Category Archives: MUSIC

Watch “Daniel Guichard – Les ballons rouges (Serge Lama)” on YouTube



Je n’ai pas eu de ballon rouge
Quand j’étais gosse dans mon quartier
Dans ces provinces où rien ne bouge
Tous mes ballons étaient crevés
Je n’ai pas eu de vrai vacances
Seul, face à face avec la mer
Quand le cœur rythme la cadence
Des mouettes qui nagent dans l’air

J’ai rien demandé, je n’ai rien eu
J’ai rien donné, j’ai rien reçu
Je n’ai jamais joué aux billes
Quand j’étais gosse dans mon quartier
J’étais cloué dans ma famille
Comme un martyr à son bûcher
Je n’ai pas eu de promenade
Seul, face à face avec le vent
Je lisais le Marquis de Sade
Et j’aimais déjà les divans
J’ai rien demandé, je n’ai rien eu
J’ai rien donné, j’ai rien reçu
Les fées n’étaient pas du voyage
Quand j’étais gosse dans mon quartier
Elles vivaient de leurs avantages
Elles étaient toutes syndiquées
Je n’ai pas vu dans les étoiles
Le carrosse de Cendrillon
La mienne avait une robe sale
Mais elle n’avait pas de chaussons
J’ai rien demandé, je n’ai rien eu
J’ai rien donné, j’ai rien reçu
Pourtant j’avais déjà la chance
Quand j’étais gosse dans mon quartier
De ne pas attacher d’importance
A ce que les autres pensaient
Et je n’ai pas vu dans l’Histoire
Quelque guerrier ou quelque roi
Assoiffé de règne ou de gloire
Qui soit plus orgueilleux que moi
J’ai rien demandé, je n’ai rien eu
Mais j’ai fait ce que j’ai voulu
Translate to English

Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Serge Lama / Yves Gilbert
Les ballons rouges lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

Watch “Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake – The Kirov Ballet” on YouTube


Swan Lake

This article is about the ballet. For other uses, see Swan Lake (disambiguation).

Swan Lake (Russian: Лебеди́ное о́зеро, romanized: Lebedínoye ózero), Op. 20, is a ballet composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1875–76. Despite its initial failure, it is now one of the most popular of all ballets.
The scenario, initially in two acts, was fashioned from Russian and German folk tales[a] and tells the story of Odette, a princess turned into a swan by an evil sorcerer’s curse. The choreographer of the original production was Julius Reisinger(Václav Reisinger). The ballet was premiered by the Bolshoi Ballet on 4 March [O.S. 20 February] 1877[1][2] at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. Although it is presented in many different versions, most ballet companies base their stagings both choreographically and musically on the 1895 revival of Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov, first staged for the Imperial Ballet on 15 January 1895, at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg. For this revival, Tchaikovsky’s score was revised by the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatre’s chief conductor and composer Riccardo Drigo.[3]

History

Learn more

This section needs additional citations for verification.

Design by F. Gaanen for the décor of act 2, Moscow 1877

Origins of the ballet

There is no evidence to prove who wrote the original libretto, or where the idea for the plot came from. Russian and German folk tales have been proposed as possible sources, including “The White Duck” and “The Stolen Veil” by Johann Karl August Musäus, but both those tales differ significantly from the ballet.[4]
One theory is that the original choreographer, Julius Reisinger, who was a Bohemian (and therefore likely to be familiar with The Stolen Veil), created the story. Another theory is that it was written by Vladimir Petrovich Begichev, director of the Moscow Imperial Theatres at the time, possibly with Vasily Geltser, danseurof the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre (a surviving copy of the libretto bears his name). Since the first published libretto does not correspond with Tchaikovsky’s music in many places, one theory is that the first published version was written by a journalist after viewing initial rehearsals (new opera and ballet productions were always reported in the newspapers, along with their respective scenarios).
Some contemporaries of Tchaikovsky recalled the composer taking great interest in the life story of Bavarian King Ludwig II, whose life had supposedly been marked by the sign of Swan and could have been the prototype of the dreamer Prince Siegfried.[5] However, Ludwig’s death happened 10 years after the first performance of the ballet.
Begichev commissioned the score of Swan Lake from Tchaikovsky in May 1875 for 800 rubles. Tchaikovsky worked with only a basic outline from Julius Reisinger of the requirements for each dance.[6] However, unlike the instructions for the scores of The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker, no written instruction is known to have survived.

Tchaikovsky’s influences

From around the time of the turn of the 19th century until the beginning of the 1890s, scores for ballets were almost always written by composers known as “specialists,” who were highly skilled at scoring the light, decorative, melodious, and rhythmically clear music that was at that time in vogue for ballet. Tchaikovsky studied the music of “specialists” such as the Italian Cesare Pugni and the Austrian Ludwig Minkus, before setting to work on Swan Lake.
Tchaikovsky had a rather negative opinion of the “specialist” ballet music until he studied it in detail, being impressed by the nearly limitless variety of infectious melodies their scores contained. Tchaikovsky most admired the ballet music of such composers as Léo Delibes, Adolphe Adam, and later, Riccardo Drigo. He would later write to his protégé, the composer Sergei Taneyev, “I listened to the Delibes ballet Sylvia … what charm, what elegance, what wealth of melody, rhythm, and harmony. I was ashamed, for if I had known of this music then, I would not have written Swan Lake.” Tchaikovsky most admired Adam’s 1844 score for Giselle, which used the Leitmotiftechnique: associating certain themes with certain characters or moods, a technique he would use in Swan Lake, and later, The Sleeping Beauty.
Tchaikovsky drew on previous compositions for his Swan Lake score. According to two of Tchaikovsky’s relatives – his nephew Yuri Lvovich Davydov and his niece Anna Meck-Davydova – the composer had earlier created a little ballet called The Lake of the Swans at their home in 1871. This ballet included the famous Leitmotif, the Swan’s Theme or Song of the Swans. He also made use of material from The Voyevoda, an opera he had abandoned in 1868. The Grand adage (a.k.a. the Love Duet) from the second scene of Swan Lake was fashioned from an aria from that opera, as was the Valse des fiancéesfrom the third scene. Another number which included a theme from The Voyevoda was the Entr’acte of the fourth scene.
By April 1876 the score was complete, and rehearsals began. Soon Reisinger began setting certain numbers aside that he dubbed “undanceable.” Reisinger even began choreographing dances to other composers’ music, but Tchaikovsky protested and his pieces were reinstated. Although the two artists were required to collaborate, each seemed to prefer working as independently of the other as possible.[7]

Composition process

Tchaikovsky’s excitement with Swan Lake is evident from the speed with which he composed: commissioned in the spring of 1875, the piece was created within one year. His letters to Sergei Taneyev from August 1875 indicate, however, that it was not only his excitement that compelled him to create it so quickly but his wish to finish it as soon as possible, so as to allow him to start on an opera. Respectively, he created scores of the first three numbers of the ballet, then the orchestration in the fall and winter, and was still struggling with the instrumentation in the spring. By April 1876, the work was complete. Tchaikovsky’s mention of a draft suggests the presence of some sort of abstract but no such draft has ever been seen. Tchaikovsky wrote various letters to friends expressing his longstanding desire to work with this type of music, and his excitement concerning his current stimulating, albeit laborious task.[8]

Performance history

Adelaide Giuri as Odette and Mikhail Mordkin as Prince Siegfried in Aleksandr Gorsky’s staging of the Petipa/Ivanov Swan Lake for the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow, 1901. A young Vera Karalli is seen kneeling.

Moscow première (world première)

Date: 4 March (OS 20 February) 1877

Place: Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow

Balletmaster: Julius Reisinger

Conductor: Stepan Ryabov

Scene Designers: Karl Valts (acts 2 & 4), Ivan Shangin (act 1), Karl Groppius (act 3)

St. Petersburg première

Date: 27 January 1895

Place: Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg

Balletmaster: Marius Petipa (acts 1 & 3), Lev Ivanov (acts 2 & 4)

Conductor: Riccardo Drigo

Scene Designers: Ivan Andreyev, Mikhail Bocharov, Henrich Levogt

Costume Designer: Yevgeni Ponomaryov[9]

Other notable productions

1880 and 1882, Moscow, Bolshoi Theatre, staged by Joseph Hansenafter Reisinger, conductor and designers as in première

1901, Moscow, Bolshoi Theatre, staged by Aleksandr Gorsky, conducted by Andrey Arends, scenes by Aleksandr Golovin (act 1), Konstantin Korovin (acts 2 & 4), N. Klodt (act 3)

1911, London, Ballets Russes, Sergei Diaghilev production, choreography by Michel Fokineafter Petipa–Ivanov, scenes by Golovin and Korovin

Original interpreters
RoleMoscow 1877Moscow 1880St. Petersburg 1895[9]Moscow 1901London 1911QueensopranoOlga NikolayevaGiuseppina CecchettiSiegfriedtenorVictor GillertAlfred BekefiPavel GerdtMikhail MordkinVaslav NijinskyBennoSergey NikitinAleksandr OblakovWolfgangWilhelm WannerGillertOdettePelageya KarpakovaYevdokiya KalmїkovaPierina LegnaniAdelaide GiuriMathilde KschessinskaVon RothbartSergey SokolovAleksey BulgakovK. KubakinOdilesopranoPierina LegnaniMathilde Kschessinska

Original production of 1877

The première on Friday, 4 March 1877, was given as a benefit performance for the ballerina Pelageya Karpakova (also known as Polina Karpakova), who performed the role of Odette, with première danseur Victor Gillert as Prince Siegfried. Karpakova may also have danced the part Odile, although it is believed the ballet originally called for two different dancers. It is now common practice for the same ballerina to dance both Odette and Odile.
The Russian ballerina Anna Sobeshchanskaya was originally cast as Odette, but was replaced when a governing official in Moscow complained about her, claiming she had accepted jewelry from him, only to then marry a fellow danseur and sell the pieces for cash.
The première was not well-received. Though there were a few critics who recognised the virtues of the score, most considered it to be far too complicated for ballet. It was labelled, “too noisy, too ‘Wagnerian’ and too symphonic.”[10] The critics also thought Reisinger’s choreography was “unimaginative and altogether unmemorable.”[10] The German origins of the story were “treated with suspicion while the tale itself was regarded as ‘stupid’ with unpronounceable surnames for its characters.”[10] Karpakova was a secondary soloist and “not particularly convincing.”[10]

The poverty of the production, meaning the décor and costumes, the absence of outstanding performers, the Balletmaster’s weakness of imagination, and, finally, the orchestra … all of this together permitted (Tchaikovsky) with good reason to cast the blame for the failure on others.

— Modest Tchaikovsky, brother of the composer

Yet the fact remains (and is too often omitted in accounts of this initial production) that this staging survived for six years with a total of 41 performances – many more than several other ballets from the repertoire of this theatre.[11]

Tchaikovsky pas de deux 1877

Anna Sobeshchanskaya [ru] as Odette in Julius Reisinger’s original production

Pierina Legnani as Odette (1895)

During the late 1880s and early 1890s, Petipa and Vsevolozhsky discussed with Tchaikovsky the possibility of reviving Swan Lake. However, Tchaikovsky died on 6 November 1893, just when plans to revive Swan Lake were beginning to come to fruition. It remains uncertain whether Tchaikovsky was prepared to revise the music for this revival. Whatever the case, as a result of Tchaikovsky’s death, Drigo was forced to revise the score himself, after receiving approval from Tchaikovsky’s younger brother, Modest. There are major differencesbetween Drigo’s and Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake score. Today, it is Riccardo Drigo’s revision of Tchaikovsky’s score, and not Tchaikovsky’s original score of 1877, that most ballet companies use.

Pavel Gerdt as Prince Siegfried (Mariinsky Theatre, 1895)

In February 1894, two memorial concerts planned by Vsevolozhsky were given in honor of Tchaikovsky. The production included the second act of Swan Lake, choreographed by Lev Ivanov, Second Balletmaster to the Imperial Ballet. Ivanov’s choreography for the memorial concert was unanimously hailed as wonderful.

The revival of Swan Lake was planned for Pierina Legnani‘s benefit performance in the 1894–1895 season. The death of Tsar Alexander III on 1 November 1894 and the ensuing period of official mourning brought all ballet performances and rehearsals to a close for some time, and as a result all efforts could be concentrated on the pre-production of the full revival of Swan Lake. Ivanov and Petipa collaborated on the production, with Ivanov retaining his dances for the second act while choreographing the fourth, with Petipa staging the first and third acts.

Modest Tchaikovsky was called upon to make changes to the ballet’s libretto, including the character of Odette changing from a fairy swan-maiden into a cursed mortal woman, the ballet’s villain changing from Odette’s stepmother to the magician von Rothbart, and the ballet’s finale: instead of the lovers simply drowning at the hand of Odette’s stepmother as in the original 1877 scenario, Odette commits suicide by drowning herself, with Prince Siegfried choosing to die as well, rather than live without her, and soon the lovers’ spirits are reunited in an apotheosis.[13] Aside from the revision of the libretto the ballet was changed from four acts to three—with act 2 becoming act 1, scene 2.

All was ready by the beginning of 1895 and the ballet had its première on Friday, 27 January. Pierina Legnani danced Odette/Odile, with Pavel Gerdtas Prince Siegfried, Alexei Bulgakov as Rothbart, and Alexander Oblakov as Benno. Most of the reviews in the St. Petersburg newspapers were positive.

Unlike the première of The Sleeping Beauty, Swan Lake did not dominate the repertory of the Mariinsky Theatre in its first season. It was given only sixteen performances between the première and the 1895–1896 season, and was not performed at all in 1897. Even more surprising, the ballet was performed only four times in 1898 and 1899. The ballet belonged solely to Legnani until she left St. Petersburg for her native Italy in 1901. After her departure, the ballet was taken over by Mathilde Kschessinskaya, who was as much celebrated in the rôle as was her Italian predecessor.

Later productions

Watch “Henry & June / Je M’Ennuie” on YouTube


“>Marlene Dietrich: Moi, Je M’Ennuie Lyrics

De ce que fut mon enfance
Je n’ai plus de souvenir
C’est peut-être que la chance
Ne m’offrit pas de plaisir
Et chaque jour qui se lève
Ne m’apporte aucun espoir
Je n’ai même pas de rêves
Quand luit l’étoile du soir

Moi je m’ennuie
C’est dans ma vie
Une manie
Je n’y peux rien
Le plaisir passe
Il me dépasse
En moi sa trace
Ne laisse rien
Partout je traîne
Comme une chaîne
Ma lourde peine
Sans autre bien
C’est dans ma vie
Une manie
Moi, je m’ennuie

Par de longs vagabondages
J’ai voulu griser mon cœur
Et souvent sur mon passage
J’ai vu naître des malheurs
Sur chaque nouvelle route
À l’amour j’ai du mentir
Et, le soir, lorsque j’écoute
La plainte du vent mourir

Moi j’ m’ennuie
C’est dans ma vie
Une manie
Je n’y peux rien
Le plaisir passe
Il me dépasse
En moi sa trace
Ne laisse rien
Partout je traîne
Comme une chaîne
Ma lourde peine
Sans autre bien
C’est dans ma vie
Une manie
Moi, je m’ennuie

Watch “Dvorak – String Quintet No 3 In E flat Major, Opus 97, B 180 “American”” on YouTube


Watch “Khachaturian – Adagio from Spartacus” on YouTube


Watch “Mahler: Adagietto Symphony 5 – Karajan*” on YouTube


From Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphony_No.5%28Mahler%29?wprov=sfla1

Symphony No. 5 by Gustav Mahlerwas composed in 1901 and 1902, mostly during the summer months at Mahler’s holiday cottage at Maiernigg. Among its most distinctive features are the trumpet solo that opens the work with a rhythmic motif similar to the opening of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5, the horn solos in the third movement and the frequently performed Adagietto.
Symphony No. 5by Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler in 1907

Composed1901 – 1902:MaierniggPublished

1904 Edition Peters

1905 Edition Peters

1964 Eulenberg

2001 Edition Peters (critical edition)

Movements5PremiereDate18 October 1904LocationGürzenich [de], CologneConductorGustav MahlerPerformersGürzenich Orchestra Cologne
The musical canvas and emotional scope of the work, which lasts over an hour, are huge. The symphony is sometimes described as being in the key of C♯ minor since the first movement is in this key (the finale, however, is in D major).[1] Mahler objected to the label: “From the order of the movements (where the usual first movement now comes second) it is difficult to speak of a key for the ‘whole Symphony’, and to avoid misunderstandings the key should best be omitted.”[2]

Composition history

Mahler’s composing cottage in Maiernigg

Mahler wrote his fifth symphony during the summers of 1901 and 1902. In February 1901 Mahler had suffered a sudden major hemorrhageand his doctor later told him that he had come within an hour of bleeding to death. The composer spent quite a while recuperating. He moved into his own lakeside villa in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia in June 1901. Mahler was delighted with his newfound status as the owner of a grand villa. According to friends, he could hardly believe how far he had come from his humble beginnings. He was director of the Vienna Court Opera and the principal conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic. His own music was also starting to be successful. Later in 1901 he met Alma Schindler and by the time he returned to his summer villa in summer 1902, they were married and she was expecting their first child.
Symphonies Nos. 5, 6 and 7, which all belong to this period, have much in common and are markedly different from the first four, which all have strong links to vocal music. The middle symphonies, by contrast, are pure orchestral works and are, by Mahler’s standards, taut and lean.
Counterpoint also becomes a more important element in Mahler’s music from Symphony No. 5 onwards. The ability to write good counterpoint was highly cherished by Baroquecomposers and Johann Sebastian Bach is generally regarded as the greatest composer of contrapuntal music. Bach played an important part in Mahler’s musical life at this time. He subscribed to the edition of Bach’s collected works that was being published at the turn of the century, and later conducted and arranged works by Bach for performance. Mahler’s renewed interest in counterpoint can best be heard in the second, third and fifth movements of this symphony.

Instrumentation

The symphony is scored for large orchestra, consisting of the following:
Woodwinds
4 flutes (all doubling piccolos)3 oboes (3rd doubling cor anglais)3 B♭ and A clarinets (3rd doubling D clarinet and bass clarinet)3 bassoons (3rd doubling contrabassoon)
Brass
6 horns (solo horn in movement 3)4 trumpets3 trombonestuba
Percussion
4 timpanibass drumsnare drum (used only in movement 1)cymbalstrianglewhip (used only in movement 3)tam-tamglockenspiel
Strings
harp1st violins2nd violinsviolascellosdouble basses

Revisions of the score

The score appeared first in print in 1904 at Peters, Leipzig. A second “New Edition”, incorporating revisions that Mahler made in 1904, appeared in 1905. Final revisions made by Mahler in 1911 (by which time he had completed his 9th Symphony) did not appear until 1964 (ed. Ratz), when the score was republished in the Complete Edition of Mahler’s works. In 2001, Edition Peters published a further revised edition (ed. Reinhold Kubik) as part of the New Complete Critical Edition. This edition is the most accurate edition available so far.[according to whom?] Previous editions have now gone out of print.

Structure

The symphony is generally regarded as the most conventional symphony that he had yet written, but from such an unconventional composer it still had many peculiarities. It almost has a four movement structure, as the first two can easily be viewed as essentially a whole. The symphony also ends with a rondo, in the classical style. Some peculiarities are the funeral march that opens the piece and the Adagietto for harp and strings that contrasts with the complex orchestration of the other movements.
A performance of the symphony lasts around 70 minutes.
The work is in five movements, though Mahler grouped the movements into bigger parts:
Part I1. Trauermarsch (Funeral march). In gemessenem Schritt. Streng. Wie ein Kondukt (At a measured pace. Strict. Like a funeral procession.) C♯ minor2. Stürmisch bewegt, mit größter Vehemenz (Moving stormily, with the greatest vehemence) A minorPart II3. Scherzo. Kräftig, nicht zu schnell (Strong and not too fast) D majorPart III

  1. Adagietto. Sehr langsam (Very slow) F major5. Rondo-Finale. Allegro – Allegro giocoso. Frisch (Fresh) D major

Part I

  1. TrauermarschEdit

The trumpet solo at the opening of the first movement

is followed by a somber, funeral march (the primary theme).

The march is twice interrupted by a calmer secondary theme.

  1. Stürmisch bewegt, mit größter VehemenzEdit

The best pianist of our generation, YouTube generation: Valentina Lisitsa


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentina_Lisitsa

Valentina Lisitsa

Valentina Lisitsa (Ukrainian: Валенти́на Євге́нівна Лиси́ця, romanized: Valentýna Jevhénivna Lysýcja, IPA: [wɐlenˈtɪnɐ jeu̯ˈɦɛn⁽ʲ⁾iu̯nɐ lɪˈsɪtsʲɐ]; Russian: Валентина Евгеньевна Лисица, romanized: Valentina Evgen’evna Lisica, IPA: [vɐlʲɪnˈtʲinə jɪvˈɡʲenʲɪvnə lʲɪˈsʲitsə]; born 25 March 1973) is a Ukrainian-American[1] pianist. She previously resided in North Carolinabefore moving to Canada, and then to France.[2][3]

Valentina Lisitsa

Background informationBorn25 March 1973(age 46)
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet UnionGenresClassicalOccupation(s)Classical pianistInstrumentsPianoYears active1977-presentWebsitevalentinalisitsa.com
Lisitsa is among the most frequently viewed pianists on YouTube – particularly her renderings of Romantic Era virtuoso piano composers, including Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin and Sergei Rachmaninoff.[4][5] Lisitsa independently launched her career on social media, without initially signing with a tour promoter or record company.[4][5]

Life and career

Lisitsa was born in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1973. Her mother, also named Valentina, is a seamstress and her father, Evgeny, was an engineer.[4] Her older brother Eugene died in 2009.[6][4]
She started playing the piano at the age of three, performing her first solo recital at the age of four.[7] She is of Russian and Polish descent.[8]
Despite her early aptitude for music, her dream at that point was to become a professional chess player.[9]Lisitsa attended the Lysenko music school and, later, the Kiev Conservatory,[10] where she and her future husband, Alexei Kuznetsoff, studied under Dr. Ludmilla Tsvierko.[11]When Lisitsa met Kuznetsoff, she began to take music more seriously.[12] In 1991, they won the first prize in The Murray Dranoff Two Piano Competition in Miami, Florida.[10][13]That same year, they moved to the United States to further their careers as concert pianists.[4] In 1992 the couple married.[4] Their New York debut was at the Mostly Mozart Festival at Lincoln Center in 1995.[11]

Lisitsa posted her first YouTube video in 2007. Her set of Chopin etudes reached the number-one slot on Amazon’s list of classical video recordings, and became the most-viewed online collection of Chopin etudes on YouTube.[14][15]

To advance her career, in 2010 Lisitsa and her husband put their life savings into recording a CD of Rachmaninoff concertos with the London Symphony Orchestra.[4] In the spring of 2012, before her Royal Albert Hall debut, Lisitsa signed with Decca Records, who later released her Rachmaninoff CD set.[4] By mid-2012 she had logged nearly 50 million views of her YouTube videos.[5]
Lisitsa has performed in various venues around the world, including Carnegie Hall, David Geffen Hall, Benaroya Hall, Musikverein and the Royal Albert Hall. She is well known for her online recitals and practicing streams. She has also collaborated with violinist Hilary Hahn at various recital engagements.[10]

Controversy

Lisitsa has received criticism for her opposition to the Ukrainian government and support of pro-Russian separatists since the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine and the ensuing armed conflict.[16] In April 2015, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra cancelled concerts with Lisitsa, citing her “provocative” online remarks on her Twitter account; the orchestra initially did not specify which tweets or other commentary it believed crossed a line.[17][18] Later, on 8 April 2015, the CEO of Toronto Symphony, Jeff Melanson provided a PDF document of seven pages listing the most “offensive” tweets. Melanson alleged that the document would “help people understand why we made this decision, and understand as well how this is not a free speech issue, but rather an issue of someone practicing very intolerant and offensive expression through Twitter.”[19]
In response, the Toronto Star criticized the orchestra’s decision in an editorial, noting that, “Lisitsa was not invited to Toronto to discuss her provocative political views. She was scheduled to play the piano. And second, banning a musician for expressing “opinions that some believe to be offensive” shows an utter failure to grasp the concept of free speech.”[20] Lisitsa said that the orchestra threatened her if she spoke about the cancellation.[21]
According to Paul Grod, then president of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress: “Ms. Lisitsa has been engaged in a long campaign on social media belittling, insulting and disparaging the people of Ukraine as they face direct military aggression at the hands of the Russian Federation”. Grod elaborated that “Most disturbing are Ms. Lisitsa’s false allegations that the government of Ukraine is “Nazi”, and stating that the Government of Ukraine is setting up ‘filtration camps.'” The New Jersey-based Ukrainian Weekly has described her postings as “anti-Ukraine hate speech.”[8][17] In response she commented that “satire and hyperbole [are] the best literary tools to combat the lies”.[8][17]

DiscographyEdit

Lisitsa has recorded six CDs for Audiofon Records, including three solo CDs and two discs of duets with her husband Alexei Kuznetsoff; a Gold CD for CiscoMusic label with cellist DeRosa; a duet recital on VAI label with violinist Ida Haendel; and DVDs of Frédéric Chopin’s 24 Études and Schubert-Liszt Schwanengesang.[22]
Her recording of the four sonatas for violin and piano by composer Charles Ives, made with Hilary Hahn, was released in October 2011 on Deutsche Grammophon label. Her album Valentina Lisitsa Live at the Royal Albert Hall (based on her debut performance at that venue 19 June 2012) was released 2 July 2012.
Lisitsa has reproduced several compositions by various artists, including Sergei Rachmaninoff, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin and Ludwig van Beethoven. Decca Records released her complete album of Rachmaninoff concertos in October 2012.[23] An album of Liszt works was released in October 2013 on Decca label in 2 formats – CD and 12″ LP which was cut unedited from analog tape. An even more recent album comprises a number of works of the composer and pianist Philip Glass.[24] As of July 2019, her latest release on Decca records is a 10CD set titled Tchaikovsky: The Complete Solo Piano Works.

ReferencesEdit

^ Everett-Green, Robert (7 December 2012). “Valentina Lisitsa: Playing the odds – by way of Rachmaninoff”. The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 8 April 2015.

^ “Valentina Lisitsa and Alexei Kuznetsoff”. Southern Arts Federation. Retrieved 12 July2009.

^

Watch “Mussorgsky – Pictures at an Exhibition” Berliner Philarmoniker orchestra, conductor Herbert on Karayan on YouTube


Pictures at an Exhibition

This article is about the original suite by Modest Mussorgsky and its orchestral arrangements. For other uses, see Pictures at an Exhibition (disambiguation).

Mussorgsky in 1874

Pictures at an Exhibition (Russian: Картинки с выставки – Воспоминание о Викторе Гартмане, romanized: Kartínki s výstavki – Vospominániye o Víktore Gártmane, lit. ‘Pictures from an Exhibition – A Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann’, French: Tableaux d’une exposition) is a suite of ten pieces (plus a recurring, varied Promenade) composed for piano by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky in 1874.

The suite is Mussorgsky’s most famous piano composition, and has become a showpiece for virtuosopianists. It has become further known through various orchestrations and arrangements produced by other musicians and composers, with Maurice Ravel’s 1922 version for full symphony orchestra being by far the most recorded and performed.

Composition history

Viktor Hartmann (1834–1873)

It was probably in 1868 that Mussorgsky first met artist, architect, and designer Viktor Hartmann, not long after the latter’s return to Russia from abroad. Both men were devoted to the cause of an intrinsically Russian art and quickly became friends. They likely met in the home of the influential critic Vladimir Stasov, who followed both of their careers with interest. According to Stasov’s testimony, in 1868, Hartmann gave Mussorgsky two of the pictures that later formed the basis of Pictures at an Exhibition.[1] In 1870, Mussorgsky dedicated the second song (“In the Corner”) of the cycle The Nursery to Hartmann. Stasov remarked that Hartmann loved Mussorgsky’s compositions, and particularly liked the “Scene by the Fountain” in his opera Boris Godunov. Mussorgsky abandoned the scene in his original 1869 version, but at the requests of Stasov and Hartmann, he reworked it for Act 3 in his revision of 1872.[2]

The years 1873–74 are associated with the staging of Boris Godunov, the zenith of Mussorgsky’s career as a composer—at least from the standpoint of public acclaim. Mussorgsky’s distant relative, friend, and roommate during this period, Arseniy Golenishchev-Kutuzov, describing the January 1874 premiere of the opera, remarked: “During the winter, there were, I think, nine performances, and each time the theatre was sold out, each time the public tumultuously called for Mussorgsky.”[3] The composer’s triumph was overshadowed, however, by the critical drubbing he received in the press. Other circumstances conspired to dampen Mussorgsky’s spirits. The disintegration of The Mighty Handful and their failure to understand his artistic goals contributed to the isolation he experienced as an outsider in Saint Petersburg’s musical establishment. Golenishchev-Kutuzov wrote: “[The Mighty Handful’s] banner was held by Mussorgsky alone; all the other members had left it and pursued his own path …”[4]

Hartmann’s sudden death on 4 August 1873 from an aneurysm shook Mussorgsky along with others in Russia’s art world. The loss of the artist, aged only 39, plunged the composer into deep despair. Stasov helped to organize a memorial exhibition of over 400 Hartmann works in the Imperial Academy of Artsin Saint Petersburg in February and March 1874. Mussorgsky lent to the exhibition the two pictures Hartmann had given him, and viewed the show in person. Later in June, two-thirds of the way through composing his song cycle, Sunless, Mussorgsky was inspired to compose Pictures at an Exhibition, quickly completing the score in three weeks (2–22 June 1874).[5] In a letter to Stasov (see photo), probably written on 12 June 1874, he describes his progress:

Mussorgsky’s letter to Stasov, written while composing Pictures

My dear généralissime, Hartmann is boiling as Boris boiled—sounds and ideas hung in the air, I am gulping and overeating, and can barely manage to scribble them on paper. I am writing the 4th No.—the transitions are good (on the ‘promenade’). I want to work more quickly and steadily. My physiognomy can be seen in the interludes. So far I think it’s well turned …[6]

The music depicts his tour of the exhibition, with each of the ten numbers of the suite serving as a musical illustration of an individual work by Hartmann.[7]

Five days after finishing the composition, he wrote on the title page of the manuscript a tribute to Vladimir Stasov, to whom the work is dedicated. One month later, he added an indication that he intended to have it published.[8]

Golenishchev-Kutuzov gives the following (perhaps biased)[9] account of the work’s reception among Mussorgsky’s friends and colleagues and an explanation for his failure to follow through on his plans to publish it:

Soon, with the composition of the musical illustrations for Pictures from an Exhibition by the architect Hartmann, he reached the acme of that musical radicalism, to whose ‘new shores’ and to whose ‘unfathomed depths’ the admirers of his ‘Peepshows’ and ‘Savishnas’ had pushed him so diligently. In music for these illustrations, as Mussorgsky called them, he represented [chicks], children, Baba Yaga in her wooden house on chicken legs, catacombs, gates, and even rattling carts. All this was not done jokingly, but ‘seriously’.

There was no end to the enthusiasm shown by his devotees; but many of Mussorgsky’s friends, on the other hand, and especially the comrade composers, were seriously puzzled and, listening to the ‘novelty,’ shook their heads in bewilderment. Naturally, Mussorgsky noticed their bewilderment and seemed to feel that he ‘had gone too far.’ He set the illustrations aside without even trying to publish them. Mussorgsky devoted himself exclusively to Khovanshchina.[10]

In August, Mussorgsky completed the last two songs of Sunless and then resumed work on Khovanshchina, composing the prelude to Act 1 (“Dawn on the Moscow River”) in September.

Publication historyEdit

Cover of first edition

As with most of Mussorgsky’s works, Pictures at an Exhibition has a complicated publication history. Although composed very rapidly, during June 1874, the work did not appear in print until 1886, five years after the composer’s death, when an edition by the composer’s friend and colleague Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakovwas published. This edition, however, was not a completely accurate representation of Mussorgsky’s score but presented a revised text that contained a number of errors and misreadings.

Only in 1931, marking the 50th anniversary of the composer’s death, was Pictures at an Exhibition published in a scholarly edition in agreement with his manuscript, to be included in Volume 8 of Pavel Lamm’s M. P. Mussorgsky: Complete Collected Works (1939).

In 1940, the Italian composer Luigi Dallapiccola published an important critical edition of Mussorgsky’s work with extensive commentary.

Mussorgsky’s hand-written manuscript was published in facsimile in 1975.

YearEditorPublisherNotes1886Nikolay Rimsky-KorsakovV. Bessel and Co., Saint PetersburgRevised edition [1]1931Pavel LammMuzgiz, MoscowRestoration of the composer’s score [2]1975—Muzïka, MoscowFacsimile of the composer’s manuscript

Hartmann’s pictures

Viktor Hartmann

Mussorgsky based his musical material on drawings and watercolours by Hartmann produced mostly during the artist’s travels abroad. Locales include Italy, France, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. Today most of the pictures from the Hartmann exhibition are lost, making it impossible to be sure in many cases which Hartmann works Mussorgsky had in mind.

Arts critic Alfred Frankenstein gave an account of Hartmann, with reproductions of his pictures, in the article “Victor Hartmann and Modeste Mussorgsky” in The Musical Quarterly(July 1939).[11] Frankenstein claimed to have identified seven pictures by catalogue number, corresponding to:

“Tuileries” (now lost)”Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks””Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuÿle” (Frankenstein suggested two separate portraits, still extant, as the basis for “Two Jews: Rich and Poor”)”Catacombs””The Hut on Hen’s Legs””The Bogatyr Gates”

The surviving works that can be shown with certainty to have been used by Mussorgsky in assembling his suite, along with their titles, are as follows:[12]

MovementTitleTitle (English)Picture5. Ballet of the Unhatched ChicksЭскизы театральных костюмов к балету “Трильби”Sketches of theatre costumes for the ballet Trilby 6. “Samuel” Goldenberg and “Schmuÿle”Еврей в меховой шапке. СандомирJew in a fur cap. Sandomierz Сандомирский [еврей]Sandomierz [Jew] 8. Catacombs (Roman Tomb)Парижские катакомбы (с фигурами В. А. Гартмана, В. А. Кенеля и проводника, держащего фонарь)Paris Catacombs(with the figures of V. A. Hartmann, V. A. Kenel, and a guide holding a lantern) 9. The Hut on Hen’s Legs (Baba Yaga)Избушка Бабы-Яги на курьих ножках. Часы в русском стилеThe hut of Baba-Yaga on hen’s legs. Clock in the Russian style 10. The Bogatyr Gates (In the Capital in Kiev)Проект городских ворот в Киеве. Главный фасадProject for city gates in Kiev. Main façade

Note: Mussorgsky owned the two pictures that together inspired No. 6, the so-called “Two Jews”. The title of No. 6b, as provided by the Soviet editors of his letters, is Сандомирский [еврей] (Sandomirskiy [yevrey] or Sandomierz [Jew]). The bracketed word yevrey (lit. “Hebrew”) is the sanitized form of the actual word in the title, very likely the derogatory epithet жид (zhid or yid).[13]

MovementsEdit

Vladimir Stasov’s program, identified below,[14] and the six known extant pictures suggest the ten pieces that make up the suite correspond to eleven pictures by Hartmann, with “Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuÿle” accounting for two. The five Promenades are not numbered with the ten pictures and consist in the composer’s manuscript of two titled movements and three untitled interludes appended to the 1st, 2nd, and 4th pictures (see Pavel Lamm’s 1931 edition [3]).

Mussorgsky links the suite’s movements in a way that depicts the viewer’s own progress through the exhibition. Two Promenade movements stand as portals to the suite’s main sections. Their regular pace and irregular meter depicts the act of walking. Three untitled interludes present shorter statements of this theme, varying the mood, colour, and key in each to suggest reflection on a work just seen or anticipation of a new work glimpsed. A turn is taken in the work at the “Catacombae” when the Promenade theme stops functioning as merely a linking device and becomes, in “Cum mortuis”, an integral element of the movement itself. The theme reaches its apotheosis in the suite’s finale, “The Bogatyr Gates”.

The first two movements of the suite—one grand, one grotesque—find mirrored counterparts, and apotheoses, at the end. The suite traces a journey that begins at an art exhibition, but the line between observer and observed vanishes at the Catacombs when the journey takes on a different character.

The table below shows the order of movements.

No.Title in scoreEnglish translationKeyMeterTempoPromenadeB♭major5
4,

Watch “Rachmaninoff Rhapsody on theme of Paganini, op. 43 – Valentina Lisitsa, piano” on YouTube


Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini

Paganini’s theme

Play (help·info)

The Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43, (Russian: Рапсодия на тему Паганини, Rapsodiya na temu Paganini) is a concertante work written by Sergei Rachmaninoff. It is written for solo piano and symphony orchestra, closely resembling a piano concerto, albeit in a single movement. The work was written at his summer home, the Villa Senar in Switzerland, according to the score, from July 3 to August 18, 1934. Rachmaninoff himself, a noted interpreter of his own works, played the solo piano part at the piece’s premiere at the Lyric Opera House in Baltimore, Maryland, on November 7, 1934 with the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokowski. Rachmaninoff, Stokowski, and the Philadelphia Orchestra made the first recording, on December 24, 1934, at RCA Victor’s Trinity Church Studio in Camden, New Jersey.

Instrumentation

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Watch “Rachmaninov/Respighi: 5 Études-tableaux (P. 160) (1930)” on YouTube


Sergei Rachmaninoff in 1921

Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff[a](English: /rɑːxˈmɑːnəˌnɔːf, -ˌnɒf, rɑːk-/rahkh-MAH-nə-nawf, -⁠nof, rahk-;[3]Russian: Серге́й Васи́льевич Рахма́нинов[b], tr. Sergei Vasilyevich Rahmaninov, IPA: [sʲɪrˈɡʲej vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪt͡ɕ rɐxˈmanʲɪnəf]; 1 April [O.S. 20 March] 1873 – 28 March 1943[c][d]) was a Russian composer, virtuosopianist, and conductor of the late Romantic period. Some of his compositions are staples in the classical music repertoire.
Born into a musical family, Rachmaninoff took up the piano at the age of four. He graduated from the Moscow Conservatory in 1892, having already composed several piano and orchestral pieces. In 1897, following the negative critical reaction to his Symphony No. 1, Rachmaninoff entered a four-year depression and composed little until successful therapy allowed him to complete his enthusiastically received Piano Concerto No. 2 in 1901. For the next sixteen years, Rachmaninoff conducted at the Bolshoi Theatre, relocated to Dresden, Germany, and toured the United States for the first time.
Following the Russian Revolution, Rachmaninoff and his family left Russia; in 1918, they settled in the United States, first in New York City. With his main source of income coming from piano and conducting performances, demanding tour schedules led to a reduction in his time for composition; between 1918 and 1943, he completed just six works, including Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Symphony No. 3, and Symphonic Dances. By 1942, his failing health led to his relocation to Beverly Hills, California. One month before his death from advanced melanoma, Rachmaninoff was granted American citizenship.

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Watch “Ludwig van Beethoven Symphony No. 6, (Full version)” on YouTube


Published on Mar 30, 2017

I (0:00)

II (10:56)

in (24:10)

W (29:21)

v (32:22)

Ludwig van Beethoven Symphony No. 6, (Full version) I. Happy Arrival 0:00

It. By the Brook 10:56

III.

V. Shepherd’s Song 32:22

Conducted by Frans Briiggen (Orchestra of the 18th Century) I’m happy for you all. Thank you for watching this nice symphony. Beethoven’s 6th Symphony (Pastoral) A Love of Nature The Pastoral Symphony is a charming masterpiece which both paints a picture of nature and describes man’s feelings towards it. Beethoven‘s great love of nature, the delight in strolling through the countryside in Vienna, the fact that he always found his equilibrium in the heart of nature, all these inspired him to create his sixth symphony. Beethoven’s 6th Symphony is filled with colorful sounds, simple folk tunes. nice development, and a feeling of calm beauty. It contains meaningful emotional aspect which reflects mankind’s feelings towards the natural world. Beethoven began sketching out his 6th symphony in 1802 and finished it in 1808. ‘How happy I am to be able to walk among the shrubs. the trees, the woods, the grass and the rocks! For the woods, the trees and the rocks give man the resonance he needs.‘ Beethoven said in the summer of 1808. The premiere of the 6th Symphony was probably the grandest musical event in Beethoven’s life. It was a massive conceit packed with lndelible moments of brand new Beethoven music! This programmatic endeavor is clearly expressed through the suggestive title of the symphony, as well as through the titles of each movement. When Beethoven found refuge in the midst of nature, he jotted down themes inspired by the trill of birds, the trickling of creeks or the rustle of leaves. In a notebook from 1803 was found an outline of a river’s trickling with the additional note: ‘The greater the river, the more grave the tone.’-Beethoven spread out the sympho-y into five movements and gave each movement a little subtitle explaining what it was about. I. ‘Happy Arrival’ (Awakening of cheerful feelings upon arrival in the country) The Pastoral symphony opens with warmth and calm, setting the scene as we arrive in the countryside. This has a programmatic indication. In this movement, we find a genuine popular sonority through the choice of instruments neatly weaved together. [Allegro ma non troppo]

II. ‘By the Brook’ (T he natural scene of the stream) This slow movement is a beautiful depiction of the delicate nature of… nature itself. It is a wonderful scene of nature with exceptionally musical themes in the pure pastoral air. You can almost breathe the fresh country air! It is more of a description of sensations rather than images. Towards the end, we find the onomatopoeic sounds of birds. [Andante molto mosso]

III. ‘Merrymaking’ (Joyful gathering of countryfolk) Now we turn our attention to the loud, jolly peasants who live in the countryside. Here we see them celebrate with a joyful dance. Of course. these are simple folks, so the music itself is simple, but very energetic. [Allegro]

IV. ‘ThunderStorm’ (Heavy rumblings of natural forces) 29.21 With no pause between the previous movement and this movement, there is a dramatic surprise, hinting at trouble ahead. Yes, a storm is brewing! Beethoven inserts fantastic lightning crashes and a whirl of wind. He renders the stages of the storm as it unravels on the horizon and moves closer more and more threatening.

The instruments with grave chords cellos and double basses through their sounds announce the storm, then the staccato sounds of the violins render the falling raindrops, and through the timpani and the flutes we sense the thunder and lightning. Then comes the rainbow. Above all these images, we feel the tense disposition that captures man facing the realities of nature. There is an urgent sense of human fear since humanity is powerless against the forces of nature. When the storm is over, all living creatures come to the surface, taking their place in the natural cycle. This is rendered by a choral of flutes which come as a sunray. [Allegro]

V. ‘Shepherd‘s Song’ (Expression of thanks when the storm is over) As the storm fades away, all the animals emerge, and there‘s a general feeling of relief. Sunshine reappears, and everyone’s mind is relaxed aqain. This is
the song of gratitude towards nature. It is a calm movement, full of mind is relaxed again. This is the song of gratitude towards nature. It is a calm movement, full of grace. It starts out quiet, but quickly gets faster and happier. The music is fairly simple. but this makes Its emotions of gratitude endearing. [Allegretto]

Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony, through its simplicity. is just sincere and natural.

‘IV. Allegro (Storm and tempest) (extract)’ by Roger Norrington

Watch “Sinnerman (Nina Simone) – Thomas Crown” on YouTube


Mr. Tambourine Man (Live at the Newport Folk Festival. 1964)” on YouTube


Mr. Tambourine Man
Song by Bob Dylan

Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
I’m not sleepy and there is no place I’m going to
Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
In the jingle jangle morning I’ll come following you
Though I know that evening’s empire has returned into sand
Vanished from my hand
Left me blindly here to stand but still not sleeping
My weariness amazes me, I’m branded on my feet
I have no one to meet
And the ancient empty street’s too dead for dreaming
Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
I’m not sleepy and there is no place I’m going to
Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
In the jingle jangle morning I’ll come following you
Take me on a trip upon your magic swirling ship
My senses have been stripped
My hands can’t feel to grip
My toes too numb to step
Wait only for my boot heels to be wandering
I’m ready to go anywhere, I’m ready for to fade
Into my own parade
Cast your dancing spell my way, I promise to go under it
Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
I’m not sleepy and there is no place I’m going to
Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
In the jingle jangle morning I’ll come following you
Though you might hear laughing, spinning, swinging madly across the sun
It’s not aimed at anyone
It’s just escaping on the run
And but for the sky there are no fences facing
And if you hear vague traces of skipping reels of rhyme
To your tambourine in time
It’s just a ragged clown behind
I wouldn’t pay it any mind
It’s just a shadow you’re seeing that he’s chasing
Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
I’m not sleepy and there is no place I’m going to
Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
In the jingle jangle morning I’ll come following you
And take me disappearing through the smoke rings of my mind
Down the foggy ruins of time
Far past the frozen leaves
The haunted frightened trees
Out to the windy beach
Far from the twisted reach of crazy sorrow
Yes, to dance beneath the diamond sky
With one hand waving free
Silhouetted by the sea
Circled by the circus sands
With all memory and fate
Driven deep beneath the waves
Let me forget about today until tomorrow
Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
I’m not sleepy and there is no place I’m going to
Hey! Mr. Tambourine man, play a song for me
In the jingle jangle morning I’ll come following you
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Bob Dylan
Mr. Tambourine Man lyrics © Audiam, Inc

Watch “El Condor Pasa ” If I Could ” | Guitar and Pan Flute” on YouTube


I’d rather be a sparrow than a snail
Yes I would, if I could, I surely would
I’d rather be a hammer than a nail
Yes I would, if I only could, I surely would

Away, I’d rather sail away
Like a swan that’s here and gone
A man gets tied up to the ground
He gives the world its saddest sound
Its saddest sound
I’d rather be a forest than a street
Yes I would, if I could, I surely would
I’d rather feel the earth beneath my feet
Yes I would, if I only could, I surely would
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Paul Simon / Jorge Milchberg / Daniel Alomia Robles
El Condor Pasa (If I Could) lyrics © Universal Music Publishing Group

Watch “Samuel Barber – Adagio for Strings” on YouTube


Samuel Barber

Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944

Samuel Osmond Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of orchestral, opera, choral, and piano music. He is one of the most celebrated composers of the 20th century; music critic Donal Henahan stated, “Probably no other American composer has ever enjoyed such early, such persistent and such long-lasting acclaim.”[1]

His Adagio for Strings (1936) has earned a permanent place in the concert repertory of orchestras. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Music twice: for his opera Vanessa(1956–57) and for the Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1962). Also widely performed is his Knoxville: Summer of 1915 (1947), a setting for soprano and orchestra of a prose text by James Agee. At the time of Barber’s death, nearly all of his compositions had been recorded.[1]

BiographyEdit

Early yearsEdit

Childhood home of Samuel Barber in West Chester, Pennsylvania

Barber was born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, the son of Marguerite McLeod (née Beatty) and Samuel Le Roy Barber.[2] He was born into a comfortable, educated, social, and distinguished American family. His father was a physician; his mother was a pianist of English-Scottish-Irish (British) descent whose family had lived in the United States since the time of the American Revolutionary War.[3] His maternal aunt, Louise Homer, was a leading contralto at the Metropolitan Opera; his uncle, Sidney Homer, was a composer of American art songs. Louise Homer is known to have influenced Barber’s interest in voice. Through his aunt, Barber was introduced to many great singers and songs.

At a very early age, Barber became profoundly interested in music, and it was apparent that he had great musical talent and ability. He began studying the piano at the age of six and at age seven composed his first work, Sadness, a 23-measure solo piano piece in C minor.[1] Despite Barber’s interest in music, his family wanted him to become a typical extroverted, athletic American boy. This meant, in particular, they encouraged his playing football. However, Barber was in no way a typical boy, and at the age of nine he wrote to his mother:[4]

Dear Mother: I have written this to tell you my worrying secret. Now don’t cry when you read it because it is neither yours nor my fault. I suppose I will have to tell it now without any nonsense. To begin with I was not meant to be an athlet [sic]. I was meant to be a composer, and will be I’m sure. I’ll ask you one more thing.—Don’t ask me to try to forget this unpleasant thing and go play football.—Please—Sometimes I’ve been worrying about this so much that it makes me mad (not very).[5]

Barber attempted to write his first opera, entitled The Rose Tree, at the age of 10. At the age of 12, he became an organist at a local church. When he was 14, he enrolled in and subsequently graduated from West Chester High School (now West Chester Henderson High School), later composing the school’s alma mater.[6][failed verification] Also at the age of 14, he entered the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, where he studied piano with Isabelle Vengerova, composition with Rosario Scalero[citation needed] and George Frederick Boyle,[7] and voice with Emilio de Gogorza.[1] He began composing seriously in his late teenage years. Around the same time, he met fellow Curtis schoolmate Gian Carlo Menotti, who became his partner in life as well as in their shared profession. At the Curtis Institute, Barber was a triple prodigy in composition, voice, and piano. He soon became a favorite of the conservatory’s founder, Mary Louise Curtis Bok. It was through Mrs. Bok that Barber was introduced to his lifelong publishers, the Schirmer family. At the age of 18, Barber won the Joseph H. Bearns Prize from Columbia University for his violin sonata (now lost or destroyed by the composer).[1]

Middle yearsEdit

From his early to late twenties, Barber wrote a flurry of successful compositions, launching him into the spotlight of the classical music world. His first orchestral work, an overtureto The School for Scandal, was composed in 1931 when he was 21 years old. It premiered successfully two years later in a performance given by the Philadelphia Orchestra under the direction of conductor Alexander Smallens.[1] Many of his compositions were commissioned or first performed by such noted artists as Vladimir Horowitz, Eleanor Steber, Raya Garbousova, John Browning, Leontyne Price, Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc, and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau. In 1935, at the age of 25, he was awarded the American Prix de Rome; he also received a Pulitzer traveling scholarship, which allowed him to study abroad in 1935–1936. He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1946.[1]

In 1938, when Barber was 28, his Adagio for Strings was performed by the NBC Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Arturo Toscanini, along with his first Essay for Orchestra. The Adagio had been arranged from the slow movement of Barber’s String Quartet, Op. 11. Toscanini had rarely performed music by American composers before (an exception was Howard Hanson‘s Second Symphony,which he conducted in 1933).[8] At the end of the first rehearsal of the piece, Toscanini remarked, “Semplice e bella” (simple and beautiful).

In 1942, after the US entered World War II, Barber joined the Army Air Corps; there, he was commissioned to write his Second Symphony, a work he later suppressed. Composed in 1943, the symphony was originally titled Symphony Dedicated to the Air Forcesand was premiered in early 1944 by Serge Koussevitsky and the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Barber revised the symphony in 1947 and it was subsequently published by G. Schirmer in 1950[9] and recorded the following year by the New Symphony Orchestra of London, conducted by Barber himself.[10]

According to some sources, Barber destroyed the score in 1964.[11] Hans Heinsheimer was an eyewitness, and reported that he accompanied Barber to the publisher’s office where they collected all the music from the library, and Barber “tore up all these beautifully and expensively copied materials with his own hands”.[12]Doubt has been cast on this story, however, on grounds that Heinsheimer, as an executive at G. Schirmer, would have been unlikely to have allowed Barber into the Schirmer offices to watch him “rip apart the music that his company had invested money in publishing”.[13] The score was later reconstructed from the instrumental parts,[14] and released in a Vox Box “Stradivari Classics” recording by the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra conducted by Andrew Schenck in 1988.[15]

In 1943, Barber and Menotti purchased a house in suburban Mount Kisco, New York, north of Manhattan.[16]

Barber won the Pulitzer Prize twice: in 1958 for his first opera Vanessa, and in 1963 for his Concerto for Piano and Orchestra.[17]

Later yearsEdit

Barber spent many years in isolation after the harsh rejection of his third opera Antony and Cleopatra. The opera was written for and premiered at the opening of the new Metropolitan Opera House on September 16, 1966. After this setback, Barber continued to write music until he was almost 70 years old. The Third Essay for orchestra (1978) was his last major work. He suffered from depression and alcoholism during these years.[18]

Barber died of cancer on January 23, 1981, at his 907 Fifth Avenue apartment in Manhattan at the age of 70.[19] The funeral was held at the First Presbyterian Church in New York three days later. He was buried in Oaklands Cemetery in his hometown of West Chester, Pennsylvania.[20]

Achievements and awardsEdit

Barber received numerous awards and prizes, including the Rome Prize (the American version of the Prix de Rome), two Pulitzers, and election to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1961.[21]

Barber was awarded the Edward MacDowell Medal in 1980 by the MacDowell Colony for outstanding contribution to the arts.[22][23]

In addition to composing, Barber was active in organizations that sought to help musicians and promote music. He was president of the International Music Council of UNESCO. He worked to bring attention to and ameliorate adverse conditions facing musicians and musical organizations worldwide.[24] He was one of the first American composers to visit Russia (then part of the Soviet Union). Barber was also influential in the successful campaign by composers against ASCAP, the goal of which was to increase royalties paid to composers.

MusicEdit

OrchestralEdit

Through the success of his Overture to The School for Scandal (1931), Music for a Scene from Shelley (1933), Adagio for Strings (1936), (First)

Watch “Erik Satie – Gnossienne No.1” on YouTube


Erik Satie (1891), by Ramon Casas

The Gnossiennes (French pronunciation: [ɡnosjεn]) are several piano compositions written by the French composer Erik Satie in the late 19th century. The works are for the most part in free time (lacking time signatures or bar divisions) and highly experimental with form, rhythm and chordal structure. The form as well as the term was invented by Satie.

Etymology

Satie’s coining of the word gnossiennewas one of the rare occasions when a composer used a new term to indicate a new “type” of composition. Satie used many novel names for his compositions (vexations, croquis et agaceries and so on). Ogive, for example, is the name of an architectural element which was used by Satie as the name for a composition, the Ogives. Gnossienne, however, was a word that did not exist before Satie used it as a title for a composition. The word appears to derive from gnosis. Satie was involved in gnostic sects and movements at the time that he began to compose the Gnossiennes. However, some published versions claim that the word derives from Cretan “knossos” or “gnossus”; this interpretation supports the theory linking the Gnossiennes to the myth of Theseus, Ariadne and the Minotaur. Several archeological sites relating to that theme were famously excavated around the time that Satie composed the Gnossiennes.
It is possible that Satie may have drawn inspiration for the title of these compositions from a passage in John Dryden’s 1697 translation of the Aeneid, in which it is thought the word first appeared:

Let us the land which Heav’n appoints, explore;
Appease the winds, and seek the Gnossian shore.[1]

Characteristics

The Gnossiennes were composed by Satie in the decade following the composition of the Sarabandes (1887) and the Trois Gymnopédies (1888). Like these Sarabandes and Gymnopédies, the Gnossiennes are often considered dances. It is not certain that this qualification comes from Satie himself – the sarabandeand the Gymnopaedia were at least historically known as dances.
The musical vocabulary of the Gnossiennes is a continuation of that of the Gymnopédies (a development that had started with the 1886 Ogivesand the Sarabandes) later leading to more harmonic experimentation in compositions like the Danses gothiques (1893). These series of compositions are all at the core of Satie’s characteristic late 19th century style, and in this sense differ from his early salon compositions (like the 1885 “Waltz” compositions published in 1887), his turn-of-the-century cabaret songs (Je te veux), and his post-Schola Cantorum piano solo compositions, starting with the Préludes flasques in 1912.

Trois Gnossiennes

Gnossienne No. 1

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 2

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 3

Performed 16 November 2010

Problems playing these files? See media help.
These Three Gnossiennes were composed around 1890 and first published in 1893. A revision prior to publication in 1893 is not unlikely; the 2nd Gnossienne may even have been composed in that year (it has “April 1893” as date on the manuscript). The piano solo versions of the first three Gnossiennes are without time signatures or bar lines, which is known as free time.
These Gnossiennes were first published in Le Figaro musical No. 24 of September 1893 (Gnossiennes Nos. 1 and 3, the last one of these then still “No. 2”) and in Le Cœur No. 6–7 of September–October 1893 (Gnossienne No. 2 printed as facsimile, then numbered “No. 6”).
The first grouped publication, numbered as known henceforth, followed in 1913. By this time Satie had indicated 1890 as composition date for all three. The first Gnossiennewas dedicated to Alexis Roland-Manuel in the 1913 reprint. The 1893 facsimile print of the 2nd Gnossiennecontained a dedication to Antoine de La Rochefoucauld, not repeated in the 1913 print. This de La Rochefoucauld had been a co-founder of Joséphin Péladan’s Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique et Esthetique du Temple et du Graal in 1891. By the second publication of the first set of three Gnossiennes, Satie had broken already for a long time with all Rosicruciantype of endeavours.
Also with respect to the tempo these Gnossiennes follow the Gymnopédiesline: slow tempos, respectively Lent(French for Lento/slow), avec étonnement (“with astonishment”), and again Lent.
A sketch containing only two incomplete bars, dated around 1890, shows Satie beginning to orchestrate the 3rd Gnossienne.
The first and third Gnossiennes share a similar chordal structures, rhythm and share reference to each other’s thematic material.

Gnossiennes Nos. 4–7

Gnossienne No. 4

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 5

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 6

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 7

Performed 16 November 2010

Problems playing these files? See media help.
The Gnossiennes Nos. 4–6 were published only in 1968, long after Satie’s death. None of these appear to have been numbered, not even titledas “Gnossienne” by Satie himself. The sequence of these three Gnossiennesin the 1968 publication by Robert Cabydoes not correspond with the chronological order of composition. It is extremely unlikely that Satie would have seen these compositions as three members of a single set.

Gnossienne No. 4

Lent. Composition date on the manuscript: 22 January 1891.
A facsimile of the four manuscript pages of this composition can be seen on this page of Nicolas Fogwall’sSatie website.
Composed tonally in D minor even though its key signature is empty, the piece features a bass line centred on its minor key, sounding D, A, D, F, A, D, F, D, A, F, D, A, D. The bass part then transposes into a C minor chord I ostinato, following the pattern C, G, C, E♭, G, C, E♭, C, G, E♭, C, G, C. Section B, usually considered a very inspired section, uses semiquavers to contrast the minor melody of Section A.

Gnossienne No. 5

Modéré (French for Moderato). Dated 8 July 1889, this was probably Satie’s first composition after the 1888 Gymnopédies: in any case it predates all other known Gnossiennes(including the three published in 1893). The work is somewhat uncharacteristic of the other Gnossiennes not only in its upbeat style, rhythms and less exotic chordal structures but also in its use of time signatures and bar divisions.

Gnossienne No. 6

Avec conviction et avec une tristesse rigoureuse (“with conviction and with a rigorous sadness”). Composed nearly 8 years after the first, in January 1897.

Le Fils des étoiles – Trois morceaux en forme de poireEdit

The Le Fils des étoiles (“The son of the stars”) incidental music (composed 1891) contains a Gnossienne in the first act. For this one the naming as “Gnossienne” is definitely by Satie (as apparent from the correspondence with his publisher). As a result of that, this music is sometimes known as the 7th Gnossienne. That part of the Le Fils des étoiles music was re-used as Manière de commencement (“A way to begin”), the first of the seven movements of the Trois morceaux en forme de poire (“Three pieces in the shape of a pear”).

^ Dryden, John, The Works of Virgil: Containing his Pastorals, Georgics, and Aeneis. London: Jacob Tonson, 1697. Book III, line 153.

Coppens, Claude, program notes to the integral execution of Satie’s Piano work (Ghent, De Rode Pomp, 1–2 December 1995).

Watch “Lady Diana – Candle in the wind (Goodbye Englands rose) – Elton John – Lyrics in text” on YouTube


Goodbye Norma Jean
Though I never knew you at all
You had the grace to hold yourself
While those around you crawled
They crawled out of the woodwork
And they whispered into your brain
They set you on the treadmill
And they made you change your name

And it seems to me you lived your life
Like a candle in the wind
Never knowing who to cling to
When the rain set in
And I would have liked to have known you
But I was just a kid
Your candle burned out long before
Your legend ever did
Loneliness was tough
The toughest role you ever played
Hollywood created a superstar
And pain was the price you paid
Even when you died
Oh the press still hounded you
All the papers had to say
Was that Marilyn was found in the nude
And it seems to me you lived your life
Like a candle in the wind
Never knowing who to cling to
When the rain set in
And I would have liked to have known you
But I was just a kid
Your candle burned out long before
Your legend ever did
Goodbye Norma Jean
Though I never knew you at all
You had the grace to hold yourself
While those around you crawled
Goodbye Norma Jean
From the young man in the twenty second row
Who sees you as something more than sexual
More than just our Marilyn Monroe
And it seems to me you lived your life
Like a candle in the wind
Never knowing who to cling to
When the rain set in
And I would have liked to have known you
But I was just a kid
Your candle burned out long before
Your legend ever did
Your candle burned out long before
Your legend ever did
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Elton John / Bernie Taupin
Candle in the Wind lyrics © Universal Music Publishing Group, BMG Rights Management

Watch “Our House Crosby Stills Nash & Young” on YouTube


I’ll light the fire
You put the flowers in the vase that you bought today
Staring at the fire for hours and hours while I listen to you
Play your love songs all night long for me, only for me

Come to me now and rest your head for just five minutes, everything is good
Such a cozy room, the windows are illuminated by the
Sunshine through them, fiery gems for you, only for you
Our house is a very, very, very fine house with two cats in the yard
Life used to be so hard
Now everything is easy ’cause of you
And our la, la, la, la, la, la, la, la, la
Our house is a very, very, very fine house with two cats in the yard
Life used to be so hard
Now everything is easy ’cause of you
And our
I’ll light the fire while you place the flowers in the vase that you bought today
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Graham Nash
Our House lyrics © Spirit Music Group

Watch “Elton John – Rocket Man (with lyrics)” on YouTube


She packed my bags last night pre-flight
Zero hour nine AM
And I’m gonna be high as a kite by then
I miss the earth so much I miss my wife
It’s lonely out in space
On such a timeless flight

And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
‘Till touch down brings me round again to find
I’m not the man they think I am at home
Oh no no no I’m a rocket man
Rocket man burning out his fuse up here alone
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
‘Till touch down brings me round again to find
I’m not the man they think I am at home
Oh no no no I’m a rocket man
Rocket man burning out his fuse up here alone
Mars ain’t the kind of place to raise your kids
In fact it’s cold as hell
And there’s no one there to raise them if you did
And all this science I don’t understand
It’s just my job five days a week
A rocket man, a rocket man
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
‘Till touch down brings me round again to find
I’m not the man they think I am at home
Oh no no no I’m a rocket man
Rocket man burning out his fuse up here alone
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
‘Till touch down brings me round again to find
I’m not the man they think I am at home
Oh no no no I’m a rocket man
Rocket man burning out his fuse up here alone
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Elton John / Bernie Taupin
Rocket Man lyrics © Universal Music Publishing Group

Watch “Complete Beethoven Piano Sonatas – Claudio Arrau” on YouTube


Watch “Jim James – State Of The Art (A.E.I.O.U.)” on YouTube



Daylight come
Daylight go
How far will it reach?
Ain’t nobody know
And when the dawn breaks
The cradle will fall
And down come baby
Cradle and all
Now I know you need the dark
Just as much as the sun
But you signin’ on forever
When you ink it in blood

A.E.I.O.U.
E.I.O.U.
A.E.I.O.U.
I, I use my state of the art
Technology
Supposed to make for better living
Are we better human beings?
We’ve got our wires all crossed
The tubes are all tied
And I’m straining to remember
Just what it means to be alive
A life worth living
Now you can feel it in your chest
Buildin’ like little birds
Just building up the nest
And you build it up strong
And you fill it up with love
And you pray for good rain
All from the lord above
A.E.I.O.U.
E.I.O.U.
A.E.I.
I use my state of the art
Technology
Now don’t you forget it
It ain’t using me
‘Cause when the power’s goes out
I got over me
‘Cause the power’s goin’ out
I think the power’s goin’ out
I mean it, the power’s goin’ out
I really mean it the powers goin’ out
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: James Edward Olliges Jr.
State of the Art (A.E.I.O.U.) lyrics © Words & Music A Div Of Big Deal Music LLC

Watch “Schubert: Complete String Quartets” on YouTube


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category%3AString_quartets_by_Franz_Schubert

Category:String quartets by Franz Schubert

Watch “Keith Jarrett & Chick Corea – Play MORZART #12” on YouTube


Watch “JOHN COLTRANE , STAN GETZ Autumn in New York” on YouTube


Watch “The Doors – Riders On The Storm (ORIGINAL!) – driving with Jim” on YouTube


The Doors Lyrics

“Riders On The Storm”

Riders on the storm
Riders on the storm
Into this house we’re born
Into this world we’re thrown
Like a dog without a bone
An actor out on loan
Riders on the storm

There’s a killer on the road
His brain is squirmin’ like a toad
Take a long holiday
Let your children play
If you give this man a ride
Sweet family will die
Killer on the road, yeah

Girl, you gotta love your man
Girl, you gotta love your man
Take him by the hand
Make him understand
The world on you depends
Our life will never end
Gotta love your man, yeah

Riders on the storm
Riders on the storm
Into this house we’re born
Into this world we’re thrown
Like a dog without a bone
An actor out on loan.
Riders on the storm

Riders on the storm
Riders on the storm
Riders on the storm
Riders on the storm
Riders on the storm

Watch “Jacques Brel – Les vieux (Olympia 1966)” on YouTube



Les vieux
Song by Jacques Brel
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  1. Les vieux ne parlent plus
    Ou alors seulement
    Parfois du bout des yeux,
    Même riches ils sont pauvres,
    Ils n’ont plus d’illusions,
    Et n’ont qu’un cœur pour deux.
    Chez eux ça sent le thym,
    Le propre, la lavande,
    Et le verbe d’antan,
    Que l’on vive à Paris,
    On vit tous en province
    Quand on vit trop longtemps.
    Est-ce d’avoir trop ri
    Que leur voix se lézarde
    Quand ils parlent d’hier?
    Et d’avoir trop pleuré
    Que des larmes encore
    Leur perlent les paupières?
    Et s’ils tremblent un peu
    Est-ce de voir vieillir
    La pendule d’argent
    Qui ronronne au salon,
    Qui dit oui, qui dit non,
    Qui dit “Je vous attends”.

    Les vieux ne rêvent plus,
    Leurs livres s’ensommeillent,
    Leurs pianos sont fermés,
    Le petit chat est mort.
    Le muscat du dimanche
    Ne les fait plus chanter,
    Les vieux ne bougent plus,
    Leurs gestes ont trop de rides,
    Leur monde est trop petit,
    Du lit à la fenêtre,
    Puis du lit au fauteuil,
    Et puis du lit au lit,
    Et s’ils sortent encore
    Bras dessus, bras dessous,
    Tout habillés de raide,
    C’est pour suivre au soleil
    L’enterrement d’un plus vieux,
    L’enterrement d’une plus laide,
    Et le temps d’un sanglot
    Oublier toute une heure
    La pendule d’argent
    Qui ronronne au salon,
    Qui dit oui, qui dit non,
    Et puis qui les attend.

    Les vieux ne meurent pas,
    Ils s’endorment un jour
    Et dorment trop longtemps,
    Ils se tiennent la main,
    Ils ont peur de se perdre,
    Et se perdent pourtant
    Et l’autre reste là,
    Le meilleur ou le pire,
    Le doux ou le sévère,
    Cela n’importe pas,
    Celui des deux qui reste
    Se retrouve en enfer.
    Vous le verrez peut-être,
    Vous le verrez parfois
    En pluie et en chagrin
    Traverser le présent.
    En s’excusant déjà
    De n’être pas plus loin.
    Et fuir devant vous
    Une dernière fois
    La pendule d’argent
    Qui ronronne au salon,
    Qui dit oui, qui dit non,
    Qui leur dit “Je t’attends”,
    Qui ronronne au salon,
    Qui dit oui, qui dit non,
    Et puis qui nous attend

    Translate to English

    Source: LyricFind


    Songwriters: Gerard Jouannest / Jacques Roman Brel / Jean Corti

    Les vieux lyrics © Warner Chappell Music, Inc

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    Genius › J › Jacques Brel

    Jacques Brel – Old Folks (Les Vieux) Lyrics | Genius Lyrics

    Old Folks (Les Vieux) Lyrics: The old folks don’t talk much / And they talk so slowly when they do / They are rich, they are poor …


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    Jacques Brel Les Vieux lyrics – music – Paroles-musique.com

    Jul 5, 2009 · Les Vieux lyrics by Jacques Brel : Les vieux ne parlent plus Ou alors seulement parfois du bout des yeux Même.


    Jacques Brel Is Alive And Well And Living In Paris – Old Folks (Les Vieux) lyrics …

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    Old Folks (Les vieux) This song is by Jacques Brel. The old folks don’t talk much And they talk so slowly when they do They are rich …

Watch “Léo Ferré – Avec le temps (enregistrement TRS)” on YouTube



Avec le temps
Avec le temps va tout s’en va
On oublie le visage et l’on oublie la voix
Le cœur quand ça bat plus
C’est pas la peine d’aller chercher plus loin
Faut laisser faire et c’est très bien

Avec le temps
Avec le temps va tout s’en va
L’autre qu’on adorait, qu’on cherchait sous la pluie
L’autre qu’on devinait au détour d’un regard
Entre les mots, entre les lignes et sous le fard
D’un serment maquillé qui s’en va faire sa nuit
Avec le temps tout s’évanouit
Avec le temps
Avec le temps va tout s’en va
Même les plus chouettes souvenirs ça t’as une de ces gueules
À la Galerie j’farfouille dans les rayons d’la mort
Le samedi soir quand la tendresse s’en va toute seule
Avec le temps
Avec le temps va tout s’en va
L’autre à qui l’on croyait pour un rhume pour un rien
L’autre à qui l’on donnait du vent et des bijoux
Pour qui l’on eût vendu son âme pour quelques sous
Devant quoi l’on s’traînait comme traînent les chiens
Avec le temps va tout va bien
Avec le temps
Avec le temps va tout s’en va
On oublie les passions et l’on oublie les voix
Qui vous disaient tout bas les mots des pauvres gens
Ne rentre pas trop tard surtout ne prend pas froid
Avec le temps
Avec le temps va tout s’en va
Et l’on se sent blanchi comme un cheval fourbu
Et l’on se sent glacé dans un lit de hasard
Et l’on se sent tout seul peut-être mais peinard
Et l’on se sent floué par les années perdues
Alors vraiment
Avec le temps on n’aime plus
Translate to English

Source: Musixmatch


Songwriters: Leo Ferre
Avec le temps lyrics © Les Nouvelles EDI.MERIDIAN, Editorial Avenue, Les Nouvelles Editions Meridian, La Memoire Et La Mer, Editions Chanson Music, S D R M, MATHIEU FERRE ET CIE, MERIDIAN ED

Other masterpieces: Watch “Camille Saint-Saën – Bacchanale from Samson and Delilah” on YouTube


Watch “You Want It Darker – Leonard Cohen” on YouTube



  1. If you are the dealer, I’m out of the game
    If you are the healer, it means I’m broken and lame
    If thine is the glory then mine must be the shame
    You want it darker
    We kill the flame

    Magnified, sanctified, be thy holy name
    Vilified, crucified, in the human frame
    A million candles burning for the help that never came
    You want it darker

    Hineni, hineni
    I’m ready, my lord

    There’s a lover in the story
    But the story’s still the same
    There’s a lullaby for suffering
    And a paradox to blame
    But it’s written in the scriptures
    And it’s not some idle claim
    You want it darker
    We kill the flame

    They’re lining up the prisoners
    And the guards are taking aim
    I struggled with some demons
    They were middle class and tame
    I didn’t know I had permission to murder and to maim
    You want it darker

    Hineni, hineni
    I’m ready, my lord

    Magnified, sanctified, be thy holy name
    Vilified, crucified, in the human frame
    A million candles burning for the love that never came
    You want it darker
    We kill the flame

    If you are the dealer, let me out of the game
    If you are the healer, I’m broken and lame
    If thine is the glory, mine must be the shame
    You want it darker

    Hineni, hineni
    Hineni, hineni
    I’m ready, my lord

    Hineni
    Hineni, hineni
    Hineni

    Source: LyricFind


    Songwriters: Leonard Cohen / Patrick Leonard

    You Want It Darker lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Kobalt Music Publishing Ltd.


Watch “The Fray – Be Still (Lyrics)” on YouTube



Be still and know that I’m with you
Be still and know that I am here
Be still and know that I’m with you
Be still, be still, and know

When darkness comes upon you
And colors you with fear and shame
Be still and know that I’m with you
And I will say your name
If terror falls upon your bed
And sleep no longer comes
Remember all the words I said
Be still, be still, and know
And when you go through the valley
And the shadow comes down from the hill
If morning never comes to be
Be still, be still, be still
If you forget the way to go
And lose where you came from
If no one is standing beside you
Be still and know I am
Be still and know that I’m with you
Be still and know I am
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Isaac Slade / Joseph King / David Welsh / Ben Wysocki
Be Still lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

American Suite – Wikipedia


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Suite

The American Suite in A major (Czech: Suita A dur), Op. 98b, B. 190, is an orchestral suite written in 1894–1895 by Czech composer Antonín Dvořák.

BackgroundEdit

MovementsEdit

The suite is written in five movements, each with a marked rhythm:

  1. Andante con moto
  2. Allegro
  3. Moderato (alla pollacca)
  4. Andante
  5. Allegro

Analysis and receptionEdit

As often is the case with
Dvořák, the orchestral version gives the work a new breadth. The cyclic
aspects of Dvořák’s composition are apparent, in that the principal
theme of the first movement recurs during the conclusion of the work.
This opening theme is marked by his American-influenced style. It is difficult to determine whether it comes from the typical folk music of the New World or simply from the music of the Czech emigrants, to which the Dvořák liked to listen during his stay in the United States.

This mix of American influence with Slavic tradition is also
perceptible in the rhythm of the “alla Polacca” third movement, and in
the last movement’s themes native to the Far East, played by flute and oboe in unison, where the orchestra passes easily from the minor theme to the major one.

Far from any exoticism, the art of Dvořák’s orchestral work is in the field of pure music, and it is undoubtedly for this reason that Brahms
appreciated it. Even in New York, when Dvořák encouraged his pupils to
work on their own folk melodies, it was authentic recreation of the
popular folk musics that he called for.

Appearances in popular cultureEdit

Along with several other works by Dvořák (including some of the Slavonic Dances and the second movement of the New World Symphony), the first movement, Andante con moto is part of the sound track to Sid Meier’s Civilization IV.
The allegro was used in the trailer for The Elder Scrolls II Daggerfall.

NotesEdit

  1. Klaus Döge, Grove

References and further readingEdit

  • Döge, Klaus: “Antonín Dvořák”, Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed December 16, 2006), (subscription access)

See also

External links

Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven) – Wikipedia


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphony_No.6%28Beethoven%29

Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68, also known as the Pastoral Symphony (German: Pastorale[1]), is a symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven and completed in 1808. One of Beethoven’s few works containing explicitly programmatic content,[2] the symphony was first performed in the Theater an der Wien on 22 December 1808[3] in a four-hour concert.[4]

Symphony No. 6
by Ludwig van Beethoven
Beethoven sym 6 script.PNG

Part of a sketch by Beethoven for the symphony

Other namePastoral SymphonyKeyF majorOpusOp. 68PeriodClassical periodFormSymphonyBased onNatureComposed1802–1808DedicationPrince Lobkowitz
Count RazumovskyDurationAbout 40 minutesMovementsFiveScoringOrchestraPremiereDateDecember 22, 1808LocationTheater an der Wien, ViennaConductorLudwig van Beethoven

Background

Instrumentation

Form

In film

Notes

References

External links

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5478661

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MUSIC
Beethoven’s Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Op. 68
June 12, 200610:39 AM ET
Audio will be available later today.
Hear an Interview with Conductor Christoph Eschenbach
“Pastoral”

Composed in 1808

Premiered December 1808

Published 1809 in Leipzig

Many of Beethoven’s works are titled, yet many of these names came from friends or from those to whom the pieces were dedicated. The Sixth Symphony, however, is one of only two symphonies Beethoven intentionally named. Beethoven’s full title was “Pastoral Symphony, or Recollections of Country Life.” Although it was composed in the same time period and dedicated to the same people as the Fifth, the works have many differences. The “Pastoral” is known as a “characteristic” symphony and closely resembles “Le musical de la nature” by Rheinish composer Justin Heinrich Knecht. Beethoven publicly declared the piece’s “extramusical” purpose: an expression of nature. His affinity for nature and his love for walks through the country outside Vienna were captured in the Sixth, as well as in the notes scribbled on sketches of the symphony.

Notes on Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony
CHRISTOPHER H. GIBBS

Most of the familiar titles attached to Beethoven’s works were put there by someone other than the composer. Critics, friends, and publishers invented the labels “Moonlight,” “Tempest,” and “Appassionata” for popular piano sonatas. Prominent patrons’ names—Archduke Rudolph, Count Razumovsky, Count Waldstein—became wedded to compositions they either commissioned or that are dedicated to them, thereby winning a sort of immortality for those who supported the composer.

Beethoven himself crossed out the heading “Bonaparte” from the title page of the Third Symphony, but later wrote in “Sinfonia eroica” (Heroic Symphony), and it is his only symphony besides the Sixth to bear an authentic title. To be sure, stories about “fate knocking at the door” in the Fifth and the choral finale of the Ninth have encouraged programmatic associations for those works, beginning in Beethoven’s own time. But, in the end, it is the Sixth Symphony, the “Pastoral,” that stands most apart from his others, and indeed from nearly all of Beethoven’s instrumental and keyboard music, in its intentional, publicly declared, and often quite audible extramusical content. Beethoven’s full title is: “Pastoral Symphony, or Recollections of Country Life.”

“More an Expression of Feeling Than Painting”

And yet the Sixth Symphony does not aspire to the level of musical realism found in a work like Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique or in Richard Strauss’s later tone poems. In the program for its premiere, Beethoven famously noted that the “Pastoral” contained “more an expression of feeling than painting.” He had earlier objected to some of the musical illustration in Haydn’s oratorios The Creation (1798) and The Seasons (1801), with their imitations of storms, frogs, and other phenomena. He probably would not have cared much for what the “New German School” of Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner would later advocate and create.

Beethoven’s “Pastoral” Symphony belongs to a tradition, going back to the previous century, of “characteristic” symphonies. Indeed, the titles for the movements that Beethoven provided closely resemble those of “Le Portrait musical de la nature,” written nearly 25 years earlier by the Rheinish composer Justin Heinrich Knecht. (It is doubtful Beethoven knew the music of the piece, but he did know the titles.) Scattered comments that Beethoven made in his sketches for the Symphony are revealing: “The hearers should be allowed to discover the situations / Sinfonia caracteristica—or recollection of country life / All painting in instrumental music is lost if it is pushed too far / Sinfonia pastorella. Anyone who has an idea of country life can make out for himself the intentions of the composer without many titles / Also without titles the whole will be recognized as a matter more of feeling than of painting in sounds.”

Regardless of the musical and aesthetic implications that the “Pastoral” Symphony raises with respect to the program music—a key issue for debate over the rest of the century—it unquestionably offers eloquent testimony to the importance and power of nature in Beethoven’s life. The composer reveled in walking in the environs of Vienna and spent nearly every summer in the country. When Napoleon’s second occupation of the city in 1809 meant that he could not leave, he wrote to his publisher: “I still cannot enjoy life in the country, which is so indispensable to me.” Indeed, Beethoven’s letters are filled with declarations of the importance of nature in his life, such as one from 1810: “How delighted I will be to ramble for awhile through the bushes, woods, under trees, through grass, and around rocks. No one can love the country as much as I do. For surely woods, trees, and rocks produce the echo that man desires to hear.”

Companion Symphonies

Beethoven wrote the “Pastoral” primarily during the spring and fall of 1808, although some sketches date back years earlier. Its composition overlapped in part with that of the Fifth Symphony, which might be considered its non-identical twin. Not only did both have the same period of genesis and the same dedicatees (Count Razumovsky and Prince Lobkowitz), but they were also published within weeks of one another in the spring of 1809 and premiered together (in reverse order and with their numbers switched).

The occasion was Beethoven’s famous marathon concert of December 22, 1808, at the Theater an der Wien, and was the only time he premiered two symphonies together. Moreover, the program also included the first public performance of the Fourth Piano Concerto, two movements from the Mass in C, the concert aria Ah! perfido, and the “Choral” Fantasy. Reports indicate that all did not go well, as musicians playing after limited rehearsal struggled their way through this demanding new music, and things fell apart during the “Choral” Fantasy. Although the Fifth and Sixth symphonies are extremely different from one another in overall mood, there are notable points of convergence, such as the innovations in instrumentation (the delayed and dramatic introduction of piccolo and trombones in the fourth movements) and the splicing together of the final movements.

A Closer Look

Beethoven’s descriptive movement titles for the “Pastoral” were made public to the audience before the premiere. The first movement, “Awakening of cheerful feelings upon arriving in the country,” engages with a long musical tradition of pastoral music. From the opening drone of an open fifth in the lower strings to the jovial coda, the leisurely and often repetitive pace of the movement is far from the intensity of the Fifth Symphony. The second movement, “Scene by the brook,” includes the famous birdcalls: flute for the nightingale, oboe for the quail, and two clarinets for the cuckoo (Berlioz copied the effect for two of the birds in the pastoral third movement of his Symphonie fantastique).

This is Beethoven’s only symphony with five movements and the last three lead one into the next. The third is entitled “Merry gathering of peasants” and suggests a town band of limited ability playing dance music. The dance is interrupted by a “Tempest, storm” that approaches from afar as ominous rumblings give way to the full fury of thunder and lightning. The storm is far more intense than other well-known storms—such as by Vivaldi and Haydn—and presages later ones by Berlioz and Wagner. Just as the storm had approached gradually, so it passes, leaving some scattered moments of disruption before the “Shepherds’ hymn—Happy and thankful feelings after the storm” brings the work to its close. Regardless of Beethoven’s declared intentions, this music seems to function on both descriptive and expressive levels, therein fueling arguments about the issue ever since his time.

Program note © 2006. All rights reserved. Program note may not be reprinted without written permission from The Philadelphia Orchestra Association.

Web Resources
The Philadelphia Orchestra’s Site
Philadelphia Orchestra
Ludwig van Beethoven
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Watch “je vous salue marie-georges brassens” on YouTube


Par le petit garçon qui meurt près de sa mère
Tandis que des enfants s’amusent au parterre
Et par l’oiseau blessé qui ne sait pas comment
Son aile tout à coup s’ensanglante et descend
Par la soif et la faim et le délire ardent
Je vous salue, Marie
Par les gosses battus, par l’ivrogne qui rentre
Par l’âne qui reçoit des coups de pied au ventre
Et par l’humiliation de l’innocent châtié
Par la vierge vendue qu’on a déshabillée
Par le fils dont la mère a été insultée
Je vous salue, Marie

Par la vieille qui, trébuchant sous trop de poids
S’écrie “mon Dieu !” par le malheureux dont les bras
Ne purent s’appuyer sur une amour humaine
Comme la Croix du Fils sur Simon de Cyrène
Par le cheval tombé sous le chariot qu’il traîne
Je vous salue, Marie

Par les quatre horizons qui crucifient le monde
Par tous ceux dont la chair se déchire ou succombe
Par ceux qui sont sans pieds, par ceux qui sont sans mains
Par le malade que l’on opère et qui geint
Et par le juste mis au rang des assassins
Je vous salue, Marie

Par la mère apprenant que son fils est guéri
Par l’oiseau rappelant l’oiseau tombé du nid
Par l’herbe qui a soif et recueille l’ondée
Par le baiser perdu par l’amour redonné
Et par le mendiant retrouvant sa monnaie
Je vous salue, Marie

Translate to English
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Georges Charles Brassens / Francis Jammes / Oswald Antoine Marie D’Andrea
La prière lyrics © Warner Chappell Music France

For interpretation of the lyrics see:

https://fr.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Pri%C3%A8re?wprov=sfla1

Watch “Leonard Cohen Interview – Part 1 of 3” on YouTube


Watch “Isn’t it a Pity – Nina Simone” on YouTube


Isn’t it a pity
You don’t know what I’m talking about, yet
But I will tell you soon
It’s a pity

Isn’t it a pity
Isn’t it a shame
Yes, how we break each other’s hearts
And cause each other pain

How we take each other’s love
Without thinking anymore
Forgetting to give back
Forgetting to remember
Just forgetting and no thank you
Isn’t it a pity

Some things take so long
But how do I explain
Why not too many people can see
That we are all just the same
We’re all guilty

Because of all the tears
Our eyes just can’t hope to see
But I don’t think it’s applicable to me
The beauty that surrounds them
Child, isn’t it a pity

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How we break each other’s hearts
And cause each other pain
How we take each other’s love
The most precious thing
Without thinking anymore

Forgetting to give back
Forgetting to keep open our door
Isn’t it a pity
Isn’t it a pity

Some things take so long
But how do I explain
Isn’t it a pity
Why not too many people
Can see we’re all the same

Because we cry so much
Our eyes can’t, can’t hope to see
That’s not quite true
The beauty that surrounds them
Maybe that’s why we cry
God, isn’t it a pity

Lord knows, it’s a pity
Mankind has been so programmed
That they don’t care about nothin’
That has to do with care
C-a-r-e

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How we take each other’s love
The most precious thing
Without thinking anymore
Forgetting to give back
Forgetting to keep open the door

But I understand some things take so long
But how do I explain
Why not too many people
Can see we’re just the same

And because of all their tears
Their eyes can’t hope to see
The beauty that surrounds them
God, isn’t it a pity
The beauty that surrounds them
It’s a pity

We take each other’s love
Just take it for granted
Without thinking anymore
We give each other pain
And we shut every door

We take each other’s minds
And we’re capable of take each other’s souls
We do it every day
Just to reach some financial goal
Lord, isn’t it a pity, my God
Isn’t it a pity, my God
And so unnecessary

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Just a little time, a little care
A little note written in the air
Just the little thank you
We just forget to give back
‘Cause we’re moving too fast
Moving too fast
Forgetting to give back

But some things take so long
And I cannot explain
The beauty that surrounds us
And we don’t see it
We think things are just the same
We’ve been programmed that way

Isn’t it a pity
If you want to feel sorry
Isn’t it a pity
Isn’t it a pity
The beauty sets the beauty that surrounds us
Because of all our tears
Our eyes can’t hope to see

Maybe one day, at least, I’ll see me
And just concentrate on givin’, givin’, givin’, givin’
And ’til that day
Mankind don’t stand a chance
Don’t know nothin’ about romance
Everything is plastic
Isn’t it a pity
My God

Watch “Nina Simone – Sinnerman” and Tom Ellis on YouTube (2 videos)



Oh, sinnerman, where you gonna run to?
Sinnerman where you gonna run to?
Where you gonna run to?
All on that day
We got to run to the rock
Please hide me, I run to the rock
Please hide me, run to the rock
Please hide here
All on that day
But the rock cried out
I can’t hide you, the rock cried out
I can’t hide you, the rock cried out
I ain’t gonna hide you there
All on that day
I said rock
What’s the matter with you rock?
Don’t you see I need you, rock?
Good Lord, Lord
All on that day
So I run to the river
It was bleedin’, I run to the sea
It was bleedin’, I run to the sea
It was bleedin’, all on that day
So I run to the river
It was boilin’, I run to the sea
It was boilin’, I run to the sea
It was boilin’, all on that day

So I run to the Lord
Please hide me, Lord
Don’t you see me prayin’?
Don’t you see me down here prayin’?
But the Lord said
Go to the Devil, the Lord said
Go to the Devil
He said go to the Devil
All on that day
So I ran to the Devil
He was waitin’, I ran to the Devil
He was waitin’, ran to the Devil
He was waitin’, all on that day
I cried, power, power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Oh yeah
Oh yeah
Oh yeah
Well, I run to the river
It was boilin’, I run to the sea
It was boilin’, I run to the sea
It was boilin’, all on that day
So I ran to the Lord
I said Lord, hide me
Please hide me
Please help me, all on that day
He said, hide?
Where were you?
When you oughta have been prayin’
I said Lord, Lord
Hear me prayin’, Lord, Lord
Hear me prayin’, Lord, Lord
Hear me prayin’, all on that day
Sinnerman, you oughta be prayin’
Outghta be prayin’, sinnerman
Oughta be prayin’, all on that day
Up come power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
(Power, Lord)
Hold down (power, Lord)
Go down (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Na-na-na, na-na-na-na
Na-na-na, na-na-na-na
Na-na-na, na-na-na-na
Woah, ho
Ha-ha-ha-ha
Ha-ha-ha-ha, oh Lord
Nu, nu, nu
No-no-no-no, ma-na-na-na-na, don’t you know I need you Lord?
Don’t you know that I need you?
Don’t you know that I need you?
Oh, Lord
Wait
Oh, Lord
Oh, Lord, Lord
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Nina Simone
Sinnerman lyrics © Warner Chappell Music, Inc

Watch “Modigliani’s Women! ( 12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920)” on YouTube


CHOPIN: Nocturne No. 2, E flat major, Op. 9, No. 2

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amedeo_Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (Italian pronunciation: [ameˈdɛːo modiʎˈʎaːni]; 12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. He is known for portraits and nudes in a modern
style characterized by elongation of faces, necks, and figures that
were not received well during his lifetime but later found acceptance.
Modigliani spent his youth in Italy, where he studied the art of
antiquity and the Renaissance. In 1906 he moved to Paris, where he came
into contact with such artists as Pablo Picasso and Constantin Brâncuși. By 1912 Modigliani was exhibiting highly stylized sculptures with Cubists of the Section d’Or group at the Salon d’Automne.

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani Photo.jpg

Amedeo Modigliani

Born

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani

12 July 1884

Died 24 January 1920 (aged 35)

Nationality Italian
Education Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence
Known for Painting, sculpture

Notable work

Redheaded Girl in Evening Dress
Madame Pompadour
Jeanne Hébuterne in Red Shawl

Modigliani’s
œuvre includes paintings and drawings. From 1909 to 1914 he devoted
himself mainly to sculpture. His main subject was portraits and full
figures, both in the images and in the sculptures. Modigliani had little
success while alive, but after his death achieved great popularity. He
died of tubercular meningitis, at the age of 35, in Paris.

Family and early lifeEdit

Modigliani’s birthplace in Livorno

Modigliani was born into a Sephardic Jewish family in Livorno, Italy. A port city, Livorno had long served as a refuge for those persecuted for their religion, and was home to a large Jewish community. His maternal great-great-grandfather, Solomon Garsin, had immigrated to Livorno in the 18th century as a refugee.[1]

Modigliani’s mother, Eugénie Garsin, born and raised in Marseille,
was descended from an intellectual, scholarly family of Sephardic
ancestry that for generations had lived along the Mediterranean
coastline. Fluent in many languages, her ancestors were authorities on
sacred Jewish texts and had founded a school of Talmudic studies. Family legend traced the family lineage to the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza.
The family business was a credit agency with branches in Livorno,
Marseille, Tunis, and London, though their fortunes ebbed and flowed.[2][3]

Modigliani’s
father, Flaminio, was a member of an Italian Jewish family of
successful businessmen and entrepreneurs. While not as culturally
sophisticated as the Garsins, they knew how to invest in and develop
thriving business endeavors. When the Garsin and Modigliani families
announced the engagement of their children, Flaminio was a wealthy young
mining engineer. He managed the mine in Sardinia and also managed the almost 30,000 acres (12,141 ha) of timberland the family owned.[4]

A
reversal in fortune occurred to this prosperous family in 1883. An
economic downturn in the price of metal plunged the Modiglianis into
bankruptcy. Ever resourceful, Modigliani’s mother used her social
contacts to establish a school and, along with her two sisters, made the
school into a successful enterprise.[5]

Amedeo
Modigliani was the fourth child, whose birth coincided with the
disastrous financial collapse of his father’s business interests.
Amedeo’s birth saved the family from ruin; according to an ancient law,
creditors could not seize the bed of a pregnant woman or a mother with a
newborn child. The bailiffs entered the family’s home just as Eugenia
went into labour; the family protected their most valuable assets by
piling them on top of her.

Modigliani had a close relationship with his mother, who taught
him at home until he was 10. Beset with health problems after an attack
of pleurisy when he was about 11, a few years later he developed a case of typhoid fever. When he was 16 he was taken ill again and contracted the tuberculosis
which would later claim his life. After Modigliani recovered from the
second bout of pleurisy, his mother took him on a tour of southern
Italy: Naples, Capri, Rome and Amalfi, then north to Florence and Venice.[6][7][8]

His
mother was, in many ways, instrumental in his ability to pursue art as a
vocation. When he was 11 years of age, she had noted in her diary: “The
child’s character is still so unformed that I cannot say what I think
of it. He behaves like a spoiled child, but he does not lack
intelligence. We shall have to wait and see what is inside this
chrysalis. Perhaps an artist?”[9]

Art student yearsEdit

Modigliani is known to have drawn and painted from a very early age, and thought himself “already a painter”, his mother wrote,[10]
even before beginning formal studies. Despite her misgivings that
launching him on a course of studying art would impinge upon his other
studies, his mother indulged the young Modigliani’s passion for the
subject.

At the age of fourteen, while sick with typhoid fever, he raved
in his delirium that he wanted, above all else, to see the paintings in
the Palazzo Pitti and the Uffizi in Florence. As Livorno’s local museum housed only a sparse few paintings by the Italian Renaissance
masters, the tales he had heard about the great works held in Florence
intrigued him, and it was a source of considerable despair to him, in
his sickened state, that he might never get the chance to view them in
person. His mother promised that she would take him to Florence herself,
the moment he was recovered. Not only did she fulfil this promise, but
she also undertook to enroll him with the best painting master in
Livorno, Guglielmo Micheli.

Micheli and the MacchiaioliEdit

Portrait of Pablo Picasso, 1915, private collection

His home in Venice.

Modigliani worked in Micheli’s Art School from 1898 to 1900. Among his colleagues in that studio would have been Llewelyn Lloyd, Giulio Cesare Vinzio, Manlio Martinelli, Gino Romiti, Renato Natali, and Oscar Ghiglia.
Here his earliest formal artistic instruction took place in an
atmosphere steeped in a study of the styles and themes of 19th-century
Italian art. In his earliest Parisian work, traces of this influence,
and that of his studies of Renaissance art, can still be seen. His nascent work was shaped as much by such artists as Giovanni Boldini as by Toulouse-Lautrec.

Modigliani showed great promise while with Micheli, and ceased
his studies only when he was forced to, by the onset of tuberculosis.

In 1901, whilst in Rome, Modigliani admired the work of Domenico Morelli,
a painter of dramatic religious and literary scenes. Morelli had served
as an inspiration for a group of iconoclasts who were known by the
title “the Macchiaioli” (from macchia —”dash
of colour”, or, more derogatively, “stain”), and Modigliani had already
been exposed to the influences of the Macchiaioli. This localized landscape
movement reacted against the bourgeois stylings of the academic genre
painters. While sympathetically connected to (and actually pre-dating)
the French Impressionists, the Macchiaioli did not make the same impact upon international art culture as did the contemporaries and followers of Monet, and are today largely forgotten outside Italy.

Modigliani’s connection with the movement was through Guglielmo
Micheli, his first art teacher. Micheli was not only a Macchiaiolo
himself, but had been a pupil of the famous Giovanni Fattori,
a founder of the movement. Micheli’s work, however, was so fashionable
and the genre so commonplace that the young Modigliani reacted against
it, preferring to ignore the obsession with landscape that, as with
French Impressionism, characterized the movement. Micheli also tried to
encourage his pupils to paint en plein air,
but Modigliani never really got a taste for this style of working,
sketching in cafés, but preferring to paint indoors, and especially in
his own studio. Even when compelled to paint landscapes (three are known
to exist),[11] Modigliani chose a proto-Cubist palette more akin to Cézanne than to the Macchiaioli.

While with Micheli, Modigliani studied not only landscape, but
also portraiture, still life, and the nude. His fellow students recall
that the last was where he displayed his greatest talent, and apparently
this was not an entirely academic pursuit for the teenager: when not
painting nudes, he was occupied with seducing the household maid.[10]

Despite
his rejection of the Macchiaioli approach, Modigliani nonetheless found
favour with his teacher, who referred to him as “Superman”, a pet name
reflecting the fact that Modigliani was not only quite adept at his art,
but also that he regularly quoted from Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Fattori himself would often visit the studio, and approved of the young artist’s innovations.[12]

In 1902, Modigliani continued what was to be a lifelong infatuation with life drawing, enrolling in the Scuola Libera di Nudo, or “Free School of Nude Studies”, of the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence. A year later, while still suffering from tuberculosis, he moved to Venice, where he registered to study at the Regia Accademia ed Istituto di Belle Arti.
It is in Venice that he first smoked hashish
and, rather than studying, began to spend time frequenting disreputable
parts of the city. The impact of these lifestyle choices upon his
developing artistic style is open to conjecture, although these choices
do seem to be more than simple teenage rebellion, or the cliched hedonism and bohemianism
that was almost expected of artists of the time; his pursuit of the
seedier side of life appears to have roots in his appreciation of
radical philosophies, including those of Nietzsche.

Portrait of Chaim Soutine, 1916

Early literary influencesEdit

Having been exposed to erudite philosophical literature as a young
boy under the tutelage of Isaco Garsin, his maternal grandfather, he
continued to read and be influenced through his art studies by the
writings of Nietzsche, Baudelaire, Carducci, Comte de Lautréamont, and others, and developed the belief that the only route to true creativity was through defiance and disorder.

Letters that he wrote from his ‘sabbatical’ in Capri in 1901
clearly indicate that he is being more and more influenced by the
thinking of Nietzsche. In these letters, he advised friend Oscar
Ghiglia;

(hold sacred all) which can exalt and excite your
intelligence… (and) … seek to provoke … and to perpetuate …
these fertile stimuli, because they can push the intelligence to its
maximum creative power.[13]

The work of Lautréamont was equally influential at this time. This doomed poet’s Les Chants de Maldoror became the seminal work for the Parisian Surrealists of Modigliani’s generation, and the book became Modigliani’s favourite to the extent that he learnt it by heart.[12]
The poetry of Lautréamont is characterized by the juxtaposition of
fantastical elements, and by sadistic imagery; the fact that Modigliani
was so taken by this text in his early teens gives a good indication of
his developing tastes. Baudelaire and D’Annunzio similarly appealed to the young artist, with their interest in corrupted beauty, and the expression of that insight through Symbolist imagery.

Modigliani wrote to Ghiglia extensively from Capri, where his
mother had taken him to assist in his recovery from tuberculosis. These
letters are a sounding board for the developing ideas brewing in
Modigliani’s mind. Ghiglia was seven years Modigliani’s senior, and it
is likely that it was he who showed the young man the limits of his
horizons in Livorno. Like all precocious teenagers, Modigliani preferred
the company of older companions, and Ghiglia’s role in his adolescence
was to be a sympathetic ear as he worked himself out, principally in the
convoluted letters that he regularly sent, and which survive today.[14]

Dear friend, I write to pour myself out to you and to
affirm myself to myself. I am the prey of great powers that surge forth
and then disintegrate … A bourgeois
told me today–insulted me–that I or at least my brain was lazy. It did
me good. I should like such a warning every morning upon awakening: but
they cannot understand us nor can they understand life…[15]

Paris

Gallery of works

Montparnasse, ParisEdit

Female Head, 1911/1912, Tate

SculptureEdit

Four sculptures by Modigliani were exhibited at the 1912 Salon d’Automne along with the Cubists. Towards the front left, Joseph Csaky‘s sculpture Groupe de femmes. Other works are shown by František Kupka (Fugue in Two Colors), Francis Picabia (The Spring), Jean Metzinger (Dancer in a Café), and Henri Le Fauconnier (Mountaineers Attacked by Bears).

In 1909, Modigliani returned home to Livorno, sickly and tired from
his wild lifestyle. Soon he was back in Paris, this time renting a studio in Montparnasse. He originally saw himself as a sculptor rather than a painter, and was encouraged to continue after Paul Guillaume, an ambitious young art dealer, took an interest in his work and introduced him to sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. He was Constantin Brâncuși’s disciple for one year.

Although a series of Modigliani’s sculptures were exhibited in the Salon d’Automne
of 1912, by 1914 he abandoned sculpting and focused solely on his
painting, a move precipitated by the difficulty in acquiring sculptural
materials due to the outbreak of war, and by Modigliani’s physical debilitation.[3]

In June 2010 Modigliani’s Tête, a limestone carving of a woman’s head, became the third most expensive sculpture ever sold.

Friends and influencesEdit

Modigliani painted a series of portraits of contemporary artists and friends in Montparnasse: Chaim Soutine, Moïse Kisling, Pablo Picasso, Diego Rivera, Marie “Marevna” Vorobyev-Stebeslka, Juan Gris, Max Jacob, Jacques Lipchitz, Blaise Cendrars, and Jean Cocteau, all sat for stylized renditions.

The war years

Patronage of Léopold Zborowski

Jeanne Hébuterne

Death and funeral

Legacy

Critical reactions

Selected works

See also

References

Further reading

External links

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