Category Archives: Health and Environment

This Pressed: Podcast: Reporting on the NSA Before It Was Cool – ProPublica Podcast


ProPublica Podcast

Reporting on the NSA Before It Was Cool

by Nicole Collins Bronzan

ProPublica, May 18, 2015, 11:01 a.m.

David Sleight/ProPublica

As a reporter who covered the National Security Agency before before the Edward Snowden documents brought it to the mainstream, Patrick Radden Keefe of The New Yorker says it would be easy to feel jealous of the journalists breaking those stories now. “But I’ve sort of moved on,” Keefe says, “and I watch those stories with great interest.”

This week he joins ProPublica’s Assistant Managing Editor Eric Umansky and Senior Reporter Jesse Eisinger of ProPublica for a podcast on what he’s been up to since his book “Chatter: Dispatches from the Secret World of Global Eavesdropping.”

Highlights include discussion of:

  • How technology has in some ways degraded American spying efforts. “I think there’s been a kind of notion of the technical silver bullet that has greatly endangered privacy, but also undermined national security,” Keefe says. (1:54)
  • The way he chooses his subjects — sometimes on the news, but often not. (16:51)
  • The tension between daily, incremental reporting and magazine-style coverage. “When I have a piece come out, there will always be some snarky daily reporter who will say, sort of, ‘Nothing new here, folks!’ ” (18:36)
  • His recent New Yorker story on the long conflict in Northern Ireland known as the Troubles, told through the story of Jean McConville, a former member of a secret Irish Republican Army unit who was abducted in front of her children in 1972. She was never seen again. (10:43)

Hear their conversation on SoundCloud and Stitcher, and read Keefe’s story “Where the Bodies Are Buried,” from the March 16 issue of The New Yorker.

via Reporting on the NSA Before It Was Cool – ProPublica. (Podcast)

“Ebullient, Cleansing, Awakening… Refreshing, Graceful, Water …The Well Spring of Life”


“Ebullient, Cleansing, Awakening…
Refreshing, Graceful, Water …
The Well Spring of Life”

From dawn to dusk, as Kathmandu rebuilds— BBC News Asia (@BBCNewsAsia) May 15, 2015


The Black Death


The Black Death

The Black Death was a form of bubonic plague

The bubonic plague described by Athanasius Kircher

The bubonic plague described by Athanasius Kircher (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

that was pandemic throughout Europe, the Middle East, and much of Asia in the 14th century. Thought to have been caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, it killed between one-third and half of Europe’s population and at least 75 million people worldwide. Recently, it has been argued that the Black Death was not caused by bubonic plague, at all, but by what? More… Discuss

A woman says she was fired after she deleted an app that her boss used to track her, 24/7: — CNNMoney (@CNNMoney) May 13, 2015


 

New at the #Vatican: Palestinian Liberation Organization –> State of Palestine.— Religion NewsService (@RNS) May 13, 2015


Vatican decision to recognize Palestine upsets Israeli government, Jewish advocacy groups – Religion News Service


JERUSALEM (RNS) The Vatican’s decision to recognize Palestine as a sovereign state on Wednesday (May 13) angered Israeli officials.

The move comes four days before the first-ever canonization of two Palestinian nuns and it solidifies the standing of Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, who is scheduled to meet with Pope Francis at the Vatican on Saturday.

Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Emmanuel Nahshon told The Times of Israel that the government is “disappointed by the decision. We believe that such a decision is not conducive to bringing the Palestinians back to the negotiating table.”

Israel insists that for the Palestinians to achieve statehood, they must first end their armed struggle against Israel and recognize its right to exist as the homeland of the Jewish people.

Although the treaty codifies the Holy See’s relations with the Palestinian Authority, the Vatican has already referred to the “State of Palestine” in some official documents, including the official program handed out during Pope Francis’ Holy Land pilgrimage last year.

In recent years, the Vatican has stepped up its efforts to support Palestinian Christians in East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza as their numbers have dwindled due to emigration spurred by wars and economic hardships.

A majority of Christians in the Holy Land — including Israel — are either ethnic Palestinians or live alongside them in the same towns and villages. Sisters Maria Baouardy and Mary Alphonsine Danil Ghattas, who were both Christian Arabs, are due to be canonized by Pope Francis on Sunday.

William Shomali, the auxiliary bishop of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, said the Vatican’s announcement “was not a surprise” because “the pope called President Abbas the president of the State of Palestine” during his 2014 pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

But David Harris, executive director of the AJC, the leading global Jewish advocacy organization, said the decision was “regrettable“ and “counterproductive to all who seek true peace between Israel and the Palestinians.”

“We are fully cognizant of the pope’s goodwill and desire to be a voice for peaceful coexistence, which is best served, we believe, by encouraging a resumption of Israeli-Palestinian peace talks, rather than unilateral gestures outside the framework of the negotiating table,” Harris concluded.

Abraham H. Foxman, national director of the Anti-Defamation League, said the action was “premature” and would “undermine the only real solution to the decades-old conflict, which is engaging in direct negotiations.”

YS/MG END CHABIN

Categories: Institutions, Politics

Tags: AJC, Foreign Ministry, Israel, Israeli-Palestinian peace talks, Palestine, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, Vatican

via Vatican decision to recognize Palestine upsets Israeli government, Jewish advocacy groups – Religion News Service.

Cabbage leaf mustard – Recipes Wiki


wpid-20150512_125401.jpg

Mustard greens

Wikipedia Article About Mustard greens on Wikipedia

The mustards are several plant species in the genus Brassica whose proverbially tiny mustard seeds are used as a spice and, by   grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar or other liquids, are turned into a condiment also known as mustard. The seeds are also pressed to make mustard oil, and the edible leaves can be eaten as mustard greens.

Mild white mustard (Brassica hirta) grows wild in North Africa, the Middle East and Mediterranean Europe and has spread farther by long cultivation; brown or Indian mustard (B. juncea), originally from the foothills of the Himalaya, is grown commercially in the UK, Canada and the US; black mustard (B. nigra) in Argentina, Chile, the US and some European countries. Canada grows 90% of all the mustard seed for the international market.

In addition to the mustards, the genus Brassica also includes cabbages, cauliflower, rapeseed and turnips.

There has been recent research into varieties of mustards that have a high oil content for use in the production of biodiesel, a renewable liquid fuel similar to diesel fuel. The biodiesel made from mustard oil has good cold flow properties and cetane ratings. The leftover meal after pressing out the oil has also been found to be an effective pesticide.

An interesting genetic relationship between many species of mustard have been observed, and is described as the Triangle of U.

via Cabbage leaf mustard – Recipes Wiki.

Brassica juncea
Brassica juncea - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-168.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. juncea
Binomial name
Brassica juncea
(L.) Vassiliĭ Matveievitch Czernajew (1796 – 1871)

 

today’s birthday: Sir Ronald Ross (1857)


Sir Ronald Ross (1857)

Born and raised in India, English physician Ronald Ross joined the Indian Medical Service after completing medical school and undertook the study of malaria, then a disease that was not well understood. After years of research, he demonstrated the malarial parasite, Plasmodium, in the stomach of the Anopheles mosquito, identifying the disease’s mechanism of transmission. His discoveries earned him a Nobel Prize in 1902. When is World Mosquito Day, instituted by Ross, observed? More… Discuss

today’s birthday: Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828)


Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828)

Rossetti was a British painter, poet, and founding member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, an association of painters who aimed to combat the shallow conventionalism of academic painting and revive the fidelity to nature and the vivid realistic color that they considered typical of Italian painting before Raphael. Although Rossetti found some financial success as a painter, his lasting reputation rests upon his poetry. What did he have buried with his wife—and later exhumed? More… Discuss

Cumin


Cumin

Cumin
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Cuminum
Species: C. cyminum
Binomial name
Cuminum cyminum
L.[1]

Cumin (/ˈkjuːmɨn/ or UK /ˈkʌmɨn/, US /ˈkmɨn/; sometimes spelled cummin; Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to India. Its seeds (each one contained within a fruit, which is dried) are used in the cuisines of many different cultures, in both whole and ground form.

Etymology

The English “cumin” derives from the Old English cymen (or Old French cumin), from Latin cuminum,[2] which is the latinisation of the Greek κύμινον (kuminon),[3] cognate with Hebrew כמון (kammon) and Arabic كمون (kammun).[4] Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages, including kamūnu in Akkadian.[5] The ultimate source is the Sumerian word gamun.[6] The earliest attested form of the word κύμινον (kuminon) is the Mycenaean Greek ku-mi-no, written in Linear B syllabic script.[7]

Description

Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum, a member of the parsley family. The cumin plant grows to 30–50 cm (0.98–1.6 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. It is an annual herbaceous plant, with a slender, branched stem 20–30 cm tall. The leaves are 5–10 cm long, pinnate or bipinnate, with thread-like leaflets. The flowers are small, white or pink, and borne in umbels. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4–5 mm long, containing a single seed. Cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds, being oblong in shape, longitudinally ridged, and yellow-brown in color, like other members of the umbelliferae family such as caraway, parsley and dill.

History

Cumin seeds

Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Seeds excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der have been dated to the second millennium BC. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites.[8]

Originally cultivated in Iran and the Mediterranean region,[citation needed] cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). The ancient Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today), and this practice continues in Morocco. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish and Portuguese colonists. There are several different types of cumin but the most famous ones are black and green cumin which are both used in Persian cuisine.

Today, the plant is mostly grown in China, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Iran, Turkey, Morocco, Egypt, Syria, Mexico, Chile and India. Since cumin is often used as part of birdseed and exported to many countries, the plant can occur as a rare casual in many territories including Britain.[9] Cumin occurs as a rare casual in the British Isles, mainly in Southern England; but the frequency of its occurrence has declined greatly. According to the Botanical Society of the British Isles’ most recent Atlas, only one record has been confirmed since 2000.

In India, cumin has been used for millennia as a traditional ingredient of innumerable kormas, masalas, soups and other spiced gravies.In Sanskrit, Cumin is known as jiraka. Jira means “that which helps digestion”. As per Ayurveda cumin seeds promote digestion and also enhance sexual vigour. It is a stimulant, thus works on erectile dysfunctions. Cumin also increases strength. It could be because of its property of stimulating metabolic digestion which helps in a thorough absorption of micro nutrients from the food. It also enhances taste of the food and alleviates Kapha. Cumin helps in lacto genesis so it could be given in small quantity to lactating mothers.

Dust Bowl: Dust Storm Hits Great Plains (1934) (Watch the documentary!)


Dust Bowl: Dust Storm Hits Great Plains (1934)

In the 1930s, severe drought conditions in the Great Plains region of the US and decades of farming without crop rotation led to a series of devastating dust storms. The storms, called “dusters” or “black blizzards,” caused widespread ecological and agricultural damage. In May 1934, one of the worst storms to hit the Dust Bowl blew massive amounts of Great Plains topsoil all the way to the East Coast and dumped the equivalent of how many pounds of debris on Chicago, Illinois? More… Discuss

Stinging Dust & Forgotten Lives: The Dust Bowl (2008)

Uploaded on Aug 30, 2011

Ponder for a moment that you are huddled around a dimly lit lamp in a vast dusty room with your family. All eyes have a look of fear from the gusty winds shaking your home. The next morning, after the storm blows over, you look outside to find your house, barn, animals, fence, and water well have all been buried by feet of soil. All is lost. You must live…but how?

Over a hundred years ago people left the American east to find a better life. They migrated and established homestead throughout the Great Plains. There, they would prosper with fields of plenty, until, they exhausted the land. Again, they migrated westward to find a better life and provide opportunities for their starving children. STINGING DUST & FORGOTTEN LIVES presents the effects of the Dust Bowl on humanity during the 1930s. Meteorological conditions are often the first to blame, however, it was economic gain of the nation that doubled the unfortunate fate of the dusters.

For more information visit tcpfilms.com/​sdfl

Copyright 2008 by Cameron Douglas Craig and Kevin Harker Jeanes

Yerba Mate in Buenos Aires


Yerba Mate-Rosamonte_My Digital Oil Paintings Series

yerba mate tea served in gourd with bombilla straw.

Gourd and bombilla straw

Koeh-074

 

 

Newtons_cradle_animation_book_2

Yerba Mate in Buenos Aires

From The Hill: Peppergrass trail 360 VIEW (Puente Hills (Whittier) Nature Preserve Authority): Let’s Go Hiking!


Peppergrass trail 360 VIEW (Puente Hills (Whittier) Nature Preserve Authority): Let’s Go Hiking!

Eating healthy is much more expensive than 10%— Fitness Motivation


Healtth-Ebola: Ebola virus lingers in patient’s eyeball even after recovery| -ABC News


Chlorophyll


Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll is a green pigment that gives most plants their color and enables them to carry out photosynthesis, the process through which plants get energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light in the red and blue-violet portions of the visible spectrum; the green portion is not absorbed and, reflected, gives chlorophyll its characteristic green color. Only one animal has been found to use the chlorophyll it has eaten to perform photosynthesis for itself. What is it? More… Discuss

How Does Dry Cleaning Work?


How Does Dry Cleaning Work?

Dry cleaning is the process of cleaning fabrics without water. Special solvents and soaps are used so as not to harm fabrics. The practice began in France in the middle of the 19th century, after a dye-works owner noticed that his tablecloth became cleaner after his maid spilled kerosene on it. Early solvents were extremely flammable and led to many fires and explosions. Newer chlorinated hydrocarbon synthetic solvents, such as perchlorethylene, are nonflammable but pose what other dangers? More… Discuss

The Puerto Rican Parrot


The Puerto Rican Parrot

The Puerto Rican Parrot is the only remaining native parrot in US territory and one of the 10 most endangered bird species in the world. It has green feathers with black edges, a red forehead, and white ovals around the eyes. It was abundant at the time of Columbus’ arrival, but its numbers declined with the clearing of Puerto Rico’s virgin forests to make way for agricultural, mainly sugar cane, production. In 1975, the population reached an absolute low of how many individuals? More… Discuss

The History of Auto Racing


The History of Auto Racing

Automobile racing originated in France in 1894, almost immediately after the construction of the first successful petrol-fueled autos, and it appeared in the US the following year. Open-road races were banned in France in 1903, however, after they led to 8 fatalities. Today, there are several different categories of racing. In open-wheel, stock-car, and other types of circuit auto races, flags are displayed to communicate instructions to competitors. What does a black flag signify? More… Discuss

Sunflowers


Sunflowers

The sunflower is a plant native to the New World and common throughout the US. Its stem can grow up to 10 ft (3 m) tall, and its flower head, commonly having yellow rays, can reach 1 ft (30 cm) in diameter. The sunflower was domesticated around 1000 BCE in the Americas, where the Incas venerated it as an image of their sun god, and it reached Europe in the 16th century. It is valued today for its oil-bearing seeds that can be made into bread. The sunflower is the state flower of what US state? More… Discuss

quotation: Nothing contributes so much to tranquilize the mind as a steady purpose—a point on which the soul may fix its intellectual eye. Mary Shelle


Nothing contributes so much to tranquilize the mind as a steady purpose—a point on which the soul may fix its intellectual eye.

Mary Shelley (1797-1851) Discuss

FRANKENSTEIN – Frankenstein by Mary Shelley – Unabridged Audiobook 1831 Edition – FabAudioBooks

today’s holiday: Arbor Day


Arbor Day

Julius Sterling Morton (1832-1902), one of the earliest American conservationists, settled on the treeless plains of Nebraska in 1855. Morton began planting trees and urged his neighbors to do the same. On April 10, 1872, when he proposed that a day be set aside for planting trees, the response was overwhelming: a million trees were planted in Nebraska on that day alone. All 50 states now observe Arbor Day—usually on the last Friday in April. Most observances take place in public schools, where the value of trees is discussed and trees and shrubs are planted. More… Discuss

Kraft removing synthetic colors from iconic macaroni & cheese | Reuters (question: Are food formulators human, or some alien beings, completely different from the rest of us?)


A box of Kraft Velveeta shells and cheese is displayed in a grocery store in New York March 25, 2015. Reuters/Eduardo Munoz

(Reuters) – Kraft Foods Group Inc on Monday said it is revamping its family-friendly macaroni and cheese meal, removing synthetic colors and preservatives from the popular boxed dinner.

The move comes at a time when Kraft is battling sluggish demand as consumers shift to brands that are perceived as healthier, including foods that are organic or less processed.

The company has also been targeted by consumer advocacy groups. The groups have pressured Kraft to remove artificial food dyes from its products, complaining that the additives are not used, and in some cases, banned in other countries.Kraft spokeswoman Lynne Galia said the changes were being made to address concerns expressed by consumers, including demands for improved nutrition and “simpler ingredients.”

“We know parents want to feel good about the foods they eat and serve their families,” Galia said in an emailed statement about the changes to its macaroni and cheese product.

Galia said the changes will be effective by January 2016 for “Original Kraft Macaroni & Cheese” in the United States. The company is also removing synthetic colors by the end of 2016 in Canada for its Kraft Dinner Original.

In 2014, Kraft launched its Mac & Cheese Boxed Shapes with no synthetic colors, and in January of this year, the Northfield, Illinois-based company moved to no artificial preservatives for the Boxed Shapes product in the United States, the company said.

Kraft also said it is replacing synthetic colors with those derived from natural sources, like paprika, annatto and turmeric.

Heather White, executive director of the Environmental Working Group, an advocacy organization for health and environmental issues, applauded Kraft’s move and said it should be an example for other companies.

“The announcement from Kraft should be a wake-up call for other food manufacturers to take notice, go back to the drawing board, reformulate and get rid of these synthetic ingredients of concern, especially in food that is marketed to children,” White said.

Kraft Foods is one of North America’s largest consumer packaged food and beverage companies, with annual revenues of more than $18 billion. Its brands include Capri Sun, Jell-O, Kool-Aid, Lunchables, Maxwell House and Oscar Mayer.

Kraft shares were up about 1 percent at $87.58 on Monday.

(Reporting by Carey Gillam in Kansas City, Missouri; Additional reporting by Anjali Athavaley in New York; Editing by G Crosse and Lisa Shumaker)

via Kraft removing synthetic colors from iconic macaroni & cheese | Reuters.

this day in the yesteryear: First Pasteurization Test Conducted (1862)


First Pasteurization Test Conducted (1862)

Pasteurization is the process of heating beverages or food, such as milk, beer, or cheese, to a specific temperature for a specific period of time in order to kill microorganisms that could cause disease, spoilage, or undesired fermentation. The process was named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur, who conducted the first pasteurization test with fellow French scientist Claude Bernard in 1862. Why is pasteurization not designed to kill all microorganisms in food? More… Discuss

Pasteurization is the process of heating beverages or food, such as milk, beer, or cheese, to a specific temperature for a specific period of time in order to kill microorganisms that could cause disease, spoilage, or undesired fermentation. The process was named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur, who conducted the first pasteurization test with fellow French scientist Claude Bernard in 1862. Why is pasteurization not designed to kill all microorganisms in food? More… Discuss

today’s birthday: Haile Gebrselassie (1973)


Haile Gebrselassie (1973)

Widely considered one of the greatest distance runners in history, Haile Gebrselassie is an Ethiopian long-distance track and road running athlete. Over the course of his career, he has set more than 20 records and won numerous Olympic and World Championship titles, achieving major competition wins in outdoor, indoor, cross country, and road running races as short as 1,500 meters and as long as full marathons. In 1995, he beat the world record for the 5,000-meter run by how many seconds? More… Discuss

Foot Binding


Foot Binding

Foot binding originated during the Tang Dynasty (618-907) in the wealthiest parts of China. By the end of the practice’s thousand-year history, it had spread to all classes and was viewed as a status symbol. Young girls’ feet were wrapped in tight bandages that restricted growth, causing breakage and deformity. Most often, the men that foot binding was intended to impress would never see the woman’s bare feet, as they were concealed within tiny “lotus shoes.” When and why did the practice end? More… Discuss

Fighting Boko Haram: Chad aims to ‘destroy’ militant group | euronews, world news


Luis Carballo will be online to discuss his experiences in Chad on Thursday at 15:00 CET. He’ll answer your questions in English, Spanish or French so please post them in the live blog at the foot of this page, email them to askluis@scribblelive.com or Tweet them using the hashtag #askeuronewsluis. You can follow Luis on Twitter @granangular.

For more than a decade, the Islamist group Boko Haram had a limited strategy: to create an Islamic caliphate in northern Nigeria. But now it has spread its terror campaign to neighbouring countries as well.

Chad, Niger and Cameroon have responded with a military alliance which, since January, has been helping the Abuja government.

“What these children have seen, you wouldn’t wish it on your worst enemy.”

In March, Boko Haram signed a deal with ISIL, or the self proclaimed Islamic State. This turned the conflict into an international one, switching on red lights across the region and accelerating a joint offensive.

via Fighting Boko Haram: Chad aims to ‘destroy’ militant group | euronews, world news.

>>>>>>RELATED READING<<<<<<<

>>>>>>RELATED READING<<<<<<<

Champagne


Champagne

The word “Champagne,” when capitalized, refers specifically to the white, sparkling wine made in the Champagne region of France. Generally, production begins with the fermentation of grapes with low sugar and high acid levels to produce a still wine, which is blended with other wines, a small amount of sugar and yeast, and stored. During the second fermentation, carbon dioxide is trapped in the bottle. How should Champagne be poured in order to preserve the bubbles? More… Discuss

Vaccines are key to stopping the spread of disease: http://t.co/4M5IP54eGc. — U.S. Surgeon General (@Surgeon_General)


Moonshining


Moonshining

Home-distillation of alcohol came to be called “moonshining” in English speaking countries because it was usually conducted at night to avoid arrest for the production of illegal liquor. Home-distillation is, however, a world-wide phenomenon and is not illegal everywhere. In New Zealand, for example, stills are legally sold openly on the market along with instruction manuals. What used to be a common, perhaps unreliable, folk test for determining the presence of lead in moonshine? More… Discuss

this pressed for….TRANSPARENCY: U.S. Nerve Gas Hit Our Own Troops in Iraq| via NEWSWEEK/REUTERS


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Atef Hassan/Reuters

U.S. Nerve Gas Hit Our Own Troops in Iraq

By Barbara Koeppel 3/27/15 at 11:52 AM

Atef Hassan/Reuters

Filed Under: U.S., Iraq War

During and immediately after the first Gulf War, more than 200,000 of 700,000 U.S. troops sent to Iraq and Kuwait in January 1991 were exposed to nerve gas and other chemical agents. Though aware of this, the Department of Defense and CIA launched a campaign of lies and concocted a cover-up that continues today.

A quarter of a century later, the troops nearest the explosions are dying of brain cancer at two to three times the rate of those who were farther away. Others have lung cancer or debilitating chronic diseases, and pain.

More complications lie ahead.

via U.S. Nerve Gas Hit Our Own Troops in Iraq.| NEWSWEEK/REUTERS

this day in the yesteryear: Ireland Bans Smoking in All Public Places (2004)


Ireland Bans Smoking in All Public Places (2004)

In the latter part of the 20th century, research on the health risks of secondhand tobacco smoke spurred legislative bodies throughout the world to consider smoking bans. On March 29, 2004, Ireland became the first country to implement a nationwide ban on smoking in public places, including all enclosed workplaces. Many nations have since followed with similar legislation. Which Pope instituted the first known public smoking ban in 1590 by threatening smokers with excommunication? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Three Mile Island nuclear power plant radiation release Accident (1979)


Three Mile Island Accident (1979)

Both mechanical failure and human error contributed to the 1979 failure of a nuclear reactor cooling system at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Pennsylvania, which led to overheating, partial melting of the reactor’s uranium core, and the release of radioactive gases. Though it caused no immediate deaths or injuries, the incident increased public fears about the safety of nuclear power. What nuclear accident-themed film was released just two weeks before the incident? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989)


Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989)

On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker hit Prince William Sound’s Bligh Reef and spilled approximately 11 million US gallons (41 million liters) of crude oil into the sea, covering 11,000 square miles (28,000 km²) of ocean. As a result of the spill, an estimated 250,000 sea birds, 1,000 sea otters, and countless fish and other wildlife died. The ship’s captain was widely criticized after the incident, but many others factors contributed to the crash. What are some examples? More… Discuss

article: Extra Sensory Perception (ESP)


Extra Sensory Perception (ESP)

ESP is an alleged ability to acquire information by means other than the five main senses of taste, sight, touch, smell, and hearing. The term implies sources of information unknown to science. Types of ESP include clairvoyance, aura reading, telepathy, and astral projection. The study of such phenomena is often dubbed “parapsychology.” Zener cards were a common research tool for parapsychologists in the early 20th century. What is drawn on each card, and how are they used? More… Discuss

Migraines


Migraines

A migraine is a headache characterized by recurrent attacks of severe pain, usually on one side of the head. It may be preceded by flashes or spots before the eyes or a ringing in the ears, and accompanied by double vision, nausea, vomiting, or dizziness. It affects women 3 times as often as men and is frequently inherited. Although the exact cause is unknown, evidence suggests a genetically transmitted functional disturbance of cranial circulation. What is the origin of the word “migraine?” More… Discuss

Stanford scientists make leukemia ‘grow up’ and eat itself— Engadget (@engadget)


I stand with @ewg in opposing the chemical industry’s bill that will harm families – RT if you stand with us!


this day in the yesteryear: First Patient Successfully Treated with Penicillin (1942)


First Patient Successfully Treated with Penicillin (1942)

Penicillin was the first antibiotic agent successfully used to treat bacterial infections in humans. Penicillin’s effect on bacteria was first observed by biologist Alexander Fleming in 1928, but it was not until 1941 that scientists purified the substance and established that it was both effective in fighting infectious organisms and not toxic to humans. The first successful treatment occurred the next year. Where did scientists find the mold that allowed them to mass produce the drug? More… Discuss

Titanium dioxide: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (when used in foods: E171)


Titanium dioxide (E171)

READ MORE:

Dunkin’ Donuts to remove “potentially harmful” ingredient from recipe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Titanium dioxide
Titanium(IV) oxide
The unit cell of rutile
Names
IUPAC names

Titanium dioxide
Titanium(IV) oxide
Other names

Identifiers
13463-67-7 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:32234 Yes
ChEMBL ChEMBL1201136 
ChemSpider 24256 Yes
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG C13409 
PubChem 26042
RTECS number XR2775000
UNII 15FIX9V2JP Yes
Properties
TiO
2
Molar mass 79.866 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor odorless
Density 4.23 g/cm3 (Rutile)3.78 g/cm3 (Anatase)
Melting point 1,843 °C (3,349 °F; 2,116 K)
Boiling point 2,972 °C (5,382 °F; 3,245 K)
insoluble
2.488 (anatase)
2.583 (brookite)
2.609 (rutile)
Thermochemistry
50 J·mol−1·K−1[1]
−945 kJ·mol−1[1]
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 0338
EU classification Not listed
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 four-colored diamond

Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other cations
Zirconium dioxide
Hafnium dioxide
Titanium(II) oxide
Titanium(III) oxide
Titanium(III,IV) oxide
Related compounds
Titanic acid
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
  verify (what isYes/?)
Infobox references
   

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO
2
. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. Generally it is sourced from ilmenite, rutile and anatase. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food colouring. When used as a food colouring, it has E number E171.

Occurrence

Titanium dioxide occurs in nature as well-known minerals rutile, anatase and brookite, and additionally as two high pressure forms, a monoclinic baddeleyite-like form and an orthorhombic α-PbO2-like form, both found recently at the Ries crater in Bavaria.[2][3] It is mainly sourced from ilmenite ore. This is the most widespread form of titanium dioxide-bearing ore around the world. Rutile is the next most abundant and contains around 98% titanium dioxide in the ore. The metastable anatase and brookite phases convert irreversibly to the equilibrium rutile phase upon heating above temperatures in the range 600°-800 °C.[4]

Titanium dioxide has eight modifications – in addition to rutile, anatase, and brookite, three metastable phases can be produced synthetically (monoclinic, tetragonal and orthorombic), and five high-pressure forms (α-PbO2-like, baddeleyite-like, cotunnite-like, orthorhombic OI, and cubic phases) also exist:

Form Crystal system Synthesis
rutile tetragonal  
anatase tetragonal  
brookite orthorhombic  
TiO2(B)[5] monoclinic Hydrolysis of K2Ti4O9 followed by heating
TiO2(H), hollandite-like form[6] tetragonal Oxidation of the related potassium titanate bronze, K0.25TiO2
TiO2(R), ramsdellite-like form[7] orthorhombic Oxidation of the related lithium titanate bronze Li0.5TiO2
TiO2(II)-(α-PbO2-like form)[8] orthorhombic  
baddeleyite-like form, (7 coordinated Ti)[9] monoclinic  
TiO2 -OI[10] orthorhombic  
cubic form[11] cubic P > 40 GPa, T > 1600 °C
TiO2 -OII, cotunnite(PbCl2)-like[12] orthorhombic P > 40 GPa, T > 700 °C

The cotunnite-type phase was claimed by L. Dubrovinsky and co-authors to be the hardest known oxide with the Vickers hardness of 38 GPa and the bulk modulus of 431 GPa (i.e. close to diamond’s value of 446 GPa) at atmospheric pressure.[12] However, later studies came to different conclusions with much lower values for both the hardness (7–20 GPa, which makes it softer than common oxides like corundum Al2O3 and rutile TiO2)[13] and bulk modulus (~300 GPa).[14][15]

The oxides are commercially important ores of titanium. The metal can also be mined from other minerals such as ilmenite or leucoxene ores, or one of the purest forms, rutile beach sand. Star sapphires and rubies get their asterism from rutile impurities present in them.[16]

Titanium dioxide (B) is found as a mineral in magmatic rocks and hydrothermal veins, as well as weathering rims on perovskite. TiO2 also forms lamellae in other minerals.[17]

Spectral lines from titanium oxide are prominent in class M stars, which are cool enough to allow molecules of this chemical to form.

 

Production

The production method depends on the feedstock. The most common method for the production of titanium dioxide utilizes the mineral ilmenite. Ilmenite is mixed with sulfuric acid. This reacts to remove the iron oxide group in the ilmenite. The by-product iron(II) sulfate is crystallized and filtered-off to yield only the titanium salt in the digestion solution. This product is called synthetic rutile. This is further processed in a similar way to rutile to give the titanium dioxide product. Synthetic rutile and titanium slags are made especially for titanium dioxide production.[18] The use of ilminite ore usually only produces pigment grade titanium dioxide. Another method for the production of synthetic rutile from ilmenite utilizes the Becher Process.

Rutile is the second most abundant mineral sand. Rutile found in primary rock cannot be extracted hence the deposits containing rutile sand can be mined meaning a reduced availability to the high concentration ore. Crude titanium dioxide (in the form of rutile or synthetic rutile) is purified via converting to titanium tetrachloride in the chloride process. In this process, the crude ore (containing at least 70% TiO2) is reduced with carbon, oxidized with chlorine to give titanium tetrachloride; i.e., carbothermal chlorination. This titanium tetrachloride is distilled, and re-oxidized in a pure oxygen flame or plasma at 1500–2000 K to give pure titanium dioxide while also regenerating chlorine.[19] Aluminium chloride is often added to the process as a rutile promotor; the product is mostly anatase in its absence. The preferred raw material for the chloride process is natural rutile because of its high titanium dioxide content.[20]

One method for the production of titanium dioxide with relevance to nanotechnology is solvothermal Synthesis of titanium dioxide.

 
Titanium oxide nanotubes, SEM image.

 

Nanotubes

Anatase can be converted by hydrothermal synthesis to delaminated anatase inorganic nanotubes[21] and titanate nanoribbons which are of potential interest as catalytic supports and photocatalysts. In the synthesis, anatase is mixed with 10 M sodium hydroxide and heated at 130 °C for 72 hours. The reaction product is washed with dilute hydrochloric acid and heated at 400 °C for another 15 hours. The yield of nanotubes is quantitative and the tubes have an outer diameter of 10 to 20 nm and an inner diameter of 5 to 8 nm and have a length of 1 μm. A higher reaction temperature (170 °C) and less reaction volume gives the corresponding nanowires.[22]

Another process for synthesizing TiO
2
nanotubes is through anodization in an electrolytic solution. When anodized in a 0.5 weight percent HF solution for 20 minutes, well-aligned titanium oxide nanotube arrays can be fabricated with an average tube diameter of 60 nm and length of 250 nm. Based on X-ray Diffraction, nanotubes grown through anodization are amorphous.[23]

 

Applications

The most important application areas are paints and varnishes as well as paper and plastics, which account for about 80% of the world’s titanium dioxide consumption. Other pigment applications such as printing inks, fibers, rubber, cosmetic products and foodstuffs account for another 8%. The rest is used in other applications, for instance the production of technical pure titanium, glass and glass ceramics, electrical ceramics, catalysts, electric conductors and chemical intermediates.[24] It also is in most red-coloured candy.

 

Pigment

Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. Approximately 4.6 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are used annually worldwide, and this number is expected to increase as utilization continues to rise.[25] When deposited as a thin film, its refractive index and colour make it an excellent reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors and some gemstones like “mystic fire topaz“. TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as a pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, coatings, plastics, papers, inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets) as well as most toothpastes. In paint, it is often referred to offhandedly as “the perfect white”, “the whitest white”, or other similar terms. Opacity is improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide particles. Some grades of titanium based pigments as used in sparkly paints, plastics, finishes and pearlescent cosmetics are man-made pigments whose particles have two or more layers of various oxides – often titanium dioxide, iron oxide or alumina – in order to have glittering, iridescent and or pearlescent effects similar to crushed mica or guanine-based products. In addition to these effects a limited colour change is possible in certain formulations depending on how and at which angle the finished product is illuminated and the thickness of the oxide layer in the pigment particle; one or more colours appear by reflection while the other tones appear due to interference of the transparent titanium dioxide layers.[26] In some products, the layer of titanium dioxide is grown in conjunction with iron oxide by calcination of titanium salts (sulfates, chlorates) around 800 °C[27] or other industrial deposition methods such as chemical vapour deposition on substrates such as mica platelets or even silicon dioxide crystal platelets of no more than 50 µm in diameter.[28] The iridescent effect in these titanium oxide particles (which are only partly natural) is unlike the opaque effect obtained with usual ground titanium oxide pigment obtained by mining, in which case only a certain diameter of the particle is considered and the effect is due only to scattering.

In ceramic glazes titanium dioxide acts as an opacifier and seeds crystal formation.

Titanium dioxide has been shown statistically to increase skimmed milk’s whiteness, increasing skimmed milk’s sensory acceptance score.[29]

Titanium dioxide is used to mark the white lines of some tennis courts.[30]

The exterior of the Saturn V rocket was painted with titanium dioxide; this later allowed astronomers to determine that J002E3 was the S-IVB stage from Apollo 12 and not an asteroid.

 

Sunscreen and UV blocking pigments in the industry

In cosmetic and skin care products, titanium dioxide is used as a pigment, sunscreen and a thickener. It is also used as a tattoo pigment and in styptic pencils. Titanium dioxide is produced in varying particle sizes, oil and water dispersible, and in certain grades for the cosmetic industry.

Titanium dioxide is found in the majority of physical sunscreens because of its high refractive index, its strong UV light absorbing capabilities and its resistance to discolouration under ultraviolet light. This advantage enhances its stability and ability to protect the skin from ultraviolet light. Nano-scaled titanium dioxide particles are primarily used in sun screen lotion because they scatter visible light less than titanium dioxide pigments while still providing UV protection.[25] Sunscreens designed for infants or people with sensitive skin are often based on titanium dioxide and/or zinc oxide, as these mineral UV blockers are believed to cause less skin irritation than other UV absorbing chemicals.

This pigment is used extensively in plastics and other applications not only as a white pigment or an opacifier but also for its UV resistant properties where the powder disperses the light – unlike organic UV absorbers – and reduces UV damage, due mostly to the extremely high refractive index of the particles.[31] Certain polymers used in coatings for concrete[32] or those used to impregnate concrete as a reinforcement are sometimes charged with titanium white pigment for UV shielding in the construction industry, but it only delays the oxidative photodegradation of the polymer in question, which is said to “chalk” as it flakes off due to lowered impact strength and may crumble after years of exposure in direct sunlight if UV stabilizers have not been included .

 

Photocatalyst

 TiO2 fibers and spirals.

Titanium dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is a photocatalyst under ultraviolet (UV) light. It has been reported that titanium dioxide, when doped with nitrogen ions or doped with metal oxide like tungsten trioxide, is also a photocatalyst under either visible or UV light.[33] The strong oxidative potential of the positive holes oxidizes water to create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials directly. Hence, in addition to its use as a pigment, titanium dioxide can be added to paints, cements, windows, tiles, or other products for its sterilizing, deodorizing and anti-fouling properties and is used as a hydrolysis catalyst. It is also used in dye-sensitized solar cells, which are a type of chemical solar cell (also known as a Graetzel cell).

The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide were discovered by Akira Fujishima in 1967[34] and published in 1972.[35] The process on the surface of the titanium dioxide was called the Honda-Fujishima effect (ja:本多-藤嶋効果).[34] Titanium dioxide, in thin film and nanoparticle form has potential for use in energy production: as a photocatalyst, it can carry out hydrolysis; i.e., break water into hydrogen and oxygen. With the hydrogen collected, it could be used as a fuel. The efficiency of this process can be greatly improved by doping the oxide with carbon.[36] Further efficiency and durability has been obtained by introducing disorder to the lattice structure of the surface layer of titanium dioxide nanocrystals, permitting infrared absorption.[37]

In 1995 Fujishima and his group discovered the superhydrophilicity phenomenon for titanium dioxide coated glass exposed to sun light.[34] This resulted in the development of self-cleaning glass and anti-fogging coatings.

TiO2 incorporated into outdoor building materials, such as paving stones in noxer blocks[38] or paints, can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides.[39]

A photocatalytic cement that uses titanium dioxide as a primary component, produced by Italcementi Group, was included in Time‘s Top 50 Inventions of 2008.[40]

Attempts have been made to photocatalytically mineralize pollutants (to convert into CO2 and H2O) in waste water.[41] TiO2 offers great potential as an industrial technology for detoxification or remediation of wastewater due to several factors:[42]

  1. The process uses natural oxygen and sunlight and thus occurs under ambient conditions; it is wavelength selective and is accelerated by UV light.
  2. The photocatalyst is inexpensive, readily available, non-toxic, chemically and mechanically stable, and has a high turnover.
  3. The formation of photocyclized intermediate products, unlike direct photolysis techniques, is avoided.
  4. Oxidation of the substrates to CO2 is complete.
  5. TiO2 can be supported as thin films on suitable reactor substrates, which can be readily separated from treated water.[43]

Electronic data storage medium

In 2010, researchers at the University of Tokyo, Japan have created a crystal form of titanium oxide with particles 5 to 20 nanometers that can be switched between two states with light. Use of the 5 nm particles could theoretically lead to a 25 TB storage disc.[44]

Other applications

 
Synthetic single crystals of TiO2, ca. 2–3 mm in size, cut from a larger plate.

Health and safety

Titanium dioxide is incompatible with strong reducing agents and strong acids.[50] Violent or incandescent reactions occur with molten metals that are very electropositive, e.g. aluminium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc and lithium.[51]

Titanium dioxide accounts for 70% of the total production volume of pigments worldwide.[citation needed] It is widely used to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, plastics, papers, inks, foods, and toothpastes. It is also used in cosmetic and skin care products, and it is present in almost every sunblock, where it helps protect the skin from ultraviolet light.

Many sunscreens use nanoparticle titanium dioxide (along with nanoparticle zinc oxide) which, despite reports of potential health risks,[52] is not actually absorbed through the skin.[53] Other effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human health are not well understood.[54] Nevertheless, allergy to topical application has been confirmed.[55]

Titanium dioxide dust, when inhaled, has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as an IARC Group 2B carcinogen, meaning it is possibly carcinogenic to humans.[56] The findings of the IARC are based on the discovery that high concentrations of pigment-grade (powdered) and ultrafine titanium dioxide dust caused respiratory tract cancer in rats exposed by inhalation and intratracheal instillation.[57] The series of biological events or steps that produce the rat lung cancers (e.g. particle deposition, impaired lung clearance, cell injury, fibrosis, mutations and ultimately cancer) have also been seen in people working in dusty environments. Therefore, the observations of cancer in animals were considered, by IARC, as relevant to people doing jobs with exposures to titanium dioxide dust. For example, titanium dioxide production workers may be exposed to high dust concentrations during packing, milling, site cleaning and maintenance, if there are insufficient dust control measures in place. However, the human studies conducted so far do not suggest an association between occupational exposure to titanium dioxide and an increased risk for cancer. The safety of the use of nano-particle sized titanium dioxide, which can penetrate the body and reach internal organs, has been criticized.[58] Studies have also found that titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause inflammatory response and genetic damage in mice.[59][60] The mechanism by which TiO
2
may cause cancer is unclear. Molecular research suggests that cell cytotoxicity due to TiO
2
results from the interaction between TiO
2
nanoparticles and the lysosomal compartment, independently of the known apoptotic signalling pathways.[61]

The body of research regarding the carcinogenicity of different particle sizes of titanium dioxide has led the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to recommend two separate exposure limits. NIOSH recommends that fine TiO
2
particles be set at an exposure limit of 2.4 mg/m3, while ultrafine TiO
2
be set at an exposure limit of 0.3 mg/m3, as time-weighted average concentrations up to 10 hours a day for a 40 hour work week.[62] These recommendations reflect the findings in the research literature that show smaller titanium dioxide particles are more likely to pose carcinogenic risk than the larger titanium dioxide particles.

There is some evidence the rare disease yellow nail syndrome may be caused by titanium, either implanted for medical reasons or through eating various foods containing titanium dioxide.[63]

See also

References

 

Adulterated food


Adulterated food

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adulterated food is impure, unsafe, or unwholesome food. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), regulates and enforces laws on food safety and has technical definitions of adulterated food in various United States laws.

History

Products that are adulterated under these laws’ definitions cannot enter into commerce for human consumption. In India, food adulteration is increasing daily.

Adulteration Definition

“Adulteration” is a legal term meaning that a food product fails to meet federal or state standards. Adulteration is an addition of a non food item to increase the quantity of the food item in raw form or prepared form, which may result in the loss of actual quality of food item. Among meat and meat products one of the items used to adulterate are water, dead carcasses, Carcasses of animals other than the animal meant to be consumed.

1938 – Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act== The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act (1938) provides that food is “adulterated” if it meets any one othe following criteria: (1) it bears or contains any “poisonous or deleterious substance” which may render it injurious to health; (2) it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than a pesticide residue, food additive, color additive, or new animal drug, which are covered by separate provisions) that is unsafe; (3) its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or (4) it bears or contains a pesticide chemical residue that is unsafe. (Note: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes tolerances for pesticide residues in foods, which are enforced by the FDA.)

Food also meets the definition of adulteration if: (5) it is, or it bears or contains, an unsafe food additive; (6) it is, or it bears or contains, an unsafe new animal drug; (7) it is, or it bears or contains, an unsafe colour additive; (8) it consists, in whole or in part, of “any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance” or is otherwise unfit for food; or (9) it has been prepared, packed, or held under unsanitary conditions (insect, rodent, or bird infestation) whereby it may have become contaminated with filth or rendered injurious to health.

Further, food is considered adulterated if: (10) it has been irradiated and the irradiation processing was not done in conformity with a regulation permitting irradiation of the food in question (the FDA has approved irradiation of a number of foods, including refrigerated or frozen uncooked meat, fresh or frozen uncooked poultry, and seeds for sprouting [21 C.F.R. Part 179].); (11) it contains a dietary ingredient that presents a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury under the conditions of use recommended in labeling (for example, foods or dietary supplements containing aristolochic acids, which have been linked to kidney failure, have been banned.); (12) a valuable constituent has been omitted in whole or in part or replaced with another substance; damage or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or a substance has been added to increase the product’s bulk or weight, reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear of greater value than it is (this is “economic adulteration”); or (13) it is offered for import into the United States and is a food that has previously been refused admission, unless the person reoffering the food establishes that it is in compliance with U.S. law [21 U.S.C. § 342].

Federal Meat Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Act

The Federal Meat Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957 contain similar provisions for meat and poultry products. [21 U.S.C. § 453(g), 601(m).

Poisonous or deleterious substances

Generally, if a food contains a poisonous or deleterious substance that may render it injurious to health. It can cause various harms. It is adulterated. For example, apple cider contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 and Brie cheese contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes are adulterated. There are two exceptions to this general rule. First, if the poisonous substance is inherent or naturally occurring and its quantity in the food does not ordinarily render it injurious to health, the food will not be considered adulterated. Thus, a food that contains a natural toxin at very low levels that would not ordinarily be harmful (for instance, small amounts of amygdalin in apricot kernels) is not adulterated.

Second, if the poisonous or deleterious substance is unavoidable and is within an established tolerance, regulatory limit, or action level, the food will not be deemed to be adulterated. Tolerances and regulatory limits are thresholds above which a food will be considered adulterated. They are binding on FDA, the food industry, and the courts. Action levels are limits at or above which FDA may regard food as adulterated. They are not binding on FDA. FDA has established numerous action levels (for example, one part per million methylmercury in fish), which are set forth in its booklet Action Levels for Poisonous or Deleterious Substances in Human Food and Animal Feed.

If a food contains a poisonous substance in excess of a tolerance, regulatory limit, or action level, mixing it with “clean” food to reduce the level of contamination is not allowed. The deliberate mixing of adulterated food with good food renders the finished product adulterated (FDA, Compliance Policy Guide [CPG § 555.200]).

Filth and foreign matter of adulteration

Filth and extraneous material include any objectionable substances in foods, such as foreign matter (for example, glass, metal, plastic, wood, stones, sand, cigarette butts), undesirable parts of the raw plant material (such as stems, pits in pitted olives, pieces of shell in canned oysters), and filth (namely, mold, rot, insect and rodent parts, excreta, decomposition). Under a strict reading of the FD&C Act, any amount of filth in a food would render it a, however, authorize the agency to issue Defect Action Levels (DALs) for natural, unavoidable defects that at low levels do not pose a human health hazard [21 C.F.R. § 110.110]. These DALs are advisory only; they do not have the force of law and do not bind FDA. DALs are set forth in FDA’s Compliance Policy Guides and are compiled in the FDA and Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) Defect Action Level Handbook.

In most cases, DALs are food-specific and defect-specific. For example, the DAL for insect fragments in peanut butter is an average of thirty or more insect fragments per 100 grams (g) [CPG § 570.300]. In the case of hard or sharp foreign objects, the DAL, which is based on the size of the object and the likelihood it will pose a risk of choking or injury, applies to all foods (see CPG § 555.425).

Economic-adulteration

A food is adulterated if it omits a valuable constituent or substitutes another substance, in whole or in part, for a valuable constituent (for instance, olive oil diluted with tea tree oil); conceals damage or inferiority in any manner (such as fresh fruit with food coloring on its surface to conceal defects); or any substance has been added to it or packed with it to increase its bulk or weight, reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear bigger or of greater value than it is (for example, scallops to which water has been added to make them heavier).

Microbiological contamination and adulteration of food

The fact that a food is contaminated with pathogens (harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or protozoa) may, or may not, render it adulterated. Generally, for ready-to-eat foods, the presence of pathogens will render the food adulterated. For example, the presence of Salmonella on fresh fruits or vegetables or in ready-to-eat meat or poultry products (such as luncheon meats) will render those products are adulterated.

For meat and poultry products, which are regulated by USDA, the rules are more complicated. Ready-to-eat meat and poultry products contaminated with pathogens, such as Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes, are adulterated. (Note that hotdogs are considered ready-to-eat products.) For raw meat or poultry products, the presence of pathogens will not always render a product adulterated (because raw meat and poultry products are intended to be cooked, and proper cooking should kill pathogens). Raw poultry contaminated with Salmonella is not adulterated. then also, USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has ruled that raw meat or poultry products contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 are adulterated. This is because normal cooking methods may not reduce E. coli O157:H7 below infectious levels. E. coli O157:H7 is the only pathogen that is considered an adulterant when present in raw meat or poultry products.

Enforcement actions

If a food is adulterated, FDA and FSIS have a broad array of enforcement tools.They are of various types. These include seizing and condemning the product, detaining imported product, enjoining persons from manufacturing or distributing the product, or requesting a recall of the product. Enforcement action is usually preceded by a Warning Letter from FDA to the manufacturer or distributor of the adulterated product. In the case of an adulterated meat or poultry product, FSIS has certain additional powers. FSIS may suspend or withdraw federal inspection of an official establishment. Without federal inspection, an establishment may not produce or process meat or poultry products, and therefore must cease operations. With the exception of infant formula, neither FDA nor FSIS has the authority to require a company to recall an adulterated food product. However, the ability to generate negative publicity gives them considerable powers of persuasion.

State regulators generally have similar enforcement tools at their disposal to prevent the manufacture and distribution of adulterated food. In addition, many states have the authority to immediately embargo adulterated food and to impose civil fines. Federal agencies often will coordinate with state or local authorities to remove unsafe food from the market as quickly as possible.

Food Adulterant Detection
Arhar Pulse Kesarri Pulse Kesari Pulse has a characteristic wedge shape. Larger Kesari resembles Arhar (Tur). It can be separated by visual examination.
Asafoetida Resin and colour Take a little amount of small parts of the sample in test tube. Add 3 ml of distilled water and shake the tube gently. Pure asafoetida dissolves in water very quickly and produces a milky white colour, but in case of adulteration with a chemical colour the mixture turns to be coloured. The purity of asafoetida may also be examined by taking a little amount of it on the tip of a fork and placing the same on the flame of a spirit lamp. Asafoetida burns quickly, producing bright flame and leaving the impurities behind.
Black Pepper Papaya Seeds Papaya seeds do not have any smell and are relatively smaller in size. Adulteration of papaya seed with Black Pepper may be detected by way of visual examination as also by way of smelling.
Coffee powder Cereal starch Take a small quantity (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube and add 3 ml of distilled water in it. Light a spirit lamp and heat the contents to colourize. Add 33 ml of a solution of potassium permanganate and muratic acid (1:1) to decolourize the mixture. The formation of blue colour in mixture by addition of a drop of 1% aqueous solution of iodine indicated adulteration with starch.
Coffee powder Powder of scorched persimmon stones Take a small quantity (1 tea-spoon) of the sample and spread it on a moistened blotting paper. Pour on it, with much care, 3 ml of 2% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate. A red colouration indicates the presence of powder of scorched persimmon stones in coffee powder.
Coriander powder Saw Dust Take a little amount (a half of tea-spoon) of the sample. Sprinkle it on water in a bowl. Spice powder gets sedimented at the bottom and saw-dust floats on the surface.
Cumin Powder Saw Dust Take a little amount (a half of tea-spoon) of the sample. Sprinkle it on water in a bowl. Spice powder gets sedimented at the bottom and saw-dust floats on the surface.
Dry red chilli Rhodamine B colour Take a red chilli from the sample and rub the outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in liquid paraffin. The sample is adulterated if the cotton becomes red.
Dry turmeric root Metanil yellow colour Take a piece of dry turmeric root and rub the outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in liquid paraffin. A yellow colouration of cotton indicates adulteration of turmeric root with metanil yellow colour.
Gram powder Kesari powder Take a little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube with 3 ml of distilled water. Add 3 ml of muratic acid. Immerse the tube in warm water. Check the tube after 15 minutes. A violet colouration indicates the presence of Kesari powder in Gram powder.
Gram powder Metanil yellow colour Take a small quantity (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. Add 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates adulteration of gram powder with metanil yellow.
Green vegetables like Bitter Gourd, Green Chilli and others Malachite Green Take a small part of the sample and place it on a piece of moistened white blotting paper. The impression of colour on the paper indicates the use of malachite green, or any other low priced artificial colour.
Green vegetables like Bitter Gourd, Green Chilli and others Malachite Green Rub the outer green surface of a small part of the sample with a liquid paraffin soaked cotton. The sample is adulterated when the white cotton turns green.
Jaggery Metanil yellow colour Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol and shake the tube vigorously to mix up the contents. Pour 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates the presence of metanil yellow colour in jaggery.
Jaggery Sodium bicarbonate Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of muratic acid. The presence of sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate effects effervescence.
Parched rice Urea Take 30 pieces of parched rice in a test tube. Add 5 ml of distilled water. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. After 5 minutes, filter water contents and add to it a little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of powder of arhar or soyabean. Wait for another 5 minutes and then dip a red litmus paper in the mixture. Lift the paper after 30 seconds and examine it. A blue colouration indicates the use of urea in parched rice.
Pigeon Pea (Toor Dal) Metanil Yellow Take a small handful of the pulse and boil it. Strain the water and grind the boiled peas with a mortar and pestle. Transfer this sample into a test tube and add 10cc of distlled water.Shake the test tube rigorously to mix up the contents thoroughly. Add 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates adulteration of peas with metanil yellow.
Processed food, sweetmeat or syrup Metanil Yellow Take little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 10 drops of muratic acid or hydrochloric acid in it. The appearance of rosy colour indicates adulteration of food with metanil yellow.
Processed food, sweetmeat or syrup Rhodamine B colour The presence of this chemical colour in food is very easy to detect as it shines very brightly under sun. A more precise methods of detection is also there.Take a little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of carbon tetrachloride and shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. The mixture becomes colourless and an addition of a drop of hydrochloric acid brings the colour back when food contains Rhodamine B colour.
Rice Earth, sand, grit, unhusked paddy, rice bran, talc, etc. These adulterants may be detected visually and removed by way of sorting, picking, and washing.
Sweet potato Rhodamine B colour Take a small part of the sample and rub the red outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in liquid paraffin. The cotton adhering colour indicates the use of Rhodamine B colour on outer surface of the sweet potato.
Tea Leaves Coal Tar Dye Scatter a little amount (1 tea-spoon) of the sample on a moistened white blotting paper. After 5 minutes, remove the sample and examine the paper. A revelation of coloured spots indicates the use of the dye.
Tea Leaves Iron Flakes Spread a small quantity (2 tea-spoon) of the sample on a piece of paper. Draw a magnet over it. Iron flakes, if present, cling to the magnet. The same test may be carried out to trace iron flakes from tea half-dust and iron filings from tea dust.
Tea Leaves Leather Flakes Prepare a paper-ball. Fire the ball and drop a little amount of the sample on it. The presence of leather flakes emits an odour of burnt leather.
Turmeric powder Metanil yellow colour Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. Add 10 drops of muratic acid or hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates the use of metanil yellow colour in turmeric powder.
Wheat Earth, sand, grit, chopped straw, bran, unhusked grain, and seeds of weeds. These adulterants may be detected visually and removed by way of sorting, picking, and washing.

Hilary Hahn plays Johannes Brahms Violin Concerto in D Op 77


Hilary Hahn plays Johannes Brahms Violin Concerto in D Op 77

this day in the yesteryear: Courrières Mine Disaster (1906)


Courrières Mine Disaster (1906)

The Courrières mine disaster, the worst mining accident in European history, killed 1,099 miners in Northern France. It is generally agreed that the majority of the deaths and destruction were caused by an explosion of dust which swept through the mine, however, it has never been ascertained what caused the coal dust to ignite in the first place. A group of 13 trapped survivors, later known as the rescapés, was found by rescuers 20 days after the explosion. How had they survived? More… Discuss

Piña Coladas


Piña Coladas

The Piña Colada is a sweet cocktail made of rum, coconut cream, and pineapple juice blended with crushed ice and typically garnished with a pineapple wedge and a maraschino cherry. Its name means “strained pineapple” in Spanish. Several bartenders claim ownership of the drink, which was created in Puerto Rico and has been the country’s official beverage since 1978. There are many variations on the cocktail, such as the coconut-free “Staten Island Ferry,” and the “Lava Flow,” which contains what? More… Discuss

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The Pina Colada Song

Escape “The Pina Colada Song”

This Pressed-every life counts: Africa – Egypt schoolboy dies after teacher beating, ministry says – France 24


Latest update : 2015-03-09

A Cairo schoolboy died on Sunday after being severely beaten by his teacher who has now been suspended, Egypt’s education ministry said as an inquiry was launched.

Corporal punishment is common in Egyptian schools, where official negligence has been blamed for the deaths in late 2014 of two children in accidents because of badly maintained equipment.

The 12-year-old pupil died on Sunday “after being beaten by a teacher the previous day”, a ministry statement said.

It said the teacher has been suspended and an “urgent inquiry” started to determine the circumstances of the boy’s death.

The child had head injuries and suffered a brain haemorrhage, forensics department chief Hisham Abdel Hamid told AFP.

The number of child abuse cases in Egypt has reached alarming proportions.

Between January 2014 and the end of October, attacks on children increased by 55 percent compared with the average over the previous three years, the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood said in December.

It said 50 percent of the cases of violence against children were registered in schools.

In September, the director of a Cairo orphanage was sentenced to three years in jail for assaulting minors.

Video footage posted on the Internet show him beating children who run away screaming.

(AFP)

Date created : 2015-03-09

via Africa – Egypt schoolboy dies after teacher beating, ministry says – France 24.

this pressed: U.N. inquiry on Gaza war crimes seeks delay of report to June: statement


U.N. inquiry on Gaza war crimes seeks delay of report to June: statement.

GENEVA (Reuters) – U.N. investigators looking at possible war crimes committed by all sides during the Gaza war last year have asked to postpone publication of their report from March until June to consider further evidence received, a U.N. statement said on Monday.

Their report on violations by Israeli armed forces and Hamas militants in Gaza during the July-August conflict was due to be issued to the U.N. Human Rights Council in Geneva on March 23.

In a statement, Council President Joachim Ruecker said that he backed the request for a deferral to June 2015 to finalize a comprehensive report by the team of investigators. The 47-nation Council is expected to approve the postponement before its ongoing main annual session ends on March 27.

The commission of inquiry’s former chairman, William Schabas, stepped down last month after Israeli allegations of bias due to consultancy work he did for the Palestine Liberation Organisation. Israel wants the report shelved.

Mary McGowan Davis, who succeeded Schabas as chair, said in a letter to Council president Ruecker, also made public on Monday: “In this context, the Commission must analyze with the utmost objectivity the large number of additional submissions and documents received over the past few weeks from both sides, relating to the fact-finding dimension of our mandate.”

Some 2,256 Palestinians were killed during the latest Gaza conflict, of whom 1,563 were civilians including 538 children, while 66 Israeli soldiers and five civilians died, U.N. special rapporteur Makarim Wibisono said in a separate report last week. He called on Israel to investigate killings of civilians.

(Reporting by Stephanie Nebehay; Editing by Mark Heinrich)

09/03/2015 19:26     by: Reuters: World News

via U.N. inquiry on Gaza war crimes seeks delay of report to June: statement.

THIS YEAR’S international Women’s Day 2015 EVENTS BY COUNTRY


International Women's Day

THIS YEAR’S international Women’s Day 2015 EVENTS BY COUNTRY

Add International Women’s Day events >>> HERE<<<

this day in the yesteryear: The Gnadenhütten Massacre (1782)


The Gnadenhütten Massacre (1782)

During the American Revolution, the Lenape, or Delaware, group of Native Americans found itself divided on the issue of which side, if any, to take in the conflict. Some members elected to fight against the Americans, while others—particularly Christian converts—remained neutral. In 1782, an American militia seeking revenge for Native American raids on frontier settlements killed 96 Christian Delawares in Gnadenhütten, Ohio. What military leader was later killed in retaliation for Gnadenhütten? More… Discuss

Article: Quinoa


Quinoa

Quinoa is a tall annual herb whose seeds have provided a staple food for peoples of the higher Andes since pre-Columbian times. In the Inca Empire, where only the potato was more widely grown, quinoa is said to have been sacred. The year’s first furrows were opened ceremoniously with a gold implement. In the US and other non-Andean nations, quinoa is now a popular alternative to rice and other grains for its higher protein content. What is typically removed from freshly harvested quinoa seeds? More… Discuss