surveys that Catalin Tolontan and team of investigative journalists from Gazeta Sport showed that hospitals in Romania are widely used disinfectants from businesses Hexi Pharma, disinfectants in which the active substances have been diluted up to ten times . In short, again, it is a system. A system that fails to protect those who really matter: the patients.

“We went after a company as felt journalist Mona Dîrţu in a commentary Tuesday (nr 27 April) fb, but by the system,” wrote in one of the surveys, journalists who had series investigations about Hexi Pharma.

In an interview for Republica.ro journalist Catalin Tolontan says that it all started in December 2015 with a message.

“After we published in December 2015 testimony of a doctor from the Hospital for Burns on” biological bomb that wounded were treated at Collective ” Establishment medical jumped as burned. And rushed over to television, first on “Synthesis Day,” to trample us. Then I got a message from a man inside Hexi Pharma: “If you want to know more about another crucial factor of hospital infections, looking for me.” We met several times and gained confidence. It gave us recipes which asserted that occur diluted disinfectants. Everything seemed hard to believe because I was convinced that the state controls and that this was not possible, “says the journalist. There followed five months of investigation and interviews “Every time I talk to someone in the office is crisp, denied, saying” That’s what the law requires, more than we can not. ” Then insisted to lead us in the hallway. There took us by the shoulders and told us “- Go, please continue.” Well refers to your job! “- Nothing, please continue, do not leave.” That happens to the upper floors of the health system. Maybe it’s the hypocrisy, but there’s more: the feeling of suffocation that, come what may, must come out. It’s the feeling of doctors, directors of the ministry, “says Catalin Tolontan.

We reproduce below the full interview:

In your opinion, which is how the authorities (Ministry of Health, Prosecutor, DNA, DIICOT) ought to act after series of investigations related to the Hexi Pharma?

No journalist can provide the service that the state fails to provide. We do not know how the authorities had to act. We strive to stay within our profession.

But hundreds of hospitals are used disinfectants manufactured by Hexi Pharma?

Speaking of hospitals, we can give the audience an insight of how long the five months since the investigation began and until publication. To understand better the atmosphere. Every time you talk to someone in the office is crisp, denied, saying “That’s what the law requires, more than we can not.” Then insisted to lead us in the hallway. There took us by the shoulders and told us: “Continue, please continue.” Well refers to your job!  “Nothing, please continue, do not leave.” That happens to the upper floors of the health system. Maybe it’s the hypocrisy, but there’s more: the feeling of suffocation that, come what may, must come out. It’s the feeling of doctors, directors of the ministry.

If you put on a board, we made this experience, knew the names of institutions on documents, irregularities such firms and silent, think about what it’s called that ?! There’s a word, but you’re afraid to write it and that can be considered crazy. We may collect testimonies.

What is the right course of action that you’ve imagined when you began to publish the series of surveys? To what extent it resembles what happens now?

We expected the government to react more quickly and firmly to protecting patients. Even if the actual figure of 5%, but not 5% of hospitalized patients means of Romanians 200,000 per year, of which 40,000 are children. Know any drug in this world who have dangerous effects incidence of 5% ?! It’s enormous.

You have revealed that since 2012 authorities had information on possible crimes committed by Dan Condrea without doing anything with them.

If you put on a board, we made this experience, knew the names of institutions on documents, irregularities such firms and silent, think about what it’s called that ?! There’s a word, but you’re afraid to write it and that can be considered crazy. We may collect testimonies.

In your opinion, what were the chances that the use of substances diluted to continue as long without the connivance of men decision makers in the health system and doctors?

The investigation started that way. After we published in December 2015 testimony of a doctor from the Hospital for Burns on “biological bomb that wounded were treated at Collective” Establishment medical jumped as burned. And rushed over to television, first on “Synthesis Day,” to trample us. Then I got a message from a man inside Hexi Pharma: “If you want to know more about another crucial factor of hospital infections, looking for me.” We met several times and gained confidence. It gave us recipes which asserted that occur diluted disinfectants. Everything seemed hard to believe because I was convinced that the state controls and that this was not possible. It took us months to understand the system and all authorities to admit that the state did in the last decade, no single test concentration! It seems to us the most important thing I told the people! When the state of hospitals and doctors abdicates, anything is possible. As one commenter on the blog where we post investigation: Condrea is the trigger, but her hand rule.

Not only in Romania, but everywhere struggling against enslavement of the medical profession to the pharma industry. Even doctors have a problem with that. You do not go to medical school to be allied companies, but support patients. Doctors ethics which I am sure will win.

Investigative journalists have shown over time the relationship of dependence that doctors have towards private firms (they pay, for example, expensive trips to congresses). How can cut this link counterproductive and dangerous for the patient?

As firefighters thought it was normal to be sponsored by those that control them, and knew this Raed Arafat, as in the medical field is considered normal. It’s a wide discussion worldwide. My feeling is that these things will stop because people do not swallow it. Not only in Romania, but everywhere struggling against enslavement of the medical profession to the industry pharma . Even doctors have a problem with that. You do not go to medical school to be allied companies, but support patients. Doctors ethics which I am sure will win.

From your knowledge, how many Dan Condrea exist in Romania?

I do not know. But I know that for each Dan Condrea, there are hundreds of Romanian who work hard and respect their peers. Mirela Neag called me last night, my colleague. It was tuflită. “Are you tired?” I ask. “Not. I cried. I reread what I wrote today, I reviewed the images Astoria and I do not believe in whose hands we have left together. A whole country at the mercy of psychopaths. ”

We are aware that it is the riskiest our investigation in the last 20 years. On its own way. If you look at their biography, that some are already the second time in prison, the story rackeţii Moldovan firms in Cyprus and Bulgaria, think a little and risks. First time to seriously reflect physical hazards

What pressures on journalists have been documenting and publishing the Gazette during investigations?

There was no, but we are aware that it is the riskiest our investigation in the last 20 years. On its own way. If you look at their biography, that some are already the second time in prison , the story rackeţii Moldovan firms in Cyprus and Bulgaria, think a little and risks. First time to seriously reflect physical hazards. And there’s a reason: people so devoid of empathy and discernment are capable of anything. They do not have much to lose.

What made you continue to go as Mona Dîrţu journalist wrote after the system?

It’s the kind of investigative journalism and professional feelings that I, and other colleagues from Mirela Sports Gazette I lived many times. But it’s the first of this magnitude to our colleague Razvan Luţac. Razvan made a decisive contribution. He is 23 years old and is already 7 years in the newsroom. And I feel proud that a young journalist for 23 years has brought people so much information. When the princes and kings Health disinfectants trade will wonder where they were fired, leaving crap strangers, services, or who knows what interest. To know this: a journalist for 22 years has revealed! Changing generations and, somehow, that this investigation would not have ever existed without the Collective, it is the legacy that we leave younger journalists. They need to be motivated, it’s their time to go after the system! And I think that’s valid throughout Romania, in all professions.

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Likeuri
Chronological
diana time
yesterday at 23
begin to believe that we also have investigative journalists true! Congratulations!
read more
Like 3
Sorin Codreanu
yesterday at 22
I think we do not know 1% of what happens in this country ‘under the table’.
read more
Like 2
Abraham Magdalena
yesterday at 22
Dl.Tolontan thank you, but it’s very hard to think of all the consequences of this investigation! Somehow or another we are all, or should be touched! I honestly feel bad, nor can comment! Nausea and revolt!
read more
Like 0
Titi Litra
yesterday at 21
I think these journalists should be protected in the rest of their days; what mess I did not get out of the house safely. but those who should protect them are also accomplices to theft, public opinion there, so were sacrificed for a nation of … guess what …
read more
Like 3
Laurentiu Borta
yesterday at 20
The word to be said is genocide!
read more
Like 1
Ion Marinescu
yesterday at 19
A simple question: how is it possible that a company which inflate the price of 70 times to win so many contracts? What’s the point to talk about product compliance. One such firm is impossible not to be involved in acts of corruption. It is obvious that this corruption is not limited to company-hospital relationship manager but is coordinated centrally from the ministry.
read more
Like 1
Agape
yesterday at 19
My question is: why so few of the “intellectuals” and journalists engage with society in which they live? Why C. Tolontan and others who theoretically should write about the joys and problems of sport, do more for uncovering corruption in Romania on Dilema Veche or contributors can read articles and knotted deznoada topic I cringe abstract metaphysics, but investigative journalist any social adevarata.Cred they do not and those who are a step or more behind them, they will not be touched by the effects of corruption Roman society? Is cheating them, life will show that you can not live in an ivory tower and maybe if you go to live in Hawaii what is happening in Romanian society do not touch directly. Remember Joseph Sava? He died of nosocomial infections.
read more
Like 2
Anton Neculai
yesterday at 18
Respect Tolontan AND SUCCESS !!! entire team
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Catalin Tolontandisinfectants scandalHexi Pharma
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Yerba mate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Yerba mate (from Spanish [ˈʝerβa ˈmate]; Portuguese: erva-mate [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmate] or [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmatʃɪ]) is a species of the holly family (Aquifoliaceae), with the botanical name Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.[1] named by the French botanist Auguste François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire.[2]Yerba mate is widely known as the source of the beverage called mate (Portuguese: chimarrão, tererê/tereré and other variations). It is traditionally consumed in central and southern regions of South America, particularly Argentina, Bolivia, southern and center-western Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and southern Chile.[3] It is also very popular in Syria where it is imported from Argentina.[4] Yerba mate was initially utilized and cultivated by the Guaraní people and in some Tupí communities in southern Brazil, prior to European colonization. It was scientifically classified by the Swiss botanist Moses Bertoni, who settled in Paraguay in 1895.[citation needed] Yerba mate can also be found in various energy drinks on the market today.

Yerba mate, erva mate, mate, or maté
Ilex paraguariensis
Ilex paraguariensis - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-074.jpg
Ilex paraguariensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Aquifoliales
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Genus: Ilex
Species: I. paraguariensis
Binomial name
Ilex paraguariensis

Description

Yerba mate, Ilex paraguariensis, begins as a shrub and then matures to a tree and can grow up to 15 metres (49 ft) tall. The leaves are evergreen, 7–110 millimetres (0.3–4.3 in) long and 30–55 millimetres (1.2–2.2 in) wide, with a serrated margin. The leaves are often called yerba (Spanish) or erva (Portuguese), both of which mean “herb”. They contain caffeine (known in some parts of the world as mateine) and also contains related xanthine alkaloids and are harvested commercially.

The flowers are small, greenish-white, with four petals. The fruit is a red drupe 4–6 millimetres (0.16–0.24 in) in diameter.

Cultivation

 Plantation in Misiones, Argentina.

The Yerba mate plant is grown and processed in South America, specifically in northern Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones), Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul). Cultivators are known as yerbateros (Spanish) or ervateiros (Brazilian Portuguese).

Seeds used to germinate new plants are harvested from January until April only after they have turned dark purple. After harvest, they are submerged in water in order to eliminate floating non-viable seeds and detritus like twigs, leaves, etc. New plants are started between March and May. For plants established in pots, transplanting takes place April through September. Plants with bare roots are transplanted only during the months of June and July.[5]

Many of the natural enemies of yerba mate are difficult to control in a plantation setting. Insect pests include Gyropsylla spegazziniana, an insect that lays eggs in branches, Hedyphates betulinus, an insect that weakens the tree and makes it more susceptible to mold and mildew, “Perigonia lusca”, an insect that eats the leaves, and several species of mites.[5]

When yerba mate is harvested, the branches are often dried by a wood fire, imparting a smoky flavor. The plant Ilex paraguariensis can vary in strength of the flavor, caffeine levels and other nutrients depending on whether it is a male or female plant. Female plants tend to be milder in flavor and lower in caffeine. They are also relatively scarce in the areas where yerba mate is planted and cultivated.[6]

According to FAO in 2012, Brazil is the biggest producer of mate in the world with 513,256 MT (58%), followed by Argentina with 290,000 MT (32%) and Paraguay with 85,490 MT (10%).[7]

Use as a beverage

Main article: Mate (beverage)

 Steaming mate infusion in its customary cup that resembles the shape of a gourd, the customary vessel

The infusion, called mate in Spanish-speaking countries or chimarrão in Brazil, is prepared by filling a container, typically a gourd, up to three-quarters full with dry leaves (and twigs) of the mate plant, and filling it up with water at a temperature of 70–80 °C (158–176 °F), hot but not boiling. Sugar may or may not be added; and the mate may be prepared with cold water (tereré).[8]

Drinking mate with friends from a hollow gourd (also called a guampa, porongo or mate in Spanish, cabaça or cuia in Portuguese, or zucca in Italian) through a metal straw (a bombilla in Spanish, bomba in Portuguese), refilling and passing to the next person after finishing the few mouthfuls of beverage, is a common social practice in Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil among people of all ages.

Yerba mate is most popular in Uruguay, where people are seen walking the streets carrying the mate and termo (thermal vacuum flask) in their arms. You can also find hot water stations to refill the termo while on the road. In Argentina 5 kg (11 lb) of yerba mate is consumed annually per capita; in Uruguay, the largest consumer, consumption is 10 kg (22 lb).[9] The amount of the herb used to prepare the infusion is much greater than that used for tea and other beverages, accounting for the large weight used.[10]

 Yerba Mate shop, Puerto Iguazu, Argentina

The flavor of brewed mate resembles an infusion of vegetables, herbs, grass and is reminiscent of some varieties of green tea. Some consider the flavor to be very agreeable, but it is generally bitter if steeped in boiling water. Flavored mate is also sold, in which the mate leaves are blended with other herbs (such as peppermint) or citrus rind.[11]

In Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina, a toasted version of mate, known as mate cocido (Paraguay), chá mate (Brazil) or just mate, is sold in teabags and in a loose leaf form. It is often served sweetened in specialized shops or on the street, either hot or iced, pure or with fruit juice (especially lime – known in Brazil as limão) or milk. In Argentina and southern Brazil, this is commonly consumed for breakfast or in a café for afternoon tea, often with a selection of sweet pastries (facturas).

 Yerba for sale in the open air market of La Boqueria in Barcelona, Spain.

An iced, sweetened version of toasted mate is sold as an uncarbonated soft drink, with or without fruit flavoring. In Brazil, this cold version of chá mate is specially popular in the South and Southeast regions, and can easily be found in retail stores in the same cooler as soft-drinks.[12] Mate batido, which is toasted, has less of a bitter flavor and more of a spicy fragrance. Mate batido becomes creamy when shaken. Mate batido is more popular in the coastal cities of Brazil, as opposed to the far southern states, where it is consumed in the traditional way (green, consumed with a silver straw from a shared gourd), and called chimarrão (cimarrón in Spanish, particularly that of Argentina[13]).

In Paraguay, western Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, west of São Paulo) and the Argentine littoral, a mate infusion, called tereré in Spanish and Portuguese or tererê in Portuguese in southern regions of Brazil, is also consumed as a cold or iced beverage, usually sucked out of a horn cup called guampa with a bombilla. Tereré can be prepared with cold water (the most common way in Paraguay and Brazil), or fruit juice (the most common way in Argentina). The version with water is more bitter; fruit juice acts as a sweetener (in Brazil, that is usually avoided with the addition of table sugar). Medicinal or culinary herbs, known as yuyos (weeds), may be crushed with a pestle and mortar, and added to the water for taste or medicinal reasons. Tereré is most popular in Paraguay, Brazil, and the Litoral (northeast Argentina).[14]

In the same way as people meet for tea or coffee, friends often gather and drink mate (matear) in Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Sharing mate is almost a ritual, following customary rules. In warm weather the hot water is sometimes replaced by lemonade, but not in Uruguay.

 Selection of Yerba Mate gourds and bombillas at a street vendor, Buenos Aires, Argentina

The gourd (mate in Spanish) is given by the brewer to each person, often in a circle, in turn; the recipient does not give thanks, drinks the few mouthfuls and returns the mate to the brewer, who refills it and passes it to the next person in clockwise order.

During August, Paraguayans have a tradition of mixing mate with crushed leaves, stems, and flowers of the plant known as flor de agosto[15] (the flower of August, plants of the Senecio genus, particularly Senecio grisebachii), which contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Modifying mate in this fashion is potentially toxic, as these alkaloids can cause a rare condition of the liver, veno-occlusive disease, which produces liver failure due to progressive occlusion of the small venous channels in the liver.[16]

In South Africa, mate is not well known, but has been introduced to Stellenbosch by a student who sells it nationally. In the tiny hamlet of Groot Marico in the northwest province, mate was introduced to the local tourism office by the returning descendants of the Boers, who in 1902 had emigrated to Patagonia in Argentina after losing the Anglo Boer War. It is also commonly consumed in Lebanon, Syria and some other parts of the Middle East mainly by Druze and Alawite population, following emigration to South America and return by many people, and worldwide by expatriates from the Southern Cone.[17]

Chemical composition and properties

Polyphenols

Yerba mate contains a variety of polyphenols such as the flavonoids quercetin and rutin.[18]

Xanthines

Yerba mate contains three xanthines: caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, the main one being caffeine. Caffeine content varies between 0.7% and 1.7% of dry weight[19] (compared with 0.4– 9.3% for tea leaves, 2.5–7.6% in guarana, and up to 3.2% for ground coffee);[20] theobromine content varies from 0.3% to 0.9%; theophylline is present in small quantities, or can be completely absent.[21] A substance previously called “mateine” is a synonym for caffeine (like theine and guaranine).

Mineral content

Yerba mate also contains elements such as potassium, magnesium, and manganese.[22]

Health effects

As of 2011 there have not been any double-blind, randomized prospective clinical trials of Yerba mate consumption with respect to chronic disease.[23] Yerba mate has been claimed to have various effects on human health and these effects have been attributed to the high quantity of polyphenols found in mate tea.[18]

Research has found that Yerba mate may improve allergy symptoms[24] and reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and high blood sugar in mice.[25]

Mate also contains compounds that act as an appetite suppressant and possible weight loss tool,[26] increases mental energy and focus,[27] improves mood,[28] and promotes deeper sleep; however, sleep may only be affected in people who are sensitive to caffeine.[27]

Lipid metabolism

Some non-blinded studies have found mate consumption to be effective in lipid lowering.[23]

Cancer

The consumption of hot mate tea is associated with oral cancer,[29] esophageal cancer,[30] cancer of the larynx,[30] and squamous cell cancers of the head and neck.[31][32] Studies show a correlation between tea temperature and likelihood of cancer, making it unclear how much of a role mate itself plays as a carcinogen.[30]

Weight loss

Yerba mate contains polyphenols such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which work by inhibiting enzymes like pancreatic lipase[33] and lipoprotein lipase, which in turn play a role in fat metabolism. Yerba mate has been shown to increase satiety by slowing gastric emptying. Effects on weight loss may be due to reduced absorption of dietary fats and/or altered cholesterol metabolism.[34]

Despite yerba mate’s potential for reducing body weight, there is minimal data on the effects of yerba mate on body weight in humans.[35] Therefore, yerba mate should not be recommended over diet and physical exercise[36] without further study on its effects being warranted.

Mechanism of action

E-NTPDase activity

Research also shows that mate preparations can alter the concentration of members of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) family, resulting in an elevated level of extracellular ATP, ADP, and AMP. This was found with chronic ingestion (15 days) of an aqueous mate extract, and may lead to a novel mechanism for manipulation of vascular regenerative factors, i.e., treating heart disease.[medical citation needed]

Antioxidants

In an investigation of mate antioxidant activity, there was a correlation found between content of caffeoyl-derivatives and antioxidant capacity (AOC).[medical citation needed] Amongst a group of Ilex species, Ilex paraguariensis antioxidant activity was the highest.[medical citation needed]

Monoamine oxidase inhibition activity

A paper from the University of São Paulo cites yerba mate extract as an inhibitor of MAO activity; the maximal inhibition observed in vitro was 40–50%. A monoamine oxidase inhibitor is a type of antidepressant, so there is some data to suggest that yerba mate has a calming effect in this regard.[37]

History

Main article: History of yerba mate

 
Yerba mate growing in the wild

Mate was first consumed by the indigenous Guaraní and also spread in the Tupí people that lived in southern Brazil, Paraguay and became widespread during European colonization.[citation needed] In the Spanish colony of Paraguay in the late 16th century, both Spanish settlers and indigenous Guaranís, who had, to some extent, before the Spanish arrival, consumed it.[citation needed] Mate consumption spread in the 17th century to the River Plate and from there to Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru.[citation needed] This widespread consumption turned it into Paraguay’s main commodity above other wares, such as tobacco, and indigenous peoples labour was used to harvest wild stands.[citation needed]

In the mid 17th century, Jesuits managed to domesticate the plant and establish plantations in their Indian reductions in Misiones, Argentina, sparking severe competition with the Paraguayan harvesters of wild stands.[citation needed] After their expulsion in the 1770s, their plantations fell into decay, as did their domestication secrets.[citation needed] The industry continued to be of prime importance for the Paraguayan economy after independence, but development in benefit of the Paraguayan state halted after the War of the Triple Alliance (1864–1870) that devastated the country both economically and demographically.[citation needed] Some regions with mate plantations in Paraguay became Argentine territory.[citation needed]

 Lithograph of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, a 19th-century ruler of Paraguay, holding a mate and bombilla

Brazil then became the largest producer of mate.[38] In Brazilian and Argentine projects in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the plant was domesticated once again, opening the way for plantation systems.[citation needed] When Brazilian entrepreneurs turned their attention to coffee in the 1930s, Argentina, which had long been the prime consumer,[39] took over as the largest producer, resurrecting the economy in Misiones Province, where the Jesuits had once had most of their plantations. For years, the status of largest producer shifted between Brazil and Argentina.[39]

Now, Brazil is the largest producer, with 53%, followed by Argentina, 37% and Paraguay, 10%.[7][40]

In the city of Campo Largo, state of Paraná, Brazil, there is a Mate Historic Park (Portuguese: Parque Histórico do Mate), funded by that state’s government, to educate people on the sustainable harvesting methods needed to maintain the integrity and vitality of the oldest wild forests of mate in the world. As of June 2014, however, the park is closed to public visitation.[41]

Nomenclature

The name given to the plant in Guaraní, language of the indigenous people who first cultivated and enjoyed mate, is ka’a, which has the same meaning as “herb”.[citation needed] Congonha, in Portuguese, is derived from the Tupi expression, meaning something like “what keeps us alive”, but a term rarely used nowadays. Mate is from the Quechua mati,[42] a word that means container for a drink, infusion of an herb, as well as gourd.[43] The word mate is used in both Portuguese and Spanish languages.

The pronunciation of yerba mate in Spanish is [ˈʝe̞rβ̞ä ˈmäte̞][42] The accent on the word is on the first syllable, not the second as might be implied by the variant spelling maté.[42] The word hierba is Spanish for “herb”; yerba is a variant spelling of it which was quite common in Argentina.[44] (Nowadays in Argentina yerba refers exclusively to the yerba mate plant.[44]) Yerba mate, therefore, originally translated literally as the “gourd herb”, i.e. the herb one drinks from a gourd.[citation needed]

The (Brazilian) Portuguese name for the plant is either erva-mate [ˈɛʁvɐ ˈmätʃi] (pronounced [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmäte], [ˈɛɾvə ˈmätɪ] or [ˈɛɻvɐ ˈmätʃɪ] in the regions of traditional consumption, [ˈæə̯ʀvə ˈmäˑtɕ] in coastal, urban Rio de Janeiro), the most used term, or rarely congonha [kõˈɡõȷ̃ɐ], from Old Tupi kõ’gõi, which means “what sustains the being”.[45] The drinks it is used to prepare are chimarrão (hot), tereré (cold) or chá mate (hot or cold). While the chá mate (tea) is made with the toasted leaves, the other drinks are made with green leaves, and are very popular in the south and center-west of the country. Most people colloquially address both the plant and the beverage simply by the word mate.[12]

Both the spellings “mate” and “maté” are used in English, but the latter spelling is never used in either Spanish or Portuguese; in Spanish, maté means “I killed” as opposed to “gourd” (the similarly pronounced Portuguese matei also meaning “I killed”).[46] There are no variation of spellings in Spanish.[42] The addition of the acute accent over the final “e” was likely added as a hypercorrection, indicating that the word and its pronunciation are distinct from the common English word “mate“.[47][48][49][50][51][52]

According to both Spanish and Portuguese spelling rules, an acute accent in that position shifts the tonic syllable to the last one, whereas in both languages the word is pronounced with the first syllable as the tonic one. Additionally, in Portuguese it changes the pronunciation of a few vowels. (É being more open and never final unstressed /ɛ/, like ó /ɔ/ and á /a/, and ê being more closed /e/, like ô /o/ and â /ɐ/ – the usual pronunciation of the mate vowel is [i ~ ɪ ~ e], never [ɛ]; the standard in all regions where the Portuguese language is official is for unstressed vowels, particularly final ones, to be reduced, in the case of e through [i] in Brazil, here strongly palatalizing, and most of Africa, and [ɯ], or occasionally non-palatalizing [i], in Portugal, Cape Verde and Macau, among a few others.)

Use as a health food

 Mate softdrinks

Mate is consumed as a health food. Packages of yerba mate are available in health food stores and are frequently stocked in the large supermarkets of Europe, Australia and the United States. By 2013, Asian interest in the drink had seen significant growth and led to significant export trade.[53]

See also

great compositions/performances: The Mission – Gabriel’s Oboe


The Mission – Gabriel’s Oboe (Full HD)

History of yerba mate wikipedia


History of yerba mate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

 Falkland gauchos having mate. Watercolour by Dale, manager of Hope Place – Saladero in the 1850s.

The history of yerba mate, that stretches back to pre-Columbian Paraguay, is marked by a rapid expansion in harvest and consumption in the Spanish South American colonies but also by its difficult domestication process, which even if discovered in the mid 17th century had to be rediscovered later when production was industrialized around 1900.

The consumption of yerba mate became widespread in the Spanish colony of Paraguay in the late 16th century both among Spanish settlers and indigenous Guaranís, who had to some extent consumed it before the Spanish arrival. Mate consumption spread in the 17th century to the Platine region and from there to Chile and Peru. This widespread consumption turned it into Paraguay’s main commodity above other wares like tobacco, and Indian labour was used to harvest wild stands. In the mid 17th century Jesuits managed to domesticate the plant and establish plantations in their Indian reductions in Misiones, sparking severe competition with the Paraguayan harvesters of wild stands. After the expulsion of the Jesuits in the 1770s their plantations fell into decay as did their domestication secrets. The industry continued to be of prime importance for the Paraguayan economy after independence, but development in benefit of the Paraguayan state halted after the Paraguayan War (1864–1870) which devastated the country both economically and demographically. Brazil became then the prime producer of yerba mate. In Brazilian and Argentine projects in late 19th and early 20th century the plant was domesticated once again opening the way for modern plantation systems. When Brazilian entrepreneurs turned their attention into coffee in the 1930s Argentina, that had long been the prime consumer, took over as the largest producer, resurrecting Misiones Province where the Jesuits had once had most of their plantations.

Early use

 Indigenous Guaraní (in picture) are known to have consumed yerba mate to some degree before the Spanish conquest of Paraguay.

Before the arrival of the Spanish the Guaraní people, indigenous to the area of natural distribution of the plant, are known to have consumed yerba mate at least for medicinal purposes.[1] Remnants of yerba mate have also been found in a Quechua tomb near Lima, Peru and has therefore been suggested to have been associated with prestige.[2][3] The first Europeans to establish themselves in the lands of the Guaranís and the yerba mate were the Spaniards that founded Asunción in 1537. The new colony developed with little commerce and contact from outside and which made the Spanish to establish fluid contacts beyond labour relationships with the local tribes. It is not clear exactly when Spaniards began to drink mate but it is known by late 16th century to be widely consumed.[1]

By 1596 the consumption of mate as a beverage had become so common in Paraguay that a member of the cabildo of Asunción wrote to governor of Río de la Plata Hernando Arias de Saavedra:

“the vice and bad habit of drinking yerba has spread so much among the Spaniards, their women and children, that unlike the Indians that are content to drink it once a day they drink it continuously and those who do not drink it are very rare.”

The same author of the letter went on to claim that Spanish settlers sold their clothing, weapons and horses or fell into debt to obtain yerba mate.[4]

Spread across South America (1600–1650)

 Map showing natural distribution area of yerba mate as well as important colonial settlements and the principal water ways: areas with Jesuit missions are marked with “J”. The borders are those of the modern countries.

In early 17th century, yerba mate had become the chief export of the Guaraní territories, above sugar, wine and tobacco, which had previously dominated.[5] The Governor of Río de la Plata, Hernando Arias de Saavedra, turned in the beginning of the 17th century against the burgeoning mate industry due to beliefs that it was an unhealthy bad habit and that too much of the Indian workforce was consumed in it. He ordered to end the production in the governorate and at the same time sought approval from the Spanish Crown, which rejected the ban, as did also the people involved in production who never complied with the order.[4] In contrast to other alkaloid rich cash crops found by Europeans in the Age of Discovery like cocoa and coffee, yerba mate was not a domesticated species and came to be exploited from wild stands long into the 19th century,[6] although the Jesuits domesticated it first in the mid 17th century.

Up to 1676, during the rise of the industry, the main production centre of yerba mate was the Indian town of Maracayú northeast of Asunción. In Maracayú, amid forests rich in yerba mate, settlers from Asunción dominated production. Maracayú came however to be the place of long-standing conflict when settlers from the towns of Villa Rica del Espíritu Santo and Ciudad Real del Guayrá begun to move into the Maracayú area that the old settlers regarded as theirs. In the 1630 the conflict escalated when settlers from Villa Rica and Ciudad Real del Guayrá and the Jesuit missions of Guairá had to flee over to the Maracayú area due to attacks from Portuguese settlers from São Paulo. In the Maracayú area the new settlers made mate their main income source sparking a conflict with the settlers of Asunción which only ended in 1676 when the Portuguese settlers made another push making Maracayú a rather exposed borderland zone. The settlers of Maracaýu relocated to the south forming the modern city of Villarrica and transformed their new lands into the new centre of the mate industry.[7]

The conflict between the old and the new settlers in Maracayú coincided with the spread of consumption of mate beyond the colony of Paraguay, first to the trade hub of Río de la Plata and from there to Upper Peru (Bolivia), Lower Peru, Ecuador and Chile,[4] becoming an important commodity in many cities of colonial South America.[8] During the course of the 17th century, taxes on mate became an important revenue source in Paraguay, Santa Fé and Buenos Aires and became heavily taxed: Some of the taxes applied were the tithe, alcabala and municipal taxes through the cities where it passed. In 1680 the Spanish Crown imposed a special tax on yerba mate aimed to finance Buenos Aires defence works and garrison.[8]

The shift southward to Villarrica of the production led Asunción to lose position as the sole hub of export downstream to Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. When production was centred in Maracayú transport down Paraná River was difficult and therefore the yerba was bought through Jejuy River to Asunción on Paraguay River[9] which was navigable all the way down to Río de la Plata. The local government of Asunción tried unsuccessfully to have all mate produced north of Tebicuary River to pass through the city, but the Villarrica settlers as well as the Spanish Crown largely ignored the complaints of the Asunción government.[9]

Jesuit era and domestication (1650–1767)

 Location of the most important Jesuit reductions in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, with present political divisions.

The Jesuits began in the late 16th century to establish a series of reduction settlements in the lands of the Guaraní people to convert them to Catholicism. The Jesuit missions had a high degree of autarky but needed coins to pay taxes and acquire products they could not produce.[1] While in the early 17th century Jesuits had supported governor Hernando Arias de Saavedra‘s ban on yerba mate production, they became by mid-17th century severe competitors to the harvesters of the land north of Tebicuary River who had had a practical monopoly on the product.[5][10] In 1645 the Jesuits had successfully requested the Spanish Crown to be allowed to produce and export yerba mate.[10] The Jesuits initially followed the normal production procedure by sending thousands of Guaranís out into long journeys to the swamps where the best trees grew to harvest naturally occurring stands, where many Indians fell ill or died.[10] From the 1650s to the 1670s the Jesuits succeeded in domesticating the plant,[6] something that contemporaries had found extremely difficult.[10] The Jesuits kept the domestication a secret. It apparently involved feeding the seed to birds or emulating the passing of the seeds through the digestive system of a bird.[3] The Jesuits gained a series of commercial advantages over their competitors in the Tebacuary region. Apart from their successful domestication and establishment of plantations, their missions were closer to the important trade hubs of Santa Fé and Buenos Aires and they succeeded in obtaining exemptions from the tithe, alcabala, and the additional tax established in 1680.[11] These privileges caused a conflict with the Paraguayan cities of Asunción and Villarrica that accused the Jesuits of flooding the Platine market with cheap yerba mate, and led to the imposition of limits for the Jesuit exports,[12] which they nevertheless exceeded, so that at the time of the expulsion of the Order they exported four times the amount they were legally allowed.[3] The Jesuits did not, officially, sell mate for profit beyond covering basic necessities and taxes, and accused the Paraguayans of causing prices to drop, adding that their yerba mate was preferred by merchants not due its price but due to its better quality.[12]

Due to the shortage of coins yerba mate along with honey, maize, and tobacco were used as currencies in the Jesuit reductions.[13]

Expansion (1767–1870)

 Lithograph of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, a 19th-century ruler of Paraguay, with a mate and its respective bombilla.

After the suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1767 the production and importance of mate producing regions which had been dominated by Jesuits began to decline.[2][6] Excessive exploitation of Indian labour in the plantations led to decay in the industry and the scattering of Guaranís living in the missions.[3][6] With the fall of the Jesuits and the mismanagement by the crown and the new entrepreneurs that had taken over Jesuit plantations Paraguay gained an unrivalled position as the main producer of yerba mate. The plantation system of the Jesuits did however not prevail and mate continued chiefly to be harvested from wild stand through the 18th and most of the 19th century. Concepción in Paraguay, founded in 1773, became a major port of export since it had a huge hinterland of untouched stands of yerba mate north of it. As part of the Bourbon Reforms free trade within the Spanish Empire was allowed in 1778. This and a tax reform in 1780 lead to increased trade in Spanish South America which benefited the mate industry.[6] In the 1770s the habit of drinking mate reached as far as Cuenca, in present day Ecuador.[6]

During the colonial period in Europe, mate failed to be accepted like cocoa, tea and coffee. In 1774 the Jesuit José Sánchez Labrador wrote that mate was consumed by “many” in Portugal and Spain and that many in Italy approved of it.[3] In the 19th century yerba mate attracted the attention of the French naturalists Aimé Bonpland and Augustin Saint-Hilaire who, separately, studied the plant. In 1819 the latter gave yerba mate its binomial nomenclature: Ilex Paraguariensis.

After independence, Paraguay was to lose its pre-eminence as top producer to Brazil and Argentina,[14] although Argentina went into a mate crisis. At independence, Argentina inherited both the largest mate-consuming population in the world as well as Misiones Province where most of the Jesuit missions had been and where the industry was in decay. The decline of production in Argentina relative to the constant increase in demand lead Argentina in the mid-19th century to depend heavily on its neighbors for supply. Yerba mate came to be imported to Argentina from the Paraná highlands in Brazil. This Yerba mate was labelled Paranaguá after its shipping port.[2]

In Paraguay, yerba mate continued to be a major cash crop after independence but the foci of industry shifted away from the mixed plantations and wild stands of Villarrica, north to Concepción in late colonial times and then by 1863 to San Pedro.[15] During the rule of Carlos Antonio López (1844–1862), the yerba mate business was managed by the military commanders of the district, who could harvest yerba mate as a state enterprise or give concessions. The onset of the Paraguayan War (1864–1870) caused a sharp drop in the harvesting of yerba mate in Paraguay, estimated at 95% between 1865 and 1867, caused by enrolment.[15] It has been reported that during the war soldiers from all sides consumed yerba mate to calm the hunger and the combat anxiety.[3] After the Paraguayan War against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, Paraguay was demographically as well as economically ruined and foreign entrepreneurs came to control the yerba mate production and industry in Paraguay.[15] The 156.415 km2 lost by Paraguay in the war to Argentina and Brazil were mostly rich in yerba mate production.[15]

In Chile, where the habit of drinking mate had taken firm ground during colonial times, its popularity gave way after independence to drinks popular in Europe, coffee and tea that entered the country through its increasingly busy ports.[3] The spread of tea and coffee consumption in Chile, to the detriment of mate, began in the upper classes. The first coffee shop in Chile appeared in Santiago in 1808. German botanist Eduard Friedrich Poeppig described in 1827 a wealthy family in Chile where the old people drank yerba mate with bombilla while the younger preferred Chinese tea. The trend of decreasing mate consumption was noticed in 1875 by the British consul Rumbold who said that “imports of Paraguayan tea” were “steadily falling off”. Yerba mate was overall cheaper (price per kilo from 1871 to 1930) than tea and coffee and it remained popular in rural areas of Chile.[16]

Industrialization and spread to the Levant (1870–1950)

 Ukrainian immigrants harvest yerba mate in 1920. Despite its relative inhospitability, Misiones attracted considerable European immigration.

With the devastation of Paraguay and insignificant Argentine production, by the end of the 19th century Brazil became the leading producer of yerba mate.[3] In the 1890s yerba mate plantations regained prominence in the markets when plantations began to be developed in Mato Grosso do Sul.[3][6]

In the early 20th century Argentine production began to recover, rising from less than 1 million kg in 1898 to 20 million kg in 1929 in Misiones Province.[2] In the first half of the 20th century Argentina ran a state programme to populate Misiones Province and kick-start a mate industry. Family-sized parcels of land in Misiones were given to foreign settlers, most of them from Central and Eastern Europe.[17] In the 1930s Brazil changed from mate to coffee production, as it gave more income, leaving the resurrected Argentine industry as the biggest producer,[3] which benefited the Argentine economy as it was also the largest consumer of mate.

Syrian and Lebanese immigrants to Argentina spread the habit of drinking mate to their homelands, where it became particularly associated with the Druze.[3]

Like a bridge over troubled waters (Simon and Garfunkel YouTube)


image

Like a bridge over troubled waters

Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over troubled water (with lyrics)

The Cliffs of Insanity


The Cliffs of Insanity

The Namurian shale and sandstone Cliffs of Moher are a major tourist attraction in Ireland, where they are noted for the spectacular views they provide of the Aran Islands and Connemara. Even in the early 19th century, tourists flocked to the site; and in 1835, O’Brien’s Tower, a round stone observation tower located approximately at the midpoint of the cliffs, was built to accommodate the visitors. The cliffs were featured in what popular 1987 cult film as the “Cliffs of Insanity”? More… Discuss

this pressed for your hearts and minds: STATELESS OF LEBANON | Linda Dorigo


The offspring of a Lebanese woman who is married to a non-Lebanese man cannot be considered Lebanese citizens. Even if they have been born and raised in the country. These children are Al-Maktum Qaid or “Stateless.” The stateless in Lebanon also consist of Palestinian refugees or descendants of Palestinians who rejected Lebanese citizenship in order to steer clear of military service when the country was under the French mandate in 1932. Unofficial estimates speak of 35,000 women married to foreigners, and a number of stateless that exceeds 100,000 out of a population of almost 4 million.The stateless have no passports, do not have access to public health care and cannot attend public schools. They are also unable to own private property. Even marriage and travel are incredible obstacles. Gender inequality in nationality laws can create statelessness in which children cannot acquire nationality from their fathers, and are forced to live an incomplete life.The Lebanese government has refused to discuss the archaic law, which dates back to 1925. Some critics say this is because a change in numerical terms by one group over another would result in a shift in political representation and the balance of power within the already vulnerable and sectarian-divided government. Granting women the right to pass on citizenship would lead to an increase in the number of Muslims within Lebanon and could possibly open the doors to Palestinian refugees too.Karim is 9 years old. Every 3 years he has to renew his resident visa to remain in Lebanon. He must study at a private school, since he is not allowed to attend public school. He says he would like to become a doctor to help his mother, Nadia, who is paying for his education. His father, who is also stateless and is of Kurdish origin, was born in Lebanon 55 years ago. Ibrahim lives with his mother in the Beqa‘ valley. He never knew his Syrian father because he left the family and never returned home. “I did not grow up with my real father,” he says. “My brothers and I can not even go to Syria because when we were born there was not enough money to register births, marriages and deaths.” Ibrahim went to school for only 4 years. He was engaged once, but she left him because of his social condition. Moustafa is the founder of the independent movement “Our rights group”. He is stateless, married and father of 3 children, who are therefore also stateless. “I started this campaign alone, without money, more or less two years ago,” he explains. “I suffered a lot for my condition. Today we need to be united because the inability to extend the nationality denies not only women their full rights as nationals, but also denies her children their basic rights as human beings. The same happened to Youssef: he is Palestinian, married to Nada, and they have 3 children. He and his wife are engineers, they work together, they have a studio, but officially he is her employee. The family house, cars, and properties belong to Nada because Youssef is not allowed to own anything. “Before opening the studio with Nada, I was project manager and I had 12 engineers under me,” Youssef says. “No one knew my origins, otherwise I would have been forced to leave the job. Our children understand the restrictions, and when they get married, we will be careful to choose the ‘right’ person”. The story of Samira is well known in Lebanon. She was married to an Egyptian man who passed away in 1994. She has 5 children. None are studying at university because education for non-Lebanese is very expensive. In 2009, for the first time in Lebanon, Judge John Azzi granted citizenship to her children, but two days later the government intervened and quashed the decision. Azzi, who was Head of the Court, lost his office and became a lawyer. He wrote his experience in “A Trip of a Lifetime to Nationality”. Many other families pay the consequences of the Lebanese law. Yousra for example is mother of 2 sons. Hani’s father is Jordanian, while Ali’s father is Lebanese. Yousra has been divorced twice. Since Hani, the youngest, has no nationality he cannot go to public school. The family pays $2.000 a year for his education and his residence permit needs to be renewed every 3 years. Lorenzo he is an Italian journalist married to a Lebanese woman. Their 2 sons can apply for Italian IDs but not Lebanese ones. “I did not think this could be a problem,” Lorenzo said “But talking with my wife I felt more involved, and discovered the injustice”.Links: Private Magazine, Cargo Collective

Source: STATELESS OF LEBANON | Linda Dorigo

this pressed for the Jubilee Year of Mercy: Meet the Christian Minorities of the Middle East | TIME


Ani, Turkey. Ani is the ancient capital of the Armenian empire, situated at the closed border between Armenia and Turkey. Nowadays Ani is a stack of churches’ ruins, homes and the Cathedral. August 2013.

Ani, Turkey. Ani is the ancient capital of the Armenian empire, situated at the closed border between Armenia and Turkey. Nowadays Ani is a stack of churches’ ruins, homes and the Cathedral. August 2013.

During a four-year journey throughout the Middle East – one that placed photographer Linda Dorigo and journalist Andrea Milluzzi on the trail of Christian minorities in countries where Christianity originated and took root – the two reporters, often against their will, adopted what might be considered a theatrical disguise: they were welcomed as academic researchers in Iran, confused for a newlywed couple in Syria, and even referred to as a priest and nun in Gaza.This speaks for only a fraction of the adventures that marked their extensive “pilgrimage” on the trail of secluded Christian minorities, as the reporters sought them out in the capital cities of Muslim countries such as Damascus, or in remote Assyrian towns like Qaraqosh, Iraq. Their interest in this subject was sparked by a dramatic event – a suicide bomb attack that shocked a Coptic Christian Mass in Alexandria, Egypt, on New Year’s Eve 2011. After the news made headlines, it quickly faded from broader media attention, prompting Dorigo and Milluzzi to start their project.The result is Rifugio – Christians of the Middle East, a black-and-white photobook and journalistic reportage that documents their project chronicling the life of Christian communities in nine countries – Egypt, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, Turkey, Iran and Iraq. Milluzzi’s essays and Dorigo’s photographs complement each other seamlessly, grouped into six chapters, describing what they say is the burdensome and often heart-rending plight that these minorities endure. Dorigo’s subtle but eloquent photographs – often blurry, elusive, at time dramatic – capture both joyful moments and oppressions encountered, illustrating a reality suspended between the cultural heritage that these communities embody and their minority nature.“It has been a discovery, a never-ending discovery really, because surely we began our journey with an idea in mind of what we were going to look for,” Dorigo says. “But it is [only] when you travel that you realize that, comparing the reality of each country, that you can’t equate Christians in Egypt with Christians in Iran,” she adds.As they toured the area, their research brought them to some of the most remote places in the region, covering events so extraordinary that they seem part of a different era: In the Old City of Jerusalem, they watched the enactment of the Via Crucis staged by Capuchin monks in the streets of the Christian Quarter. In Rojava, in the Syrian Kurdistan, Dorigo photographed the ruins of the last church in Gharduka, which ISIS jihadists bombed. In Iran’s west Azerbaijan province, they witnessed the annual Armenian pilgrimage to Saint Thaddeus monastery, a custom dating back to 68 AD. On that occasion, the ancient church became their dwelling.Planning their trip, Dorigo and Milluzzi avoided hotels and opted for local lodging. “The more you share, the more you are actually able to go deep in what you’re documenting,” Dorigo says. “We sought the real stories, inside the houses, inside the families.”Some destinations, however, proved difficult to explore. To reach Syria’s far east region from its capital, they bypassed ISIS-controlled territories only by returning to Lebanon, flying to Turkey, taking a bus to Iraq and finally entering Syria’s east border all in the same day. On another occasion, as Iranian authorities were after them, they left the country in a couple of days (but returned after a few months.) They gained access to Christian minorities through religious gatherings, local priests or through the encounters in cosmopolitan Beirut. Surprisingly to them, more than once the Muslims themselves introduced the reporters to their Christian neighbors. “That was a beautiful thing,” Dorigo says, “and it really testifies that a spirit of friendship and brotherhood does exist, despite being often flattened and even obstructed by a series of propagandistic efforts in the name of a religious conflict.

Linda Dorigo is an independent documentary photojournalist and Andrea Milluzzi is a freelance journalist. They are based both in Italy and in the Middle East. Their latest work, Rifugio – Christians of the Middle East, is published by Schilt Publishing.

Paul Moakley, who edited this photo essay, is TIME’s Deputy Director of Photography and Visual Enterprise. Follow him on Twitter @paulmoakley.

Lucia De Stefani is a writer and contributor at TIME LightBox. Follow her on Twitter and Instagram.

Follow TIME LightBox on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

Source: Meet the Christian Minorities of the Middle East | TIME

this pressed for our future: Donald Trump’s Muslim ban proposal throws Republican party into chaos | US news | The Guardian


Donald Trump speaks during a rally coinciding with Pearl Harbor Day aboard the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown on Monday. Photograph: Mic Smith/AP

Tom McCarthy in New York, Ben Jacobs in Washington, Ryan Felton in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Kate Lamb in Jakarta, Indonesia

Tuesday 8 December 2015 15.19 EST

Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump was disowned by his own party’s top leadership on Tuesday and faced calls to drop his White House bid as the world reacted with outrage to his plan for a ban on Muslims entering the United States.

The billionaire frontrunner’s plan tipped the Republican presidential race into chaos, with party leaders from the chairman of the Republican National Committee to former US vice-president Dick Cheney condemning the idea as “un-American”.
How does Trump do it? Understanding the psychology of a demagogue’s rally

Trump toured the US television studios in unrepentant form, unmoved by the gale of criticism that followed his speech aboard an aircraft carrier on Monday evening. Speaking aboard the USS Yorktown, he acknowledged that his proposal was “probably not politically correct”, before whipping up a cheering crowd and adding: “But. I. Don’t. Care.”

“We need a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States while we figure out what the hell is going on,” Trump said. “We are out of control.”

But for perhaps the first time of the election cycle, Trump seemed at risk of being drowned out by voices raised on all sides in protest against him.

Horrified Muslims in the United States heard in Trump’s rhetoric an echo of Nazism, and they joined the Republican condemnation of Trump as un-American.

“He’s trampling on our constitution and packaging it as a snake oil cure for our security concerns,” said Kassem Allie, executive administrator of the Islamic Center of America in Dearborn, Michigan, one of the largest mosques in the US. “He’s using fear-mongering reminiscent of Nazi Germany and Stalin.”
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A significant silence that had followed past outrageous statements by Trump – in which Republican elders have declined direct confrontation, and the targets of his remarks have seemed humiliated or intimidated – seemed finally shattered at the billionaire’s latest offense.

Republican establishment figures from Cheney to rivals like Jeb Bush and RNC chairman Reince Priebus ramped up their condemnations.

“Well, I think this whole notion that somehow we need to say no more Muslims and just ban a whole religion goes against everything we stand for and believe in,” Cheney told conservative radio host Hugh Hewitt. “I mean, religious freedom’s been a very important part of our, our history.”

House speaker Paul Ryan said Trump’s remarks violated the constitution and were “not who we are as a party”.

“This is not conservatism,” the Wisconsin representative said, adding: “Some of our best and biggest allies in this struggle and fight against radical Islam terror are Muslims.”

Mitt Romney, the 2012 Republican nominee for president, backed Ryan, his former running mate, adding on Twitter: “On Muslims, @realDonaldTrump fired before aiming…@SpeakerRyan is on target.”

Party chairman Preibus said of Trump’s remarks: “I don’t agree. We need to aggressively take on radical Islamic terrorism but not at the expense of our American values.”

There were signs that Trump was not deaf to the Republican insurrection. He appeared to make a veiled threat on Twitter on Tuesday to run as an independent. “A new poll indicates that 68% of my supporters would vote for me if I departed the GOP & ran as an independent,” he wrote.
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While such a bid would face logistical barriers that differ from state to state, experts have said an independent run would be possible for a candidate with money to spend on lawyers and signature-collection campaigns. Such a move would have a potentially disastrous effect on Republican hopes of winning back the White House.

White House press secretary Josh Earnest called Trump’s remarks “incendiary” and “morally reprehensible”, adding: “What Donald Trump said yesterday disqualifies him from serving as president.”

In Congress, a Florida Republican spoke on the floor of the House of Representatives to make a passionate demand for Trump to quit the presidential race.

“It should be heartbreaking to every American that we have a frontrunner in the presidential race that suggests there will be a religious test for anybody who wishes to come to our shores,” said Representative David Jolly. “It is an affront to the principles upon which our nation was founded.”

Bush, a would-be presidential rival of Trump who has been trailing him badly in the polls, said the real estate mogul was “unhinged”. An outside political group supporting Bush, meanwhile, announced a $3.7m ad campaign featuring a video calling Trump “impulsive and reckless”.

The outrage was not limited to the United States. British prime minister David Cameron issued a statement that said he “completely disagrees” with Trump’s comments and regards them as “divisive, unhelpful and quite simply wrong”.

Ukip leader Nigel Farage released a statement saying Trump had “gone too far”.

Muslim groups around the world expressing outrage at Trump’s proposal included Dar al-Ifta, the state religious body in Egypt.

“Such hostile attitudes towards Islam and Muslims will increase tensions within the American society of which Muslims represent around 8 million peaceful and loyal American citizens,” the group said in a statement.

The call was echoed by Muslims in the United States.

“This statement is pretty much un-American, and goes against every value and principle that we hold dear as American citizens,” said Adam Soltani, executive of the Council on American-Islamic Relations, Oklahoma. “And it’s not a stance we should be taking as a country, and it’s definitely not a stance that an individual running for the highest office in our country should adopt.”

Trump followed up the speech with a media blitz Tuesday morning, in which he claimed the mantle of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, citing the internment of Japanese Americans during the second world war as precedent for his policy.

“This is a president highly respected by all, he did the same thing,” Trump said on ABC News. “If you look at what he was doing, it was far worse.”

However, Rick Wilson, a Republican strategist who has been a vocal critic of Trump, told the Guardian: “There was a whiff of fascism around this guy. Now there’s a reek of fascism”.
‘I. Don’t. Care’: Trump brushes off horrified reaction to his Muslim ban
Read more

Wilson noted with horror that Trump has been evasive on whether his ban applies to American citizens, something which would be grotesquely unconstitutional. “I wanted to hear that explicitly stated,” Wilson said. “American citizens are exempted from this, and in order to satisfy his supporters, he can’t and won’t say that.”

Wilson thought that Trump posed a profound challenge for the future of the Republican party. “We are going to end up having a point where there’s going to be a ‘come to Jesus’ moment about whether this party can survive Donald Trump.” Wilson also noted: “A lot of Trump’s fans and supporters don’t want the party to survive. They want to form a populist, nationalist party that isn’t about limited government and the constitution.”

When the point comes, Wilson said, “we have to decide if this going to be the troll party or the Republican party”.
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Reactions elsewhere in the national politics ranged from amused to exasperated. The Philadelphia Daily News put a picture of Trump delivering a stiff wave on its cover, with the caption “The New Furor”.

The Democratic mayor of St Petersburg, Florida, Rick Kriseman, tweeted that Trump was not welcome in the city. “I am hereby barring Donald Trump from entering St. Petersburg until we fully understand the dangerous threat posed by all Trumps,” he wrote.

In a meeting with local church groups in Baltimore, Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders expressed general frustration with the conversation around Trump.

Sanders was questioned in a press conference about why his staff had instructed journalists not to ask him about him about Islamic State.

“What about Isis, guys?” Sanders asked as he laughed and he turned to the black church leaders standing next to him. “How often are these people talking about the issues that we talked about today?”

Source: Donald Trump’s Muslim ban proposal throws Republican party into chaos | US news | The Guardian

 

today’s holiday-commemoration: Armenia Earthquake Memorial Day


Armenia Earthquake Memorial Day

On December 7, 1988, a severe earthquake struck in Armenia, causing catastrophic damage to the entire country’s infrastructure and virtually destroying the cities of Spitak, Leninakan (now Gyumri), Kirovakan (now Vanadzor), and Stepanavan. More than 25,000 people were killed in the disaster, with another 140,000 injured and more than one million left homeless, in a disaster zone that measured about 30,000 square kilometers. That day is now remembered each year as a national holiday, marked across the country with prayer, memorial services, and a moment of silence. More… Discuss

La Tomatina


La Tomatina

Approximately 30,000 people participate in La Tomatina, an annual festival held on the last Wednesday in August in the Spanish town of Buñol. A weeklong festival features music, parades, dancing, and fireworks, but it is the tomato fight that draws the crowds. During the battle, more than 100 metric tons of overripe tomatoes are thrown in the streets. Participants must follow certain safety guidelines during the event, and wearing goggles is recommended. When does the tomato throwing begin? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Our Lady of the Angels School Fire (1958)


Our Lady of the Angels School Fire (1958)

Shortly before classes were dismissed on December 1, 1958, a fire broke out at the foot of a stairway in the Our Lady of the Angels School in Chicago, Illinois. A total of 92 students and 3 nuns died and another 100 were seriously injured when smoke, heat, and fire cut off their normal means of escape. Many perished jumping from second-floor windows. The tragedy dominated headlines and led to nationwide changes to school fire safety regulations. How is the fire thought to have started? More… Discuss

great compositions/performances: CHARLES VALENTIN ALKAN – Estudio Op. 39 Nº 3 – Scherzo Diabolico Piano: Bernard Ringeissen


CHARLES VALENTIN ALKAN – Estudio Op. 39 Nº 3 – Scherzo Diabolico

The Jubilee Year of Mercy reminds us that God is waiting for us with open arms, just like the father of the prodigal son. — Pope Francis (@Pontifex) November 29, 2015


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Brooklyn Bridge painters at work on, 1915 — OnThisDay & Facts (@NotableHistory) November 29, 2015


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The Climate of Antarctica


The Climate of Antarctica

About 200 million years ago, Antarctica was joined to South America, Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand in a single, warm continent called Gondwana. According to the plate tectonics theory, Antarctica split from Gondwana and drifted to its present location at the South Pole. Persistent westerly winds began to circle Antarctica, blocking heat transport to the continent and making it the coldest region on Earth. When was the lowest temperature ever recorded on Earth reported? More… Discuss

Chitlin’ Strut


Chitlin’ Strut

The Chitlin’ Strut is a feast of chitlins, or chitterlings (hog intestines), held in the small town of Salley, South Carolina. The affair features a “hawg-calling” contest, country music, arts and crafts, a parade, lots of chitlins (about 8,000 pounds are devoured each year), and chicken for those not enamored of chitlins. Chitlins are prepared by cleaning them well, boiling them until they are tender, and then, after coating them in egg and crumbs, frying them in deep fat until they’re crackling crisp. More… Discuss

this pressed for History: Istoria sumbră a Braşovului: oraşul a purtat numele lui Stalin timp de zece ani pentru a celebra comunismul | adevarul.ro


Timp de zece ani, pe Muntele Tâmpa a stat scris „Stalin“. FOTO prinbrasov.ro Între 1950 şi 1960, Braşovul s-a numit oraşul Stalin.

Timp de zece ani, pe Muntele Tâmpa a stat scris „Stalin“. FOTO prinbrasov.ro Între 1950 şi 1960, Braşovul s-a numit oraşul Stalin. Toată clasa muncitoare de atunci trebuia să se arate fericită de „onoarea“ care i se făcea. În plus, au fost şi apariţii în ziare cum că schimbarea denumirii oraşului a venit direct din popor.Ştiri pe aceeaşi temă Statuia uriaşă a căpeteniei maghiare Árpád de pe Muntele Tâmpa: dinami… Cum a ajuns Braşovul să fie oraşul din România care să poarte numele lui Stalin? Există o legendă care circulă de peste o jumătate de secol, dar până acum nu a fost şi dovedită. Aceasta spune că în România ar fi fost vizat iniţial Sibiul, dar comuniştii au considerat că nu sună bine Salam de Stalin şi astfel „onoarea“ a revenit Braşovului. Se întâmpla în 1950, când în toată Europa de Est se „sărbătorea“ instalarea comunismului şi se recunoştea puterea rusească. Astfel, 14 oraşe din tot atâtea ţări au ajuns să fie redenumite Stalin. În România a fost Braşovul. În ziare s-a scris că muncitorii au dorit acest lucruCa să nu se creadă cumva că ruşii au impus acest lucru, s-a fabricat un document print care muncitorii din Braşov cereau insistent ca oraşul să poarte denumirea de Stalin. Practic s-a dorit să se creadă că poporul este cel care vrea acest lucru cu ardoare. Pe 19 august 1950, cererea muncitorilor apărea în ziarul Drum Nou, pe 22 august 1950 era dat decretul de schimbare al numelui, iar pe 25 august, în acelaşi an, Drum nou publică “salutul călduros” al Guvernului şi Comitetului Central al Partidului Muncitoresc Român (viitor Partid Comunist Român) vizavi de schimbarea numelui din Braşov în Oraşul Stalin.„Dragi Tovarăşi, la iniţiativa C.F.R.-iştilor, noi, oamenii muncii din oraşul Braşov am hotărât să propunem ca numele oraşului nostru să fie schimbat dându-i-se numele marelui geniu al omenirii muncitoare, scumpului şi iubitului prieten al poporului muncitor din ţara noastră, învăţătorului şi eliberatorului nostru – marelui Stalin.Oraşul nostru este unul dintre principalele centre industriale ale ţării; marile sale întreprinderi, ca uzinele de tractoare „Sovromtractor”, ca întreprinderea metalurgică „Steagul Roşu” şi multe altele, sunt binecunoscute oamenilor muncii din întreaga ţară. În oraşul nostru convieţuiesc frăţesc, muncind şi lucrând cot la cot, muncitorii români cu muncitorii unguri şi cu muncitori de alte naţionalităţi.Suntem convinşi că conducerea Partidului şi Guvernului Republicii Populare Române vor satisface dorinţa noastră înflăcărată şi vor acorda oraşului nostru înalta cinste de a purta numele de oraşul Stalin“, se scria în articolul apărut în Drum Nou.Oamenilor le era frică să vorbeascăPe muntele Tâmpa a fost scris din Brazi numele lui Stalin pentru ca toată lumea să salute schimbarea. Toţi muncitorii ştiau că este o făcătură, dar nimeni nu avea curajul să spună nimic. „Nu muncitorii au cerut schimbarea numelui. A fost impusă de comunişti, care îi preaslăveau pe ruşi. Noi trebuia să tăcem. Dacă ne întreba cineva spuneam că aşa este, noi am vrut. Frica era mare atunci. Nimeni nu avea opinii proprii. Dacă aduceai critici comuniştilor familia ta era persecutată. Puteai fi rapid deportat sau băgat la închisoare. Aşa a fost atunci. Aşa erau vremurile“, spune Valentin Oproiu, fost muncitor la Steagu Roşu, acum pensionar. Braşovul a fost ales pentru că avea mulţi muncitoriIstoricii spun că Braşovul a fost ales de comunişti pentru că era un exemplu de oraş unde industria mergea foarte bine. „ Ideea cu redenumirea numelor oraşelor a fost un mod de a le gâdila orgoliul ruşilor. Există zvonuri să iniţial a fost vizat Sibiul, dar eu cred că Braşovul a fost ales pentru că era unul dintre cele mai puternice centre industriale în ale vremii, erau aici zeci-sute de mii de muncitori. Oricum a fost o perioadă sumbră, când oraşul a fost la un pas să-şi piară identitatea. Exista tentinţa ca tot ceea ce era dinaintea comunismului, orice credinţă, orice obicei să fie îndepărtat“, a spus Iosif Domora, istoric.Îndoctrinarea Braşovului a durat un deceniu. Chiar dacă comunismul a rezistat până în decembrie 1989, la 24 decembrie 1960 Braşovul şi-a recăpătat denumirea original, iar de pe Tâmpa a fost şters numele lui Stalin.citeste totul despre: Brasov orasul stalin comunisti muncitori steagu rosu

Source: Istoria sumbră a Braşovului: oraşul a purtat numele lui Stalin timp de zece ani pentru a celebra comunismul | adevarul.ro

today’s birthday: Jimi Hendrix (1942)


Jimi Hendrix (1942)

One of the tragic figures of 1960s pop music, the left-handed Hendrix taught himself to play the guitar, which he held upside down. His appearance at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the success of the album Are You Experienced? lifted him to instant stardom. A year after his legendary performance at Woodstock in 1969, Hendrix died at age 27 of an apparently accidental barbiturate overdose. Hundreds of people attended his funeral, including which well-known musicians? More… Discuss

this pressed for reality check: France – French PM Valls says ‘no room for more refugees’ in Europe – France 24


© AFP | French Prime Minister Manuel Valls wants to limit the number of refugees coming into Europe Text by NEWS WIRES

Latest update : 2015-11-25European countries are stretched to their limits in the refugee crisis and cannot take in any more new arrivals, French Prime Minister Manuel Valls was quoted as saying in a German newspaper on Wednesday. Europe is grappling with its worst refugee crisis since World War Two. Germany so far has taken in the bulk of some 1 million people expected to arrive this year.“We cannot accommodate any more refugees in Europe, that’s not possible,” Valls told the Sueddeutsche Zeitung, adding that tighter control of Europe’s external borders would determine the fate of the European Union. “If we don’t do that, the people will say: Enough of Europe,” Valls warned.The comments were published only hours before German Chancellor Angela Merkel was scheduled to meet French President Francois Hollande in Paris. Merkel was initially celebrated at home and abroad for her welcoming approach to the refugees, many of whom are fleeing conflict in the Middle East. But as the flow has continued the chancellor has come under increasing criticism.Some conservatives say Merkel’s decision to open up Germany’s borders to Syrian refugees in September has spurred more migrants to come.The refugee debate has become more politically charged after the deadly attacks in Paris that stoked fears Islamic State militants could exploit the migrant crisis to send extremists to Europe. Valls avoided criticising Merkel directly for having suspended European asylum rules to allow in Syrian refugees stranded in Hungary. “Germany has made an honourable choice there,” he said.But he signalled that Paris was taken by surprise by Merkel’s decision: “It was not France that said: Come!” French Economy Minister Emmanuel Macron and his German counterpart, Sigmar Gabriel, have proposed setting up a 10 billion euro fund to pay for tighter security, external border controls and caring for refugees.The United Nations on Tuesday condemned new restrictions on refugees that have left around 1,000 migrants stuck at the main border crossing into Macedonia from Greece.(REUTERS)Date created : 2015-11-25

Source: France – French PM Valls says ‘no room for more refugees’ in Europe – France 24

trecut prin presa…pentru posteritate: Perle ale absolvenţilor de Drept care vor să ajungă magistraţi: „Ca judecător nu trebuie să fiu imparţial”/„Prin verbul a discredita înţeleg a înjura” | adevarul.ro


Unii absolvenţi de Drept care participă la concursul de admitere la Institutul Naţional al Magistraturii „se exprimă cu dificultate accentuată, comit numeroase erori gramaticale şi de comunicare, sunt inabili de a purta un dialog, nu au proprietatea termenilor sau sunt în imposibilitate de a formula definiţia unora”. Aceasta este concluzia unui raport al Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii (CSM).Ştiri pe aceeaşi temă VIDEO Descinderi în nordul Republicii Moldova. O grupare paramilitară … Moment de excepţie pentru handbalul românesc: CSM şi HCM sunt în Runda… Imunitatea lui Dan Şova, primul examen pentru Liviu Dragnea. Ce şanse …“În şedinţa Plenul CSM de marţi, 24 noiembrie 2015, am validat concursul de admitere la Institutului Naţional al Magistraturii (INM) desfăşurat în această vară. Cea mai discutată – dar nu şi discutabilă, zic eu – probă a fost cea a interviului. Membrii comisiilor în faţa cărora s-a susţinut această probă au formulat în scris un punct de vedere pe care, cu acordul lor, am ales să îl dau publicităţii”, a scris judecătorul Cristi Danileţ pe blogul său, într-o postare intitulată “Deficienţe în pregătirea candidaţilor pentru magistratură”.Judecătorul arată că susţinerile constituie o atenţionare foarte serioasă asupra stadiului educaţiei unor tineri şi a calităţii învăţământului românesc – „desigur, ne referim la tinerii candidaţi la concursul de admitere la INM sau la admiterea directă în magistratură, care este probabil cel mai greu şi mai serios concurs desfăşurat în România pentru o instituţie public”.Cristi Danileţ a precizat că în cadrul probei interviului se examinează trei aspecte: motivaţia, aptitudini specifice profesiei de magistrat (comunicarea, gândirea autonomă, cooperarea, înţelegerea realităţii sociale, folosirea corectă a limbii române), elemente de etică specifică persoanei (identificarea dilemei etice, identificarea opţiunilor, analiza valorii acestora alegerea justificată a variantei optime a acţiunii umane, implicarea subiectului în argumentarea alternativelor).Concluziile ComisieiComisia prin faţa căreia anul acesta s-au perindat sute de candidaţi a ajuns la anumite concluzii cu privire la candidaţi şi cu privire la măsuri necesare pentru îmbunătăţirea concursurilor următoare. Iată câteva constatări: din cei 3.297 de candidaţi la INM, 285 candidaţi au reuşit la probele anterioare, iar dintre aceştia 217 au trecut de proba interviului, astfel că în final au fost selectaţi primii 140 în ordinea mediilor; dintre cei respinşi 29 se situau pe primele 150 locuri, iar 39 în ultimele 135 locuri după parcurgerea primelor două probe; unii candidaţi au un nivel redus de instruire educaţională, de cultură generală, lipsă de orizont şi de repere culturale, profesionale, morale; unii se exprimă cu dificultate accentuată, comit erori gramaticale şi de comunicare, sunt inabili în a purta un dialog, nu au proprietatea termenilor folosiţi; unii au demonstrat o incapacitate de a înţelege problemele şi realităţile sociale; unii învaţă grile sau învaţă mecanic coduri; unii au anumite activităţi, dar nu dobândesc experienţa cuvenită în exercitarea acestora; unora le lipseşte gândirea logică, alţii simulează abilităţi, deprinderi sau calităţi inexistente.Potrivit raportului CSM, un semnal autentic de alarmă este acela că mulţi candidaţi se exprimă cu dificultate accentuată, comit numeroase erori gramaticale şi de comunicare, sunt inabili de a purta un dialog, nu au proprietatea termenilor sau sunt în imposibilitate de a formula definiţia unora.”Persoanele care se sacrifică pentru idealuri, principii sunt fanatice”Cu titlu exemplificativ, redăm câteva fragmente din răspunsurile formulate de candidaţi, exemple care relevă necunoaşterea semnificaţiei unor termeni:”Ignoranţa presupune, în viziunea mea, a nu acorda atenţie fiecărui element care construieşte drumul către realizarea ”justiţiei”. La insistenţele comisiei de a da un sinonim pentru ignoranţă, a afirmat că ”înseamnă a nu avea disponibilitatea de a te perfecţiona.””Libertatea este o valoare fundamentală a unui stat de drept, un atribut al tuturor oamenilor, care dacă îşi cultivă stăpânirea de sine pe un drum ce nu tot timpul este uşor o vor găsi în forma ei cea mai autentică.” Întrebare: O calitate? Răspuns: ” Perseveritatea.””Persoanele care se sacrifică pentru idealuri, principii sunt fanatice.”„Cunoaşterea de sine presupune cunoaşterea limitelor şi atunci eşti un om moral”.”Un prieten adevărat nu mi-ar putea cere aşa ceva, el cunoaşte etica mea faţă de justiţie.””Totodată, după trecerea în nefiinţă, din viaţa unui om rămân realizările sale, iar pentru el însuşi amintirile şi experienţele trăite pe parcursul vieţii.””Procurorii au prea mult liber-arbitru, iar eu nu o să tolerez aşa ceva ca judecător”.”Sunt foarte corectă, dar cu excepţii.””Prin verbul a discredita înţeleg a înjura.”

Source: Perle ale absolvenţilor de Drept care vor să ajungă magistraţi: „Ca judecător nu trebuie să fiu imparţial”/„Prin verbul a discredita înţeleg a înjura” | adevarul.ro

The Deepest Ocean


The Deepest Ocean

In 1951, the British Royal Navy ship HMS Challenger II surveyed the Challenger Deep trench of the Pacific Ocean, located between Indonesia and Japan, establishing it as the deepest known point of any ocean on Earth. Less than a decade later, a US Navy deep-sea diving submersible descended to the trench floor. There, the crew observed small sole and flounder and noted that the floor consisted of diatomaceous ooze. What is the maximum depth surveyed at the Challenger Deep? More… Discuss

this pressed for Jolly Roger: Activists ‘glue themselves to immigration centre gate’ in deportation protest – Telegraph


Activists ‘glue themselves to immigration centre gate’ in deportation protest Two protesters attempt to stop departure of charter flight deporting people from UK back to Nigeria, Ghana and Sierra Leone 11 0 1 12 Email By Agency1:21AM GMT 25 Nov 2015Two people are believed to have glued themselves to the gate of an immigration centre in an attempt to stop the departure of a charter flight deporting people from the UK.Ten anti-deportation activists gathered to protest at Colnbrook immigration removal centre near Heathrow airport, the Unity centre said.The protesters formed a blockade in a bid to stop a bus carrying deportees from the centre being taken to Stansted airport for a flight to Nigeria, Ghana and Sierra Leone, the group added.Police attended the scene on Tuesday evening for around five-and-a-half hours but no arrests were made.London Fire Brigade also sent a fire engine to the scene.A Met police spokesman said: “There were a small number of demonstrators in attendance at the immigration centre who had been there since 5.30pm.”We were on the scene with the fire brigade in a monitoring role and there have been no arrests.”

Source: Activists ‘glue themselves to immigration centre gate’ in deportation protest – Telegraph

this pressed for Jolly-Rogers=ISIS: Honduras judge rules five Syrians to face charges of falsifying documents


Honduras judge rules five Syrians to face charges of falsifying documentsHonduras judge rules five Syrians to face charges of falsifying documentsTEGUCIGALPA A judge in Honduras on Tuesday ordered that five Syrians allegedly caught traveling with fake Greek documents as they tried to head north to the United States must remain behind bars as they await trial to face charges of falsifying documents.The Syrians were caught last week after crossing continents from war-torn Syria, traveling through South America and ending up in Honduras. The five men, aged 19 to 30, acquired forged passports in Brazil, a U.S. source said.The judge decided that the five men, who have asked to be granted refugee status, should remain behind bars pending the trial, said judicial spokeswoman Barbara Castillo.

Source: Honduras judge rules five Syrians to face charges of falsifying documents

this pressed…so you too can remember…: Flashback September 5th 2014 – ISIS: McCain says everyone in the National Security Team recommended arming ISIS | David Icke


Listen at the 1:40 mark

Listen at the 1:40 mark

Source: Flashback September 5th 2014 – ISIS: McCain says everyone in the National Security Team recommended arming ISIS | David Icke

this pressed for…”Wake up and start thinking people”: Nato and UN seek calm over Turkish downing of Russian jet | World news | The Guardian


Turkmen militiamen in Syria claimed to have shot the pilots as they descended on parachutes from the stricken Su-24 bomber. The Turkmen rebels, who are supported by Ankara and who have been the target of earlier Russian bombing, broadcast a video of what appeared to be a dead Russian pilot.The rebels also posted footage appearing to show one of their missiles destroying a helicopter while it was on the ground, which they said was a Russian aircraft sent to rescue the downed Su-24 crew, although it was not possible to verify the footage.A Russian military spokesman later said one of the rescue helicopters had been forced to make an emergency landing after being hit by fire from the ground and a marine on board had been killed.Within hours of the jet’s downing, the Russian foreign minister, Sergei Lavrov, announced the first reprisal, warning Russian tourists not to go to Turkey, a potentially significant loss of revenue for Ankara. Lavrov compared the terrorist threat there to Egypt, where a Russian airliner was brought down by a bomb earlier this month, and he cancelled a planned trip to Ankara on Wednesday.Mute Current Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:53Loaded: 0%Progress: 0cebookTwitterPinterestRussia cancels Turkey meeting and warns its citizens not to visit The Russian defence ministry said on its website that it considered the “actions of the Turkish air force as an unfriendly act”, adding that it was “designing a complex of measures directed to respond such incidents”. In his remarks, Putin complained in particular that Turkey had contacted its Nato allies before getting in touch with Moscow, “as if we shot down their plane and not they ours”. Analysis Is Vladimir Putin right to label Turkey ‘accomplices of terrorists’?The relationship hinted at by Russian leader after warplane was shot down is a complex one, and includes links between senior Isis figures and Turkish officials Read more Ankara summoned an emergency meeting of Nato ambassadors in the North Atlantic Council on Tuesday evening to share information about the incident. However, the Turkish government stopped short of calling the meeting under article 4 of the alliance’s founding treaty, which would have represented a more formal response to a threat to a member state’s territorial integrity and security.Turkey said one of its US-made F-16 fighters fired on the Russian plane when it entered Turkish airspace after having been warned on its approach to the Turkish border.In a letter to the British ambassador to the United Nations, currently serving as the president of the UN security council, the Turkish government wrote: “This morning, two Su-24 planes have approached Turkish national airspace in Yayladaga/Hatay region. The planes in question have been warned 10 times during a period of five minutes via ‘emergency’ channels and asked to change their headings south immediately. Disregarding these warnings, both planes, at an altitude of 19,000 feet violated Turkish airspace to a depth of 1.36 miles and 1.15 miles for 17 seconds from 9.24.05 local time.

Source: Nato and UN seek calm over Turkish downing of Russian jet | World news | The Guardian

this pressed as very expensive ($ 5,000,000): Richard Dawkins links Isis child who beheaded man and ‘clock boy’ Ahmed Mohamed | Science | The Guardian


Richard Dawkins links Isis child who beheaded man and ‘clock boy’ Ahmed Mohamed, The scientist and leading atheist faces a barrage of criticism after posting comments on Twitter about the Muslim teenager Richard Dawkins appears to have linked a grisly video of a Islamic State child soldier beheading a man and the case of ‘clock boy’, Ahmed Mohamed.Richard Dawkins appears to have linked a grisly video of a Islamic State child soldier beheading a man and the case of ‘clock boy’, Ahmed Mohamed. Photograph: Graeme Robertson for the Guardian Elle Hunt and Michael Safi Tuesday 24 November 2015 20.26 EST Last modified on Tuesday 24 November 2015 20.42 EST Share on Pinterest Share on LinkedIn Share on Google+Shares1Comments5Save for later Richard Dawkins has sparked a wave of criticism after appearing to draw a tenuous link between Ahmed Mohamed, the Texas Muslim teenager whose homemade clock was mistaken for a bomb, and a child forced by Islamic State militants to behead his victim. Dawkins tweeted a link to an International Business Times report on a video posted to YouTube that appears to show a child of about ten being forced by Isis fighters to decapitate a Syrian regime army officer early on Wednesday morning.‘“But he’s only a kid.’ Yes, a ‘kid’ old enough to sue for $15m those whom he hoaxed,” tweeted Dawkins.Then after a paragraph break, as though the question had occurred to him just before he went to click “Tweet” – “And how old is this ‘kid’?”Dawkins was referring to Mohamed’s family’s demanding $15m in damages – $10m from the city of Irving, and $5m from the school district – and an apology after the 14-year-old was arrested in September, when his homemade clock was taken for a bomb.Family of Texas boy arrested over clock demands $15m in damagesRead moreHe denied comparing – in the words of another Twitter user responding to Dawkins’ initial post – a “child trained to kill people to the kid that made the shitty clock”.“No. Just fed up with people saying of the click [sic] hoax boy, ‘He’s only a kid’, as though that means he can’t be criticized.”In subsequent responses, he clarified that the two were “comparable in NO other respect than that they are both young”, and that he “[didn’t] hate Muslims”.

Source: Richard Dawkins links Isis child who beheaded man and ‘clock boy’ Ahmed Mohamed | Science | The Guardian

fABULOUS HISTORIC MUSICAL BITS: Leonid Kogan – Mozart – Adagio in E major, K 261 (1981)


Leonid Kogan – Mozart – Adagio in E major, K 261(1981)

GREAT COMPOSITIONS/PERFORMANCES: BEDŘICH SMETANA – VLTAVA


BEDŘICH SMETANA – VLTAVA

GREAT COMPOSITIONS/PERFORMANCES: Bedřich Smetana – The Bartered Bride (Prodaná nevěsta) – Polka (Conductor: Herbert von Karajan Orchestra: Berliner Philharmoniker)


Bedřich Smetana – The Bartered Bride (Prodaná nevěsta) – Polka

GREAT COMPOSITIONS/PERFORMANCES: Edvard Grieg – Norwegian Dances / Danses Norvégiennes


Edvard Grieg – Norwegian Dances / Danses Norvégiennes

great compositions/performances: Theme From Schindler’s List conducted by John williams (featuring Itzhak Perlman)


Theme From Schindler’s List conducted by John williams (featuring Itzhak Perlman)

historic musical bits: Appalachian Spring · Leonard Bernstein · New York Philharmonic · Aaron Copland (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)


Appalachian Spring