Here is the list of mercury related research with a sentence of explanation. You will see that it
lays out a very clear picture of exposure, intake, body burden, distribution and
pathophysiology related to mercury released from set dental amalgam. The authors email was
provided when I had their address. Almost all of the authors are available if needed except
Michael Ziff who has passed away.
Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL: Intra-oral air mercury released from dental amalgam. J Den Res
64:1069-71, 1985 Murray Vimy <email@example.com>
First they measured the intra-oral levels of mercury generated using a standardized technique.
Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL: Serial measurements of intra-oral air mercury; Estimation of daily
dose from dental amalgam. J Dent Res 64(8):1072-5, 1985. Murray Vimy <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Next they measured these levels over time and found that they slowly drop back to baseline
after 90 minutes.
Vimy MJ, Luft AJ, Lorscheider FL, Estimation of Mercury Body Burden from Dental Amalgam
Computer Simulation of a Metabolic Compartment Model J. Dent. Res 1986 65(12):1415-
1419, December, 1986 Murray Vimy <email@example.com>
Then they used a computer simulation to determine what body burden they would likely
Hahn LJ ; Kloiber R; Vimy MJ; Takahashi Y; Lorscheider F; Dental “silver” tooth fillings: a
source of mercury exposure revealed by whole-body image scan and tissue analysis. FASEB J.
3:2641-2646; 1989 Murray Vimy <firstname.lastname@example.org>
The Calgary Medical School felt that further human experimentation might unnecessarily
expose experimental subjects to excessive levels of mercury so our work turned to animals.
The sheep is the most common obstetric mammal. The first experiment with sheep was a
distribution tracer study that found out where the mercury spread to once released from the
Vimy M. Hahn LJ. Klober R Takahashi Y. Lorscheider FL. Mercury uptake in sheep fetus from
dental fillings, 32nd Annual Meeting of the Canadian Federation of Biological Societies 14-17
June 1989 and 2nd Meeting of the International Society for Trace Element Research in
Humans 8/89 Murray Vimy <email@example.com>
The next experiment looked at spread of mercury from installed amalgam fillings into a fetus
since the fetus is the most vulnerable to harm from heavy metal exposure during
Summers, A.O.; Wireman, J.; Microbiology Department University of Georgia: Vimy, M.J.;
Lorscheider, F.L. Department of Medicine and Physiology, University of Calgary, Alberta,
Canada Increased mercury resistance in monkey gingival and intestinal bacterial flora after
placement of dental “silver” fillings abstract The Physiologist 8/15/90 Email: Ann Summers
Dr. Summers contacted the research team in Calgary and asked to participate in the next
project. She found that installing amalgam fillings in wild caught monkeys caused antibiotic
resistant organisms to develop in the intestinal flora within two weeks.
Hahn, Leszek J.; Kloiber, Reinhard; Leininger, Ronald W.; Vimy, Murray J.; & Lorscheider,
Fritz L. Whole-body imaging of the distribution of mercury released from dental fillings into
monkey tissues. FASEB, Vol. 4, Nov. 1990, pp. 3256-3260.
http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/abstract/4/14/3256Murray Vimy <firstname.lastname@example.org>
The Calgary Medical School team repeated the amalgam mercury distribution study and found
that primates spread the mercury from amalgam just like sheep.
Vimy M.J., Boyd N.D., Hooper D.E. and Lorscheider F.L., Glomerular filtration impairment by
mercury released from dental ”silver” fillings in sheep. Department of Medicine, Pathology,
and Physiology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Abstract The Physiologist August 15,
1990 Murray Vimy <email@example.com>
Measurements of sheep kidney function found a 60% drop in inulin clearance. This is a clear
sign that amalgams impacted kidney function in the sheep.
Vimy, MJ; Takahashi, Y; Lorscheider, FL Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203 Hg)
released from dental amalgam fillings the American Physiology Society 0363-6119/90 R939-
945 Murray Vimy <firstname.lastname@example.org> In this complex experiment twin sheep fetuses
mercury blood levels were measured both during development and after birth. They found that
mercury transferred across both the placental membrane prenatally and into the milk
Lorscheider, Fritz L. Ph.D. Murray J. Vimy, D.M.D. Department of Physiology and Medicine
Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1Canada Mercury exposure from
‘silver’ fillings. The Lancet. Vol. 337, May 4, ’91, p. 1103. Murray Vimy <email@example.com>
This article is a point by point review of mercury from amalgam exposure.
Summers, A.O.;Vimy, M.J.; Lorscheider, F. University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA &
University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, Alberta, Canada “Silver” dental fillings provoke
an increase in mercury and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the mouth and intestines of
primates. The Alliance for Prudent Use of Antibiotics Vol. 9 No. 3 Fall 1991 Murray Vimy <firstname.lastname@example.org> Email: Ann Summers <email@example.com> Professor Summers
reports her additional research into the antibiotic resistance in primates that amalgam
Boyd, N.D.;Benediktsson, H.;Vimy, M.J.; Hooper, D.E.;Lorscheider, F.L. Mercury from dental
“silver” tooth fillings impairs sheep kidney function The American Physiological Society 0363-
6119 P R1010-R1014 11/1991 Email: Boyd E. Haley <firstname.lastname@example.org>
The damage to the sheep’s kidney from amalgam was given before the American Physiological
Duhr, E; Pendergrass, C; Kasarskis, E; Slevin, J; Haley, B. Hg2+ Induces GTP-Tubulin
Interactions in Rat Brain Similar to Those Observed in Alzheimer’s Disease. Federation of
American Societies for Experimental Biology (FESAB). 75th Annual Meeting. Atlanta, GA 21-25
April 1991. Abstract 493 http://www.altcorp.com/DentalInformation/admercury.htm
Email: “Boyd E. Haley” <email@example.com> Curt Pendergrass <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Dr. Haley’s team found they could reproduce all of the 7 histological hallmark signs of
Alzheimer’s Disease only by using inhaled elemental mercury vapor. This is the form that
comes off amalgam.
Ziff, MF. Documented Clinical Side-Effects to Dental Amalgam. Adv Dent Res, 6:131-4, 1992
Dr. Ziff reported an extensive list of diseases that have been linked to amalgam in the peer
reviewed scientific literature including periodontal disease (gum disease).
Lorscheider, Fritz and Vimy, Murray Evaluation of the safety of mercury released from dental
fillings. FASEB Journal Vol. 7 Dec. 1993 Murray Vimy <email@example.com>>
This is the first editorial ever published in the prestigious journal FASEB. It was by invitation of
the editor since the earlier animal research published in FASEB had raised so much invalid
criticism from the dental organizations. Summers, A.O., Wireman, J., Vimy, M.J., Lorscheider, F.L. Marshall, B., Levy, S.B., Bennett,
S., and Billard, L. Mercury released from dental “silver” fillings provokes an increase in
mercury and antibiotic resistant bacteria in primates oral and intestinal flora. Antimicrobial
Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 37 pp. 825-834, 1993 Email: Ann Summers
<firstname.lastname@example.org> Murray Vimy <email@example.com> Dr. Summers continues to
refine and define the findings of antibiotic resistance in animals and humans exposed to
J Wireman, CA Liebert, T Smith and AO Summers Association of mercury resistance with
antibiotic resistance in the gram-negative fecal bacteria of primates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,
Nov 1997, 4494-4503, Vol 63, No. 11 http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/63/11/4494
Dr. Wireman confirms the earlier research of Dr. Summers.
Palkiewicz, Pawel; Zwiers, Henk & Lorscheider, Fritz ADP-Ribosilation of Brain Neuronal
Proteins Is Altered by In Vitro and In vivo Exposure to Inorganic Mercury Journal of
Neurochemistry 62, 2049-2052 1994
&dopt=Abstract Palkiewicz finds that mercury can produce the neurochemical lesions of
Alzheimer’s Disease both in the test tube and in live animals.
Status Quo and Perspectives of amalgam and other Dental Materials, International Symposium
Proceedings Friberg, LT; Schrauzer, G.N. eds Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart – New York 1995
ISBN 3-13-102471-2 1994
The German Department of Health had banned amalgam use in women and children following
the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology in Düsseldorf in 1992. Members of
the dental profession protested that they hadn’t been given an opportunity to present their
evidence of safety. This conference consisted of 25 presenters and 2 moderators who are
experts in mercury. The peer reviewed conclusions supported the German ban on exposure of
children and women of childbearing age to mercury from amalgam.
7 members of the IAOMT participated in this historic conference:
1. D C Kennedy Biocompatible Restorative Dentistry
2. B E Haley & J C Pendergrass Mercury-EDTA Complex Specifically Blocks Brain b-TubulinGTP Interactions: Similarity to Observations in Alzheimer’s Disease
Email: “Boyd E. Haley” <firstname.lastname@example.org>
3. F L Lorscheider Mercury Exposure from “Silver” dental Fillings: Current Research Findings
about Uptake, Tissue Distribution, and Pathophysiology
4. M F Ziff Dental amalgam: Status Quo, Political Aspects, International Situation
5. D J Pleva Mercury Release From Dental Amalgam
6. Masi, J. V. Corrosion of amalgams in restorative materials: the problem and the promise.
James Masi <email@example.com>
Toxic Teeth: Chronic Mercury Poisoning of Modern Man, Vimy Chemistry and Industry p 14-17
Murray Vimy <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Echeverria, D.; Aposhian, H.V.; Woods, J.S.; Heyer, NJ; Aposhian MM; Bitner, AC, Jr; Mahurin,
RK; Cianciola, M., Neurobehavorial effect from exposure to dental amalgam Hgo: New
distinctions between recent exposure and Hg body burden FASEB J., Vol. 12 pp. 971-980,
This research team in a series of experiments has measured significant neurological
impairment in amalgam bearers and dental personnel as well as mercury-free dentists.
Vimy MJ, Hooper DE, King WW, Lorscheider FL : Mercury from Maternal “Silver” Tooth Fillings
in Sheep and Human Breast Milk Biological Trace Element Research Vol. 56, 1997 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=916466
0&dopt=Abstract The Calgary research team demonstrated that mercury from amalgam enters
both animal and human milk and, therefore, poses a significant risk to infants.
Leong CCW, Syed NI, Lorscheider FL Retrograde Degeneration of Neurite Membrane Structural
Integrity of Nerve Growth Cones Following in vitro Exposure to Mercury NeuroReport Vol. 12
#4, 2001 You can watch this video and animation on the IAOMT web site at http://www.iaomt.org)
The video from this research shows that the introduction of 100 times less mercury than found
in the cerebral spinal fluid of amalgam bearers into a cell culture of growing nerve cells
immediately halts growth and produces neurofibrillar tangles similar to those seen in
WHO Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury. World Health Organization,
The WHO has determined that dental amalgam is the predominant source of human exposure
human daily dose of mercury from various sources is:
Dental amalgam = 3.0-17.0µg/day (Hg vapor)
Fish and Seafood = 2.3 µg/day (methylmercury)
Other food = 0.3 µg/day(inorganic Hg)
Air & Water = Negligible traces
“A specific no-observed–effect level (NOEL) cannot be established”
In 1991 Dr. Murray Vimy our founder participated in the WHO assessment of the daily dose
received from amalgam in Genoa, Italy. The conclusions of this expert ad hoc committee are
now in the Criteria document 118. Email: Murray Vimy <email@example.com>
Inhalation of mercury vapor (Hg0) inhibits binding of GTP to rat brain tubulin, thereby inhibiting tubulin polymerization into microtubules. A similar molecular lesion has also been observed in 80% of brains from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared to age-matched controls. However the precise site and mode of action of Hg ions remain illusive. Therefore, the present study examined whether Hg ions could affect membrane dynamics of neurite growth cone morphology and behavior. Since tubulin is a highly conserved cytoskeletal protein in both vertebrates and invertebrates, we hypothesized that growth cones from animal species could be highly susceptible to Hg ions. To test this possibility, the identified, large Pedal A (PeA) neurons from the central ring ganglia of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis were cultured for 48 h in 2 ml brain conditioned medium (CM). Following neurite outgrowth, metal chloride solution (2 μl) of Hg, Al, Pb, Cd, or Mn (10-7 M) was pressure applied directly onto individual growth cones. Time-lapse images with inverted microscopy were acquired prior to, during, and after the metal ion exposure. We demonstrate that Hg ions markedly disrupted membrane structure and linear growth rates of imaged neurites in 77% of all nerve growth cones. When growth cones were stained with antibodies specific for both tubulin and actin, it was the tubulin/microtubule structure that disintegrated following Hg exposure. Moreover, some denuded neurites were also observed to form neurofibrillary aggregates. In contrast, growth cone exposure to other metal ions did not effect growth cone morphology, nor was their motility rate compromised. To determine the growth suppressive effects of Hg ions on neuronal sprouting, cells were cultured either in the presence or absence of Hg ions. We found that in the presence of Hg ions, neuronal somata failed to sprout, whereas other metalic ions did not effect growth patterns of cultured PeA cells. We conclude that this visual evidence and previous biochemical data strongly implicate Hg as a potential etiological factor in neurodegeneration.