Category Archives: ONE OF MY FAVORITE THINGS

Watch “Bettye Swann Then You Can Tell Me Goodbye” on YouTube



Kiss me each morning for a million years
Hold me each evening by your side
Tell me you love me for a million years
Then if it don’t work out
Then if it don’t work out
Then you can tell me goodbye
Sweeten my coffee with a morning kiss
Soften my dreams with your sigh
After you’ve loved me for a million years
Then if it don’t work out
Then if it don’t work out
Then you can tell me goodbye
If you must go I won’t grieve
If you just wait a life-time before you leave
If you must go I won’t say “no”
Just so we can say that we tried
Tell me you love me for a million years
Then if it don’t work out
Then if it don’t work out
Then you can tell me goodbye

Modern education systems…are nothing but modern


Modern education  systems...are nothing but archaic

Modern education systems…are nothing but modern

https://pin.it/p72eyzw2d4yeqm

Watch “Leonard Cohen’s Prince Of Asturias Speech – No Overdubbing” on YouTube


Gun control is really people CONTROL AND ENSLAVEMENT


Gun control is really people CONTROL AND ENSLAVEMENT

Gun control is really people CONTROL AND ENSLAVEMENT

https://pin.it/4r2l42zhituus5

Turn in your weapons: the government will take care of you


Turn in your weapons: the government will take care of you

Turn in your weapons: the government will take care of you

https://pin.it/sdlrrfr3qqphul

REMEMBER: “JUST BECAUSE YOU DO NOT TAKE AN INTEREST IN POLITICS…”


REMEMBER:

REMEMBER: “JUST BECAUSE YOU DO NOT TAKE AN INTEREST IN POLITICS… DOESN’T MEAN POLITICS WON’T TAKE AN INTEREST IN YOU” PERICLES

https://pin.it/2do5edge5ctgdv

Health and Lifestyle: THINGS ONE CANNOT CONTROL


Health and Lifestyle: THINGS I CANNOT CONTROL

Health and Lifestyle: THINGS ONE CANNOT CONTROL

https://pin.it/77z6k7tuea4bkw

MEDICAL LIBRARY- HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE: HUMAN BRAIN


MEDICAL LIBRARY- HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE: HUMAN BRAIN

MEDICAL LIBRARY- HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE: HUMAN BRAIN

https://pin.it/bxp3db6ublxvas

Watch “Respighi: Ancient Airs and Dances, Suite No. 3 – Sir Neville Marriner, Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra” on YouTube


Ancient Airs and Dances

Ancient Airs and Dances (Italian: Antiche arie e danze) is a set of three orchestral suites by Italian composerOttorino Respighi, freely transcribed from original pieces for lute. In addition to being a renowned composer and conductor, Respighi was also a notable musicologist. His interest in Italian music of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries led him to compose works inspired by the music of these periods.

Suite No. 1 (1917)Edit

Ancient Airs, Suite No. 1

  1. Balletto, “Il Conte Orlando”
  2. Gagliarda

  3. Villanella

  4. Passo mezzo e mascherada

Problems playing these files? See media help.
Suite No. 1 P 109 was composed in 1917. It was based on Renaissance lute pieces by Simone Molinaro, Vincenzo Galilei (father of Galileo Galilei) and additional anonymous composers.

Balletto: “Il Conte Orlando” (Simone Molinaro, 1599)

Gagliarda (Vincenzo Galilei, 1550s)

Villanella (anonymous, end of 16th century)

Passo mezzo e mascherada (anonymous, end of 16th century)

The orchestration calls for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 bassoons, 2 horns in F, trumpet in D, harp, harpsichord and strings.

Suite No. 2 (1923)Edit

Suite No. 2, P 138 was composed in 1923. It was based on pieces for lute, archlute, and viol by Fabritio Caroso, Jean-Baptiste Besard, Bernardo Gianoncelli, and an anonymous composer. It also includes an aria attributed to Marin Mersenne.

Laura soave: balletto con gagliarda, saltarello e canario (Fabritio Caroso)

Danza rustica (Jean-Baptiste Besard)

Campanae parisienses (anonymous) & Aria (attributed to Marin Mersenne)

Bergamasca (Bernardo Gianoncelli, 1650)

The orchestration calls for an average-sized orchestra of 3 flutes (3rd doubling piccolo), 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets in A/B♭, 2 bassoons, 3 horns in D (doubling 2 horns in E/F), 2 trumpets in A/D (doubling trumpet in C), 3 trombones, 3 timpani, celesta, harpsichord 4-hands, harp and strings.

Suite No. 3 (1932)Edit

Suite No. 3, P 172 was composed in 1932. It differs from the previous two suites in that it is arranged for strings only and somewhat melancholy in overall mood. (A note by the composer in the printed score states that the work may also be performed by a string quartet, completely omitting the double-bass part.) It is based on lute songs by Besard, a piece for Baroque guitar by Ludovico Roncalli, and lute pieces by Santino Garsi da Parma and additional anonymous composers.

Italiana (Anonymous: Italiana(Fine sec. XVI) – Andantino)

Arie di corte (Jean-Baptiste Besard: Arie di corte (Sec. XVI) – Andante cantabile – Allegretto – Vivace – Slow with great expression – Allegro vivace – Vivacissimo – Andante cantabile)

Siciliana (Anonymous: Siciliana(Fine sec. XVI) – Andantino)

Passacaglia (Lodovico Roncalli: Passacaglia (1692) – Maestoso – Vivace)

Piano reductionsEdit

The Ancient Airs and Dances first two suites were freely transcribed by the composer for piano (2 and 4 hands).

RecordingsEdit

There have been many recordings of the suites in their entirety, and individually, with Suite No. 3 most frequently appearing alone. Recordings include:

Philharmonia Hungarica, Antal Dorati (Mercury)

Boston Symphony Orchestra, Seiji Ozawa (DG)

Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, Sir Neville Marriner (EMI)

Lausanne Chamber Orchestra, Jesús López-Cobos (Telarc)

Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, Hugh Wolff (Teldec)

Australian Chamber Orchestra, Christopher Lyndon-Gee (Omega)

Sinfonia 21, Richard Hickox(Chandos)

Orpheus Chamber Orchestra (1 & 3 only) (DG)

Rome Symphony Orchestra, Francesco La Vecchia

Suite No. 3 onlyEdit

Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan (DG)

I Musici

I Solisti Italiani

Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Sir Neville Marriner (Philips)

English String Orchestra, William Boughton (Nimbus)

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

Antiche danze et arie per liuto, Suite No.1, Antiche danze et arie per liuto, Suite No.2, Antiche danze et arie per liuto, Suite No.3: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)

Last edited 4 days ago by Ira Leviton

RELATED ARTICLES

Ottorino Respighi

Italian composer, musicologist and conductor

Jean-Baptiste Besard

French composer

Julia Sutton (dance historian)

American dance historian

The best pianist of our generation, YouTube generation: Valentina Lisitsa


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentina_Lisitsa

Valentina Lisitsa

Valentina Lisitsa (Ukrainian: Валенти́на Євге́нівна Лиси́ця, romanized: Valentýna Jevhénivna Lysýcja, IPA: [wɐlenˈtɪnɐ jeu̯ˈɦɛn⁽ʲ⁾iu̯nɐ lɪˈsɪtsʲɐ]; Russian: Валентина Евгеньевна Лисица, romanized: Valentina Evgen’evna Lisica, IPA: [vɐlʲɪnˈtʲinə jɪvˈɡʲenʲɪvnə lʲɪˈsʲitsə]; born 25 March 1973) is a Ukrainian-American[1] pianist. She previously resided in North Carolinabefore moving to Canada, and then to France.[2][3]

Valentina Lisitsa

Background informationBorn25 March 1973(age 46)
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet UnionGenresClassicalOccupation(s)Classical pianistInstrumentsPianoYears active1977-presentWebsitevalentinalisitsa.com
Lisitsa is among the most frequently viewed pianists on YouTube – particularly her renderings of Romantic Era virtuoso piano composers, including Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin and Sergei Rachmaninoff.[4][5] Lisitsa independently launched her career on social media, without initially signing with a tour promoter or record company.[4][5]

Life and career

Lisitsa was born in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1973. Her mother, also named Valentina, is a seamstress and her father, Evgeny, was an engineer.[4] Her older brother Eugene died in 2009.[6][4]
She started playing the piano at the age of three, performing her first solo recital at the age of four.[7] She is of Russian and Polish descent.[8]
Despite her early aptitude for music, her dream at that point was to become a professional chess player.[9]Lisitsa attended the Lysenko music school and, later, the Kiev Conservatory,[10] where she and her future husband, Alexei Kuznetsoff, studied under Dr. Ludmilla Tsvierko.[11]When Lisitsa met Kuznetsoff, she began to take music more seriously.[12] In 1991, they won the first prize in The Murray Dranoff Two Piano Competition in Miami, Florida.[10][13]That same year, they moved to the United States to further their careers as concert pianists.[4] In 1992 the couple married.[4] Their New York debut was at the Mostly Mozart Festival at Lincoln Center in 1995.[11]

Lisitsa posted her first YouTube video in 2007. Her set of Chopin etudes reached the number-one slot on Amazon’s list of classical video recordings, and became the most-viewed online collection of Chopin etudes on YouTube.[14][15]

To advance her career, in 2010 Lisitsa and her husband put their life savings into recording a CD of Rachmaninoff concertos with the London Symphony Orchestra.[4] In the spring of 2012, before her Royal Albert Hall debut, Lisitsa signed with Decca Records, who later released her Rachmaninoff CD set.[4] By mid-2012 she had logged nearly 50 million views of her YouTube videos.[5]
Lisitsa has performed in various venues around the world, including Carnegie Hall, David Geffen Hall, Benaroya Hall, Musikverein and the Royal Albert Hall. She is well known for her online recitals and practicing streams. She has also collaborated with violinist Hilary Hahn at various recital engagements.[10]

Controversy

Lisitsa has received criticism for her opposition to the Ukrainian government and support of pro-Russian separatists since the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine and the ensuing armed conflict.[16] In April 2015, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra cancelled concerts with Lisitsa, citing her “provocative” online remarks on her Twitter account; the orchestra initially did not specify which tweets or other commentary it believed crossed a line.[17][18] Later, on 8 April 2015, the CEO of Toronto Symphony, Jeff Melanson provided a PDF document of seven pages listing the most “offensive” tweets. Melanson alleged that the document would “help people understand why we made this decision, and understand as well how this is not a free speech issue, but rather an issue of someone practicing very intolerant and offensive expression through Twitter.”[19]
In response, the Toronto Star criticized the orchestra’s decision in an editorial, noting that, “Lisitsa was not invited to Toronto to discuss her provocative political views. She was scheduled to play the piano. And second, banning a musician for expressing “opinions that some believe to be offensive” shows an utter failure to grasp the concept of free speech.”[20] Lisitsa said that the orchestra threatened her if she spoke about the cancellation.[21]
According to Paul Grod, then president of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress: “Ms. Lisitsa has been engaged in a long campaign on social media belittling, insulting and disparaging the people of Ukraine as they face direct military aggression at the hands of the Russian Federation”. Grod elaborated that “Most disturbing are Ms. Lisitsa’s false allegations that the government of Ukraine is “Nazi”, and stating that the Government of Ukraine is setting up ‘filtration camps.'” The New Jersey-based Ukrainian Weekly has described her postings as “anti-Ukraine hate speech.”[8][17] In response she commented that “satire and hyperbole [are] the best literary tools to combat the lies”.[8][17]

DiscographyEdit

Lisitsa has recorded six CDs for Audiofon Records, including three solo CDs and two discs of duets with her husband Alexei Kuznetsoff; a Gold CD for CiscoMusic label with cellist DeRosa; a duet recital on VAI label with violinist Ida Haendel; and DVDs of Frédéric Chopin’s 24 Études and Schubert-Liszt Schwanengesang.[22]
Her recording of the four sonatas for violin and piano by composer Charles Ives, made with Hilary Hahn, was released in October 2011 on Deutsche Grammophon label. Her album Valentina Lisitsa Live at the Royal Albert Hall (based on her debut performance at that venue 19 June 2012) was released 2 July 2012.
Lisitsa has reproduced several compositions by various artists, including Sergei Rachmaninoff, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin and Ludwig van Beethoven. Decca Records released her complete album of Rachmaninoff concertos in October 2012.[23] An album of Liszt works was released in October 2013 on Decca label in 2 formats – CD and 12″ LP which was cut unedited from analog tape. An even more recent album comprises a number of works of the composer and pianist Philip Glass.[24] As of July 2019, her latest release on Decca records is a 10CD set titled Tchaikovsky: The Complete Solo Piano Works.

ReferencesEdit

^ Everett-Green, Robert (7 December 2012). “Valentina Lisitsa: Playing the odds – by way of Rachmaninoff”. The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 8 April 2015.

^ “Valentina Lisitsa and Alexei Kuznetsoff”. Southern Arts Federation. Retrieved 12 July2009.

^

Watch “Mussorgsky – Pictures at an Exhibition” Berliner Philarmoniker orchestra, conductor Herbert on Karayan on YouTube


Pictures at an Exhibition

This article is about the original suite by Modest Mussorgsky and its orchestral arrangements. For other uses, see Pictures at an Exhibition (disambiguation).

Mussorgsky in 1874

Pictures at an Exhibition (Russian: Картинки с выставки – Воспоминание о Викторе Гартмане, romanized: Kartínki s výstavki – Vospominániye o Víktore Gártmane, lit. ‘Pictures from an Exhibition – A Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann’, French: Tableaux d’une exposition) is a suite of ten pieces (plus a recurring, varied Promenade) composed for piano by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky in 1874.

The suite is Mussorgsky’s most famous piano composition, and has become a showpiece for virtuosopianists. It has become further known through various orchestrations and arrangements produced by other musicians and composers, with Maurice Ravel’s 1922 version for full symphony orchestra being by far the most recorded and performed.

Composition history

Viktor Hartmann (1834–1873)

It was probably in 1868 that Mussorgsky first met artist, architect, and designer Viktor Hartmann, not long after the latter’s return to Russia from abroad. Both men were devoted to the cause of an intrinsically Russian art and quickly became friends. They likely met in the home of the influential critic Vladimir Stasov, who followed both of their careers with interest. According to Stasov’s testimony, in 1868, Hartmann gave Mussorgsky two of the pictures that later formed the basis of Pictures at an Exhibition.[1] In 1870, Mussorgsky dedicated the second song (“In the Corner”) of the cycle The Nursery to Hartmann. Stasov remarked that Hartmann loved Mussorgsky’s compositions, and particularly liked the “Scene by the Fountain” in his opera Boris Godunov. Mussorgsky abandoned the scene in his original 1869 version, but at the requests of Stasov and Hartmann, he reworked it for Act 3 in his revision of 1872.[2]

The years 1873–74 are associated with the staging of Boris Godunov, the zenith of Mussorgsky’s career as a composer—at least from the standpoint of public acclaim. Mussorgsky’s distant relative, friend, and roommate during this period, Arseniy Golenishchev-Kutuzov, describing the January 1874 premiere of the opera, remarked: “During the winter, there were, I think, nine performances, and each time the theatre was sold out, each time the public tumultuously called for Mussorgsky.”[3] The composer’s triumph was overshadowed, however, by the critical drubbing he received in the press. Other circumstances conspired to dampen Mussorgsky’s spirits. The disintegration of The Mighty Handful and their failure to understand his artistic goals contributed to the isolation he experienced as an outsider in Saint Petersburg’s musical establishment. Golenishchev-Kutuzov wrote: “[The Mighty Handful’s] banner was held by Mussorgsky alone; all the other members had left it and pursued his own path …”[4]

Hartmann’s sudden death on 4 August 1873 from an aneurysm shook Mussorgsky along with others in Russia’s art world. The loss of the artist, aged only 39, plunged the composer into deep despair. Stasov helped to organize a memorial exhibition of over 400 Hartmann works in the Imperial Academy of Artsin Saint Petersburg in February and March 1874. Mussorgsky lent to the exhibition the two pictures Hartmann had given him, and viewed the show in person. Later in June, two-thirds of the way through composing his song cycle, Sunless, Mussorgsky was inspired to compose Pictures at an Exhibition, quickly completing the score in three weeks (2–22 June 1874).[5] In a letter to Stasov (see photo), probably written on 12 June 1874, he describes his progress:

Mussorgsky’s letter to Stasov, written while composing Pictures

My dear généralissime, Hartmann is boiling as Boris boiled—sounds and ideas hung in the air, I am gulping and overeating, and can barely manage to scribble them on paper. I am writing the 4th No.—the transitions are good (on the ‘promenade’). I want to work more quickly and steadily. My physiognomy can be seen in the interludes. So far I think it’s well turned …[6]

The music depicts his tour of the exhibition, with each of the ten numbers of the suite serving as a musical illustration of an individual work by Hartmann.[7]

Five days after finishing the composition, he wrote on the title page of the manuscript a tribute to Vladimir Stasov, to whom the work is dedicated. One month later, he added an indication that he intended to have it published.[8]

Golenishchev-Kutuzov gives the following (perhaps biased)[9] account of the work’s reception among Mussorgsky’s friends and colleagues and an explanation for his failure to follow through on his plans to publish it:

Soon, with the composition of the musical illustrations for Pictures from an Exhibition by the architect Hartmann, he reached the acme of that musical radicalism, to whose ‘new shores’ and to whose ‘unfathomed depths’ the admirers of his ‘Peepshows’ and ‘Savishnas’ had pushed him so diligently. In music for these illustrations, as Mussorgsky called them, he represented [chicks], children, Baba Yaga in her wooden house on chicken legs, catacombs, gates, and even rattling carts. All this was not done jokingly, but ‘seriously’.

There was no end to the enthusiasm shown by his devotees; but many of Mussorgsky’s friends, on the other hand, and especially the comrade composers, were seriously puzzled and, listening to the ‘novelty,’ shook their heads in bewilderment. Naturally, Mussorgsky noticed their bewilderment and seemed to feel that he ‘had gone too far.’ He set the illustrations aside without even trying to publish them. Mussorgsky devoted himself exclusively to Khovanshchina.[10]

In August, Mussorgsky completed the last two songs of Sunless and then resumed work on Khovanshchina, composing the prelude to Act 1 (“Dawn on the Moscow River”) in September.

Publication historyEdit

Cover of first edition

As with most of Mussorgsky’s works, Pictures at an Exhibition has a complicated publication history. Although composed very rapidly, during June 1874, the work did not appear in print until 1886, five years after the composer’s death, when an edition by the composer’s friend and colleague Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakovwas published. This edition, however, was not a completely accurate representation of Mussorgsky’s score but presented a revised text that contained a number of errors and misreadings.

Only in 1931, marking the 50th anniversary of the composer’s death, was Pictures at an Exhibition published in a scholarly edition in agreement with his manuscript, to be included in Volume 8 of Pavel Lamm’s M. P. Mussorgsky: Complete Collected Works (1939).

In 1940, the Italian composer Luigi Dallapiccola published an important critical edition of Mussorgsky’s work with extensive commentary.

Mussorgsky’s hand-written manuscript was published in facsimile in 1975.

YearEditorPublisherNotes1886Nikolay Rimsky-KorsakovV. Bessel and Co., Saint PetersburgRevised edition [1]1931Pavel LammMuzgiz, MoscowRestoration of the composer’s score [2]1975—Muzïka, MoscowFacsimile of the composer’s manuscript

Hartmann’s pictures

Viktor Hartmann

Mussorgsky based his musical material on drawings and watercolours by Hartmann produced mostly during the artist’s travels abroad. Locales include Italy, France, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. Today most of the pictures from the Hartmann exhibition are lost, making it impossible to be sure in many cases which Hartmann works Mussorgsky had in mind.

Arts critic Alfred Frankenstein gave an account of Hartmann, with reproductions of his pictures, in the article “Victor Hartmann and Modeste Mussorgsky” in The Musical Quarterly(July 1939).[11] Frankenstein claimed to have identified seven pictures by catalogue number, corresponding to:

“Tuileries” (now lost)”Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks””Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuÿle” (Frankenstein suggested two separate portraits, still extant, as the basis for “Two Jews: Rich and Poor”)”Catacombs””The Hut on Hen’s Legs””The Bogatyr Gates”

The surviving works that can be shown with certainty to have been used by Mussorgsky in assembling his suite, along with their titles, are as follows:[12]

MovementTitleTitle (English)Picture5. Ballet of the Unhatched ChicksЭскизы театральных костюмов к балету “Трильби”Sketches of theatre costumes for the ballet Trilby 6. “Samuel” Goldenberg and “Schmuÿle”Еврей в меховой шапке. СандомирJew in a fur cap. Sandomierz Сандомирский [еврей]Sandomierz [Jew] 8. Catacombs (Roman Tomb)Парижские катакомбы (с фигурами В. А. Гартмана, В. А. Кенеля и проводника, держащего фонарь)Paris Catacombs(with the figures of V. A. Hartmann, V. A. Kenel, and a guide holding a lantern) 9. The Hut on Hen’s Legs (Baba Yaga)Избушка Бабы-Яги на курьих ножках. Часы в русском стилеThe hut of Baba-Yaga on hen’s legs. Clock in the Russian style 10. The Bogatyr Gates (In the Capital in Kiev)Проект городских ворот в Киеве. Главный фасадProject for city gates in Kiev. Main façade

Note: Mussorgsky owned the two pictures that together inspired No. 6, the so-called “Two Jews”. The title of No. 6b, as provided by the Soviet editors of his letters, is Сандомирский [еврей] (Sandomirskiy [yevrey] or Sandomierz [Jew]). The bracketed word yevrey (lit. “Hebrew”) is the sanitized form of the actual word in the title, very likely the derogatory epithet жид (zhid or yid).[13]

MovementsEdit

Vladimir Stasov’s program, identified below,[14] and the six known extant pictures suggest the ten pieces that make up the suite correspond to eleven pictures by Hartmann, with “Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuÿle” accounting for two. The five Promenades are not numbered with the ten pictures and consist in the composer’s manuscript of two titled movements and three untitled interludes appended to the 1st, 2nd, and 4th pictures (see Pavel Lamm’s 1931 edition [3]).

Mussorgsky links the suite’s movements in a way that depicts the viewer’s own progress through the exhibition. Two Promenade movements stand as portals to the suite’s main sections. Their regular pace and irregular meter depicts the act of walking. Three untitled interludes present shorter statements of this theme, varying the mood, colour, and key in each to suggest reflection on a work just seen or anticipation of a new work glimpsed. A turn is taken in the work at the “Catacombae” when the Promenade theme stops functioning as merely a linking device and becomes, in “Cum mortuis”, an integral element of the movement itself. The theme reaches its apotheosis in the suite’s finale, “The Bogatyr Gates”.

The first two movements of the suite—one grand, one grotesque—find mirrored counterparts, and apotheoses, at the end. The suite traces a journey that begins at an art exhibition, but the line between observer and observed vanishes at the Catacombs when the journey takes on a different character.

The table below shows the order of movements.

No.Title in scoreEnglish translationKeyMeterTempoPromenadeB♭major5
4,

Watch “Rachmaninoff Rhapsody on theme of Paganini, op. 43 – Valentina Lisitsa, piano” on YouTube


Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini

Paganini’s theme

Play (help·info)

The Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43, (Russian: Рапсодия на тему Паганини, Rapsodiya na temu Paganini) is a concertante work written by Sergei Rachmaninoff. It is written for solo piano and symphony orchestra, closely resembling a piano concerto, albeit in a single movement. The work was written at his summer home, the Villa Senar in Switzerland, according to the score, from July 3 to August 18, 1934. Rachmaninoff himself, a noted interpreter of his own works, played the solo piano part at the piece’s premiere at the Lyric Opera House in Baltimore, Maryland, on November 7, 1934 with the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokowski. Rachmaninoff, Stokowski, and the Philadelphia Orchestra made the first recording, on December 24, 1934, at RCA Victor’s Trinity Church Studio in Camden, New Jersey.

Instrumentation

Continue reading

Watch “Rachmaninov/Respighi: 5 Études-tableaux (P. 160) (1930)” on YouTube


Sergei Rachmaninoff in 1921

Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff[a](English: /rɑːxˈmɑːnəˌnɔːf, -ˌnɒf, rɑːk-/rahkh-MAH-nə-nawf, -⁠nof, rahk-;[3]Russian: Серге́й Васи́льевич Рахма́нинов[b], tr. Sergei Vasilyevich Rahmaninov, IPA: [sʲɪrˈɡʲej vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪt͡ɕ rɐxˈmanʲɪnəf]; 1 April [O.S. 20 March] 1873 – 28 March 1943[c][d]) was a Russian composer, virtuosopianist, and conductor of the late Romantic period. Some of his compositions are staples in the classical music repertoire.
Born into a musical family, Rachmaninoff took up the piano at the age of four. He graduated from the Moscow Conservatory in 1892, having already composed several piano and orchestral pieces. In 1897, following the negative critical reaction to his Symphony No. 1, Rachmaninoff entered a four-year depression and composed little until successful therapy allowed him to complete his enthusiastically received Piano Concerto No. 2 in 1901. For the next sixteen years, Rachmaninoff conducted at the Bolshoi Theatre, relocated to Dresden, Germany, and toured the United States for the first time.
Following the Russian Revolution, Rachmaninoff and his family left Russia; in 1918, they settled in the United States, first in New York City. With his main source of income coming from piano and conducting performances, demanding tour schedules led to a reduction in his time for composition; between 1918 and 1943, he completed just six works, including Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Symphony No. 3, and Symphonic Dances. By 1942, his failing health led to his relocation to Beverly Hills, California. One month before his death from advanced melanoma, Rachmaninoff was granted American citizenship.

Continue reading

Euzicasa: 9 years achievement


Achievement

Achievement

Watch “The Blacklist ( Best of Raymond Reddington ) part 2” on YouTube


Watch “The Blacklist ( Best of Raymond Reddington ) part 1” on YouTube


Watch “Schubert: Complete String Quartets” on YouTube


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category%3AString_quartets_by_Franz_Schubert

Category:String quartets by Franz Schubert

Watch “JOHN COLTRANE , STAN GETZ Autumn in New York” on YouTube


Other masterpieces: Watch “Camille Saint-Saën – Bacchanale from Samson and Delilah” on YouTube


Watch “Charlotte Church – The Lord’s Prayer (Live From Jerusalem 2001)” on YouTube


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord%27s_Prayer

Lord’s Prayer

Read in another language
Watch this page
Edit

For other uses, see Lord’s Prayer (disambiguation), Our Father (disambiguation) and Pater Noster (disambiguation).
James Tissot—The Lord’s Prayer (Le Pater Noster)—Brooklyn Museum

The Lord’s Prayer, also called the Our Father (Latin, Pater Noster), is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray:

Pray then in this way … (Matthew 6:9 NRSV)
When you pray, say … (Luke 11:2 NRSV)

Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when “one of his disciples said to him, ‘Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'” (Luke 11:1 NRSV). Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthean version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, “very likely in Judea”.[1]

The first three of the seven petitions in Matthew address God; the other four are related to human needs and concerns. The Matthew account alone includes the “Your will be done” and the “Rescue us from the evil one” (or “Deliver us from evil”) petitions. Both original Greek texts contain the adjective epiousios, which does not appear in any other classical or Koine Greek literature; while controversial, “daily” has been the most common English-language translation of this word. Protestants usually conclude the prayer with a doxology, a later addendum appearing in some manuscripts of Matthew.
Matthew 6:9-13 (NRSV) Luke 11:2-4 (NRSV)
Our Father in heaven, Father, [Other ancient authorities read Our father in heaven]
hallowed be your name. hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come. Your kingdom come.
[A few ancient authorities read Your Holy Spirit come upon us and cleanse us.]
Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. [Other ancient authorities add Your will be done, on earth as in heaven]
Give us this day our daily bread. [Or our bread for tomorrow] Give us each day our daily bread. [Or our bread for tomorrow]
And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. and forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone indebted to us.
And do not bring us to the time of trial, [Or us into temptation] but rescue us from the evil one. [Or from evil] And do not bring us to the time of trial. [Or us into temptation. Other ancient authorities add but rescue us from the evil one (or from evil)]
[Other ancient authorities add, in some form, For the kingdom and the power and the glory are yours forever. Amen.]

Initial words on the topic from the Catechism of the Catholic Church teach that it “is truly the summary of the whole gospel”.[2] The prayer is used by most Christian churches in their worship; with few exceptions, the liturgical form is the Matthean. Although theological differences and various modes of worship divide Christians, according to Fuller Seminary professor Clayton Schmit, “there is a sense of solidarity in knowing that Christians around the globe are praying together … and these words always unite us.”[3]

In biblical criticism, the prayer’s absence in the Gospel of Mark together with its occurrence in Matthew and Luke has caused scholars who accept the two-source hypothesis (against other document hypotheses) to conclude that it is probably a logion original to Q.[4]
Text
Analysis
Use as a language comparison tool
Relation to Jewish prayer
Musical settings
In popular culture
Images
See also
References
External links
Last edited 3 hours ago by an anonymous user
Wikipedia
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.

Problem solving process


Problem solving process

Problem solving process

https://pin.it/nanha4qsnfqkg2

Watch “The Fray – Be Still (Lyrics)” on YouTube



Be still and know that I’m with you
Be still and know that I am here
Be still and know that I’m with you
Be still, be still, and know

When darkness comes upon you
And colors you with fear and shame
Be still and know that I’m with you
And I will say your name
If terror falls upon your bed
And sleep no longer comes
Remember all the words I said
Be still, be still, and know
And when you go through the valley
And the shadow comes down from the hill
If morning never comes to be
Be still, be still, be still
If you forget the way to go
And lose where you came from
If no one is standing beside you
Be still and know I am
Be still and know that I’m with you
Be still and know I am
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Isaac Slade / Joseph King / David Welsh / Ben Wysocki
Be Still lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

American Suite – Wikipedia


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Suite

The American Suite in A major (Czech: Suita A dur), Op. 98b, B. 190, is an orchestral suite written in 1894–1895 by Czech composer Antonín Dvořák.

BackgroundEdit

MovementsEdit

The suite is written in five movements, each with a marked rhythm:

  1. Andante con moto
  2. Allegro
  3. Moderato (alla pollacca)
  4. Andante
  5. Allegro

Analysis and receptionEdit

As often is the case with
Dvořák, the orchestral version gives the work a new breadth. The cyclic
aspects of Dvořák’s composition are apparent, in that the principal
theme of the first movement recurs during the conclusion of the work.
This opening theme is marked by his American-influenced style. It is difficult to determine whether it comes from the typical folk music of the New World or simply from the music of the Czech emigrants, to which the Dvořák liked to listen during his stay in the United States.

This mix of American influence with Slavic tradition is also
perceptible in the rhythm of the “alla Polacca” third movement, and in
the last movement’s themes native to the Far East, played by flute and oboe in unison, where the orchestra passes easily from the minor theme to the major one.

Far from any exoticism, the art of Dvořák’s orchestral work is in the field of pure music, and it is undoubtedly for this reason that Brahms
appreciated it. Even in New York, when Dvořák encouraged his pupils to
work on their own folk melodies, it was authentic recreation of the
popular folk musics that he called for.

Appearances in popular cultureEdit

Along with several other works by Dvořák (including some of the Slavonic Dances and the second movement of the New World Symphony), the first movement, Andante con moto is part of the sound track to Sid Meier’s Civilization IV.
The allegro was used in the trailer for The Elder Scrolls II Daggerfall.

NotesEdit

  1. Klaus Döge, Grove

References and further readingEdit

  • Döge, Klaus: “Antonín Dvořák”, Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed December 16, 2006), (subscription access)

See also

External links

Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven) – Wikipedia


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphony_No.6%28Beethoven%29

Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68, also known as the Pastoral Symphony (German: Pastorale[1]), is a symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven and completed in 1808. One of Beethoven’s few works containing explicitly programmatic content,[2] the symphony was first performed in the Theater an der Wien on 22 December 1808[3] in a four-hour concert.[4]

Symphony No. 6
by Ludwig van Beethoven
Beethoven sym 6 script.PNG

Part of a sketch by Beethoven for the symphony

Other namePastoral SymphonyKeyF majorOpusOp. 68PeriodClassical periodFormSymphonyBased onNatureComposed1802–1808DedicationPrince Lobkowitz
Count RazumovskyDurationAbout 40 minutesMovementsFiveScoringOrchestraPremiereDateDecember 22, 1808LocationTheater an der Wien, ViennaConductorLudwig van Beethoven

Background

Instrumentation

Form

In film

Notes

References

External links

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5478661

Accessibility links
Skip to main content
Keyboard shortcuts for audio player
NPR logo
DONATE
NPR Music
Tiny Desk
All Songs Considered
Music News
New Music
Live Sessions
Best Music Of 2019
MUSIC
Beethoven’s Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Op. 68
June 12, 200610:39 AM ET
Audio will be available later today.
Hear an Interview with Conductor Christoph Eschenbach
“Pastoral”

Composed in 1808

Premiered December 1808

Published 1809 in Leipzig

Many of Beethoven’s works are titled, yet many of these names came from friends or from those to whom the pieces were dedicated. The Sixth Symphony, however, is one of only two symphonies Beethoven intentionally named. Beethoven’s full title was “Pastoral Symphony, or Recollections of Country Life.” Although it was composed in the same time period and dedicated to the same people as the Fifth, the works have many differences. The “Pastoral” is known as a “characteristic” symphony and closely resembles “Le musical de la nature” by Rheinish composer Justin Heinrich Knecht. Beethoven publicly declared the piece’s “extramusical” purpose: an expression of nature. His affinity for nature and his love for walks through the country outside Vienna were captured in the Sixth, as well as in the notes scribbled on sketches of the symphony.

Notes on Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony
CHRISTOPHER H. GIBBS

Most of the familiar titles attached to Beethoven’s works were put there by someone other than the composer. Critics, friends, and publishers invented the labels “Moonlight,” “Tempest,” and “Appassionata” for popular piano sonatas. Prominent patrons’ names—Archduke Rudolph, Count Razumovsky, Count Waldstein—became wedded to compositions they either commissioned or that are dedicated to them, thereby winning a sort of immortality for those who supported the composer.

Beethoven himself crossed out the heading “Bonaparte” from the title page of the Third Symphony, but later wrote in “Sinfonia eroica” (Heroic Symphony), and it is his only symphony besides the Sixth to bear an authentic title. To be sure, stories about “fate knocking at the door” in the Fifth and the choral finale of the Ninth have encouraged programmatic associations for those works, beginning in Beethoven’s own time. But, in the end, it is the Sixth Symphony, the “Pastoral,” that stands most apart from his others, and indeed from nearly all of Beethoven’s instrumental and keyboard music, in its intentional, publicly declared, and often quite audible extramusical content. Beethoven’s full title is: “Pastoral Symphony, or Recollections of Country Life.”

“More an Expression of Feeling Than Painting”

And yet the Sixth Symphony does not aspire to the level of musical realism found in a work like Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique or in Richard Strauss’s later tone poems. In the program for its premiere, Beethoven famously noted that the “Pastoral” contained “more an expression of feeling than painting.” He had earlier objected to some of the musical illustration in Haydn’s oratorios The Creation (1798) and The Seasons (1801), with their imitations of storms, frogs, and other phenomena. He probably would not have cared much for what the “New German School” of Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner would later advocate and create.

Beethoven’s “Pastoral” Symphony belongs to a tradition, going back to the previous century, of “characteristic” symphonies. Indeed, the titles for the movements that Beethoven provided closely resemble those of “Le Portrait musical de la nature,” written nearly 25 years earlier by the Rheinish composer Justin Heinrich Knecht. (It is doubtful Beethoven knew the music of the piece, but he did know the titles.) Scattered comments that Beethoven made in his sketches for the Symphony are revealing: “The hearers should be allowed to discover the situations / Sinfonia caracteristica—or recollection of country life / All painting in instrumental music is lost if it is pushed too far / Sinfonia pastorella. Anyone who has an idea of country life can make out for himself the intentions of the composer without many titles / Also without titles the whole will be recognized as a matter more of feeling than of painting in sounds.”

Regardless of the musical and aesthetic implications that the “Pastoral” Symphony raises with respect to the program music—a key issue for debate over the rest of the century—it unquestionably offers eloquent testimony to the importance and power of nature in Beethoven’s life. The composer reveled in walking in the environs of Vienna and spent nearly every summer in the country. When Napoleon’s second occupation of the city in 1809 meant that he could not leave, he wrote to his publisher: “I still cannot enjoy life in the country, which is so indispensable to me.” Indeed, Beethoven’s letters are filled with declarations of the importance of nature in his life, such as one from 1810: “How delighted I will be to ramble for awhile through the bushes, woods, under trees, through grass, and around rocks. No one can love the country as much as I do. For surely woods, trees, and rocks produce the echo that man desires to hear.”

Companion Symphonies

Beethoven wrote the “Pastoral” primarily during the spring and fall of 1808, although some sketches date back years earlier. Its composition overlapped in part with that of the Fifth Symphony, which might be considered its non-identical twin. Not only did both have the same period of genesis and the same dedicatees (Count Razumovsky and Prince Lobkowitz), but they were also published within weeks of one another in the spring of 1809 and premiered together (in reverse order and with their numbers switched).

The occasion was Beethoven’s famous marathon concert of December 22, 1808, at the Theater an der Wien, and was the only time he premiered two symphonies together. Moreover, the program also included the first public performance of the Fourth Piano Concerto, two movements from the Mass in C, the concert aria Ah! perfido, and the “Choral” Fantasy. Reports indicate that all did not go well, as musicians playing after limited rehearsal struggled their way through this demanding new music, and things fell apart during the “Choral” Fantasy. Although the Fifth and Sixth symphonies are extremely different from one another in overall mood, there are notable points of convergence, such as the innovations in instrumentation (the delayed and dramatic introduction of piccolo and trombones in the fourth movements) and the splicing together of the final movements.

A Closer Look

Beethoven’s descriptive movement titles for the “Pastoral” were made public to the audience before the premiere. The first movement, “Awakening of cheerful feelings upon arriving in the country,” engages with a long musical tradition of pastoral music. From the opening drone of an open fifth in the lower strings to the jovial coda, the leisurely and often repetitive pace of the movement is far from the intensity of the Fifth Symphony. The second movement, “Scene by the brook,” includes the famous birdcalls: flute for the nightingale, oboe for the quail, and two clarinets for the cuckoo (Berlioz copied the effect for two of the birds in the pastoral third movement of his Symphonie fantastique).

This is Beethoven’s only symphony with five movements and the last three lead one into the next. The third is entitled “Merry gathering of peasants” and suggests a town band of limited ability playing dance music. The dance is interrupted by a “Tempest, storm” that approaches from afar as ominous rumblings give way to the full fury of thunder and lightning. The storm is far more intense than other well-known storms—such as by Vivaldi and Haydn—and presages later ones by Berlioz and Wagner. Just as the storm had approached gradually, so it passes, leaving some scattered moments of disruption before the “Shepherds’ hymn—Happy and thankful feelings after the storm” brings the work to its close. Regardless of Beethoven’s declared intentions, this music seems to function on both descriptive and expressive levels, therein fueling arguments about the issue ever since his time.

Program note © 2006. All rights reserved. Program note may not be reprinted without written permission from The Philadelphia Orchestra Association.

Web Resources
The Philadelphia Orchestra’s Site
Philadelphia Orchestra
Ludwig van Beethoven
Sign Up For The NPR Music Newsletter
Listen to new music, watch the latest Tiny Desk concerts and more, sent weekly.

E-mail address
What’s your email?
By subscribing, you agree to NPR’s terms of use and privacy policy.

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.
More Stories From NPR

MUSIC FEATURES
First Reviled, Now Revered: The Historic Albums Of 1969

NEW MUSIC
Lizzo Enlists Ariana Grande For ‘Good As Hell’ Remix
Popular on NPR.org

MUSIC
Hear Prince’s Acoustic ‘I Feel For You’ Demo, Fresh From The Vault

MUSIC
Summer Walker: Tiny Desk Concert
READ & LISTEN
Home
News
Arts & Life
Music
Podcasts
Programs
CONNECT
Newsletters
Facebook
Twitter
Instagram
Contact
Help
ABOUT NPR
Overview
Finances
People
Press
Public Editor
Corrections
GET INVOLVED
Support Public Radio
Sponsor NPR
NPR Careers
NPR Shop
NPR Events
Visit NPR
terms of use
privacy
your privacy choices
text only
© 2019 npr

Watch “Modigliani’s Women! ( 12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920)” on YouTube


CHOPIN: Nocturne No. 2, E flat major, Op. 9, No. 2

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amedeo_Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (Italian pronunciation: [ameˈdɛːo modiʎˈʎaːni]; 12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. He is known for portraits and nudes in a modern
style characterized by elongation of faces, necks, and figures that
were not received well during his lifetime but later found acceptance.
Modigliani spent his youth in Italy, where he studied the art of
antiquity and the Renaissance. In 1906 he moved to Paris, where he came
into contact with such artists as Pablo Picasso and Constantin Brâncuși. By 1912 Modigliani was exhibiting highly stylized sculptures with Cubists of the Section d’Or group at the Salon d’Automne.

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani Photo.jpg

Amedeo Modigliani

Born

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani

12 July 1884

Died 24 January 1920 (aged 35)

Nationality Italian
Education Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence
Known for Painting, sculpture

Notable work

Redheaded Girl in Evening Dress
Madame Pompadour
Jeanne Hébuterne in Red Shawl

Modigliani’s
œuvre includes paintings and drawings. From 1909 to 1914 he devoted
himself mainly to sculpture. His main subject was portraits and full
figures, both in the images and in the sculptures. Modigliani had little
success while alive, but after his death achieved great popularity. He
died of tubercular meningitis, at the age of 35, in Paris.

Family and early lifeEdit

Modigliani’s birthplace in Livorno

Modigliani was born into a Sephardic Jewish family in Livorno, Italy. A port city, Livorno had long served as a refuge for those persecuted for their religion, and was home to a large Jewish community. His maternal great-great-grandfather, Solomon Garsin, had immigrated to Livorno in the 18th century as a refugee.[1]

Modigliani’s mother, Eugénie Garsin, born and raised in Marseille,
was descended from an intellectual, scholarly family of Sephardic
ancestry that for generations had lived along the Mediterranean
coastline. Fluent in many languages, her ancestors were authorities on
sacred Jewish texts and had founded a school of Talmudic studies. Family legend traced the family lineage to the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza.
The family business was a credit agency with branches in Livorno,
Marseille, Tunis, and London, though their fortunes ebbed and flowed.[2][3]

Modigliani’s
father, Flaminio, was a member of an Italian Jewish family of
successful businessmen and entrepreneurs. While not as culturally
sophisticated as the Garsins, they knew how to invest in and develop
thriving business endeavors. When the Garsin and Modigliani families
announced the engagement of their children, Flaminio was a wealthy young
mining engineer. He managed the mine in Sardinia and also managed the almost 30,000 acres (12,141 ha) of timberland the family owned.[4]

A
reversal in fortune occurred to this prosperous family in 1883. An
economic downturn in the price of metal plunged the Modiglianis into
bankruptcy. Ever resourceful, Modigliani’s mother used her social
contacts to establish a school and, along with her two sisters, made the
school into a successful enterprise.[5]

Amedeo
Modigliani was the fourth child, whose birth coincided with the
disastrous financial collapse of his father’s business interests.
Amedeo’s birth saved the family from ruin; according to an ancient law,
creditors could not seize the bed of a pregnant woman or a mother with a
newborn child. The bailiffs entered the family’s home just as Eugenia
went into labour; the family protected their most valuable assets by
piling them on top of her.

Modigliani had a close relationship with his mother, who taught
him at home until he was 10. Beset with health problems after an attack
of pleurisy when he was about 11, a few years later he developed a case of typhoid fever. When he was 16 he was taken ill again and contracted the tuberculosis
which would later claim his life. After Modigliani recovered from the
second bout of pleurisy, his mother took him on a tour of southern
Italy: Naples, Capri, Rome and Amalfi, then north to Florence and Venice.[6][7][8]

His
mother was, in many ways, instrumental in his ability to pursue art as a
vocation. When he was 11 years of age, she had noted in her diary: “The
child’s character is still so unformed that I cannot say what I think
of it. He behaves like a spoiled child, but he does not lack
intelligence. We shall have to wait and see what is inside this
chrysalis. Perhaps an artist?”[9]

Art student yearsEdit

Modigliani is known to have drawn and painted from a very early age, and thought himself “already a painter”, his mother wrote,[10]
even before beginning formal studies. Despite her misgivings that
launching him on a course of studying art would impinge upon his other
studies, his mother indulged the young Modigliani’s passion for the
subject.

At the age of fourteen, while sick with typhoid fever, he raved
in his delirium that he wanted, above all else, to see the paintings in
the Palazzo Pitti and the Uffizi in Florence. As Livorno’s local museum housed only a sparse few paintings by the Italian Renaissance
masters, the tales he had heard about the great works held in Florence
intrigued him, and it was a source of considerable despair to him, in
his sickened state, that he might never get the chance to view them in
person. His mother promised that she would take him to Florence herself,
the moment he was recovered. Not only did she fulfil this promise, but
she also undertook to enroll him with the best painting master in
Livorno, Guglielmo Micheli.

Micheli and the MacchiaioliEdit

Portrait of Pablo Picasso, 1915, private collection

His home in Venice.

Modigliani worked in Micheli’s Art School from 1898 to 1900. Among his colleagues in that studio would have been Llewelyn Lloyd, Giulio Cesare Vinzio, Manlio Martinelli, Gino Romiti, Renato Natali, and Oscar Ghiglia.
Here his earliest formal artistic instruction took place in an
atmosphere steeped in a study of the styles and themes of 19th-century
Italian art. In his earliest Parisian work, traces of this influence,
and that of his studies of Renaissance art, can still be seen. His nascent work was shaped as much by such artists as Giovanni Boldini as by Toulouse-Lautrec.

Modigliani showed great promise while with Micheli, and ceased
his studies only when he was forced to, by the onset of tuberculosis.

In 1901, whilst in Rome, Modigliani admired the work of Domenico Morelli,
a painter of dramatic religious and literary scenes. Morelli had served
as an inspiration for a group of iconoclasts who were known by the
title “the Macchiaioli” (from macchia —”dash
of colour”, or, more derogatively, “stain”), and Modigliani had already
been exposed to the influences of the Macchiaioli. This localized landscape
movement reacted against the bourgeois stylings of the academic genre
painters. While sympathetically connected to (and actually pre-dating)
the French Impressionists, the Macchiaioli did not make the same impact upon international art culture as did the contemporaries and followers of Monet, and are today largely forgotten outside Italy.

Modigliani’s connection with the movement was through Guglielmo
Micheli, his first art teacher. Micheli was not only a Macchiaiolo
himself, but had been a pupil of the famous Giovanni Fattori,
a founder of the movement. Micheli’s work, however, was so fashionable
and the genre so commonplace that the young Modigliani reacted against
it, preferring to ignore the obsession with landscape that, as with
French Impressionism, characterized the movement. Micheli also tried to
encourage his pupils to paint en plein air,
but Modigliani never really got a taste for this style of working,
sketching in cafés, but preferring to paint indoors, and especially in
his own studio. Even when compelled to paint landscapes (three are known
to exist),[11] Modigliani chose a proto-Cubist palette more akin to Cézanne than to the Macchiaioli.

While with Micheli, Modigliani studied not only landscape, but
also portraiture, still life, and the nude. His fellow students recall
that the last was where he displayed his greatest talent, and apparently
this was not an entirely academic pursuit for the teenager: when not
painting nudes, he was occupied with seducing the household maid.[10]

Despite
his rejection of the Macchiaioli approach, Modigliani nonetheless found
favour with his teacher, who referred to him as “Superman”, a pet name
reflecting the fact that Modigliani was not only quite adept at his art,
but also that he regularly quoted from Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Fattori himself would often visit the studio, and approved of the young artist’s innovations.[12]

In 1902, Modigliani continued what was to be a lifelong infatuation with life drawing, enrolling in the Scuola Libera di Nudo, or “Free School of Nude Studies”, of the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence. A year later, while still suffering from tuberculosis, he moved to Venice, where he registered to study at the Regia Accademia ed Istituto di Belle Arti.
It is in Venice that he first smoked hashish
and, rather than studying, began to spend time frequenting disreputable
parts of the city. The impact of these lifestyle choices upon his
developing artistic style is open to conjecture, although these choices
do seem to be more than simple teenage rebellion, or the cliched hedonism and bohemianism
that was almost expected of artists of the time; his pursuit of the
seedier side of life appears to have roots in his appreciation of
radical philosophies, including those of Nietzsche.

Portrait of Chaim Soutine, 1916

Early literary influencesEdit

Having been exposed to erudite philosophical literature as a young
boy under the tutelage of Isaco Garsin, his maternal grandfather, he
continued to read and be influenced through his art studies by the
writings of Nietzsche, Baudelaire, Carducci, Comte de Lautréamont, and others, and developed the belief that the only route to true creativity was through defiance and disorder.

Letters that he wrote from his ‘sabbatical’ in Capri in 1901
clearly indicate that he is being more and more influenced by the
thinking of Nietzsche. In these letters, he advised friend Oscar
Ghiglia;

(hold sacred all) which can exalt and excite your
intelligence… (and) … seek to provoke … and to perpetuate …
these fertile stimuli, because they can push the intelligence to its
maximum creative power.[13]

The work of Lautréamont was equally influential at this time. This doomed poet’s Les Chants de Maldoror became the seminal work for the Parisian Surrealists of Modigliani’s generation, and the book became Modigliani’s favourite to the extent that he learnt it by heart.[12]
The poetry of Lautréamont is characterized by the juxtaposition of
fantastical elements, and by sadistic imagery; the fact that Modigliani
was so taken by this text in his early teens gives a good indication of
his developing tastes. Baudelaire and D’Annunzio similarly appealed to the young artist, with their interest in corrupted beauty, and the expression of that insight through Symbolist imagery.

Modigliani wrote to Ghiglia extensively from Capri, where his
mother had taken him to assist in his recovery from tuberculosis. These
letters are a sounding board for the developing ideas brewing in
Modigliani’s mind. Ghiglia was seven years Modigliani’s senior, and it
is likely that it was he who showed the young man the limits of his
horizons in Livorno. Like all precocious teenagers, Modigliani preferred
the company of older companions, and Ghiglia’s role in his adolescence
was to be a sympathetic ear as he worked himself out, principally in the
convoluted letters that he regularly sent, and which survive today.[14]

Dear friend, I write to pour myself out to you and to
affirm myself to myself. I am the prey of great powers that surge forth
and then disintegrate … A bourgeois
told me today–insulted me–that I or at least my brain was lazy. It did
me good. I should like such a warning every morning upon awakening: but
they cannot understand us nor can they understand life…[15]

Paris

Gallery of works

Montparnasse, ParisEdit

Female Head, 1911/1912, Tate

SculptureEdit

Four sculptures by Modigliani were exhibited at the 1912 Salon d’Automne along with the Cubists. Towards the front left, Joseph Csaky‘s sculpture Groupe de femmes. Other works are shown by František Kupka (Fugue in Two Colors), Francis Picabia (The Spring), Jean Metzinger (Dancer in a Café), and Henri Le Fauconnier (Mountaineers Attacked by Bears).

In 1909, Modigliani returned home to Livorno, sickly and tired from
his wild lifestyle. Soon he was back in Paris, this time renting a studio in Montparnasse. He originally saw himself as a sculptor rather than a painter, and was encouraged to continue after Paul Guillaume, an ambitious young art dealer, took an interest in his work and introduced him to sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. He was Constantin Brâncuși’s disciple for one year.

Although a series of Modigliani’s sculptures were exhibited in the Salon d’Automne
of 1912, by 1914 he abandoned sculpting and focused solely on his
painting, a move precipitated by the difficulty in acquiring sculptural
materials due to the outbreak of war, and by Modigliani’s physical debilitation.[3]

In June 2010 Modigliani’s Tête, a limestone carving of a woman’s head, became the third most expensive sculpture ever sold.

Friends and influencesEdit

Modigliani painted a series of portraits of contemporary artists and friends in Montparnasse: Chaim Soutine, Moïse Kisling, Pablo Picasso, Diego Rivera, Marie “Marevna” Vorobyev-Stebeslka, Juan Gris, Max Jacob, Jacques Lipchitz, Blaise Cendrars, and Jean Cocteau, all sat for stylized renditions.

The war years

Patronage of Léopold Zborowski

Jeanne Hébuterne

Death and funeral

Legacy

Critical reactions

Selected works

See also

References

Further reading

External links

Watch “Iosif Ivanovici – Donauwellen Walzer (Waves of the Danube Waltz)” on YouTube


Watch “Chicago The Musical – “All That Jazz”” on YouTube


Watch “JIM CROCE – I’LL HAVE TO SAY I LOVE YOU IN A SONG” on YouTube



Well, I know it’s kind of late
I hope I didn’t wake you
But what I’ve got to say can’t wait
I know you’d understand
‘Cause every time I tried to tell you
The words just came out wrong
So I’ll have to say “I love you” in a song

Yeah, I know it’s kind of strange
Every time I’m near you
I just run out of things to say
I know you’d understand
‘Cause every time I tried to tell you
The words just came out wrong
So I’ll have to say “I love you” in a song
‘Cause every time the time was right
All the words just came out wrong
So I’ll have to say “I love you” (I love you) in a song
Yeah, I know it’s kind of late (it’s kind of late)
I hope I didn’t wake you
But there’s something that I just got to say
(I know you’d understand)
I know you’d understand
‘Cause every time I tried to tell you
The words just came out wrong
So I’ll have to say “I love you” in a song
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: James Croce
I’ll Have to Say I Love You in a Song lyrics © BMG Rights Management

Watch “Rachmaninov/Respighi: 5 Études-tableaux (P. 160) (1930)” on YouTube


Études-Tableaux, Op. 33

The Études-Tableaux (“study pictures”), Op. 33, is the first of two sets of piano études composed by Sergei Rachmaninoff.
They were intended to be “picture pieces”, essentially “musical
evocations of external visual stimuli”. But Rachmaninoff did not
disclose what inspired each one, stating: “I do not believe in the
artist that discloses too much of his images. Let [the listener] paint
for themselves what it most suggests.”[1] However, he willingly shared sources for a few of these études with the Italian composer Ottorino Respighi when Respighi orchestrated them in 1930.

HistoryEdit

Rachmaninoff composed the Op. 33 Études-Tableaux at his Ivanovka estate in Tambov, Russia between August and September 1911, the year after completing his second set of preludes, Op. 32. While the Op. 33 Études-Tableaux
share some stylistic points with the preludes, they are actually not
very similar. Rachmaninoff concentrates on establishing well-defined
moods and developing musical themes in the preludes. There is also an
academic facet to the preludes, as he wrote 24 of them, one in each of
the 24 major and minor keys.

Rachmaninoff biographer Max Harrison calls the Études-Tableaux
“studies in [musical] composition”; while they explore a variety of
themes, they “investigate the transformation of rather specific climates
of feeling via piano textures and sonorities. They are thus less
predictable than the preludes and compositionally mark an advance” in
technique.[2]

Rachmaninoff
initially wrote nine pieces for Op. 33 but published only six in 1914.
One étude, in A minor, was subsequently revised and used in the Op. 39 set;
the other two appeared posthumously and are now usually played with the
other six. Performing these eight études together could be considered
to run against the composer’s intent, as the six originally published
are unified through “melodic-cellular connections” in much the same way
as in Robert Schumann‘s Symphonic Studies.[3]

Differing
from the simplicity of the first four études, Nos. 5–8 are more
virtuosic in their approach to keyboard writing, calling for
unconventional hand positions, wide leaps for the fingers and
considerable technical strength from the performer. Also, “the
individual mood and passionate character of each piece” pose musical
problems that preclude performance by those lacking strong physical
technique.[3]

Numbering and characterEdit

Rachmaninoff wrote nine études-tableaux at his Ivanovka estate in 1911. Six of them, the original Nos. 1–2 and 6–9, were published that year.[4] The original No. 4 is lost; the piece was revised and published as Op. 39, No. 6.[4] The original Nos. 3 and 5 were published posthumously within Op. 33.[4] Probably best identified by their tempo markings and keys, the 1911 pieces are numbered by the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) as follows,[5] leaving aside the piece that is now part of Op. 39:

  • Allegro non troppo in F minor — No. 1

This study has a martial character. Rachmaninov adored the music of Frédéric Chopin, and there are often parallels between the music of the two composers. This study recalls the Étude Op. 25, No. 4 of Chopin.

  • Allegro in C major — No. 2

This study is characterized by a marked lyricism and a very expressive melody. Notice the similarity to Rachmaninoff’s Prelude op. 32 no. 12, which was composed the year before, in 1910.

  • Grave in C minor — No. 3 (published posthumously)

This study was re-used in the Largo of Rachmaninov’s Fourth Concerto, which was completed in 1926.

  • Moderato in D minor — No. 4 (published posthumously, originally No. 5)

This study is similar to the Prelude op. 23 No. 3 composed by Rachmaninoff in 1903, both in tone and character.

  • Non allegro—Presto in E-flat minor — No. 5 (published as No. 3, originally No. 6)

This
study ranks among the most difficult of the opus, to play. The right
hand runs constantly throughout the whole keyboard with numerous octave
leaps and chromatic scales. Note some similarity to the Prelude op. 28 No. 16 and the Op. Study 25 No. 6 by Chopin. In Russia, this piece is nicknamed The Snow Storm.

  • Allegro con fuoco in E-flat major — No. 6 (published as No. 4, originally No. 7)

This study has primarily a military aspect. The study concludes with a particularly virtuosic coda.

  • Moderato in G minor — No. 7 (published as No. 5, originally No. 8)

This study parallels the finale of the First Ballade in G minor by Chopin.

  • Grave in C-sharp minor — No. 8 (published as No. 6, originally No. 9)

This study was one of the three in this opus that were famously recorded in the Melodiya studios by Sviatoslav Richter, the other two being Moderato in D minor and Non allegro—Presto in E-flat minor.[6]

Arrangements

Recordings

References

External links

Check out “Jango Radio”: I do!


https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.jangomobile.android

Sunday – SoundCloud (“SUNDAY BY FLAMINGOSIS)


Listen to Sunday by Flamingosis on #SoundCloud

HAVE A BLESSED SUNDAY FRIENDS FROM EVERYWHERE!

Thanks, everyone of you who have visited in the past and keep coming back! This website wouldn’t a thing without your continuous support!

EUZICASA

Watch “Willie Nelson – Night Life” on YouTube


  1. 2 of 5

    When that ev’nin’ sun goes down
    Yeah, you’ll find me hangin’ around
    Because the night life
    It ain’t no good life but it’s my life

    Yeah, yeah, yeah listen to the blues
    Listen to what they’re sayin’
    Oh, please listen to the blues
    Listen to the blues they’re playin’

    Ah, ah, all of the people just like you and me
    They’re all dreamin’ about their old used to be
    Because the night life
    It ain’t no good life but it’s my life

    They tell me life’s an empty scene
    An avenue of broken dreams
    Because the night life
    It ain’t no good life but it’s my life

    Source: LyricFind


    Songwriters: Paul Buskirk / Walt Breeland / Willie Nelson

    Night Life lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Glad Music Co., BMG Rights Management

Watch “Willie Nelson – Blue Eyes Crying In The Rain” on YouTube



In the twilight glow I see them
Blue eyes cryin’ in the rain
When we kissed goodbye and parted
I knew we’d never meet again

Love is like a dyin’ ember
Only memories remain
Through the ages I’ll remember
Blue eyes cryin’ in the rain
Some day when we meet up yonder
We’ll stroll hand in hand again
In a land that knows no partin’
Blue eyes cryin’ in the rain
Now my hair has turned to silver
All my life I’ve loved in vain
I can see her star in heaven
Blue eyes crying in the rain
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Fred Rose
Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

ESL: RELATED WORDS FOR “GROW”


ESL: RELATED WORDS FOR

ESL: RELATED WORDS FOR “GROW”

https://pin.it/mjc3brhxx73l23

Watch “Dean Winchester | A Single Man Tear” on YouTube


  1. 2 of 4

    A single man tear slips down his face
    He shows emotion without a trace
    He hides behind a mask so strong
    Worried that he could be wrong
    I wish that he could see the way I see him
    The perfect brother
    A man without sin
    Cause underneath the manly sheen
    It is my brother
    A boy named Dean
    A single man tear
    A single man tear
    A single man tear that’s all we fear
    A single man tear
    That’s all i’ll spare
    I bury feelings, don’t show I care
    Even though I’m haunted
    Must be the man daddy wanted
    Wish I could be as strong as Sam
    Blaze my own trail
    Be my own man
    But underneath this broken mask
    It is my father, with all his wrath
    A single man tear
    A single man tear
    A single man tear that’s all we fear

    Source: Musixmatch


    Songwriters: Christopher J. Lennertz / ROBBIE THOMPSON

    A Single Man Tear lyrics © WARNER OLIVE MUSIC LLC., WARNER-BARHAM MUSIC LLC.

Watch “Gordon Lightfoot – Sundown {HD}” on YouTube


Gordon Lightfoot,

Sundown

I can see her lyin’ back in her satin dress
In a room where ya do what ya don’t confess
Sundown you better take care
If I find you beenn creepin’ ’round my back stairs
Sundown ya better take care
If I find you been creepin’ ’round my back stairs
She’s been lookin’ like a queen in a sailor’s dream
And she don’t always say what she really means
Sometimes I think it’s a shame
When I get feelin’ better when I’m feelin’ no pain
Sometimes I think it’s a shame
When I get feelin’ better when I’m feelin’ no pain
I can picture every move that a man could make
Getting lost in her lovin’ is your first mistake
Sundown you better take care
If I find you been creepin’ ’round my back stairs
Sometimes I think it’s a sin
When I feel like I’m winnin’ when I’m losin’ again
I can see her lookin’ fast in her faded jeans
She’s a hard lovin’ woman, got me feelin’ mean
Sometimes I think it’s a shame
When I get feelin’ better when I’m feelin’ no pain
Sundown you better take care
If I find you been creepin’ ’round my back stairs
Sundown you better take care
If I find you been creepin’ ’round my back stairs
Sometimes I think it’s a sin
When I feel like I’m winnin’ when I’m losin’ again

Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Gordon Lightfoot
Sundown lyrics © Warner Chappell Music, Inc

Watch “4 Non Blondes – What’s Up (Official Video)” on YouTube



Twenty-five years and my life is still
Trying to get up that great big hill of hope
For a destination

I realized quickly when I knew I should
That the world was made up of this brotherhood of man
For whatever that means
And so I cry sometimes
When I’m lying in bed just to get it all out
What’s in my head
And I, I am feeling a little peculiar
And so I wake in the morning
And I step outside
And I take a deep breath and I get real high
And I scream from the top of my lungs
What’s going on?
And I say, hey yeah yeah, hey yeah yeah
I said hey, what’s going on?
And I say, hey yeah yeah, hey yeah yeah
I said hey, what’s going on?
Oh, oh oh
Oh, oh oh
And I try, oh my god do I try
I try all the time, in this institution
And I pray, oh my god do I pray
I pray every single day
For a revolution
And so I cry sometimes
When I’m lying bed
Just to get it all out
What’s in my head
And I, I am feeling a little peculiar
And so I wake in the morning
And I step outside
And I take a deep breath and I get real high
And I scream from the top of my lungs
What’s going on?
And I say, hey hey hey hey
I said hey, what’s going on?
And I say, hey hey hey hey
I said hey, what’s going on?
And I say, hey hey hey hey
I said hey, what’s going on?
And I say, hey hey hey hey
I said hey, what’s going on?
Oh, oh oh oh
Twenty-five years and my life is still
Trying to get up that great big hill of hope
For a destination
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Linda Perry
What’s Up? lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

Watch “Shivaree – Goodnight Moon – Clipe” on YouTube



There’s a nail in the door
And there’s glass on the lawn
Tacks on the floor
And the TV is on
And I always sleep with my guns when you’re gone

There’s a blade by the bed
And a phone in my hand
A dog on the floor
And some cash on the nightstand
When I’m all alone the dreaming stops
And I just can’t stand
What should I do I’m just a little baby
What if the lights go out
And maybe and then the wind just starts to moan
Outside the door he followed me home
So goodnight moon
I want the sun
If it’s not here soon
I might be done
No it won’t be too soon ’til I say goodnight moon
There’s a shark in the pool
And a witch in the tree
A crazy old neighbor and he’s been watching me
And there’s footsteps loud and strong coming down the hall
Something’s under the bed
Now it’s out in the hedge
There’s a big black crow sitting on my window ledge
And I hear something scratching through the wall
What should I do I’m just a little baby
What if the lights go out
And maybe and then the wind just starts to moan
Outside the door he followed me home
So goodnight moon
I want the sun
If it’s not here soon
I might be done
No it won’t be too soon ’til I say goodnight moon
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Ambrosia Nicole Parsley / Duke Mcvinnie
Goodnight Moon lyrics © Warner Chappell Music, Inc, Words & Music A Div Of Big Deal Music LLC

ESL: ENGLISH CONDITIONALS


ESL: ENGLISH CONDITIONALS

ESL: ENGLISH CONDITIONALS

https://pin.it/tl7y4jqfjcpdlt

ESL LINGUISTICS: FEELINGS WORD LIST


ESL LINGUISTICS: FEELINGS WORD LIST

ESL LINGUISTICS: FEELINGS WORD LIST

https://pin.it/6srewfzuklggjw

12 TENSES FORMULA WITH EXAMPLES


12 TENSES FORMULA WITH EXAMPLES

12 TENSES FORMULA WITH EXAMPLES

https://pin.it/o46fdf2rpujmdr

ESL: VERBS+PREPOSITIONS (TO, FOR, FROM, AT, IN)


ESL: VERBS+PREPOSITIONS (TO, FOR, FROM, AT, IN)

ESL: VERBS+PREPOSITIONS (TO, FOR, FROM, AT, IN)

https://pin.it/suh3uxbhw4gzci

We’ll wait and see, but chances are… (Poetic thought by GeorgeB) visit my poetry page Here


We’ll wait and see, but chances are… (Poetic thought by GeorgeB)

Detached from the dormant tree
All the dried leaves have fallen but one…a special one,

for unknown reasons…
The winds didn’t detach it,

nor did the cold rains,

the freezing breezes of December or

the early mornings’ icy crystals of frozen water…

all these barely scratched new tears

upon its dried out reddish-brown, wrinkled face…

Will it survive the winter?

Will it hang around till spring?

Will it be the exceptional leave its home, no matter what?

Will it be the last of the survivors, born on the death list,

in the country of the dead,

under the symbols of the crossed sickle-n- hammer?

We’ll wait and see, but chances are…
(Transmission interupted here)

(Poetic thought by GeorgeB) HERE

PHRASAL VERBS WITH “GO”


PHRASAL VERBS WITH

PHRASAL VERBS WITH “GO”

https://pin.it/l3en4tp6vun7ht

ESL: LOOKING AT THE FUTURE FROM THE PAST- WHICH TENSE DO WE NEED?


ESL: LOOKING AT THE FUTURE FROM THE PAST- WHICH TENSE DO WE NEED?

ESL: LOOKING AT THE FUTURE FROM THE PAST- WHICH TENSE DO WE NEED?

https://pin.it/kfs4znmwhyxx2m

Watch “Castiel: My Story – The Man Who Would Be King” on YouTube (A Witnessing Angel’s Monologue)


From Wikipedia:

http://www.supernaturalwiki.com/6.20_The_Man_Who_Would_Be_King

6.20 The Man Who Would Be King

Manwhowouldbekingpromo.jpg

Title The Man Who Would Be King
Episode # Season 6, Episode 20
First aired May 6, 2011
Directed by Ben Edlund
Written by Ben Edlund
On IMDB The Man Who Would Be King
Outline Castiel tells his story.
Monster Crowley
Castiel
Timeline
Location(s) Sioux Falls, South Dakota
« Previous Episode | Next Episode »

Promotional poster for “The Man Who Would Be King.”
Castiel prays to God for direction. He recalls many things – the beginning of man’s evolution, the Tower of Babel, Sodom and Gomorrah – but the thing that stands out the most in his mind is how he, Dean, Sam and Bobby averted the Apocalypse. They ripped up destiny, leaving freedom and choice, but after everything he’s done since then, Castiel doesn’t know if it was the right thing after all. He resolves to tell his story.

Dean is driving the Impala when Castiel appears next to him. He tells Dean that he’s looking for Crowley and isn’t sure how he’s still alive. Dean makes it clear that killing Crowley is their first priority, but tells Castiel that they haven’t found anything yet, either. Sam is tracking a djinn in Omaha, and so Dean is going there to meet him. Before Castiel leaves, Dean asks him to call if he gets into real trouble.

After Castiel leaves Dean, he meets with Crowley, who is busy experimenting on Eve’s body. Castiel reminds Crowley of their ultimate goal – opening the door to Purgatory – and Crowley gets angry. Eve could have opened the door to Purgatory, but Castiel let Dean and Sam kill her, and now he has to find another way in. He also accuses Castiel of being distracted because of the Winchesters – he can smell “the stench of the Impala” on him. Castiel tells Crowley that he had to check and see what they knew, and Crowley says that he knows they’re after him and he’s worried about Castiel’s conflict of interest.

Castiel admits to himself that he does have a conflict of interest. He still considers himself the Winchesters’ guardian because of everything they taught him and everything they accomplished together. After the Apocalypse was averted and Castiel resurrected, he healed Dean, resurrected Bobby, and then went to Hell to resurrect Sam. He thought he’d managed to bring back all of Sam, but he realizes now that he was being arrogant, and that he should have known something was wrong with Sam. So, when Crowley tells Castiel to kill the Winchesters, he refuses. Crowley says that he’ll kill them himself, but Castiel says he’ll just bring them back and that Crowley shouldn’t worry about them. Instead, Crowley needs to focus on finding Purgatory, or they will both “die again and again until the end of time.”

Meanwhile, Sam and Bobby are interrogating a demon named Redd about Crowley. Dean appears – he was lying when he told Castiel that Sam was in Omaha – and tells Sam that he wants to bring Castiel in the loop. Dean doesn’t believe that Castiel is working with Crowley, but Bobby and Sam aren’t so sure. As they discuss the possibility of a “Superman who’s gone dark side” and the need for kryptonite, Castiel watches them, unseen. He’s there when they torture the demon into revealing that he works for Crowley through a dispatcher named Ellsworth. Castiel is aware of Ellsworth, who he describes as the demon counterpart to Bobby, and because Castiel knows that they’re getting close, he preemptively kills Ellsworth and the other demons at his headquarters.

While Dean, Sam, and Bobby burst into Ellsworth’s headquarters and find nothing, Castiel watches, and remembers Heaven after stopping the Apocalypse. The other angels, including Rachel, believed that God resurrected Castiel so that he could lead them, but Castiel told them that they had free will and didn’t need a leader. They were lost without direction, however, and Raphael stepped in. He wanted Castiel to give him his allegiance and then help him to free Lucifer and Michael so they could restart the Apocalypse. When Castiel refused to join him, Raphael easily overpowered him.

Back in the present, Dean convinces Sam and Bobby to call Castiel, but Castiel doesn’t appear when Sam prays, too afraid of the questions they’ll have for him. Just as they turn to leave Ellsworth’s headquarters, though, more demons appear. They are assassins sent by Crowley, and Castiel appears and quickly dispatches them. Dean, Sam, and Bobby take this to mean that Castiel is on their side, and they apologize to Castiel for doubting him. He forgives them for thinking he was “Superman going to the dark side” and agrees with Dean when Dean says they can “put away the kryptonite.” He doesn’t realize it at the time, but because of what he says, Dean realizes that Castiel has been spying on them.

Castiel goes to confront Crowley, who he tells not to touch a hair on the heads of his friends. He then reveals the reason he partnered with Crowley: after Raphael beat him so easily, he considered going to Dean for help, but Crowley waylaid him and offered him a deal. Together, they would open Purgatory, and then they both would use the monster souls inside to grow more powerful. Castiel needed to be more powerful right away, however, so Crowley advanced him 50,000 souls, which Castiel used to overpower Raphael and then start his civil war in Heaven.

After threatening Crowley, Castiel answers another call from Dean, who is still at Ellsworth’s headquarters with Sam and Bobby. Sam tells Castiel that they’ve figured out a way to track Crowley, and Castiel walks straight into their trap. He is surrounded by a ring of burning holy oil, and they start questioning him about Crowley. He tells them that he is working with Crowley only because he needs to defeat Raphael, and that they need to trust him. He then reveals that he is the one who resurrected Sam, and Sam asks Castiel if he purposefully raised him without his soul. Castiel denies it, but it’s clear that Dean, Sam, and Bobby no longer trust him. They tell Castiel that working with Crowley is wrong, and he knows it, which is why he kept his actions a secret from them. Castiel seems repentant, but when a cloud of demons appears outside, he tells them that it’s too late to go back now. Dean, Sam, and Bobby flee the approaching demons, and Crowley soon appears to free Castiel from the burning holy oil.

Castiel goes to visit Dean at Bobby’s house. He tells Dean that he wants him to understand what he’s doing and to know that he’s doing it all because of what Dean taught him about free will. Dean tells Castiel that he’s like a brother to him and that he needs to trust him when he tells him not to work with Crowley. If he keeps trying to open Purgatory, Dean will stop him. Castiel tells him that he can’t stop him, apologizes, and then leaves.

Castiel is alone, praying to God. After having told his story, he asks again if he’s doing the right thing. He begs for a sign and says that, if he doesn’t get one, he’s going to do whatever he must. There is no sign.

Characters
Sam Winchester
Dean Winchester
Castiel
Bobby Singer
Crowley
Raphael
Rachel
Ellsworth
Redd
Definitions
Aliases
Angel Lore
Bobby’s Hats
Dark Side
Demon Smoke
Devil’s Trident
Goblet of blood
Heaven
Hell
Holy Oil
Purgatory
Smiting
Soul
Warding Sigils
Music
“Me and Mrs. Jones” by Billy Paul
(plays while Crowley tortures)
An der schönen blauen Donau, Op. 314 by Johann Strauss II
(plays when Crowley and Cas are in Hell)
Quotes
Castiel: I remember being at a shoreline, watching a little grey fish heave itself up on the beach. And an older brother saying, “Don’t step on that fish, Castiel, big plans for that fish. I remember the Tower of Babel – all 37 feet of it, which I suppose was impressive at the time. And when it fell they howled, “Divine Wrath!” But come on, dried dung can only be stacked so high.
Castiel: And of course, I remember the most remarkable event. Remarkable because it never came to pass. It was averted by two boys, an old drunk, and a fallen angel. The grand story, and we ripped up the ending, and the rules, and destiny, leaving nothing but freedom and choice. Which is all well and good, except… but what if I’ve made the wrong choice?
Crowley: Don’t worry about — what, like Lucifer didn’t worry? Or Michael? Or Lilith or Alastair or Azazel didn’t worry?! Am I the only game piece on the board who doesn’t underestimate those denim-wrapped nightmares?!
Bobby: If there’s a snowball of a snowball’s chance here, that means we’re dealing with a Superman who’s gone darkside, which means we’ve got to be cautious, we’ve got to be smart, and maybe stock up on some kryptonite.
Dean: (to Sam) This makes you Lois Lane.
Castiel: I did it to protect the boys, or to protect myself. I don’t know anymore.
Castiel: Freedom is a length of rope. God wants you to hang yourself with it.
Castiel: Explaining freedom to angels is a bit like teaching poetry to fish.
Castiel: Are you joking?
Raphael: Do I look like I’m joking?

Castiel: …You never look like you’re joking.
Crowley: See, problem with the old place was most of the inmates were masochists already. A lot of “thank you, sir, can I have another hot spike up the jacksy?” But just look at them. No one likes waiting in line.
Castiel: What happens when they reach the front?

Crowley: Nothing. They go right back to the end again. That’s efficiency.
Crowley: What are you planning to do about Raphael?
Castiel: What can I do besides submit or die?

Crowley: Submit or die? What are you, French? How about resist!
Castiel: Sam, I am the one who raised you from perdition.
Sam: What? … Well, no offence, but you did a pretty piss poor job of it.
Castiel: You don’t understand. It’s complicated.
Dean: No, actually, it’s not, and you know that. Why else would you keep this whole thing a secret, huh, unless you knew that it was wrong? When crap like this comes around, we deal with it… Like we always have. What we don’t do is we don’t go out and make another deal with the Devil!
Castiel: It sounds so simple when you say it like that. Where were you when I needed to hear it?

Dean: I was there. Where were you?
Trivia & References
The Man Who Would Be King is a short story by Rudyard Kipling, made into a 1975 film by John Houston starring Sean Connery and Michael Caine. It tells the story of two ex-officers of the British Raj who become adventurers and become hailed as deities in a remote village in the Hindu Kush. They lead successful battles against the villages enemies, but become wrapped up in their own delusions of grandeur. Eventually the villages turn against them. In the movie, the story unfolds as the surviving character relates his story to a journalist.
Some of the film clips used in Castiel’s flashback montage at the beginning where he remembers the fall of the Tower of Babel, appear to be from the the fall of Babylon section of the 1916 movie by D.W. Griffith Intolerance. This movie also features a non-linear narrative and spans 2,500 years of history. It is considered on of the masterpieces of the silent era of movies (Source). You can see a clip from the movie here.
Crowley: Single best chance to get over the rainbow, and the Winchesters killed her!
“Over the Rainbow” is a song that was written for the movie The Wizard of Oz. It refers to another world that one can reach only by going over the rainbow. Here, Crowley uses it to refer to Purgatory.
Crowley refers to the vampire he’s torturing as Chocula, which is a reference to the breakfast cereal Count Chocula, which has a vampire for a mascot.
Dean: He’s the Balki Bartokomus of Heaven – he can make a mistake.
Dean is comparing Castiel to Balki Batokumus was a character in the 1980s ‘fish-out-of-water/buddy’ genre sitcom Perfect Strangers. Balki was a naive shepherd from the fictional country Mypos, who immigrates to U.S. and moves in with a distant cousin.
Bobby: You sure about that? Cause we can twist again all the way to next summer.
Bobby is quoting the song “Let’s Twist Again” recorded by Chubby Checker.
Bobby: Well, who do you deal with?
Redd: The Dispatcher – a demon named Ellsworth
Castiel: (voiceover) If there was a demon counterpart to Bobby Singer, Ellsworth would be it.

Jim Beaver played a character called Ellsworth in Deadwood. Ellsworth the demon is shown to resemble Bobby, and rather than having a number of phones has a collection of blood goblets. He also impersonates an FBI officer as Bobby does.
Ellsworth: I want you to get down to New Mexico and bag me that wendigo!
A wendigo is what Dean and Sam hunted in 1.02 Wendigo.
The devil’s trap on the ceiling above Redd is the same one that was used on Meg in 1.22 Devil’s Trap and again in 2.14 Born Under a Bad Sign. It was also used in the season 3 title card.
Castiel: (about visiting Heaven) I favor the eternal Tuesday afternoon of an autistic man who drowned in a bathtub in 1953.
This may be a reference to the hit song by The Moody Blues from 1968 titled “Tuesday Afternoon” (sometimes known as “Forever Afternoon”). Watch the song here
Castiel: Whose Heaven is this?
Raphael: Ken Lay’s. I’m borrowing it.
Castiel: I still question his admittance here.
Raphael: He’s devout. Trumps everything.

Ken Lay was the corrupt CEO whose fraud led to the bankruptcy of the Enron corporation. He was convicted on a number of charges, but died in 2006 before he was sentenced. Former president George H.W. Bush attended the memorial service.
Bobby: Yeah, but it’s like Mr. Clean clean, you know?
Mr. Clean is a brand name known as Flash in the UK. Its mascot is a muscular, tanned, bald man who cleans things very well.
Dean: Yeah, you think, Kojak?
Kojak was a 1970s TV detective.
Crowley: Well I’ve got news for you, kitten: a whore is a whore is a whore.
This may be a parody of Hemingway’s line in For Who The Bell Tolls “a bitch is a bitch is a bitch is a bitch,” which in itself a reference to the famous line by Gertrude Stein a rose is a rose is a rose is a rose. In which Stein is basically saying things are the way they are.
Crowley: Ah, Castiel, Angel of Thursday. Just not your day, is it?
According to A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels, Castiel is an Angel of Thursday in the occult lore. This may be a reference to the fact that Supernatural aired on Thursday nights on The CW when the character was introduced in season four. Beginning with season six, the show has aired on Fridays, which may be why Crowley says it’s “not Castiel’s day.”
Among the list of demons and angels that Crowley claims underestimated Sam and Dean, he mentions Lilith, though she fully intended for the brothers to kill her. It is likely, though, that no demons knew that her death was the final seal.
Crowley: Ding ding ding, tell him what he’s won, Vanna.
Vanna White is the long-time hostess on the TV game show Wheel of Fortune.
Minutiae
There was a rumor amongst fans that Ben Edlund appears in the episode as one of the people queuing in line in Hell. This hasn’t been confirmed. The guy who is taking a ticket as Crowley and Castiel arrive is played by Michael Bardach, and is credited on IMDB as “Ticket Guy.”
Above the line in hell is a sign that says:
NEXT IN LINE
6,611,527,124
The number changes to 6,611,527,125 while Crowley and Castiel stand under it.
One of the demons that brings Ellsworth a monster – before being killed by Castiel – also played a demon in 1.22 Devil’s Trap. In 1.22 Devil’s Trap, he is wearing an auto mechanic uniform with the name “Kim.”
Sides, Scripts & Transcripts
6.20 The Man Who Would Be King (Transcript)
Promotion
Episode title
Ben Edlund to direct
Video of Ben talking about writing and directing the episode at Paleyfest
Episode spoilers from EW
Official Synopsis
Promo pics
Promo clip
Preview Clip
Ben Edlund talks about the relationships in the episode
Promotional ad
Sera introduces the episode
Comments by Misha on the episode at Zap2it
Mark Sheppard comments on the episode
Mark Sheppard comments on the episode
Ben Edlund on the episode by Zap2It
Ben Edlund on the episode by TV Squad
Ben Edlund on the episode by TV Line
Ben Edlund on the episode by EW
Ben Edlund on the episode by TV Overmind
Ben Edlund on the episode by EONline
Categories: CanonEpisodesSeason 6
Navigation menu
Log inPageDiscussionReadView sourceView historySearch
Search Super-wiki
Canon
Fandom
Library
Production
Random Page
Sitemap
Home
super-wiki
New Visitor Portal
About Super-wiki
Log in/Sign up
Recent changes
Help
follow us
SuperWiki on Twitter
SuperWiki Blog
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Special pages
Printable version
Permanent link
Page information
PrivacyDesktopPowered by MediaWiki

Watch “Rhapsody In Blue (1945) – Rhapsody in Blue Debut” on YouTube


Rhapsody In Blue (1945) Directed by Irving Rapper1945 141 min

Robert Alda stars alongside musical greats Al Jolson, Paul Whiteman, and Oscar Levant in this biopic treatment of the life of composer George Gershwin. The film traces Gershwin’s rise, from his first big hit “Swanee” (performed by Al Jolson, playing himself), to his collaborations with lyricist brother Ira (Herbert Rudley) to the heights of artistic achievement with the debut of “Rhapsody in Blue” at Aeolian Hall

Starring Robert Alda, Joan Leslie, Alexis Smith

Category People & Blogs

Do you believe in…chocolate??? Watch “Hot Chocolate (I Believe in Miracles)” on YouTube



I believe in miracles
Where you from
You sexy thing, sexy thing you
I believe in miracles
Since you came along
You sexy thing

Where did you come from, baby?
How did you know I needed you?
How did you know I needed you so badly?
How did you know I’d give my heart gladly?
Yesterday I was one of the lonely people
Now you’re lying close to me, making love to me
I believe in miracles
Where you from, you sexy thing? (Sexy thing, you)
I believe in miracles
Since you came along, you sexy thing
Where did you come from, angel?
How did you know I’d be the one?
Did you know you’re everything I prayed for?
Did you know, every night and day for?
Every day, needing love and satisfaction
Now you’re lying next to me, giving it to me
I believe in miracles
Where you from, you sexy thing? (Sexy thing, you)
I believe in miracles
Since you came along, you sexy thing
Oh! Kiss me, you sexy thing
Touch me baby, you sexy thing
I love the way you touch me, darling, you sexy thing
Oh! It’s ecstasy, you sexy thing
Yesterday I was one of the lonely people
Now you’re lying close to me, giving it to me
I believe in miracles
Where you from, you sexy thing? (Sexy thing, you)
I believe in miracles
Since you came along, you sexy thing
Oh, touch me
Kiss me, darling
I love the way you hold me, baby
Oh, it’s ecstasy
Oh! It’s ecstasy (Sexy thing, you sexy thing, you)
Kiss me, baby (Sexy thing, you sexy thing, you)
I love the way you kiss me, darling (Sexy thing, you sexy thing, you)
Oh, yeah (Sexy thing, you sexy thing, you)
Love the way you hold me (Sexy thing, you sexy thing, you)
Keep on lovin’ me, darling (Sexy thing, you sexy thing, you)
Keep on lovin’ me, baby (Sexy thing, you sexy thing, you)
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Brown Wilson
You Sexy Thing lyrics © Kobalt Music Publishing Ltd., Music & Media Int’l, Inc

You’re gonna love it: List of nuclear whistleblowers


READ ENTIRE ARTICLE HERE

L

List of nuclear whistleblowers

Wikimedia list article


There have been a number of nuclear whistleblowers, often nuclear engineers, who have identified safety concerns about nuclear power and nuclear weapons production. In 1976 Gregory Minor, Richard Hubbard and Dale Bridenbaugh “blew the whistle” on safety problems at nuclear power plants in the United States, and Fukushima in Japan. George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. Other nuclear power whistleblowers include Arnold Gundersen and David Lochbaum.

2000 candles in memory of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, at a commemoration 25 years after the nuclear accident, as well as for the Fukushima nuclear disaster of 2011.

Karen Silkwood

The first prominent nuclear whistleblower was Karen Silkwood, who worked as a chemical technician at a Kerr-McGee nuclear fuel plant. Silkwood became an activist in the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union in order to protest health and safety issues. In 1974, she testified to the United States Atomic Energy Commission about her concerns. A few months later she died in a car crash under mysterious conditions on the way to a meeting with a New York Times reporter and a national union leader. The 1983 film Silkwood is an account of this story.

The “GE Three”

On 2 February 1976, Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard, and Dale G. Bridenbaugh (known as the GE Three) “blew the whistle” on safety problems at nuclear power plants, and their action has been called “an exemplary instance of whistleblowing“.

The three engineers gained the attention of journalists and their disclosures about the threats of nuclear power had a significant impact. They timed their statements to coincide with their resignations from responsible positions in General Electric‘s nuclear energy division, and later established themselves as consultants on the nuclear power industry for state governments, federal agencies, and overseas governments. The consulting firm they formed, MHB Technical Associates, was technical advisor for the movie, “The China Syndrome.” The three engineers participated in Congressional hearings which their disclosures precipitated.

Browns Ferry Unit 1 under construction

Browns Ferry nuclear power plant construction began in 1966. It was located in Alabama and in 1967 it earned a federal construction permit. The plant received new design standards which call for “physical separation of electrical cables.” There was an issue with the instructions on how to accomplish this so the AEC inspector F.U. Bower requested that the AEC elaborate; however, there was no response from the organization and installation went on. Still, no instructions were issued after five failed inspections in 1970. The lack of cable separation instructions led to the sacrifice of safety coolant systems in two of the units in order to improve one with severe safety violation. The ignorance of the AEC led to the fire that occurred on 22 March 1975, that almost led to a radiation leak. The substance separating the wires caught fire when tests to find air leaks with a candle ignited it thus resulting in damage to the control systems. With damage to the control systems, the cooling system that keeps the units from leaking radiation did not work properly. Somehow the situation was avoided and the units were put out of service. Throughout the occurrence of these events Bridenbaugh had been discussing his reservations on the safety at the plant in vain and in 1976 a year later Bridenbaugh, Hubbard and Minor resigned.

Crystal River 3 and Lou Putney

Lou Putney came on the scene of the Crystal River 3 plant after receiving a call from a plant engineer. The engineer claimed that the managers hired engineers based on “good ol’ boy mentality.” The plant had experience numerous shut downs since 1978. Along with this concern, the engineer was not confident that the manager possessed the qualifications to be a manager. Although the engineer pursued nothing further with his complaint, it prompted Putney to purchase shares of stock in the company that would allow him to file “shareholder resolutions.” Putney had looked into the nuclear reactors that were built of an unsafe material for emergency cooling procedures. The NRC had placed Crystal River on the top 14 worst reactors list because of this. So, the shares were purchased in 1981, which is when Putney filed his first shareholder resolution requesting the plant be shut down. This tradition was upheld by Putney for seven years until he was required to purchase more stock in order to continue filing resolutions. Over the course of sixteen years, Putney filed a total of fourteen shareholder resolutions. All of these resolutions were ignored and were met with offers to buy out his shares so he could no longer file the resolutions. The plant was officially decommissioned in September 2009.

Ronald Goldstein

Ronald J. Goldstein was a supervisor employed by EBASCO, which was a major contractor for the construction of the South Texas plants. In the summer of 1985, Goldstein identified safety problems to SAFETEAM, an internal compliance program established by EBASCO and Houston Lighting, including noncompliance with safety procedures, the failure to issue safety compliance reports, and quality control violations affecting the safety of the plant.

SAFETEAM was promoted as an independent safe haven for employees to voice their safety concerns. The two companies did not inform their employees that they did not believe complaints reported to SAFETEAM had any legal protection. After he filed his report to SAFETEAM, Goldstein was fired. Subsequently, Golstein filed suit under federal nuclear whistleblower statutes.

The U.S. Department of Labor ruled that his submissions to SAFETEAM were protected and his dismissal was invalid, a finding upheld by Labor Secretary Lynn Martin. The ruling was appealed and overturned by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which ruled that private programs offered no protection to whistleblowers. After Goldstein lost his case, Congress amended the federal nuclear whistleblower law to provide protection reports made to internal systems and prevent retaliation against whistleblowers.

Fernald Nuclear Incidents

Aerial view of Fernald Feed Materials Production Center
Uranium components fabricated at Fernald

The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center was built in Crosby Township, Ohio in 1951, and decommissioned in 1989. Fernald processed uranium trioxide and uranium tetrafluoride, among other radioactive materials, to produce the uranium fuel cores for nuclear weapons. It was shrouded in suspicion with many manager changes and the people of the town ill-informed of the purpose of the plant. The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center also conducted an evaluation of how much material was contaminated by Radium. Using 138 pieces of the CR-39 film assays, they were able to determine that people working in the area where K-65 silos ( Underground chamber used to store missiles) had lower levels of exposure of materials contaminated by Radon than the Q-11 silos between the period of 1952-1988 Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.Throughout 1951-1995 the plant had numerous scandals including faking numbers for contamination and disregarding evidence of ground water pollution. Among the citizens affected by the pollution was Mrs. Lisa Crawford who took action. Crawford and other residents filed a lawsuit in 1985 and became president of the organization FRESH (Fernald Residents for Environmental Safety and Health). A lawsuit was then filed once again against Fernald by former employees several years later in 1990. After several years of being heavily advised not to blow the whistle, the workers earned themselves a $15 million settlement and lifelong medical monitoring. In 1992, FERMCO was hired to construct a cleanup plan for the plant and in 1996, around accusations of wasteful spending, the cleanup of ground water and soil was completed.

Mordechai Vanunu

Mordechai Vanunu 2009

Mordechai Vanunu blew the whistle on the nuclear plant in Dimona, Israel in an interview with The Sunday Times that was published on 5 October 1986. According to Vanunu, this plant had been producing nuclear weapons for 10 to 20 years. It is estimated that there may be around 200 nuclear weapons in possession of Israel’s nuclear weapons program. Vanunu demonstrated his knowledge to Frank Barnaby and John Steinbach and they confirmed the credibility of his story. Frank Barnaby wrote in his Declaration of Frank Barnaby in the Matter of Mordechai Vanunu that Vanunu had the bare minimum knowledge of nuclear physics that a technician should have and accurately described the makeup of the nuclear plant in Dimona. Having served in full his 18 years prison term, ruled in closed door trial, including 11 years in solitary Vanunu has been further in and out of jail after. In 2007, sentenced to six months for violating terms of his parole, and in May 2010, again to three months for having met foreigners in violation of his release terms from jail.

Vanunu is ethnic Mizrahi Jew, born in Marrakesh Morocco, having emigrated to Israel, following its independence in 1948, like did many of the North African Jewish community did. Amnesty International issued a press release on 2 July 2007, stating that “The organisation considers Mordechai Vanunu to be a prisoner of conscience and calls for his immediate and unconditional release.”[6] Vanunu has been characterized internationally as a whistleblower[7][8] and by Israel as a traitor. Despite the whistle blown towards the operation of the nuclear weapons program in Israel, the Israeli government denied the existence of all allegations.Mordechai Vanunu is known as Israel`s Nuclear Whistleblower.

Arnold Gundersen

In 1990 Arnold Gundersen discovered radioactive material in an accounting safe at Nuclear Energy Services in Danbury, Connecticut, the consulting firm where he held a $120,000-a-year job as senior vice-president. Three weeks after he notified the company president of what he believed to be radiation safety violations, Gundersen was fired. According to The New York Times, for three years, Gundersen “was awakened by harassing phone calls in the middle of the night” and he “became concerned about his family’s safety”. Gundersen believes he was blacklisted, harassed and fired for doing what he thought was right.

The New York Times reports that Gundersen’s case is not uncommon, especially in the nuclear industry. Even though nuclear workers are encouraged to report potential safety hazards, those who do risk demotion and dismissal. Instead of correcting the problems, whistleblowers say, industry management and government agencies attack them as the cause of the problem. Driven out of their jobs and shunned by neighbors and co-workers, whistleblowers often turn to each other for support.

The Whistleblower Support Fund is an organization that has compiled resources for whistleblowers to access if they are considering whistleblowing. It was founded by Donald Ray Soeken, who has counseled whistleblowers for 35 years. In addition, a social network to connect whistleblowers to other whistleblowers will be implemented. It will be a private discussion where whistleblowers can safely seek support.

David Lochbaum

In the early 1990s, nuclear engineer David Lochbaum and a colleague, Don Prevatte, identified a safety problem in a plant where they were working, but were ignored when they raised the issue with the plant manager, the utility and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). After bringing their concerns to Congress, the problem was corrected not just at the original nuclear plant but at plants across the country.

Gerald W. Brown

Gerald W. Brown

Gerald W. Brown was the whistleblower on the Thermo-Lag scandal, as well as on silicone foam firestop issues in the US and Canada, exposing the fact that fireproofing of wiring between control rooms and reactors did not function as intended and exposing bounding and combustibility issues with organic firestops.

George Galatis

George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer and whistleblower who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. The unsafe procedures meant that spent fuel rod pools at Unit 1 had the potential to boil, possibly releasing radioactive steam throughout the plant. Galatis eventually took his concerns to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to find that they had “known about the unsafe procedures for years”. As a result of going to the NRC, Galatis experienced “subtle forms of harassment, retaliation, and intimidation”.

Rainer Moormann

Rainer Moormann in 2004

Rainer Moormann is a German chemist and nuclear power whistleblower. Since 1976 he has been working at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, doing research on safety problems with pebble bed reactors, fusion power and spallation neutron sources. In 2008 Moormann published a critical paper on the safety of pebble bed reactors, which raised attention among specialists in the field, and managed to distribute it via the media, facing considerable opposition. For doing this despite the occupational disadvantages he had to accept as a consequence, Moormann was awarded the whistleblower award of the Federation of German Scientists (VDW) and of the German section of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms (IALANA).

Setsuo Fujiwara

Setsuo Fujiwara, who used to design reactors, said he clashed with supervisors over an inspection audit he conducted in March 2009 at the Tomari nuclear plant in Japan. Fujiwara refused to approve a routine test by the plant’s operator, Hokkaido Electric Power, saying the test was flawed. A week later, he was summoned by his supervisor, who ordered him to correct his written report to indicate that the test had been done properly. After Fujiwara refused, his employment contract was not renewed. “They told me my job was just to approve reactors, not to raise doubts about them”, said Fujiwara, 62, who is now suing the nuclear safety organization to get rehired. In a written response to questions from The New York Times, the agency said it could not comment while the court case was under way. Along with the lawsuit Mr. Fujiwara filed against the agency he used to work for, he had gone to the Tokyo District Court to further write several complaints about how the JNES ( Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) failed to follow the UN laws concerning how to properly inspect nuclear energy reactors. Mr. Fujiwara also submitted several documents and emails that dealt with how the reactor inspections were improperly handled by JNES even though JNES denies all allegations. [42]

Walter Tamosaitis

The Hanford site resulted in a number of whistleblowers during the efforts to clean the site up. Walter Tamosaitis blew the whistle on the Energy Department’s plan for waste treatment at the Hanford site in 2011. Tamosaitis’s concern was the possibility of explosive hydrogen gas being built up inside tanks that the company was to store the harmful chemical sludge they were trying to put into hibernation for its chemical life. Shortly after this Tamosaitis was demoted and two years later, fired which triggered his lawsuit for wrongful termination. A $4.1 million settlement was offered to Tamosaitis from AECOM on 12 August 2015. Tamosaitis has since been reinstated.

Donna Busche blew the whistle resulting in her 2013 lawsuit with claims that the URS “retaliated against her. She was head of nuclear safety and a URS employee around the time when she expressed her concerns.

Gary Brunson reported 34 safety and engineering violations after quitting in 2012. Brunson was federal engineering chief before he quit.

Shelly Doss earned “$20,000 in emotional distress and $10,000 in callous disregard of her rights” as well as reinstatement in 2014. Doss was an environmental specialist at the time of her firing in 2011 working for Washington River Protection Solutions.

Larry Criscione and Richard H. Perkins

In 2012, Larry Criscione and Richard H. Perkins publicly accused the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission of downplaying flood risks for nuclear plants which are sited on waterways downstream from large reservoirs and dams. They are engineers with over 20 years of combined government and military service who work for the NRC. Other nuclear safety advocates have supported their complaints.

ist of nuclear whistleblowers

Wikimedia list article


There have been a number of nuclear whistleblowers, often nuclear engineers, who have identified safety concerns about nuclear power and nuclear weapons production. In 1976 Gregory Minor, Richard Hubbard and Dale Bridenbaugh “blew the whistle” on safety problems at nuclear power plants in the United States, and Fukushima in Japan. George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. Other nuclear power whistleblowers include Arnold Gundersen and David Lochbaum.

2000 candles in memory of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, at a commemoration 25 years after the nuclear accident, as well as for the Fukushima nuclear disaster of 2011.

Karen Silkwood

The first prominent nuclear whistleblower was Karen Silkwood, who worked as a chemical technician at a Kerr-McGee nuclear fuel plant. Silkwood became an activist in the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union in order to protest health and safety issues. In 1974, she testified to the United States Atomic Energy Commission about her concerns. A few months later she died in a car crash under mysterious conditions on the way to a meeting with a New York Times reporter and a national union leader. The 1983 film Silkwood is an account of this story.

The “GE Three”

On 2 February 1976, Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard, and Dale G. Bridenbaugh (known as the GE Three) “blew the whistle” on safety problems at nuclear power plants, and their action has been called “an exemplary instance of whistleblowing“.

The three engineers gained the attention of journalists and their disclosures about the threats of nuclear power had a significant impact. They timed their statements to coincide with their resignations from responsible positions in General Electric‘s nuclear energy division, and later established themselves as consultants on the nuclear power industry for state governments, federal agencies, and overseas governments. The consulting firm they formed, MHB Technical Associates, was technical advisor for the movie, “The China Syndrome.” The three engineers participated in Congressional hearings which their disclosures precipitated.

Browns Ferry Unit 1 under construction

Browns Ferry nuclear power plant construction began in 1966. It was located in Alabama and in 1967 it earned a federal construction permit. The plant received new design standards which call for “physical separation of electrical cables.” There was an issue with the instructions on how to accomplish this so the AEC inspector F.U. Bower requested that the AEC elaborate; however, there was no response from the organization and installation went on. Still, no instructions were issued after five failed inspections in 1970. The lack of cable separation instructions led to the sacrifice of safety coolant systems in two of the units in order to improve one with severe safety violation. The ignorance of the AEC led to the fire that occurred on 22 March 1975, that almost led to a radiation leak. The substance separating the wires caught fire when tests to find air leaks with a candle ignited it thus resulting in damage to the control systems. With damage to the control systems, the cooling system that keeps the units from leaking radiation did not work properly. Somehow the situation was avoided and the units were put out of service. Throughout the occurrence of these events Bridenbaugh had been discussing his reservations on the safety at the plant in vain and in 1976 a year later Bridenbaugh, Hubbard and Minor resigned.

Crystal River 3 and Lou Putney

Lou Putney came on the scene of the Crystal River 3 plant after receiving a call from a plant engineer. The engineer claimed that the managers hired engineers based on “good ol’ boy mentality.” The plant had experience numerous shut downs since 1978. Along with this concern, the engineer was not confident that the manager possessed the qualifications to be a manager. Although the engineer pursued nothing further with his complaint, it prompted Putney to purchase shares of stock in the company that would allow him to file “shareholder resolutions.” Putney had looked into the nuclear reactors that were built of an unsafe material for emergency cooling procedures. The NRC had placed Crystal River on the top 14 worst reactors list because of this. So, the shares were purchased in 1981, which is when Putney filed his first shareholder resolution requesting the plant be shut down. This tradition was upheld by Putney for seven years until he was required to purchase more stock in order to continue filing resolutions. Over the course of sixteen years, Putney filed a total of fourteen shareholder resolutions. All of these resolutions were ignored and were met with offers to buy out his shares so he could no longer file the resolutions. The plant was officially decommissioned in September 2009.

Ronald Goldstein

Ronald J. Goldstein was a supervisor employed by EBASCO, which was a major contractor for the construction of the South Texas plants. In the summer of 1985, Goldstein identified safety problems to SAFETEAM, an internal compliance program established by EBASCO and Houston Lighting, including noncompliance with safety procedures, the failure to issue safety compliance reports, and quality control violations affecting the safety of the plant.

SAFETEAM was promoted as an independent safe haven for employees to voice their safety concerns. The two companies did not inform their employees that they did not believe complaints reported to SAFETEAM had any legal protection. After he filed his report to SAFETEAM, Goldstein was fired. Subsequently, Golstein filed suit under federal nuclear whistleblower statutes.

The U.S. Department of Labor ruled that his submissions to SAFETEAM were protected and his dismissal was invalid, a finding upheld by Labor Secretary Lynn Martin. The ruling was appealed and overturned by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which ruled that private programs offered no protection to whistleblowers. After Goldstein lost his case, Congress amended the federal nuclear whistleblower law to provide protection reports made to internal systems and prevent retaliation against whistleblowers.

Fernald Nuclear Incidents

Aerial view of Fernald Feed Materials Production Center
Uranium components fabricated at Fernald

The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center was built in Crosby Township, Ohio in 1951, and decommissioned in 1989. Fernald processed uranium trioxide and uranium tetrafluoride, among other radioactive materials, to produce the uranium fuel cores for nuclear weapons. It was shrouded in suspicion with many manager changes and the people of the town ill-informed of the purpose of the plant. The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center also conducted an evaluation of how much material was contaminated by Radium. Using 138 pieces of the CR-39 film assays, they were able to determine that people working in the area where K-65 silos ( Underground chamber used to store missiles) had lower levels of exposure of materials contaminated by Radon than the Q-11 silos between the period of 1952-1988 Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.Throughout 1951-1995 the plant had numerous scandals including faking numbers for contamination and disregarding evidence of ground water pollution. Among the citizens affected by the pollution was Mrs. Lisa Crawford who took action. Crawford and other residents filed a lawsuit in 1985 and became president of the organization FRESH (Fernald Residents for Environmental Safety and Health). A lawsuit was then filed once again against Fernald by former employees several years later in 1990. After several years of being heavily advised not to blow the whistle, the workers earned themselves a $15 million settlement and lifelong medical monitoring. In 1992, FERMCO was hired to construct a cleanup plan for the plant and in 1996, around accusations of wasteful spending, the cleanup of ground water and soil was completed.

Mordechai Vanunu

Mordechai Vanunu 2009

Mordechai Vanunu blew the whistle on the nuclear plant in Dimona, Israel in an interview with The Sunday Times that was published on 5 October 1986. According to Vanunu, this plant had been producing nuclear weapons for 10 to 20 years. It is estimated that there may be around 200 nuclear weapons in possession of Israel’s nuclear weapons program. Vanunu demonstrated his knowledge to Frank Barnaby and John Steinbach and they confirmed the credibility of his story. Frank Barnaby wrote in his Declaration of Frank Barnaby in the Matter of Mordechai Vanunu that Vanunu had the bare minimum knowledge of nuclear physics that a technician should have and accurately described the makeup of the nuclear plant in Dimona. Having served in full his 18 years prison term, ruled in closed door trial, including 11 years in solitary Vanunu has been further in and out of jail after. In 2007, sentenced to six months for violating terms of his parole, and in May 2010, again to three months for having met foreigners in violation of his release terms from jail.

Vanunu is ethnic Mizrahi Jew, born in Marrakesh Morocco, having emigrated to Israel, following its independence in 1948, like did many of the North African Jewish community did. Amnesty International issued a press release on 2 July 2007, stating that “The organisation considers Mordechai Vanunu to be a prisoner of conscience and calls for his immediate and unconditional release.”[6] Vanunu has been characterized internationally as a whistleblower[7][8] and by Israel as a traitor. Despite the whistle blown towards the operation of the nuclear weapons program in Israel, the Israeli government denied the existence of all allegations.Mordechai Vanunu is known as Israel`s Nuclear Whistleblower.

Arnold Gundersen

In 1990 Arnold Gundersen discovered radioactive material in an accounting safe at Nuclear Energy Services in Danbury, Connecticut, the consulting firm where he held a $120,000-a-year job as senior vice-president. Three weeks after he notified the company president of what he believed to be radiation safety violations, Gundersen was fired. According to The New York Times, for three years, Gundersen “was awakened by harassing phone calls in the middle of the night” and he “became concerned about his family’s safety”. Gundersen believes he was blacklisted, harassed and fired for doing what he thought was right.

The New York Times reports that Gundersen’s case is not uncommon, especially in the nuclear industry. Even though nuclear workers are encouraged to report potential safety hazards, those who do risk demotion and dismissal. Instead of correcting the problems, whistleblowers say, industry management and government agencies attack them as the cause of the problem. Driven out of their jobs and shunned by neighbors and co-workers, whistleblowers often turn to each other for support.

The Whistleblower Support Fund is an organization that has compiled resources for whistleblowers to access if they are considering whistleblowing. It was founded by Donald Ray Soeken, who has counseled whistleblowers for 35 years. In addition, a social network to connect whistleblowers to other whistleblowers will be implemented. It will be a private discussion where whistleblowers can safely seek support.

David Lochbaum

In the early 1990s, nuclear engineer David Lochbaum and a colleague, Don Prevatte, identified a safety problem in a plant where they were working, but were ignored when they raised the issue with the plant manager, the utility and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). After bringing their concerns to Congress, the problem was corrected not just at the original nuclear plant but at plants across the country.

Gerald W. Brown

Gerald W. Brown

Gerald W. Brown was the whistleblower on the Thermo-Lag scandal, as well as on silicone foam firestop issues in the US and Canada, exposing the fact that fireproofing of wiring between control rooms and reactors did not function as intended and exposing bounding and combustibility issues with organic firestops.

George Galatis

George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer and whistleblower who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. The unsafe procedures meant that spent fuel rod pools at Unit 1 had the potential to boil, possibly releasing radioactive steam throughout the plant. Galatis eventually took his concerns to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to find that they had “known about the unsafe procedures for years”. As a result of going to the NRC, Galatis experienced “subtle forms of harassment, retaliation, and intimidation”.

Rainer Moormann

Rainer Moormann in 2004

Rainer Moormann is a German chemist and nuclear power whistleblower. Since 1976 he has been working at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, doing research on safety problems with pebble bed reactors, fusion power and spallation neutron sources. In 2008 Moormann published a critical paper on the safety of pebble bed reactors, which raised attention among specialists in the field, and managed to distribute it via the media, facing considerable opposition. For doing this despite the occupational disadvantages he had to accept as a consequence, Moormann was awarded the whistleblower award of the Federation of German Scientists (VDW) and of the German section of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms (IALANA).

Setsuo Fujiwara

Setsuo Fujiwara, who used to design reactors, said he clashed with supervisors over an inspection audit he conducted in March 2009 at the Tomari nuclear plant in Japan. Fujiwara refused to approve a routine test by the plant’s operator, Hokkaido Electric Power, saying the test was flawed. A week later, he was summoned by his supervisor, who ordered him to correct his written report to indicate that the test had been done properly. After Fujiwara refused, his employment contract was not renewed. “They told me my job was just to approve reactors, not to raise doubts about them”, said Fujiwara, 62, who is now suing the nuclear safety organization to get rehired. In a written response to questions from The New York Times, the agency said it could not comment while the court case was under way. Along with the lawsuit Mr. Fujiwara filed against the agency he used to work for, he had gone to the Tokyo District Court to further write several complaints about how the JNES ( Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) failed to follow the UN laws concerning how to properly inspect nuclear energy reactors. Mr. Fujiwara also submitted several documents and emails that dealt with how the reactor inspections were improperly handled by JNES even though JNES denies all allegations. [42]

Walter Tamosaitis

The Hanford site resulted in a number of whistleblowers during the efforts to clean the site up. Walter Tamosaitis blew the whistle on the Energy Department’s plan for waste treatment at the Hanford site in 2011. Tamosaitis’s concern was the possibility of explosive hydrogen gas being built up inside tanks that the company was to store the harmful chemical sludge they were trying to put into hibernation for its chemical life. Shortly after this Tamosaitis was demoted and two years later, fired which triggered his lawsuit for wrongful termination. A $4.1 million settlement was offered to Tamosaitis from AECOM on 12 August 2015. Tamosaitis has since been reinstated.

Donna Busche blew the whistle resulting in her 2013 lawsuit with claims that the URS “retaliated against her. She was head of nuclear safety and a URS employee around the time when she expressed her concerns.

Gary Brunson reported 34 safety and engineering violations after quitting in 2012. Brunson was federal engineering chief before he quit.

Shelly Doss earned “$20,000 in emotional distress and $10,000 in callous disregard of her rights” as well as reinstatement in 2014. Doss was an environmental specialist at the time of her firing in 2011 working for Washington River Protection Solutions.

Larry Criscione and Richard H. Perkins

In 2012, Larry Criscione and Richard H. Perkins publicly accused the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission of downplaying flood risks for nuclear plants which are sited on waterways downstream from large reservoirs and dams. They are engineers with over 20 years of combined government and military service who work for the NRC. Other nuclear safety advocates have supported their complaints.

Yoga: how to Upward Facing Dog Pose (Urdha Mukha Svanasana)


Yoga: how to Upward Facing Dog Pose (Urdha Mukha Svanasana)

Yoga: how to Upward Facing Dog Pose (Urdha Mukha Svanasana)

https://pin.it/t6t62cvivlldsg