Category Archives: MY TAKE ON THINGS

from EUZICASA: Henry and June Movie: soundtrack playlist: 17 videos


Lucienne Boyer – Parlez-Moi D’Amour [1930]

the symbolism of the Rodia’s Towers — Old Pics Archive


more reading HERE

this pressed for history: Iraq’s National Museum To Open For First Time Since 2003 Invasion : The Two-Way : NPR


A man looks at ancient Assyrian human-headed winged bull statues at the Iraqi National Museum in Baghdad on Saturday.

Days after video emerged showing self-declared Islamic State extremists taking sledge hammers to pre-Islamic antiquities inside the Mosul museum, the Iraqi government has reopened the country’s national museum, shuttered since the 2003 U.S. invasion of the country that toppled Saddam Hussein.

The National Museum’s reopening was moved up as a retort to the move by ISIS in Mosul, which has been almost universally condemned as a most uncivilized act in a part of the world widely considered the cradle of civilization.

“The events in Mosul led us to speed up our work and we wanted to open it today as a response to what the gangs of Daesh did,” Iraq’s Deputy Tourism Minister Qais Hussein Rashid said, using an Arabic acronym for ISIS.

The National Museum, which displays artifacts from the Mesopotamian era, was looted and then closed after the U.S. invasion. Agence France-Presse quotes Rashid as saying that around 4,300 of the roughly 15,000 looted pieces have been recovered in the past 12 years. Authorities are still tracking down more than 10,000 items in markets and auctions.

via Iraq’s National Museum To Open For First Time Since 2003 Invasion : The Two-Way : NPR.

Cultural Museum of Mosul


Cultural Museum of Mosul

this pressed for humanity: The Plight Of Mosul’s Museum: Iraqi Antiquities At Risk Of Ruin : NPR


July 09, 2014 4:11 PM ET

(As you can see the issue was known to the civilized world for many months! but nothing but meetings and comdemnations were issued, and nothing done to prevent the distruction of humanity’s historic treasures)

http://www.npr.org/v2/?i=330183802&m=330183803&t=audio
http://www.npr.org/v2/?i=330183802&m=330183803&t=audio
http://www.npr.org/2014/07/09/330183802/the-plight-of-mosuls-museum-iraqi-antiquities-at-risk-of-ruin

Christopher Dickey, foreign editor for the Daily Beast, speaks to Melissa Block about the dangers facing antiquities in a museum and other archaeological sites in the Iraqi city of Mosul.

Copyright © 2014 NPR. For personal, noncommercial use only. See Terms of Use. For other uses, prior permission required.

ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I’m Robert Siegel.

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

And I’m Melissa Block. As Sunni insurgents have swept through Iraq seizing cities, they’ve also begun destroying ancient artifacts. Shrines, tombs and statues that the group ISIS believes are against Islam. Present day Iraq was once Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and considered the cradle of civilization. Now there’s great concern that antiquities and archaeological sites will be wiped out. As Christopher Dickey writes in the Daily Beast, it’s a virtual certainty that irreplaceable history will be annihilated or sold into the netherworld of corrupt and cynical collectors. Mr. Dickey joins me not from Paris. Thanks for being with us.

CHRISTOPHER DICKEY: Sure thing Melissa.

BLOCK: And you write of particular concern about the province of Nineveh and the city of Mosul, in particular the Mosul Museum. Describe what’s there and the significance of these artifacts.

DICKEY: Well, what’s at risk are some beautiful monumental sculptures, these winged figures, lions and bulls, with the faces of bearded men – Kings, that clearly were idols in the time of the Assyrians. But that are now part and parcel of the history of Western civilization and biblical history especially. And then we’ve also got gorgeous gold jewelry which certainly will go onto the black market and all kinds of smaller pieces of sculpture, earthenware, the kinds of things that give you the texture as well as the beauty of life in that period. So it’s a rich museum but all of that collection is now in the hands of ISIS.

via The Plight Of Mosul’s Museum: Iraqi Antiquities At Risk Of Ruin : NPR.

euzicasa, o cugetare: despre dor, scoverzi, si Ioana Radu


Dor este in engleza “longing” , in franceza “désir”… apoi daca oamenii de pe acele meleaguri, sufera la fel de dor, asa cum suferim noi, sua daca sufera de dor de casa la fel cum sufera de dor de ibit sau iubita, daca sufera la fel la tinerete, asa cum sufera la batrineta, cred ca la urma urmei, dupa ce tot evestejit, si iarna nu mai pleaca…e dorul de soare si de ultima primavara care e cel mai puternic EUZICASA.
Am vazut niste scoverzi, aici, pe Facebook, si mi s-a facut dor din mai multe puncte de vedere: pentru ca stiu ca nimeni nu face scoverzi asa cum facea mama mare, deasemenea din cauza ca nu as putea sa le ating (din cauza zaharului) chiar daca erau aurite, si din cauza ca era o vreme cand puteam sa maninc cate as fi dorit, pana al refuz. Tot asa cum puteam sa mananc un borcan ce heciumpeci (pasta de macese), si cate si mai cate… spec ca nu am luat prea mult din poezia dorului, numai ca sa umplu spatiul virtual cu sentimente negative. ”
Format: MPEG4; Resolution: 1280×720(HD);…
youtube.com

quotation: People take more pains to be damned than to be saved.— French Culture


Stravinsky Divertimento from “The Fairy’s Kiss” (Muti-Philadelphia Orchestra with Maetro Mutti.)


Stravinsky Divertimento from “The Fairy’s Kiss” (Muti-Philadelphia Orch.)

Johann Nepomuk Hummel Rondo Brillant in A Major, Op. 56


Johann Nepomuk Hummel Rondo Brillant in A Major, Op. 56

Warning: Disturbing Subject!


Warning: Disturbing image : http://img.s-msn.com/tenant/amp/entityid/BBi1U2x.img?h=1080&w=1920&m=6&q=60&o=f&l=f

Also read This

this pressed for history of civilization: BBC News – Iraq country profile – overview


Cradle of civilisation

Ziggurat of Ur Iraq is home to several ancient sites, such as the Ziggurat of Ur, a temple thought to be 4,000 years old

Straddling the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and stretching from the Gulf to the Anti-Taurus Mountains, modern Iraq occupies roughly what was once ancient Mesopotamia, one of the cradles of human civilisation.

In the early Middle Ages, Iraq was the heartland of the Islamic Empire, but a brutal Mongol invasion in the 13th century destroyed its importance. Part of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th century, it came under British control after World War I, gaining independence in 1932.

The British-installed monarchy was toppled in 1958, and a coup in 1968 brought the Arab nationalist Ba’ath (Renaissance) party to power. Oil made the country rich and, when Saddam Hussein became president in 1979, petroleum made up 95% of its foreign exchange earnings.

But the 1980-88 war with Iran and the 1991 Gulf War, sparked by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, together with the subsequent imposition of international sanctions, had a devastating effect on its economy and society.

via BBC News – Iraq country profile – overview.

this pressed for your inspiration: BBC News – The girl who gets gifts from birds


Lots of people love the birds in their garden, but it’s rare for that affection to be reciprocated. One young girl in Seattle is luckier than most. She feeds the crows in her garden – and they bring her gifts in return.

Eight-year-old Gabi Mann sets a bead storage container on the dining room table, and clicks the lid open. This is her most precious collection.

“You may take a few close looks,” she says, “but don’t touch.” It’s a warning she’s most likely practised on her younger brother. She laughs after saying it though. She is happy for the audience.

Inside the box are rows of small objects in clear plastic bags. One label reads: “Black table by feeder. 2:30 p.m. 09 Nov 2014.” Inside is a broken light bulb. Another bag contains small pieces of brown glass worn smooth by the sea. “Beer coloured glass,” as Gabi describes it.

Each item is individually wrapped and categorical. Gabi pulls a black zip out of a labelled bag and holds it up. “We keep it in as good condition as we can,” she says, before explaining this object is one of her favourites.

There’s a miniature silver ball, a black button, a blue paper clip, a yellow bead, a faded black piece of foam, a blue Lego piece, and the list goes on. Many of them are scuffed and dirty. It is an odd assortment of objects for a little girl to treasure, but to Gabi these things are more valuable than gold.

Gifts given by the crows

via BBC News – The girl who gets gifts from birds.

THE DHAMMAPADA – FULL AudioBook | Buddhism – Teachings of The Buddha (“Hatred ceases by love”)


THE DHAMMAPADA – FULL AudioBook | Buddhism – Teachings of The Buddha

The Dhammapada by Unknown, Translated by F. Max Mueller – FULL AudioBook – The Dhammapada is is a Buddhist scripture, containing 423 verses in 26 categories. According to tradition, these are verses spoken by the Buddha on various occasions, most of which deal with ethics. It is is considered one of the most important pieces of Theravada literature. Despite this, the Dhammapada is read by many Mahayana Buddhists and remains a very popular text across all schools of Buddhism. (Summary from Wikipedia.org)

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- READ along by clicking (CC) for Closed Caption Transcript!

- LISTEN to the entire audiobook for free!

Chapter listing and length:

01 — Chapters 1-4 — 00:14:36
Read by: Roger Turnau

02 — Chapters 5-8 — 00:10:52
Read by: Måns Broo

03 — Chapters 9-14 — 00:19:16
Read by: Chris Masterson

04 — Chapters 15-18 — 00:13:30
Read by: Chris Masterson

05 — Chapters 19-22 — 00:17:01
Read by: Denny Sayers

06 — Chapters 23-25 — 00:16:44
Read by: Roger Turnau

07 — Chapter 26 — 00:10:35
Read by: Scott

Total running time: 1:42:34

This is a Librivox recording. All Librivox recordings are in the public domain. For more information or to volunteer visit librivox.org.
This video: Copyright 2013. Greatest Audio Books. All Rights Reserved.

just a thought: “A myopic look upon reality keeps one caged in the past; …”


just a thought:  “A myopic look upon reality keeps one caged in the past; Instead of freeing oneself to human development, recognizing the reality with a clear view, somehow that is like not being able to see the forest because of the tree, close and right in one’s eye sight.

Take as many steps backward until you can see the forest around the obstructing  tree, and look again!  It may change your life, and help that one’s life in the present, and see choices,  anew!”

Copyright © 2015 [George-B]. All Rights Reserved.



History Of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Vol. 1, by Gaston Maspero, Audiobook

Assyrian Church of the East


Assyrian Church of the East

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
“Assyrian Christian” redirects here. For other uses, see Assyrian (disambiguation).
Assyrian Church of the East
ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ
(Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East)
Assyrian church of the East.png

Emblem of the Assyrian Church of the East
Founder Traces origins to Saints Thomas (Mar Toma), Bartholomew (Mar Bar Tulmay), Thaddeus (Addai) and Mari.
Independence Apostolic Era
Recognition First Council of Ephesus
Primate Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV Khanania
Headquarters Chicago, Illinois, United States
Territory Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Austria, Germany, Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, Georgia, Oceania.
Possessions  —
Language Syriac,[1] Aramaic
Members 400,000–500,000[2][3][4]
Website www.assyrianchurch.com/

The Assyrian Church of the East (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East[5] Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ, ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Assyria, northern Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical Patriarchate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon – the Church of the East. Unlike most other churches that trace their origins to antiquity, the modern Assyrian Church of the East is not in communion with any other churches, either Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, or Catholic.

Theologically, the church is associated with the doctrine of Nestorianism, leading to the church, also being known as a “Nestorian Church”, though church leadership has at times rejected the Nestorian label, and was already extant some four centuries prior to Nestorius. The church employs the Syriac dialect of the Aramaic language in its liturgy, the East Syrian Rite, which includes three anaphoras, attributed to Saints Addai and Mari, Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius.[6]

The Church of the East developed between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD from the early Assyrian Christian communities in the Assuristan province (Parthian ruled Assyria) of the Parthian Empire, and at its height had spread from its north Mesopotamian heartland to as far as China, Central Asia and India. A dispute over patriarchal succession led to the Schism of 1552, resulting in there being two rival Patriarchs. One of the factions that eventually emerged from this split became the Assyrian Church of the East, while another became the church now known as the Chaldean Catholic Church, originally called The Church of Athura (Assyria) and Mosul, which eventually entered into communion with the Catholic Church, both in continuation from the Church of the East.

A more recent schism in the church resulted from the adoption of the Assyrian Church of the East of the Gregorian Calendar rather than maintaining the traditional Julian calendar that is off by 13 days. The opponents to the reforms introduced formed in 1964 the Ancient Church of the East headquartered in Baghdad and headed since 1968 by a separate Catholicos-Patriarch.

The Assyrian Church of the East is headed by the Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, who currently presides in exile in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Below the Catholicos-Patriarch are a number of metropolitan bishops, diocesan bishops, priests, and deacons who serve dioceses and parishes throughout the Middle East, India, North America, Oceania, and Europe (including the Caucasus and Russia).

History

Main articles: Church of the East and Nestorianism

Early years of the Church of the East

The Church of the East originally developed during the 1st century AD in the Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic speaking regions of Assyria and northwestern Persia (today’s Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and north western Iran), to the east of the Roman-Byzantine empire. It is an Apostolic church, established by the apostles St Thomas (Mar Toma), St Thaddeus (Mar Addai), and St Bartholomew (Mar Bar Tulmay). St Peter (Mar Shimun Keapa), the chief of the apostles added his blessing to the Church of the East at the time of his visit to the See at Babylon, in the earliest days of the church when stating, “The elect church which is in Babylon, salutes you; and Mark, my son (1 Peter 5:13).[7]

Official recognition was first granted to the Christian faith in the 4th century with the accession of Yazdegerd I to the throne of the Sassanid Empire. In 410, the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, held at the Sassanid capital, allowed the Church’s leading bishops to elect a formal Catholicos, or leader. The Catholicos, Mar Isaac, was required both to lead the Assyrian Christian community, and to answer on its behalf to the Sassanid Emperor.[8][9]

Under pressure from the Sassanid Emperor, the Church of the East sought increasingly to distance itself from the western (Roman Empire) Catholic Church. In 424, the bishops of the Sassanid Empire met in council under the leadership of Catholicos Mar Dadisho I (421–456) and determined that they would not, henceforth, refer disciplinary or theological problems to any external power, and especially not to any bishop or Church Council in the Roman Empire.[10]

As such, the Mesopotamian and Assyrian Churches were not represented at the various Church Councils attended by representatives of the Western Church. Accordingly, the leaders of the Church of the East did not feel bound by any decisions of what came to be regarded as Roman Imperial Councils. Despite this, the Creed and Canons of the first Council of Nicea (325); affirming the full divinity of Christ; were formally accepted at the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon.[11] The Church’s understanding of the term ‘hypostasis‘ differs from the definition of the term offered at the Council of Chalcedon. For this reason, the Assyrian Church has never approved the Chalcedonian definition.[11]

The theological controversy that followed the First Council of Ephesus, in 431, proved a turning point in the Church’s history. The Council condemned as heretical the Christology of Nestorius, whose reluctance to accord the Virgin Mary the title ‘Theotokos’ (‘God-bearer’ or ‘Mother of God’) was taken as evidence that he believed two separate persons (as opposed to two united natures) to be present within Christ. (For the theological issues at stake, see Assyrian Church of the East and Nestorianism.)

The Sassanid Emperor, hostile to the Roman Empire, saw the opportunity to ensure the loyalty of his Christian subjects and lent support to the Nestorian schism. The Sassanid Emperor took steps to cement the primacy of the Nestorian party within the Church of the East, granting its members his protection,[12] and executing the pro-Roman Catholicos Babowai, replacing him with the Nestorian Bishop of Nisibis, Barsauma. The Catholicos-Patriarch Mar Babai I (497–503) confirmed the association of the Persian Church with Nestorianism.

Eastern expansion

During the medieval period the geographical horizons of the Church of the East extended well beyond its heartland in present-day northern Iraq. Communities sprang up throughout Central Asia, and missionaries from Assyria and Mesopotamia took the Christian faith as far as China and the Malabar Coast of India.[13]

Schism and the establishment of the Chaldean Church

The massacres of Assyrian Christians by Tamerlane (1336–1405) destroyed many bishoprics, including the ancient Assyrian city of Ashur. The Church of the East, which had previously extended as far as China, was largely reduced to an Eastern Aramaic speaking Assyrian remnant living in its original heartland in Upper Mesopotamia (what had been Assyria), the triangular area[14] between Amid, Salmas and Mosul. The See was moved to the Assyrian town of Alqosh, in the Mosul region, and Mar Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) appointed Patriarch, establishing a new, hereditary, line of succession.[15]

Growing dissent in the church’s hierarchy over hereditary succession came to a head in 1552, when a group of bishops from the Northern regions of Amid and Salmas elected Mar Yohannan Sulaqa as a rival Patriarch. Seeking consecration as Patriarch by a Bishop of Metropolitan rank, Sulaqa traveled to Rome in 1553, and entered into communion with the Roman Catholic Church. On being appointed Patriarch, Sulaqa took the name Mar Shimun VIII and was granted the title of “Patriarch of Mosul and Athur (Assyria)”. Later this title became “Patriarch of the Chaldeans”, despite none of its adherents being from the long disappeared Chaldean tribe, or from what had been South in the far south east of Mesopotamia.[16]

Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa returned to the Near East the same year, establishing his seat in Amid. Before being put to death by partisans of the Patriarch of Alqosh, he ordained five metropolitan bishops, thus establishing a new ecclesiastical hierarchy, a line of patriarchal descent known as the Shimun line.

Sees in Qochanis, Amid, and Alqosh (17th century)

Relations with Rome weakened under Shimun VIII’s successors, all of whom took the name Shimun. The last of this line of Patriarchs to be formally recognized by the Pope died in the early 17th century. Hereditary accession to the office of Patriarch was reintroduced, and by 1660 the Assyrian Church of the East had become divided into two Patriarchates; the Eliya line, based in Alqosh (comprising that portion of the faithful which had never entered into Communion with Rome), and the Shimun line.

In 1672[15] the Patriarch of the Shimun line, Mar Shimun XIII Denha, moved his seat to the Assyrian village of Qochanis in the mountains of Hakkari. In 1692, the Patriarch formally broke communion with Rome and allegedly resumed relations with the line at Alqosh, though retaining the independent structure and jurisdiction of his line of succession.

The so-called Chaldean Patriarchate was revived in 1672 when Mar Joseph I, then the Assyrian Church of the East metropolitan of Amid, entered into communion with Rome, thus separating from the Patriarchal See of Alqosh. In 1681, the Holy See granted Mar Joseph the title of “Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its Patriarch”, thus forming the third Patriarchate of the Assyrian Church of the East. It was this third Patriarchate that was to become known as the Chaldean Catholic Church in 1683.

Josephite line of Amid

Each of Joseph I’s successors took the name Joseph. The life of this Patriarchate was difficult; stricken early on with internal dissent, the Patriarchiate later struggled with financial difficulties due to the tax burden imposed by the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Despite these difficulties, the influence of the Patriarchate expanded from its original homeland of Amid and Mardin towards the area of Mosul, where ultimately the See was relocated.

Mar Yohannan VIII Hormizd, the last of the Eliya hereditary line of the Assyrian Church of the East in Alqosh, made a Catholic profession of faith in 1780. Though entering full communion with the Roman See in 1804, he was not recognized as Patriarch by the Pope until 1830. This move merged the majority of the Patriarcate of Alqosh with the Josephite line of Amid, thus forming the modern Chaldean Catholic Church.

The Shimun line of Patriarchs, based in Qochanis, remained within the Assyrian Church of the East, and refused to enter communion with Rome and join the Chaldean Church. The Patriarchate of the present-day Assyrian Church of the East, with its see in Chicago, forms the continuation of this line.[17]

20th century

 In spite of both ethnic and religious persecution and a serious decline in membership since their height around the fourth century, the Assyrian Church of the East has survived into the 21st century. Here is St. Mary Assyrian Church in Moscow.

In 1915 the Assyrian Church see at Qochanis see was completely destroyed by the Ottoman Turkish Empire in the context of the Assyrian Genocide, Assyrian war of independence and Armenian Genocide. Survivors of the massacres escaped by marching over the mountains into Iran and Iraq to join their kinsmen. In 1918, after the murder of Mar Shimun XXI Benyamin and 150 of his followers, and fearing further massacres at the hands of the Turks and Kurds, the survivors fled from Iran into what was to become Iraq, seeking protection under the British mandate there, and joining ancient indigenous existing Assyrian communities of both Eastern Rite and Catholic persuasions in the north of that country.[18]

The British administration employed Assyrian troops (Assyrian Levies) to put down Arab and Kurdish rebellions in the aftermath of World War I. In consequence, Assyrians of all denominations endured persecution under the Hashemite monarchy, leading many to flee to the West, in particular to the United States, where Chicago became the center of the diaspora community.

Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII

During this period the British-educated Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, born into the line of Patriarchs at Qochanis, agitated for an independent Assyrian state. Following the end of the British mandate in 1933[18] and a massacre of Assyrian civilians at Simele by the Iraqi Army, the Patriarch was forced to take refuge in Cyprus.[19] There, Shimun petitioned the League of Nations regarding his peoples’ fate, but to little avail, and he was consequently barred from entering Syria and Iraq. He traveled through Europe before moving to Chicago in 1940 to join the growing Assyrian diaspora community there.[19]

The Church and the Assyrian community in general faced considerable fragmentation and upheaval as a result of the conflicts of the 20th century, and Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII was forced to reorganize the church’s structure in the United States. He transferred his residence to San Francisco, California in 1954, and was able to travel to Iran, Lebanon, Kuwait, and India, where he worked to strengthen the church.[20]

In 1964 he decreed a number of changes to the church, including liturgical reform, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the shortening of Lent. These changes, combined with Shimun’s long absence from Iraq, caused a rift in the community which led to another schism. In 1968 traditionalists within the church elected Mar Thoma Darmo as a rival patriarch to Shimun XXIII Eshai, creating the Ancient Church of the East.[21]

In 1972, Shimun decided to step down as Patriarch, and the following year, he married, in contravention to longstanding church custom. This led to a synod in 1973 in which further reforms were introduced, most significantly including the permanent abolition of hereditary succession a practice introduced in the middle of the fifteenth century by the patriarch Shemʿon IV Basidi who had died in 1497); however, it was decided that Shimun should be reinstated. This matter was to be settled at additional synods in 1975, however Shimun was assassinated by an estranged relative before this could take place.[22]

Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV

In 1976, the current Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, was elected as Shimun XXIII Eshai’s successor. The 33-year old Dinkha had previously been Metropolitan of Tehran, and operated his see there until the Iran–Iraq War of 1980–1988. Thereafter, Mar Dinkha IV went into exile in the United States, and transferred the patriarchal see to Chicago.[23] Much of his patriarchate has been concerned with tending to the Assyrian diaspora community and with ecumenical efforts to strengthen relations with other churches.[23]

Assyrian Church of the East and Nestorianism

The Nestorian nature of Assyrian Christianity remains a matter of contention. Elements of the Nestorian doctrine were explicitly repudiated by Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV on the occasion of his accession in 1976.[24]

The Christology of the Church of the East has its roots in the Antiochene theological tradition of the early Church. The founders of Assyrian theology are Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, both of whom taught at Antioch. ‘Antiochene’ is a modern designation given to the style of theology associated with the early Church at Antioch, as contrasted with the theology of the church of Alexandria.[25]

Antiochene theology emphasised Christ’s humanity and the reality of the moral choices he faced. In order to preserve the impassibility of Christ’s Divine Nature, the unity of His person was defined in a looser fashion than in the Alexandrian tradition.[25] The normative Christology of the Assyrian church was written by Babai the Great (551–628) during the controversy that followed the First Council of Ephesus (431). Babai held that within Christ there exist two qnome (essences, or hypostases), unmingled, but everlastingly united in the one prosopon(personality).

The precise Christological teachings of Nestorius are shrouded in obscurity. Wary of monophysitism, Nestorius rejected Cyril’s theory of a hypostatic union, proposing instead a union of will. Nestorianism has come to mean dyaphysitism, in which Christ’s dual natures are eternally separate, though it is doubtful whether Nestorius ever taught such a doctrine. Nestorius’ rejection of the term Theotokos (‘God-bearer’, or ‘Mother of God’) has traditionally been held as evidence that he asserted the existence of two persons – not merely two natures – in Jesus Christ, but there exists no evidence that Nestorius denied Christ’s oneness.[26] In the controversy that followed the Council of Ephesus, the term ‘Nestorian’ was applied to all upholding a strictly Antiochene Christology. In consequence the Church of the East was labelled ‘Nestorian’, though its theology is not dyophysite.

Ecumenical relations

Pope John XXIII invited many other Christian denominations, including the Assyrian Church of the East, to send “observers” to the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). These observers, graciously received and seated as honored guests right in front of the podium on the floor of the council chamber, did not formally take part in the Council’s debate, but they mingled freely with the Catholic bishops and theologians who constituted the council, and with the other observers as well, in the break area during the council sessions. There, cordial conversations began a rapproachment that has blossomed into expanding relations among the Catholic Church, the Churches of the Orthodox Communion led by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, and the ancient churches of the East.

On November 11, 1994, a historic meeting between Mar Dinkha IV and Pope John Paul II took place in Rome. The two patriarchs signed a document titled “Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East“. One side effect of this meeting was that the Assyrian Church’s relationship to the fellow Chaldean Catholic Church began to improve.[27]

In 1996, Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV signed an agreement of cooperation with the Chaldean Catholic Patriarch of Baghdad, Raphael I Bidawid, in Southfield, Michigan. In 1997, he entered into negotiations with the Syriac Orthodox Church and the two churches ceased anathematizing each other.

The lack of a coherent institution narrative in the Anaphora of Addai and Mari, which dates to apostolic times, has caused many Western Christians, and especially Roman Catholics, to doubt the validity of this anaphora, used extensively by the Assyrian Church of the East, as a prayer of consecration of the eucharistic elements. In 2001, after a study of this issue, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith promulgated a declaration approved by Pope John Paul II stating that this is a valid anaphora. This declaration opened the door to a joint synodal decree officially implementing the present Guidelines for Admission to the Eucharist between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East which the synods of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church signed and promulgated on 20 July 2001.

This joint synodal decree provides that (1) Assyrian faithful may participate and receive Holy Communion in a Chaldean celebration of the Holy Eucharist, (2) Chaldean catholic faithful may participate and receive Holy Communion in an Assyrian Church celebration of the Holy Eucharist, even if celebrated using the Anaphora of Addai and Mari in its original form, and (3) Assyrian clergy are invited (but not obliged) to insert the institution narrative into the Anaphora of Addai and Mari when Chaldean faithful are present. Far from expressing a relationship of full communion between these churches, however, the joint synodal decree actually identifies several issues that require resolution to permit a relationship of full communion.

From a Catholic canonical point of view, provisions of the joint synodal decree are fully consistent with the provisions of canon 671 of the 1991 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, which states: “If necessity requires it or genuine spiritual advantage suggests it and provided that the danger of error or indifferentism is avoided, it is permitted for Catholic Christian faithful, for whom it is physically or morally impossible to approach a Catholic minister, to receive the sacraments of penance, the Eucharist and anointing of the sick from non-Catholic ministers, in whose Churches these sacraments are valid. 3. Likewise Catholic ministers licitly administer the Sacraments of Penance, the Eucharist and Anointing of the Sick to Christian faithful of Eastern Churches, who do not have full communion with the Catholic Church, if they ask for them on their own and are properly disposed.” Canons 843 and 844 of the Code of Canon Law make similar provisions for the Latin Church. The Assyrian Church of the East follows an Open Communion approach allowing any baptized Christian to receive its Eucharist,[28] so there is also no alteration of Assyrian practice. Nonetheless, from an ecumenical perspective, the joint synodal decree marks a major step toward full mutual collaboration of both churches in the pastoral care of their members.

Structure

The Church is governed by an episcopal polity, which is the same as other Catholic churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses and archdioceses. The Catholicos-Patriarch, currently Mar Dinkha IV is head of the church. The Synod comprises Bishops who oversee individual dioceses, and Metropolitans who oversee episcopal dioceses in there territorial jurisdiction.

The Chaldean Syrian Church in India and the Persian Gulf is the largest diocese of the church. Its story goes back to the Church of the East that established presence in Kerala. The converts were from lower, untouchable castes, for in a caste-ridden Malabar society. During times of disturbances in the Persian Empire and the Middle East, Assyrian inflow into Kerala ceased and local converts had to take responsibility for the churches. Nevertheless, Malabar churches retained their Nestorian connections. Connection between the Malabar church and the Church of the East was sporadic for a long period till the arrival of the Portuguese. The church is represented by the Assyrian Church of the East and is in communion with it.

Hierarchy

The current hierarchy and dioceses is as follows. The Patriarchate of the Church of the East was located for centuries in the cathedral church of Mar Shallita, in the village of Qudshanis in the Hakkari mountains, Ottoman Empire. After the exodus in 1915 the Patriarchs temporarily resided between Urmia and Salmas, and from 1918 the patriarchs resided in Mosul, Iraq. After the Simele massacre of 1933, the then Patriarch Shimun XXIII Eshai was exiled to Cyprus. In 1940 he was welcomed to the United States where he set up his residence in Chicago, Illinois and administrated the United States and Canada as his Patriarchal province. The patriarchate was moved to Modesto, California in 1954, and finally to San Francisco, California in 1958 due to health issues. After the assassination of the Patriarch and the election of Mar Dinkha IV in 1976, the patriarchate was temporarily located in Tehran, Iran where the patriarch already resided. Since 1980, the Patriarchate again returned to Chicago, Illinois where it currently remains. The Diocese of Eastern United States served as the patriarch’s province from 1994 until 2012.

Due to the unstable political, religious and economic situation in the church’s historical homeland of the Middle East, many of the church members now reside in Western countries. Churches and dioceses have been established throughout Europe, America and Oceania. The largest expatriate concentration of church members is in the United States, mainly situated in Illinois and California.

Archdioceses

  1. Archdiosese of India Chaldean Syrian Church – it remains in communion and is the biggest province of the Church with close to 30 active churches, primary and secondary schools, hospitals etc.
  2. Archdiocese of Iraq and Russia – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Iraq. The archdiocese’s territory includes the cities and surroundings of Baghdad, Basra, Kirkuk, and Mosul.
  3. Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon – Established in October 1984.

Dioceses

  1. Diocese of Syria – jurisdiction lies throughout all Syria, particularly in the Al-Hasakah governorate, where most of the community reside in Al-Hasakah, Qamishli and the 35 villages along the Khabur river. There are also small communities in Damascus and Aleppo
  2. Diocese of Iran – territory includes the capital Tehran, the Urmia and Salmas plains
  3. Diocese of Nohadra and Russia – established in 1999 with jurisdiction include the indigenous communities of Dohuk and Arbil, along with Russia and ex-Soviet states such as Armenia and Georgia.
  4. Diocese of Europe – its territory lies in western Europe and includes close to 10 sovereign states: Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands, France, Belgium, Austria, Finland, Norway and Greece.
  5. Diocese of Eastern USA – formerly the Patriarchal Archdiocese from 1994 until 2012 . The territory includes the large Illinois community, along with smaller parishes in Michigan, New England and New York.
  6. Diocese of Western USA-North – jurisdiction includes parishes in Western USA and northern California. Some of the parishes are San Francisco, San Jose, Modesto, Turlock, Ceres, Seattle, and Sacramento.
  7. Diocese of Western USA-South – jurisdiction includes parishes in Arizona and southern California.
  8. Diocese of Canada – includes the territory of Toronto, Windsor, Hamilton and all Canada

Proposed Structure: Archdioceses and Dioceses

  1. Archdiocese of India Chaldean Syrian Church – covers India.
  2. Archdiocese of Iran – covers Iran.
  3. Archdiocese of Iraq – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Iraq except Northern areas. The archdiocese’s territory includes the cities and surroundings of Baghdad, Basra, Kirkuk, and Mosul.
  4. Archdiocese of Nohadra – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Dohuk, Arbil, and Sulaymaniyah in Kurdish northern Iraq.
  5. Archdiocese of Syria & Lebanon – covers Syria and Lebanon.
  6. Archdiocese of Ararat – covers Turkey, Azerbaijan Armenia, and Georgia.
  7. Archdiocese of Russia & Eurasia – covers Russia and ex-Soviet states such as Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia Poland, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan.
  8. Archdiocese of Europe – its territory lies in western Europe and includes close to 10 sovereign states: Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands, France, Belgium, Austria, Finland, Norway and Greece.
  9. Archdiocese of Australia & New Zealand – covers Australia and New Zealand
  10. Archdiocese of North America – It covers 4 dioceses:

Holy Synod

The Holy Synod of the church is made up of:

  • Head: Mar Dinkha IV, Khanania (born 1935, elected 1976), Catholicos-Patriarch of the East (residing in Morton Grove, Illinois)
  • Mar Gewargis Sliwa: Metropolitan of Iraq
  • Mar Aprem Mooken: Metropolitan of India
  • Mar Meelis Zaia: Metropolitan of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon
  • Mar [Sagris Yosip]: Bishop Emeritus of Baghdad (residing in Modesto, California)
  • Mar Isaac Yousif: Bishop of Dohuk-Erbil and Russia
  • Mar Aprem Nathniel: Bishop of Syria
  • Mar Narsai Benyamin: Bishop of Iran
  • Mar Aprim Khamis: Bishop of Western United States
  • Mar Mar Emmanuel Yosip: Bishop of Canada
  • Mar Odisho Oraham: Bishop of Europe
  • Mar Awa Royel: Bishop of California
  • Mar Paulus Benjamin: Bishop of Eastern United States
  • Mar Yohannan Joseph: Auxiliary Bishop of India
  • Mar Awgin Kuriakose: Auxiliary Bishop of India

See also

† this pressed for Christians everywhere †: BBC News – Islamic State: Fears grow for abducted Syrian Christians


It is not clear where the IS militants have taken the abducted Assyrians Continue reading the main story: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-31622883

It i not clear where the IS militants have taken the abducted Assyrians

Continue reading the main story

Islamic State – Other Reports:

Asymmetry of fear

Kobane unbeaten

What is IS?

Key countries

There are fears that more members of an Assyrian Christian community in north-eastern Syria were abducted by Islamic State militants than at first thought.

Initial reports had put the number of missing at 90, but one activist said as many as 285 people had been seized on Monday in Hassakeh province.

Efforts to try to negotiate their release are reported to be under way.

Some 1,000 local Assyrian families are believed to have fled their homes in the wake of the abductions.

Kurdish and Christian militia are battling IS in the area, amid reports of churches and homes having been set ablaze.

Thousands of Christians in Syria have been forced from their homes by the threat from IS militants.

In areas under their control, Christians have been ordered to convert to Islam, pay jizya (a religious levy), or face death. IS militants in Libya also recently beheaded 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians.

via BBC News – Islamic State: Fears grow for abducted Syrian Christians.

find out more about the Assirian Christians HERE

just a thought: Change without thinking, is like thinking without change…only with incalculable consequences


just a thought:  “Change without thinking, is like thinking without change…only with incalculable consequences”.
– George-B.

Copyright © 2015 [George-B]. All Rights Reserved


Mozart – Adagio in E Major for Violin and Orchestra, K. 261

Isaac Albéniz; Cadiz, Suite Española, Opus 47


Isaac Albéniz; Cadiz, Suite Española, Opus 47

Dame Joan Sutherland. Pastorale. Igor Stravinsky.


Dame Joan Sutherland. Pastorale. Igor Stravinsky.

Video: CRIPTA Sf. Ap. si Ev. MATEI – SALERNO (Crypt of St. Matei – Mathew)


CRIPTA Sf. Ap. si Ev. MATEI – SALERNO

today’s holiday: † St. Matthias’s Day (2015)†


St. Matthias’s Day (2015)†

The story of how St. Matthias was elected to replace Judas Iscariot as one of the 12 apostles after Judas committed suicide can be found in the Bible’s Book of Acts. There is no historical record of Matthias’s deeds or death. His fame rests almost entirely upon the fact that he took the betrayer Judas’ place, although legend claims that he was stoned and beheaded in Ethiopia in 64 CE. Episcopalians celebrate his feast day on February 24. More… Discuss

Chopin Etude Op 25 No.11 Valentina Lisitsa


Chopin Etude Op 25 No.11 Valentina Lisitsa

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Così fan tutte, K.588, Overture


Così fan tutte, K.588, Overture

Schubert Symphony No 3 D major Maazel Bavarian RSO


Schubert Symphony No 3 D major Maazel Bavarian RSO

Spiritual Reflection_Prayer_is_the_light_of_The_Spirit


Spirtual Reflection_Prayer_is_the_light_of_The_Spirit

Spiritual Reflection_Prayer_is_the_light_of_The_Spirit

Saint of the Day for Saturday, February 21st, 2015 : St. Severian


Image of St. Severian

St. Severian

Bishop and martyr. The bishop of Scythopolis in Galilee. He attended the Council of Chalcedon (451) and took part in the complete triumph of the orthodox Christian cause against the heretics of the … continue reading

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Missed opportunities are the greatest cause of regret — Fitness Motivation


Giuseppe Verdi: Nabucco – Va, pensiero (Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves)


Giuseppe Verdi: Nabucco – Va, pensiero (Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves)

Ralph Vaughan Williams: The Lark Ascending with violinist Hilary Hahn


The lark ascending (Hilary Hahn)

Bernard Herrmann – North by Northwest: Conversation Piece


Bernard Herrmann – Conversation Piece

this pressed as a history lesson: The Conquest of Constantinople, Hagia Sofia and Turkey — EU | Constantine Tzanos


Posted: 06/25/2014 12:02 pm EDT Updated: 08/25/2014 5:59 am EDT

Many countries have a national or independence day to celebrate their nationhood, or their freedom from the yoke imposed on them by another country or an imperial power.

In 1950, the Turkish Council of Ministers established the Istanbul Conquest Society which every year organizes, on May 29, the celebration of the conquest, by the Ottoman Turks, of Constantinople (Istanbul), the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire from 330 to 1453 AD. The conquest was celebrated again this year with speeches, fireworks and reenactments of the assault, heavily sanitized from what really happened, glorifying and attributing lofty ideals to a great human catastrophe.

The Turkish journalist Burak Bekdil wrote in 2012:

Professor Mehmet Görmez, head of the General Directorate for Religious Affairs, who, at least in words, promotes interfaith dialogue, declared ‘Conquest, is not the occupation of lands or the destroying of cities and castles. The conquest is the conquest of hearts! In our history there has never been occupation. In our history, there has always been conquest.’ Sadly, his commemorating remarks for Conquest 1453 echoed Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s sentimental attachment to the Muslim-Turkish supremacy theory. According to Professor Görmez, one of the two pillars of conquest is to ‘open up minds to Islam and hearts to the Quran.’ Therefore, Turkey’s top Muslim cleric reasoned, the Conquest of Constantinople was the conquest of hearts.

The historian S. Runciman in The Fall of Constantinople 1453 writes:

via The Conquest of Constantinople, Hagia Sofia and Turkey — EU | Constantine Tzanos.

this pressed for your information: Rebel takeover of eastern Ukraine city raises questions about cease-fire, Putin’s intentions


Rebel takeover of eastern Ukraine city raises questions about cease-fire, Putin’s intentions

By Info on February 19, 2015 News

Feb. 18, 2015: An Ukrainian soldier stands next to a broken down vehicle outside Artemivsk, Ukraine, as troops pull out of Debaltseve,

The Ukrainian military’s withdrawal from a key eastern city – leaving Russia-backed rebels to roam the streets in celebration – has raised questions about a newly struck cease-fire and Vladimir Putin’s ultimate intentions.

via Rebel takeover of eastern Ukraine city raises questions about cease-fire, Putin’s intentions.

Borodin Petite Suite with Maria Prokofieva


Borodin Petite Suite

historic musical bits: Vladimir Horowitz, piano: Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat minor, Op. 23 (1948) , great compositions/performances


Vladimir Horowitz, piano: Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat minor, Op. 23 (1948)

Saint of the Day for Thursday, February 19th, 2015 : Bl. Alvarez of Corova


Image of Bl. Alvarez of Corova

Bl. Alvarez of Corova

Alvarez was born in either Lisbon, Portugal, or Cordova, Spain. He entered the Dominican convent at Cordova in 1368. He became known for his preaching prowess in Spain and Italy, was confessor and … continue reading

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Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

February 19

1408   The revolt of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, against King Henry IV, ends with his defeat and death at Bramham Moor.
1701   Philip V of Spain makes his ceremonial entry into Madrid.
1807   Vice President Aaron Burr is arrested in Alabama for treason. He is later found innocent.
1847   Rescuers finally reach the ill-fated Donnor Party in the Sierras.
1861   Russian Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom.
1902   Smallpox vaccination becomes obligatory in France.
1903   The Austria-Hungary government decrees a mandatory two year military service.
1915   British and French warships begin their attacks on the Turkish forts at the mouth of the Dardenelles, in an abortive expedition to force the straits of Gallipoli.
1917   American troops are recalled from the Mexican border.
1919   The First Pan African Congress meets in Paris, France.
1925   President Calvin Coolidge proposes the phasing out of inheritance tax.
1926   Dr. Lane of Princeton estimates the earth’s age at one billion years.
1942   Port Darwin, on the northern coast of Australia, is bombed by the Japanese.
1944   The U.S. Eighth Air Force and Royal Air Force begin “Big Week,” a series of heavy bomber attacks against German aircraft production facilities.
1965   Fourteen Vietnam War protesters are arrested for blocking the United Nations’ doors in New York.
1966   Robert F. Kennedy suggests the United States offer the Vietcong a role in governing South Vietnam.
1976   Britain slashes welfare spending.
1981   The U.S. State Department calls El Salvador a “textbook case” of a Communist plot.
1987   New York Governor Mario Cuomo declares that he will not run for president in the next election.
Born on February 19
1473   Nicholas Copernicus, Polish astronomer who introduced the idea that the earth revolved around the sun.
1683   Philip V, King of Spain.
1817   William III, King of the Netherlands.
1859   Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist, founder of physical chemistry.
1902   Kay Boyle, short story writer (“The White Horses of Vienna”).
1911   Merle Oberon, film actress.
1917   Carson McCuller, writer (The Heart is a Lonely Hunter).
1940   Smokey Robinson, American singer and songwriter.
1952   Amy Tan, novelist (The Joy Luck CLub, The Kitchen God’s Wife).

- See more at: http://www.historynet.com/today-in-history#sthash.oUU56rIE.dpuf

today’s image: Lewis Hine and Child Labor Reforms



Lewis Hine and Child Labor Reforms

In 1908, the National Child Labor Committee estimated that one of every four miners was a child between the ages of 7 and 16. Lewis W. Hine photographed these young Pennsylvania coal miners, who worked from dawn to dusk. Early-20th-century reformers crusaded against many social problems caused by America’s rapid industrialization and urbanization, including child labor. Teacher-turned-photographer Lewis Hine documented industrial child labor for the National Child Labor Committee. Disguised to evade suspicious employers, Hine captured some of the most powerful images in the history of documentary photography.

Image: Library of Congress

- See more at: http://www.historynet.com/picture-of-the-day#sthash.r7KJS93D.dpuf

quotation: Ralph Waldo Emerson Walden by Henry David Thoreau (Full Audiobook)


The days…come and go like muffled and veiled figures sent from a distant friendly party, but they say nothing, and if we do not use the gifts they bring, they carry them as silently away.

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Discuss

Walden by Henry David Thoreau (Full Audiobook)

The Battle of Gallipoli Begins (1915)


The Battle of Gallipoli Begins (1915)

The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during World War I. It was initiated by the Allies to open a Black Sea supply route to Russia and capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople. The Allied navy arrived at Gallipoli in February 1915 but did not get sufficient land support for two months, giving the Turkish army ample time to reinforce its troops. After months of fighting, the Allied forces withdrew in January 1916. What had caused the Allied army’s delay? More… Discuss

this pressed for the bees and the flowers: Flash – Nature’s ‘medicine cabinet’ fights bee disease – France 24


18 February 2015 – 01H40

Nature’s ‘medicine cabinet’ fights bee disease

© AFP/File | Honey bees gather on a moveable comb hive at the Bee Research Laboratory, in Beltsville, Maryland on August 22, 2007

PARIS (AFP) -

Floral nectar contains a bouquet of natural chemicals that may help fight parasite infection in bumble bees, a study said Wednesday.

The findings throw up clues for helping honey bee colonies battling mysterious but catastrophic decline.

Biologists in New England tested eight nectar compounds on North American bumble bees — Latin name Bombus impatiens — that had been infected in the lab with an intestinal parasite called Crithidia bombi.

Four of the eight were effective against Crithidia, which is spread by bee faeces and lowers winter survival rates and reproductive success.

via Flash – Nature’s ‘medicine cabinet’ fights bee disease – France 24.

Just a thought


Just a thought: How toanimated-gif-showcase-davidope animated-gif-showcase-emilio-gomariz create a myth? Simply forbid any reference to it!
 – George-B.

Copyright © 2010-2015 [George-B- euzicasa . All Rights Reserved.

 

 

 

Most Facebook content censored 1 India 2 Turkey 3 Pakistan 4 Germany 5 Russia — Conrad Hackett


today’s image: Mark Twain -The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn – published on February 18, 1885



The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was published on February 18, 1885, and became one of the writer’s most famous works. Samuel Clemens, born in 1835, first used the pseudonym of Mark Twain when he wrote a humorous travel account in 1863. Books such as Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer made Mark Twain a popular American author because people could relate to his stories of boyhood adventures colored with social commentary. As a satirical, critical voice of the United States, Twain continued to write and lecture across the country and the world. Mark Twain died in 1910.

Image: Library of Congress

- See more at: http://www.historynet.com/picture-of-the-day#sthash.uLZdCO1M.dpuf

quotation: Frances Hodgson Burnett


Fate alone saw the meaning of the web it wove, the might of it, and its place in the making of a world’s history.

Frances Hodgson Burnett (1849-1924) Discuss

today’s birthday: Michael Jordan (1963)


Michael Jordan (1963)

Considered by many to be the greatest basketball player of all time, Michael Jordan ended his career with a regular-season scoring average of 30.1 points per game, the highest in NBA history. He won six NBA championships, was league MVP five times, and earned two Olympic gold medals. Jordan’s mid-air acrobatics and slam dunk skills are legendary and earned him the nickname “Air Jordan.” After retiring from basketball in 1993, Jordan surprised fans by beginning a career in what sport? More… Discuss


MOZART – ABDUCTION FROM THE SERAGLIO -IMPOSSIBLE PERFORMANCE

Saint of the Day for Monday, February 16th, 2015 : St. Daniel


Image of St. Daniel

St. Daniel

Died in 309, He and four companions, Elias, Isaias, Jeremy and Samuel were Egyptians who visited Christians condemned to work in the mines of Cilicia during Maximus persecution, to comfort them. … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

Historic Musical Bits ,Rubinstein Mozart Concerto 17, 20, 21, 23 & 24, great compositions/performances


Rubinstein Mozart Concerto 17, 20, 21, 23 & 24.wmv