Category Archives: IN THE SPOTLIGHT

Cetatea Fagarasului:

Suflete pure care vin sa completeze feeria de la Cetatea Fagarasului   Cetatea Făgăraşului



quotation: People take more pains to be damned than to be saved.— French Culture

Stravinsky Divertimento from “The Fairy’s Kiss” (Muti-Philadelphia Orchestra with Maetro Mutti.)

Stravinsky Divertimento from “The Fairy’s Kiss” (Muti-Philadelphia Orch.)

Johann Nepomuk Hummel Rondo Brillant in A Major, Op. 56

Johann Nepomuk Hummel Rondo Brillant in A Major, Op. 56

Warning: Disturbing Subject!

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Rodrigo Concierto Serenata

Rodrigo Concierto Serenata

this pressed for history of civilization: BBC News – Iraq country profile – overview

Cradle of civilisation

Ziggurat of Ur Iraq is home to several ancient sites, such as the Ziggurat of Ur, a temple thought to be 4,000 years old

Straddling the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and stretching from the Gulf to the Anti-Taurus Mountains, modern Iraq occupies roughly what was once ancient Mesopotamia, one of the cradles of human civilisation.

In the early Middle Ages, Iraq was the heartland of the Islamic Empire, but a brutal Mongol invasion in the 13th century destroyed its importance. Part of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th century, it came under British control after World War I, gaining independence in 1932.

The British-installed monarchy was toppled in 1958, and a coup in 1968 brought the Arab nationalist Ba’ath (Renaissance) party to power. Oil made the country rich and, when Saddam Hussein became president in 1979, petroleum made up 95% of its foreign exchange earnings.

But the 1980-88 war with Iran and the 1991 Gulf War, sparked by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, together with the subsequent imposition of international sanctions, had a devastating effect on its economy and society.

via BBC News – Iraq country profile – overview.

this pressed for history of human civilizations: BBC News – ‘Unique’ Roman tombstone found in Cirencester

Archeology: Roman Headstone Discovered

Archaeologists say the quality of the sculpture is very good

A “unique” Roman headstone is the first of its kind unearthed in the UK, experts believe.

The tombstone was found near skeletal remains thought to belong to the person named on its inscription, making the discovery unique.

Archaeologists behind the dig in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, said they believed it marked the grave of a 27-year-old woman called Bodica.

The bodies of three children were also found in the “family burial plot”.

via BBC News – ‘Unique’ Roman tombstone found in Cirencester.

this pressed for justice: BBC News – Boko Haram crisis: Regional force takes shape

Nigerian soldier aims his weapon during Flintlock 2015, an American-led military exercise, in Mao, Chad on 22 February 2015 Morale is said to have improved in the embattled Nigerian military

Military chiefs from Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, Benin and Niger are finalizing their strategy for a 8,750-strong regional force to tackle the militant Islamist group Boko Haram.

In the last few weeks, the Multinational Joint Task Force has retaken several towns captured by the militants in north-eastern Nigeria.

Now, the regional chiefs are preparing for a major ground and air offensive due to start next month – and are meeting in Chad this week to set out the command structure.

The force will be led by a Nigerian commander, after which the position will rotate among the members.

‘Common enemy’

It is not clear whether Brig Gen Enitan Ransome Kuti, who was in charge before the force was boosted, will remain its head.

He is highly respected but he and other senior officials were arrested in January by Nigerian military authorities after failing to fight off a Boko Haram attack on the force’s headquarters in Baga in north-eastern Borno, one of three states under a state of emergency since 2013.

via BBC News – Boko Haram crisis: Regional force takes shape.

this pressed for your inspiration: BBC News – The girl who gets gifts from birds

Lots of people love the birds in their garden, but it’s rare for that affection to be reciprocated. One young girl in Seattle is luckier than most. She feeds the crows in her garden – and they bring her gifts in return.

Eight-year-old Gabi Mann sets a bead storage container on the dining room table, and clicks the lid open. This is her most precious collection.

“You may take a few close looks,” she says, “but don’t touch.” It’s a warning she’s most likely practised on her younger brother. She laughs after saying it though. She is happy for the audience.

Inside the box are rows of small objects in clear plastic bags. One label reads: “Black table by feeder. 2:30 p.m. 09 Nov 2014.” Inside is a broken light bulb. Another bag contains small pieces of brown glass worn smooth by the sea. “Beer coloured glass,” as Gabi describes it.

Each item is individually wrapped and categorical. Gabi pulls a black zip out of a labelled bag and holds it up. “We keep it in as good condition as we can,” she says, before explaining this object is one of her favourites.

There’s a miniature silver ball, a black button, a blue paper clip, a yellow bead, a faded black piece of foam, a blue Lego piece, and the list goes on. Many of them are scuffed and dirty. It is an odd assortment of objects for a little girl to treasure, but to Gabi these things are more valuable than gold.

Gifts given by the crows

via BBC News – The girl who gets gifts from birds.

THE DHAMMAPADA – FULL AudioBook | Buddhism – Teachings of The Buddha (“Hatred ceases by love”)

THE DHAMMAPADA – FULL AudioBook | Buddhism – Teachings of The Buddha

The Dhammapada by Unknown, Translated by F. Max Mueller – FULL AudioBook – The Dhammapada is is a Buddhist scripture, containing 423 verses in 26 categories. According to tradition, these are verses spoken by the Buddha on various occasions, most of which deal with ethics. It is is considered one of the most important pieces of Theravada literature. Despite this, the Dhammapada is read by many Mahayana Buddhists and remains a very popular text across all schools of Buddhism. (Summary from


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- READ along by clicking (CC) for Closed Caption Transcript!

- LISTEN to the entire audiobook for free!

Chapter listing and length:

01 — Chapters 1-4 — 00:14:36
Read by: Roger Turnau

02 — Chapters 5-8 — 00:10:52
Read by: Måns Broo

03 — Chapters 9-14 — 00:19:16
Read by: Chris Masterson

04 — Chapters 15-18 — 00:13:30
Read by: Chris Masterson

05 — Chapters 19-22 — 00:17:01
Read by: Denny Sayers

06 — Chapters 23-25 — 00:16:44
Read by: Roger Turnau

07 — Chapter 26 — 00:10:35
Read by: Scott

Total running time: 1:42:34

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just a thought: “A myopic look upon reality keeps one caged in the past; …”

just a thought:  “A myopic look upon reality keeps one caged in the past; Instead of freeing oneself to human development, recognizing the reality with a clear view, somehow that is like not being able to see the forest because of the tree, close and right in one’s eye sight.

Take as many steps backward until you can see the forest around the obstructing  tree, and look again!  It may change your life, and help that one’s life in the present, and see choices,  anew!”

Copyright © 2015 [George-B]. All Rights Reserved.

History Of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Vol. 1, by Gaston Maspero, Audiobook

History of Human Society – Civilizations: The_Encyclopedia_of_Ancient Civilizations_Arthur_Cotterell

The_Encyclopedia_of_Ancient Civilizations_Arthur_Cotterell

The_Encyclopedia_of_Ancient Civilizations_Arthur_Cotterell (click to enlarge)

THE BEST ANCIENT EGYPT DOCUMENTARY (MUST SEE !!!): Kudos to Egypt for Fighting for its rightful place among the civilized nations of the Earth including the fight for revenge its kidnapped and slaughtered citizens by ISIS


Assyrian Church of the East

Assyrian Church of the East

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Assyrian Christian” redirects here. For other uses, see Assyrian (disambiguation).
Assyrian Church of the East
ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ
(Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East)
Assyrian church of the East.png

Emblem of the Assyrian Church of the East
Founder Traces origins to Saints Thomas (Mar Toma), Bartholomew (Mar Bar Tulmay), Thaddeus (Addai) and Mari.
Independence Apostolic Era
Recognition First Council of Ephesus
Primate Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV Khanania
Headquarters Chicago, Illinois, United States
Territory Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Austria, Germany, Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, Georgia, Oceania.
Possessions  —
Language Syriac,[1] Aramaic
Members 400,000–500,000[2][3][4]

The Assyrian Church of the East (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East[5] Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ, ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Assyria, northern Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical Patriarchate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon – the Church of the East. Unlike most other churches that trace their origins to antiquity, the modern Assyrian Church of the East is not in communion with any other churches, either Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, or Catholic.

Theologically, the church is associated with the doctrine of Nestorianism, leading to the church, also being known as a “Nestorian Church”, though church leadership has at times rejected the Nestorian label, and was already extant some four centuries prior to Nestorius. The church employs the Syriac dialect of the Aramaic language in its liturgy, the East Syrian Rite, which includes three anaphoras, attributed to Saints Addai and Mari, Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius.[6]

The Church of the East developed between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD from the early Assyrian Christian communities in the Assuristan province (Parthian ruled Assyria) of the Parthian Empire, and at its height had spread from its north Mesopotamian heartland to as far as China, Central Asia and India. A dispute over patriarchal succession led to the Schism of 1552, resulting in there being two rival Patriarchs. One of the factions that eventually emerged from this split became the Assyrian Church of the East, while another became the church now known as the Chaldean Catholic Church, originally called The Church of Athura (Assyria) and Mosul, which eventually entered into communion with the Catholic Church, both in continuation from the Church of the East.

A more recent schism in the church resulted from the adoption of the Assyrian Church of the East of the Gregorian Calendar rather than maintaining the traditional Julian calendar that is off by 13 days. The opponents to the reforms introduced formed in 1964 the Ancient Church of the East headquartered in Baghdad and headed since 1968 by a separate Catholicos-Patriarch.

The Assyrian Church of the East is headed by the Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, who currently presides in exile in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Below the Catholicos-Patriarch are a number of metropolitan bishops, diocesan bishops, priests, and deacons who serve dioceses and parishes throughout the Middle East, India, North America, Oceania, and Europe (including the Caucasus and Russia).


Main articles: Church of the East and Nestorianism

Early years of the Church of the East

The Church of the East originally developed during the 1st century AD in the Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic speaking regions of Assyria and northwestern Persia (today’s Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and north western Iran), to the east of the Roman-Byzantine empire. It is an Apostolic church, established by the apostles St Thomas (Mar Toma), St Thaddeus (Mar Addai), and St Bartholomew (Mar Bar Tulmay). St Peter (Mar Shimun Keapa), the chief of the apostles added his blessing to the Church of the East at the time of his visit to the See at Babylon, in the earliest days of the church when stating, “The elect church which is in Babylon, salutes you; and Mark, my son (1 Peter 5:13).[7]

Official recognition was first granted to the Christian faith in the 4th century with the accession of Yazdegerd I to the throne of the Sassanid Empire. In 410, the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, held at the Sassanid capital, allowed the Church’s leading bishops to elect a formal Catholicos, or leader. The Catholicos, Mar Isaac, was required both to lead the Assyrian Christian community, and to answer on its behalf to the Sassanid Emperor.[8][9]

Under pressure from the Sassanid Emperor, the Church of the East sought increasingly to distance itself from the western (Roman Empire) Catholic Church. In 424, the bishops of the Sassanid Empire met in council under the leadership of Catholicos Mar Dadisho I (421–456) and determined that they would not, henceforth, refer disciplinary or theological problems to any external power, and especially not to any bishop or Church Council in the Roman Empire.[10]

As such, the Mesopotamian and Assyrian Churches were not represented at the various Church Councils attended by representatives of the Western Church. Accordingly, the leaders of the Church of the East did not feel bound by any decisions of what came to be regarded as Roman Imperial Councils. Despite this, the Creed and Canons of the first Council of Nicea (325); affirming the full divinity of Christ; were formally accepted at the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon.[11] The Church’s understanding of the term ‘hypostasis‘ differs from the definition of the term offered at the Council of Chalcedon. For this reason, the Assyrian Church has never approved the Chalcedonian definition.[11]

The theological controversy that followed the First Council of Ephesus, in 431, proved a turning point in the Church’s history. The Council condemned as heretical the Christology of Nestorius, whose reluctance to accord the Virgin Mary the title ‘Theotokos’ (‘God-bearer’ or ‘Mother of God’) was taken as evidence that he believed two separate persons (as opposed to two united natures) to be present within Christ. (For the theological issues at stake, see Assyrian Church of the East and Nestorianism.)

The Sassanid Emperor, hostile to the Roman Empire, saw the opportunity to ensure the loyalty of his Christian subjects and lent support to the Nestorian schism. The Sassanid Emperor took steps to cement the primacy of the Nestorian party within the Church of the East, granting its members his protection,[12] and executing the pro-Roman Catholicos Babowai, replacing him with the Nestorian Bishop of Nisibis, Barsauma. The Catholicos-Patriarch Mar Babai I (497–503) confirmed the association of the Persian Church with Nestorianism.

Eastern expansion

During the medieval period the geographical horizons of the Church of the East extended well beyond its heartland in present-day northern Iraq. Communities sprang up throughout Central Asia, and missionaries from Assyria and Mesopotamia took the Christian faith as far as China and the Malabar Coast of India.[13]

Schism and the establishment of the Chaldean Church

The massacres of Assyrian Christians by Tamerlane (1336–1405) destroyed many bishoprics, including the ancient Assyrian city of Ashur. The Church of the East, which had previously extended as far as China, was largely reduced to an Eastern Aramaic speaking Assyrian remnant living in its original heartland in Upper Mesopotamia (what had been Assyria), the triangular area[14] between Amid, Salmas and Mosul. The See was moved to the Assyrian town of Alqosh, in the Mosul region, and Mar Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) appointed Patriarch, establishing a new, hereditary, line of succession.[15]

Growing dissent in the church’s hierarchy over hereditary succession came to a head in 1552, when a group of bishops from the Northern regions of Amid and Salmas elected Mar Yohannan Sulaqa as a rival Patriarch. Seeking consecration as Patriarch by a Bishop of Metropolitan rank, Sulaqa traveled to Rome in 1553, and entered into communion with the Roman Catholic Church. On being appointed Patriarch, Sulaqa took the name Mar Shimun VIII and was granted the title of “Patriarch of Mosul and Athur (Assyria)”. Later this title became “Patriarch of the Chaldeans”, despite none of its adherents being from the long disappeared Chaldean tribe, or from what had been South in the far south east of Mesopotamia.[16]

Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa returned to the Near East the same year, establishing his seat in Amid. Before being put to death by partisans of the Patriarch of Alqosh, he ordained five metropolitan bishops, thus establishing a new ecclesiastical hierarchy, a line of patriarchal descent known as the Shimun line.

Sees in Qochanis, Amid, and Alqosh (17th century)

Relations with Rome weakened under Shimun VIII’s successors, all of whom took the name Shimun. The last of this line of Patriarchs to be formally recognized by the Pope died in the early 17th century. Hereditary accession to the office of Patriarch was reintroduced, and by 1660 the Assyrian Church of the East had become divided into two Patriarchates; the Eliya line, based in Alqosh (comprising that portion of the faithful which had never entered into Communion with Rome), and the Shimun line.

In 1672[15] the Patriarch of the Shimun line, Mar Shimun XIII Denha, moved his seat to the Assyrian village of Qochanis in the mountains of Hakkari. In 1692, the Patriarch formally broke communion with Rome and allegedly resumed relations with the line at Alqosh, though retaining the independent structure and jurisdiction of his line of succession.

The so-called Chaldean Patriarchate was revived in 1672 when Mar Joseph I, then the Assyrian Church of the East metropolitan of Amid, entered into communion with Rome, thus separating from the Patriarchal See of Alqosh. In 1681, the Holy See granted Mar Joseph the title of “Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its Patriarch”, thus forming the third Patriarchate of the Assyrian Church of the East. It was this third Patriarchate that was to become known as the Chaldean Catholic Church in 1683.

Josephite line of Amid

Each of Joseph I’s successors took the name Joseph. The life of this Patriarchate was difficult; stricken early on with internal dissent, the Patriarchiate later struggled with financial difficulties due to the tax burden imposed by the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Despite these difficulties, the influence of the Patriarchate expanded from its original homeland of Amid and Mardin towards the area of Mosul, where ultimately the See was relocated.

Mar Yohannan VIII Hormizd, the last of the Eliya hereditary line of the Assyrian Church of the East in Alqosh, made a Catholic profession of faith in 1780. Though entering full communion with the Roman See in 1804, he was not recognized as Patriarch by the Pope until 1830. This move merged the majority of the Patriarcate of Alqosh with the Josephite line of Amid, thus forming the modern Chaldean Catholic Church.

The Shimun line of Patriarchs, based in Qochanis, remained within the Assyrian Church of the East, and refused to enter communion with Rome and join the Chaldean Church. The Patriarchate of the present-day Assyrian Church of the East, with its see in Chicago, forms the continuation of this line.[17]

20th century

 In spite of both ethnic and religious persecution and a serious decline in membership since their height around the fourth century, the Assyrian Church of the East has survived into the 21st century. Here is St. Mary Assyrian Church in Moscow.

In 1915 the Assyrian Church see at Qochanis see was completely destroyed by the Ottoman Turkish Empire in the context of the Assyrian Genocide, Assyrian war of independence and Armenian Genocide. Survivors of the massacres escaped by marching over the mountains into Iran and Iraq to join their kinsmen. In 1918, after the murder of Mar Shimun XXI Benyamin and 150 of his followers, and fearing further massacres at the hands of the Turks and Kurds, the survivors fled from Iran into what was to become Iraq, seeking protection under the British mandate there, and joining ancient indigenous existing Assyrian communities of both Eastern Rite and Catholic persuasions in the north of that country.[18]

The British administration employed Assyrian troops (Assyrian Levies) to put down Arab and Kurdish rebellions in the aftermath of World War I. In consequence, Assyrians of all denominations endured persecution under the Hashemite monarchy, leading many to flee to the West, in particular to the United States, where Chicago became the center of the diaspora community.

Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII

During this period the British-educated Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, born into the line of Patriarchs at Qochanis, agitated for an independent Assyrian state. Following the end of the British mandate in 1933[18] and a massacre of Assyrian civilians at Simele by the Iraqi Army, the Patriarch was forced to take refuge in Cyprus.[19] There, Shimun petitioned the League of Nations regarding his peoples’ fate, but to little avail, and he was consequently barred from entering Syria and Iraq. He traveled through Europe before moving to Chicago in 1940 to join the growing Assyrian diaspora community there.[19]

The Church and the Assyrian community in general faced considerable fragmentation and upheaval as a result of the conflicts of the 20th century, and Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII was forced to reorganize the church’s structure in the United States. He transferred his residence to San Francisco, California in 1954, and was able to travel to Iran, Lebanon, Kuwait, and India, where he worked to strengthen the church.[20]

In 1964 he decreed a number of changes to the church, including liturgical reform, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the shortening of Lent. These changes, combined with Shimun’s long absence from Iraq, caused a rift in the community which led to another schism. In 1968 traditionalists within the church elected Mar Thoma Darmo as a rival patriarch to Shimun XXIII Eshai, creating the Ancient Church of the East.[21]

In 1972, Shimun decided to step down as Patriarch, and the following year, he married, in contravention to longstanding church custom. This led to a synod in 1973 in which further reforms were introduced, most significantly including the permanent abolition of hereditary succession a practice introduced in the middle of the fifteenth century by the patriarch Shemʿon IV Basidi who had died in 1497); however, it was decided that Shimun should be reinstated. This matter was to be settled at additional synods in 1975, however Shimun was assassinated by an estranged relative before this could take place.[22]

Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV

In 1976, the current Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, was elected as Shimun XXIII Eshai’s successor. The 33-year old Dinkha had previously been Metropolitan of Tehran, and operated his see there until the Iran–Iraq War of 1980–1988. Thereafter, Mar Dinkha IV went into exile in the United States, and transferred the patriarchal see to Chicago.[23] Much of his patriarchate has been concerned with tending to the Assyrian diaspora community and with ecumenical efforts to strengthen relations with other churches.[23]

Assyrian Church of the East and Nestorianism

The Nestorian nature of Assyrian Christianity remains a matter of contention. Elements of the Nestorian doctrine were explicitly repudiated by Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV on the occasion of his accession in 1976.[24]

The Christology of the Church of the East has its roots in the Antiochene theological tradition of the early Church. The founders of Assyrian theology are Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, both of whom taught at Antioch. ‘Antiochene’ is a modern designation given to the style of theology associated with the early Church at Antioch, as contrasted with the theology of the church of Alexandria.[25]

Antiochene theology emphasised Christ’s humanity and the reality of the moral choices he faced. In order to preserve the impassibility of Christ’s Divine Nature, the unity of His person was defined in a looser fashion than in the Alexandrian tradition.[25] The normative Christology of the Assyrian church was written by Babai the Great (551–628) during the controversy that followed the First Council of Ephesus (431). Babai held that within Christ there exist two qnome (essences, or hypostases), unmingled, but everlastingly united in the one prosopon(personality).

The precise Christological teachings of Nestorius are shrouded in obscurity. Wary of monophysitism, Nestorius rejected Cyril’s theory of a hypostatic union, proposing instead a union of will. Nestorianism has come to mean dyaphysitism, in which Christ’s dual natures are eternally separate, though it is doubtful whether Nestorius ever taught such a doctrine. Nestorius’ rejection of the term Theotokos (‘God-bearer’, or ‘Mother of God’) has traditionally been held as evidence that he asserted the existence of two persons – not merely two natures – in Jesus Christ, but there exists no evidence that Nestorius denied Christ’s oneness.[26] In the controversy that followed the Council of Ephesus, the term ‘Nestorian’ was applied to all upholding a strictly Antiochene Christology. In consequence the Church of the East was labelled ‘Nestorian’, though its theology is not dyophysite.

Ecumenical relations

Pope John XXIII invited many other Christian denominations, including the Assyrian Church of the East, to send “observers” to the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). These observers, graciously received and seated as honored guests right in front of the podium on the floor of the council chamber, did not formally take part in the Council’s debate, but they mingled freely with the Catholic bishops and theologians who constituted the council, and with the other observers as well, in the break area during the council sessions. There, cordial conversations began a rapproachment that has blossomed into expanding relations among the Catholic Church, the Churches of the Orthodox Communion led by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, and the ancient churches of the East.

On November 11, 1994, a historic meeting between Mar Dinkha IV and Pope John Paul II took place in Rome. The two patriarchs signed a document titled “Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East“. One side effect of this meeting was that the Assyrian Church’s relationship to the fellow Chaldean Catholic Church began to improve.[27]

In 1996, Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV signed an agreement of cooperation with the Chaldean Catholic Patriarch of Baghdad, Raphael I Bidawid, in Southfield, Michigan. In 1997, he entered into negotiations with the Syriac Orthodox Church and the two churches ceased anathematizing each other.

The lack of a coherent institution narrative in the Anaphora of Addai and Mari, which dates to apostolic times, has caused many Western Christians, and especially Roman Catholics, to doubt the validity of this anaphora, used extensively by the Assyrian Church of the East, as a prayer of consecration of the eucharistic elements. In 2001, after a study of this issue, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith promulgated a declaration approved by Pope John Paul II stating that this is a valid anaphora. This declaration opened the door to a joint synodal decree officially implementing the present Guidelines for Admission to the Eucharist between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East which the synods of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church signed and promulgated on 20 July 2001.

This joint synodal decree provides that (1) Assyrian faithful may participate and receive Holy Communion in a Chaldean celebration of the Holy Eucharist, (2) Chaldean catholic faithful may participate and receive Holy Communion in an Assyrian Church celebration of the Holy Eucharist, even if celebrated using the Anaphora of Addai and Mari in its original form, and (3) Assyrian clergy are invited (but not obliged) to insert the institution narrative into the Anaphora of Addai and Mari when Chaldean faithful are present. Far from expressing a relationship of full communion between these churches, however, the joint synodal decree actually identifies several issues that require resolution to permit a relationship of full communion.

From a Catholic canonical point of view, provisions of the joint synodal decree are fully consistent with the provisions of canon 671 of the 1991 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, which states: “If necessity requires it or genuine spiritual advantage suggests it and provided that the danger of error or indifferentism is avoided, it is permitted for Catholic Christian faithful, for whom it is physically or morally impossible to approach a Catholic minister, to receive the sacraments of penance, the Eucharist and anointing of the sick from non-Catholic ministers, in whose Churches these sacraments are valid. 3. Likewise Catholic ministers licitly administer the Sacraments of Penance, the Eucharist and Anointing of the Sick to Christian faithful of Eastern Churches, who do not have full communion with the Catholic Church, if they ask for them on their own and are properly disposed.” Canons 843 and 844 of the Code of Canon Law make similar provisions for the Latin Church. The Assyrian Church of the East follows an Open Communion approach allowing any baptized Christian to receive its Eucharist,[28] so there is also no alteration of Assyrian practice. Nonetheless, from an ecumenical perspective, the joint synodal decree marks a major step toward full mutual collaboration of both churches in the pastoral care of their members.


The Church is governed by an episcopal polity, which is the same as other Catholic churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses and archdioceses. The Catholicos-Patriarch, currently Mar Dinkha IV is head of the church. The Synod comprises Bishops who oversee individual dioceses, and Metropolitans who oversee episcopal dioceses in there territorial jurisdiction.

The Chaldean Syrian Church in India and the Persian Gulf is the largest diocese of the church. Its story goes back to the Church of the East that established presence in Kerala. The converts were from lower, untouchable castes, for in a caste-ridden Malabar society. During times of disturbances in the Persian Empire and the Middle East, Assyrian inflow into Kerala ceased and local converts had to take responsibility for the churches. Nevertheless, Malabar churches retained their Nestorian connections. Connection between the Malabar church and the Church of the East was sporadic for a long period till the arrival of the Portuguese. The church is represented by the Assyrian Church of the East and is in communion with it.


The current hierarchy and dioceses is as follows. The Patriarchate of the Church of the East was located for centuries in the cathedral church of Mar Shallita, in the village of Qudshanis in the Hakkari mountains, Ottoman Empire. After the exodus in 1915 the Patriarchs temporarily resided between Urmia and Salmas, and from 1918 the patriarchs resided in Mosul, Iraq. After the Simele massacre of 1933, the then Patriarch Shimun XXIII Eshai was exiled to Cyprus. In 1940 he was welcomed to the United States where he set up his residence in Chicago, Illinois and administrated the United States and Canada as his Patriarchal province. The patriarchate was moved to Modesto, California in 1954, and finally to San Francisco, California in 1958 due to health issues. After the assassination of the Patriarch and the election of Mar Dinkha IV in 1976, the patriarchate was temporarily located in Tehran, Iran where the patriarch already resided. Since 1980, the Patriarchate again returned to Chicago, Illinois where it currently remains. The Diocese of Eastern United States served as the patriarch’s province from 1994 until 2012.

Due to the unstable political, religious and economic situation in the church’s historical homeland of the Middle East, many of the church members now reside in Western countries. Churches and dioceses have been established throughout Europe, America and Oceania. The largest expatriate concentration of church members is in the United States, mainly situated in Illinois and California.


  1. Archdiosese of India Chaldean Syrian Church – it remains in communion and is the biggest province of the Church with close to 30 active churches, primary and secondary schools, hospitals etc.
  2. Archdiocese of Iraq and Russia – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Iraq. The archdiocese’s territory includes the cities and surroundings of Baghdad, Basra, Kirkuk, and Mosul.
  3. Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon – Established in October 1984.


  1. Diocese of Syria – jurisdiction lies throughout all Syria, particularly in the Al-Hasakah governorate, where most of the community reside in Al-Hasakah, Qamishli and the 35 villages along the Khabur river. There are also small communities in Damascus and Aleppo
  2. Diocese of Iran – territory includes the capital Tehran, the Urmia and Salmas plains
  3. Diocese of Nohadra and Russia – established in 1999 with jurisdiction include the indigenous communities of Dohuk and Arbil, along with Russia and ex-Soviet states such as Armenia and Georgia.
  4. Diocese of Europe – its territory lies in western Europe and includes close to 10 sovereign states: Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands, France, Belgium, Austria, Finland, Norway and Greece.
  5. Diocese of Eastern USA – formerly the Patriarchal Archdiocese from 1994 until 2012 . The territory includes the large Illinois community, along with smaller parishes in Michigan, New England and New York.
  6. Diocese of Western USA-North – jurisdiction includes parishes in Western USA and northern California. Some of the parishes are San Francisco, San Jose, Modesto, Turlock, Ceres, Seattle, and Sacramento.
  7. Diocese of Western USA-South – jurisdiction includes parishes in Arizona and southern California.
  8. Diocese of Canada – includes the territory of Toronto, Windsor, Hamilton and all Canada

Proposed Structure: Archdioceses and Dioceses

  1. Archdiocese of India Chaldean Syrian Church – covers India.
  2. Archdiocese of Iran – covers Iran.
  3. Archdiocese of Iraq – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Iraq except Northern areas. The archdiocese’s territory includes the cities and surroundings of Baghdad, Basra, Kirkuk, and Mosul.
  4. Archdiocese of Nohadra – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Dohuk, Arbil, and Sulaymaniyah in Kurdish northern Iraq.
  5. Archdiocese of Syria & Lebanon – covers Syria and Lebanon.
  6. Archdiocese of Ararat – covers Turkey, Azerbaijan Armenia, and Georgia.
  7. Archdiocese of Russia & Eurasia – covers Russia and ex-Soviet states such as Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia Poland, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan.
  8. Archdiocese of Europe – its territory lies in western Europe and includes close to 10 sovereign states: Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands, France, Belgium, Austria, Finland, Norway and Greece.
  9. Archdiocese of Australia & New Zealand – covers Australia and New Zealand
  10. Archdiocese of North America – It covers 4 dioceses:

Holy Synod

The Holy Synod of the church is made up of:

  • Head: Mar Dinkha IV, Khanania (born 1935, elected 1976), Catholicos-Patriarch of the East (residing in Morton Grove, Illinois)
  • Mar Gewargis Sliwa: Metropolitan of Iraq
  • Mar Aprem Mooken: Metropolitan of India
  • Mar Meelis Zaia: Metropolitan of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon
  • Mar [Sagris Yosip]: Bishop Emeritus of Baghdad (residing in Modesto, California)
  • Mar Isaac Yousif: Bishop of Dohuk-Erbil and Russia
  • Mar Aprem Nathniel: Bishop of Syria
  • Mar Narsai Benyamin: Bishop of Iran
  • Mar Aprim Khamis: Bishop of Western United States
  • Mar Mar Emmanuel Yosip: Bishop of Canada
  • Mar Odisho Oraham: Bishop of Europe
  • Mar Awa Royel: Bishop of California
  • Mar Paulus Benjamin: Bishop of Eastern United States
  • Mar Yohannan Joseph: Auxiliary Bishop of India
  • Mar Awgin Kuriakose: Auxiliary Bishop of India

See also

† this pressed for Christians everywhere †: BBC News – Islamic State: Fears grow for abducted Syrian Christians

It is not clear where the IS militants have taken the abducted Assyrians Continue reading the main story:

It i not clear where the IS militants have taken the abducted Assyrians

Continue reading the main story

Islamic State – Other Reports:

Asymmetry of fear

Kobane unbeaten

What is IS?

Key countries

There are fears that more members of an Assyrian Christian community in north-eastern Syria were abducted by Islamic State militants than at first thought.

Initial reports had put the number of missing at 90, but one activist said as many as 285 people had been seized on Monday in Hassakeh province.

Efforts to try to negotiate their release are reported to be under way.

Some 1,000 local Assyrian families are believed to have fled their homes in the wake of the abductions.

Kurdish and Christian militia are battling IS in the area, amid reports of churches and homes having been set ablaze.

Thousands of Christians in Syria have been forced from their homes by the threat from IS militants.

In areas under their control, Christians have been ordered to convert to Islam, pay jizya (a religious levy), or face death. IS militants in Libya also recently beheaded 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians.

via BBC News – Islamic State: Fears grow for abducted Syrian Christians.

find out more about the Assirian Christians HERE

this pressed: history forgotten will repeat itself! : BBC News – Austria passes controversial reforms to 1912 Islam law

Mr Kurz also stressed the bill was not a reaction to recent attacks by Islamic extremists in France and Denmark.

Meanwhile the legislation has drawn wide reaction from Muslims across the world, with Turkey’s head of religious affairs, Mehmet Gormez, adding his condemnation on Tuesday.

“Austria will go back 100 years in freedom with its Islam bill,” Mr Gormez said, according to Turkey’s state-funded Anadolu news agency.

Roughly half a million Muslims live in Austria today, around 6% of the population. Many of them have Turkish or Bosnian roots.

The parliamentary vote in Austria came as the French government announced plans to improve dialogue with France’s Muslim community.

French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve said the government would increase consultations with Muslim leaders.

It would also double the number of university courses for imams – making them obligatory for Islamic chaplains in prisons and the armed forces – to ensure they are “faithful to the values of the Republic”, he said.

via BBC News – Austria passes controversial reforms to 1912 Islam law.

just a thought: Change without thinking, is like thinking without change…only with incalculable consequences

just a thought:  “Change without thinking, is like thinking without change…only with incalculable consequences”.
– George-B.

Copyright © 2015 [George-B]. All Rights Reserved

Flash – Israeli vote triggers battle between media magnates – France 24


AFP / by Jean-Luc Renaudie | Men read Israeli newspapers, paying daily Yedioth Aharonot (L) and free daily Israel HaYom (R) in Jerusalem, on February 25, 2015 

In one In one corner is Jewish-American billionaire Sheldon Adelson, who has effectively given Netanyahu a free rein to use his Israel HaYom newspaper for electioneering ahead of the March polls.Adelson, an 81-year-old casino magnate with an estimated fortune of around $40 billion, is one of the biggest contributors to the US Republican Party.Since Israel HaYom was set up in 2007, the freesheet has become the most widely circulated newspaper in the Jewish state.In the opposite corner is Arnon Moses, 61, an Israeli media mogul who owns the top-selling Yediot Aharonot and its sister news website Ynet — and who is firmly opposed to Netanyahu winning a fourth term in office.

via Flash – Israeli vote triggers battle between media magnates – France 24.

Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

February 25

1570   Pope Pius V issues the bull Regnans in Excelsis which excommunicates Queen Elizabeth of England.
1601   Robert Devereux, the second Earl of Essex and former favorite of Elizabeth I, is beheaded in the Tower of London for high treason.
1642   Dutch settlers slaughter lower Hudson Valley Indians in New Netherland, North America, who sought refuge from Mohawk attackers.
1779   The British surrender the Illinois country to George Rogers Clark at Vincennes.
1781   American General Nathaniel Greene crosses the Dan River on his way to attack Cornwallis.
1791   President George Washington sign a bill creating the Bank of the United States.
1804   Thomas Jefferson is nominated for president at the Democratic-Republican caucus.
1815   Napoleon leaves his exile on the island of Elba, returning to France.
1831   The Polish army halts the Russian advance into their country at the Battle of Grochow.
1836   Samuel Colt patents the first revolving cylinder multi-shot firearm.
1862   Confederate troops abandon Nashville, Tennessee, in the face of Grant’s advance. The ironclad Monitor is commissioned at the Brooklyn Navy Yard.
1865   General Joseph E. Johnston replaces John Bell Hood as Commander of the Confederate Army of Tennessee.
1904   J.M. Synge’s play Riders to the Sea opens in Dublin.
1910   The Dalai Lama flees from the Chinese and takes refuge in India.
1919   Oregon introduces the first state tax on gasoline at one cent per gallon, to be used for road construction.
1913   The 16th Amendment to the constitution is adopted, setting the legal basis for the income tax.
1926   Poland demands a permanent seat on the League of Nations council.
1928   Bell Labs introduces a new device to end the fluttering of the television image.
1943   U.S. troops retake the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia, where they had been defeated five days before.
1944   U.S. forces destroy 135 Japanese planes in Marianas and Guam.
1952   French colonial forces evacuate Hoa Binh in Indochina.
1956   Stalin is secretly disavowed by Khrushchev at a party congress for promoting the “cult of the individual.”
1976   The U.S. Supreme Court rules that states may ban the hiring of illegal aliens.
Born on February 25
1841   Pierre Auguste Renoir, French painter and founder of the French Impressionist movement.
1856   Charles Lang Freer, U.S. art collector.
1873   Enrico Caruso, Italian opera tenor.
1888   John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State to President Eisenhower.
1894   Meher Baba, spiritual leader.
1895   Rudolf von Eschwege, German fighter ace in World War I. .
1905   Adele Davis, nutritionist.
1917   Anthony Burgess, English writer (A Clockwork Orange).

- See more at:

today’s picture: Jackie Cochran and the Origin of the WASPs

Jackie Cochran and the Origin of the WASPs

It took three years for pilot Jacqueline ‘Jackie’ Cochran to convince the U.S. military that qualified women pilots could free men for combat duty by performing non-combat missions. Supported by Eleanor Roosevelt and Army aviation chief General Henry H. ‘Hap’ Arnold, Cochran’s goal was achieved in 1943 with the formation of the Women’s Air Force Service Pilots (WASPs). Before deactivation on December 20, 1944, 1,074 WASPs logged 60 million miles flying for the U.S. Army Air Forces.

This 1957 photo shows Jacqueline Cochran standing next to her plane, with Chuck Yeager and Bill Longhurst, at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

Image: Air Force Flight Test Center History Office

- See more at:

today’s holiday: Fiesta sa EDSA (People Power Anniversary) (2015)

Fiesta sa EDSA (People Power Anniversary) (2015)

The Fiesta sa EDSA is a commemoration of the bloodless People Power Revolution in the Philippines on February 22-25, 1986, in which the dictatorial regime of Ferdinand Marcos was toppled. Two key government officers rebelled in protest of Marcos’s oppression and demanded his resignation. Pro-Marcos forces threatened to annihilate them, but two million unarmed people, with offerings of flowers, food, and prayers, provided a human shield and overcame the military’s firepower. The day is marked with ceremonies at the site of the revolution in Quezon City, a part of Manila. More… Discuss

quotations: Great bodies of people are never responsible for what they do. Virginia Woolf

Great bodies of people are never responsible for what they do.

Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) Discuss



today’s birthday: Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841)

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841)

Renoir’s paintings number in the thousands and are notable for their saturated color, vibrant light, and warm sensuality. Early in his career, Renoir developed a close relationship with Claude Monet and became a celebrated artist of the Impressionist style. At times the two painters worked side-by-side, creating several pairs of paintings that depict the same scenes. Though crippled with rheumatoid arthritis in his later life, Renoir continued to paint. How did he manage to do so? More… Discuss

Paintings by RENOIR & Music by RAVEL

New Poll: Americans Want Mandatory Vaccines (because ignorance hurts more than oneself)

New Poll: Americans Want Mandatory Vaccines

A new poll conducted by Ipsos for Reuters found that 78 percent of Americans believe all children should be vaccinated. Just over 70 percent think schools should be able to suspend unvaccinated students during outbreaks of contagious diseases. And 65 … More… Discuss



Zorro, Spanish for “fox,” is a fictional character created by Johnston McCulley. The masked swordsman made his first appearance in The Curse of Capistrano, serialized in a pulp magazine in 1919. Zorro’s true identity is Don Diego de la Vega, a nobleman who lives in Spanish-era California and disguises himself in a mask to protect the common people from tyrannical officials. It has been noted that Zorro was actually one of the original inspirations for what comic strip action heroes? More… Discuss

Mozart – Adagio in E Major for Violin and Orchestra, K. 261

Isaac Albéniz; Cadiz, Suite Española, Opus 47

Isaac Albéniz; Cadiz, Suite Española, Opus 47

Dame Joan Sutherland. Pastorale. Igor Stravinsky.

Dame Joan Sutherland. Pastorale. Igor Stravinsky.

Hear, hear America: BBC News – Clampdown on cold call companies unveiled by government

Imposing fines of up to £500,000 on the companies behind cold calls and nuisance text messages is to become easier under changes to the law being made by the government.

The move follows tens of thousands of complaints about cold calling.

At the moment, companies can only be punished if the Information Commissioner can prove a call caused “substantial damage or distress”.

But from April 6, that legal requirement is to be removed.

More than 175,000 complaints were made to the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) last year about nuisance calls and text

via BBC News – Clampdown on cold call companies unveiled by government.

Video: CRIPTA Sf. Ap. si Ev. MATEI – SALERNO (Crypt of St. Matei – Mathew)


today’s holiday: † St. Matthias’s Day (2015)†

St. Matthias’s Day (2015)†

The story of how St. Matthias was elected to replace Judas Iscariot as one of the 12 apostles after Judas committed suicide can be found in the Bible’s Book of Acts. There is no historical record of Matthias’s deeds or death. His fame rests almost entirely upon the fact that he took the betrayer Judas’ place, although legend claims that he was stoned and beheaded in Ethiopia in 64 CE. Episcopalians celebrate his feast day on February 24. More… Discuss

quotation: Faith, n.: Belief without evidence in what is told by one who speaks without knowledge, of things without parallel. Ambrose Bierce

Faith, n.: Belief without evidence in what is told by one who speaks without knowledge, of things without parallel.

Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914) Discuss

this pressed: BBC News – Ukraine crisis


20 February 2015 Last updated at 10:23 ET

Surge in violence A new ceasefire deal is signed for eastern Ukraine – but recent clashes have been more intense Relatives and friends meet Ukrainian servicemen returning from duty in eastern Ukraine

The Ukraine story mappedEU Russia and Ukraine

How the crisis swept from west to east

Shell-damaged flats in Donetsk, 1 Feb 15Shattered lives

Ukraine evacuees run gauntlet of shellfire and shortages

In video

via BBC News – Ukraine crisis.

this pressed: BBC News – Manannán Mac Lir: Games of Thrones sculptor’s statue found

Manannán Mac Lir: Games of Thrones sculptor’s statue found

23 February 2015 Last updated at 18:36 GMT

A 6 ft sculpture of a Celtic sea god that was stolen from Binevenagh mountain, near Limavady, in County Londonderry has been recovered by soldiers on a training exercise.

Manannán Mac Lir, which is made out of fibre glass and stainless steel, was stolen last month.

BBC News NI’s Keiron Tourish reports.

Online campaign for statue’s return

Religious link to statue theft probe

22 January 2015

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via BBC News – Manannán Mac Lir: Games of Thrones sculptor’s statue found.

this day in the yesteryear: Marbury v. Madison Establishes Judicial Review (1803)

Marbury v. Madison Establishes Judicial Review (1803)

Marbury v. Madison was a landmark case in American law that resulted in the first decision by the Supreme Court to declare unconstitutional and void an act passed by Congress. It established the basis for the exercise of judicial review of federal statutes by the US Supreme Court. By identifying the Supreme Court as the authoritative interpreter of the Constitution, this decision bolstered power, respect, and prestige in the federal judiciary. Who were the “Midnight Judges”? More… Discuss

Space: the final frontier: Spacecraft Will Be First to Visit Dwarf Planet

Spacecraft Will Be First to Visit Dwarf Planet

NASA’s unmanned Dawn spacecraft will soon be visiting a planet that you’ve probably never heard of: Ceres, a dwarf planet in the asteroid belt between Jupiter and Mars. When it arrives March 6, Dawn will become the first spacecraft to visit one of the five dwarf planets, whose ranks include the former planet Pluto. Ceres was likely becoming a full-sized planet before Jupiter stunted its growth 4.6 billion years ago. It is now the largest object between Mars and Jupiter, and the largest object between the Sun and Pluto that has not yet received a visit from Earth. More… Discuss

article: Incunabula


Incunabula are “books of the cradle days” of printing, or books printed in the 15th century. The known incunabula represent about 40,000 editions. The books include products of more than 1,000 presses, including such famous printers as Gutenberg, Caxton, and Aldus Manutius, and give evidence as to the development of typography in its formative period. These books were generally large quarto size, bound in calf over boards of wood, and decorated with borders. What are some famous incunabula? More… Discuss

word: tergiversate


Definition: (verb) To use evasions or ambiguities; to change sides.
Synonyms: equivocate, prevaricate, palter
Usage: She refused to tergiversate on the subject, stating her opinion concisely and openly. Discuss.

From BBC : BJP agrees Kashmir coalition deal

BJP agrees Kashmir coalition deal

Posted from WordPress for Android


India’s ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) will be part of a coalition government in Indian-administered Kashmir, two months after polls there produced no clear winner.

The BJP and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) announced the deal after talks in the capital, Delhi.

It is the first time the Hindu nationalist BJP have been in government in India’s only Muslim majority state.

The party won 25 seats and the PDP 28 in the 87-member state assembly.

Votes were counted on 23 December after five rounds of voting during the previous month.

“We have had discussions over several weeks and fortunately, we have agreed a deal,” PDP chief Mehbooba Mufti told reporters.

Ms Mufti, who appeared alongside BJP chief Amit Shah, said her father and PDP candidate for chief minister Mufti Mohammad Sayeed would soon meet Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The details of the agreement would be shared after that, she said.

Indian media reports, quoting sources, say Mr Sayeed is expected to be sworn in as chief minister on 1 March.


From VOA : Southeast European Nations Pledge Unity in Face of Terrorism

Posted from WordPress for Android

FILE - Albania's Ditmir Bushati and his fellow foreign ministers from nations within the South-East European Cooperation Process met Tuesday in Tirana.

FILE – Albania’s Ditmir Bushati and his fellow foreign ministers from nations within the South-East European Cooperation Process met Tuesday in Tirana. FILE – Albania’s Ditmir Bushati and his fellow foreign ministers from nations within the South-East European Cooperation Process met Tuesday in Tirana. (Click to access the story)


VOA News

A group of southeast European countries has pledged to intensify cooperation in the fight against terrorism in the region, Europe and the world.

Meeting Tuesday in Tirana, Albania, foreign ministers of the 13 countries making up the South-East European Cooperation Process issued a 10-point statement condemning the “the phenomenon of foreign terrorist fighters and terrorist cells in Europe” and beyond.

The ministers expressed a commitment to support through all “appropriate mechanisms” the global coalition against terrorism. The group particularly mentioned the militant group Islamic State for its “horrendous terrorist acts and atrocities.”

The ministers emphasized that terrorism is not justifiable, regardless of its “motivation or origins,” and “cannot and should not be associated with any particular nationality, religion or ethnic group.”

They said that “common threats and challenges require common responses and actions,” including strengthening the rule of law and implementing policies promoting economic development, youth, education, equal opportunities, equal access to health and the job market.

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey and Kosovo are members of the South-East European Cooperation Process.

Chopin Etude Op 25 No.11 Valentina Lisitsa

Chopin Etude Op 25 No.11 Valentina Lisitsa

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Così fan tutte, K.588, Overture

Così fan tutte, K.588, Overture

Kempff – Brahms Capriccio op.116 no.3 in G minor

Kempff – Brahms Capriccio op.116 no.3 in G minor

Ludwig van Beethoven – Rondo in C major, Op. 51, No. 1

Ludwig van Beethoven – Rondo in C major, Op. 51, No. 1

Hector Berlioz – The Damnation of Faust – Hungarian March

Hector Berlioz – The Damnation of Faust – Hungarian March

Marche militaire française from Suite algérienne, Op. 60

Marche militaire française from Suite algérienne, Op. 60

Antonín Dvořák – Slavonic Dances, Op. 72

Antonín Dvořák – Slavonic Dances, Op. 72

Schubert Symphony No 3 D major Maazel Bavarian RSO

Schubert Symphony No 3 D major Maazel Bavarian RSO