Category Archives: SPIRITUALITY

Cultural Museum of Mosul


Cultural Museum of Mosul

euzicasa, o cugetare: despre dor, scoverzi, si Ioana Radu


Dor este in engleza “longing” , in franceza “désir”… apoi daca oamenii de pe acele meleaguri, sufera la fel de dor, asa cum suferim noi, sua daca sufera de dor de casa la fel cum sufera de dor de ibit sau iubita, daca sufera la fel la tinerete, asa cum sufera la batrineta, cred ca la urma urmei, dupa ce tot evestejit, si iarna nu mai pleaca…e dorul de soare si de ultima primavara care e cel mai puternic EUZICASA.
Am vazut niste scoverzi, aici, pe Facebook, si mi s-a facut dor din mai multe puncte de vedere: pentru ca stiu ca nimeni nu face scoverzi asa cum facea mama mare, deasemenea din cauza ca nu as putea sa le ating (din cauza zaharului) chiar daca erau aurite, si din cauza ca era o vreme cand puteam sa maninc cate as fi dorit, pana al refuz. Tot asa cum puteam sa mananc un borcan ce heciumpeci (pasta de macese), si cate si mai cate… spec ca nu am luat prea mult din poezia dorului, numai ca sa umplu spatiul virtual cu sentimente negative. ”
Format: MPEG4; Resolution: 1280×720(HD);…
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quotation: People take more pains to be damned than to be saved.— French Culture


this pressed for your inspiration: BBC News – The girl who gets gifts from birds


Lots of people love the birds in their garden, but it’s rare for that affection to be reciprocated. One young girl in Seattle is luckier than most. She feeds the crows in her garden – and they bring her gifts in return.

Eight-year-old Gabi Mann sets a bead storage container on the dining room table, and clicks the lid open. This is her most precious collection.

“You may take a few close looks,” she says, “but don’t touch.” It’s a warning she’s most likely practised on her younger brother. She laughs after saying it though. She is happy for the audience.

Inside the box are rows of small objects in clear plastic bags. One label reads: “Black table by feeder. 2:30 p.m. 09 Nov 2014.” Inside is a broken light bulb. Another bag contains small pieces of brown glass worn smooth by the sea. “Beer coloured glass,” as Gabi describes it.

Each item is individually wrapped and categorical. Gabi pulls a black zip out of a labelled bag and holds it up. “We keep it in as good condition as we can,” she says, before explaining this object is one of her favourites.

There’s a miniature silver ball, a black button, a blue paper clip, a yellow bead, a faded black piece of foam, a blue Lego piece, and the list goes on. Many of them are scuffed and dirty. It is an odd assortment of objects for a little girl to treasure, but to Gabi these things are more valuable than gold.

Gifts given by the crows

via BBC News – The girl who gets gifts from birds.

THE DHAMMAPADA – FULL AudioBook | Buddhism – Teachings of The Buddha (“Hatred ceases by love”)


THE DHAMMAPADA – FULL AudioBook | Buddhism – Teachings of The Buddha

The Dhammapada by Unknown, Translated by F. Max Mueller – FULL AudioBook – The Dhammapada is is a Buddhist scripture, containing 423 verses in 26 categories. According to tradition, these are verses spoken by the Buddha on various occasions, most of which deal with ethics. It is is considered one of the most important pieces of Theravada literature. Despite this, the Dhammapada is read by many Mahayana Buddhists and remains a very popular text across all schools of Buddhism. (Summary from Wikipedia.org)

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- READ along by clicking (CC) for Closed Caption Transcript!

- LISTEN to the entire audiobook for free!

Chapter listing and length:

01 — Chapters 1-4 — 00:14:36
Read by: Roger Turnau

02 — Chapters 5-8 — 00:10:52
Read by: Måns Broo

03 — Chapters 9-14 — 00:19:16
Read by: Chris Masterson

04 — Chapters 15-18 — 00:13:30
Read by: Chris Masterson

05 — Chapters 19-22 — 00:17:01
Read by: Denny Sayers

06 — Chapters 23-25 — 00:16:44
Read by: Roger Turnau

07 — Chapter 26 — 00:10:35
Read by: Scott

Total running time: 1:42:34

This is a Librivox recording. All Librivox recordings are in the public domain. For more information or to volunteer visit librivox.org.
This video: Copyright 2013. Greatest Audio Books. All Rights Reserved.

just a thought: “A myopic look upon reality keeps one caged in the past; …”


just a thought:  “A myopic look upon reality keeps one caged in the past; Instead of freeing oneself to human development, recognizing the reality with a clear view, somehow that is like not being able to see the forest because of the tree, close and right in one’s eye sight.

Take as many steps backward until you can see the forest around the obstructing  tree, and look again!  It may change your life, and help that one’s life in the present, and see choices,  anew!”

Copyright © 2015 [George-B]. All Rights Reserved.



History Of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Vol. 1, by Gaston Maspero, Audiobook

THE BEST ANCIENT EGYPT DOCUMENTARY (MUST SEE !!!): Kudos to Egypt for Fighting for its rightful place among the civilized nations of the Earth including the fight for revenge its kidnapped and slaughtered citizens by ISIS


THE BEST ANCIENT EGYPT DOCUMENTARY (MUST SEE !!!)

Assyrian Church of the East


Assyrian Church of the East

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
“Assyrian Christian” redirects here. For other uses, see Assyrian (disambiguation).
Assyrian Church of the East
ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ
(Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East)
Assyrian church of the East.png

Emblem of the Assyrian Church of the East
Founder Traces origins to Saints Thomas (Mar Toma), Bartholomew (Mar Bar Tulmay), Thaddeus (Addai) and Mari.
Independence Apostolic Era
Recognition First Council of Ephesus
Primate Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV Khanania
Headquarters Chicago, Illinois, United States
Territory Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Austria, Germany, Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, Georgia, Oceania.
Possessions  —
Language Syriac,[1] Aramaic
Members 400,000–500,000[2][3][4]
Website www.assyrianchurch.com/

The Assyrian Church of the East (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East[5] Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪܝܐ, ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Assyria, northern Mesopotamia. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical Patriarchate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon – the Church of the East. Unlike most other churches that trace their origins to antiquity, the modern Assyrian Church of the East is not in communion with any other churches, either Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, or Catholic.

Theologically, the church is associated with the doctrine of Nestorianism, leading to the church, also being known as a “Nestorian Church”, though church leadership has at times rejected the Nestorian label, and was already extant some four centuries prior to Nestorius. The church employs the Syriac dialect of the Aramaic language in its liturgy, the East Syrian Rite, which includes three anaphoras, attributed to Saints Addai and Mari, Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius.[6]

The Church of the East developed between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD from the early Assyrian Christian communities in the Assuristan province (Parthian ruled Assyria) of the Parthian Empire, and at its height had spread from its north Mesopotamian heartland to as far as China, Central Asia and India. A dispute over patriarchal succession led to the Schism of 1552, resulting in there being two rival Patriarchs. One of the factions that eventually emerged from this split became the Assyrian Church of the East, while another became the church now known as the Chaldean Catholic Church, originally called The Church of Athura (Assyria) and Mosul, which eventually entered into communion with the Catholic Church, both in continuation from the Church of the East.

A more recent schism in the church resulted from the adoption of the Assyrian Church of the East of the Gregorian Calendar rather than maintaining the traditional Julian calendar that is off by 13 days. The opponents to the reforms introduced formed in 1964 the Ancient Church of the East headquartered in Baghdad and headed since 1968 by a separate Catholicos-Patriarch.

The Assyrian Church of the East is headed by the Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, who currently presides in exile in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Below the Catholicos-Patriarch are a number of metropolitan bishops, diocesan bishops, priests, and deacons who serve dioceses and parishes throughout the Middle East, India, North America, Oceania, and Europe (including the Caucasus and Russia).

History

Main articles: Church of the East and Nestorianism

Early years of the Church of the East

The Church of the East originally developed during the 1st century AD in the Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic speaking regions of Assyria and northwestern Persia (today’s Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and north western Iran), to the east of the Roman-Byzantine empire. It is an Apostolic church, established by the apostles St Thomas (Mar Toma), St Thaddeus (Mar Addai), and St Bartholomew (Mar Bar Tulmay). St Peter (Mar Shimun Keapa), the chief of the apostles added his blessing to the Church of the East at the time of his visit to the See at Babylon, in the earliest days of the church when stating, “The elect church which is in Babylon, salutes you; and Mark, my son (1 Peter 5:13).[7]

Official recognition was first granted to the Christian faith in the 4th century with the accession of Yazdegerd I to the throne of the Sassanid Empire. In 410, the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, held at the Sassanid capital, allowed the Church’s leading bishops to elect a formal Catholicos, or leader. The Catholicos, Mar Isaac, was required both to lead the Assyrian Christian community, and to answer on its behalf to the Sassanid Emperor.[8][9]

Under pressure from the Sassanid Emperor, the Church of the East sought increasingly to distance itself from the western (Roman Empire) Catholic Church. In 424, the bishops of the Sassanid Empire met in council under the leadership of Catholicos Mar Dadisho I (421–456) and determined that they would not, henceforth, refer disciplinary or theological problems to any external power, and especially not to any bishop or Church Council in the Roman Empire.[10]

As such, the Mesopotamian and Assyrian Churches were not represented at the various Church Councils attended by representatives of the Western Church. Accordingly, the leaders of the Church of the East did not feel bound by any decisions of what came to be regarded as Roman Imperial Councils. Despite this, the Creed and Canons of the first Council of Nicea (325); affirming the full divinity of Christ; were formally accepted at the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon.[11] The Church’s understanding of the term ‘hypostasis‘ differs from the definition of the term offered at the Council of Chalcedon. For this reason, the Assyrian Church has never approved the Chalcedonian definition.[11]

The theological controversy that followed the First Council of Ephesus, in 431, proved a turning point in the Church’s history. The Council condemned as heretical the Christology of Nestorius, whose reluctance to accord the Virgin Mary the title ‘Theotokos’ (‘God-bearer’ or ‘Mother of God’) was taken as evidence that he believed two separate persons (as opposed to two united natures) to be present within Christ. (For the theological issues at stake, see Assyrian Church of the East and Nestorianism.)

The Sassanid Emperor, hostile to the Roman Empire, saw the opportunity to ensure the loyalty of his Christian subjects and lent support to the Nestorian schism. The Sassanid Emperor took steps to cement the primacy of the Nestorian party within the Church of the East, granting its members his protection,[12] and executing the pro-Roman Catholicos Babowai, replacing him with the Nestorian Bishop of Nisibis, Barsauma. The Catholicos-Patriarch Mar Babai I (497–503) confirmed the association of the Persian Church with Nestorianism.

Eastern expansion

During the medieval period the geographical horizons of the Church of the East extended well beyond its heartland in present-day northern Iraq. Communities sprang up throughout Central Asia, and missionaries from Assyria and Mesopotamia took the Christian faith as far as China and the Malabar Coast of India.[13]

Schism and the establishment of the Chaldean Church

The massacres of Assyrian Christians by Tamerlane (1336–1405) destroyed many bishoprics, including the ancient Assyrian city of Ashur. The Church of the East, which had previously extended as far as China, was largely reduced to an Eastern Aramaic speaking Assyrian remnant living in its original heartland in Upper Mesopotamia (what had been Assyria), the triangular area[14] between Amid, Salmas and Mosul. The See was moved to the Assyrian town of Alqosh, in the Mosul region, and Mar Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) appointed Patriarch, establishing a new, hereditary, line of succession.[15]

Growing dissent in the church’s hierarchy over hereditary succession came to a head in 1552, when a group of bishops from the Northern regions of Amid and Salmas elected Mar Yohannan Sulaqa as a rival Patriarch. Seeking consecration as Patriarch by a Bishop of Metropolitan rank, Sulaqa traveled to Rome in 1553, and entered into communion with the Roman Catholic Church. On being appointed Patriarch, Sulaqa took the name Mar Shimun VIII and was granted the title of “Patriarch of Mosul and Athur (Assyria)”. Later this title became “Patriarch of the Chaldeans”, despite none of its adherents being from the long disappeared Chaldean tribe, or from what had been South in the far south east of Mesopotamia.[16]

Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa returned to the Near East the same year, establishing his seat in Amid. Before being put to death by partisans of the Patriarch of Alqosh, he ordained five metropolitan bishops, thus establishing a new ecclesiastical hierarchy, a line of patriarchal descent known as the Shimun line.

Sees in Qochanis, Amid, and Alqosh (17th century)

Relations with Rome weakened under Shimun VIII’s successors, all of whom took the name Shimun. The last of this line of Patriarchs to be formally recognized by the Pope died in the early 17th century. Hereditary accession to the office of Patriarch was reintroduced, and by 1660 the Assyrian Church of the East had become divided into two Patriarchates; the Eliya line, based in Alqosh (comprising that portion of the faithful which had never entered into Communion with Rome), and the Shimun line.

In 1672[15] the Patriarch of the Shimun line, Mar Shimun XIII Denha, moved his seat to the Assyrian village of Qochanis in the mountains of Hakkari. In 1692, the Patriarch formally broke communion with Rome and allegedly resumed relations with the line at Alqosh, though retaining the independent structure and jurisdiction of his line of succession.

The so-called Chaldean Patriarchate was revived in 1672 when Mar Joseph I, then the Assyrian Church of the East metropolitan of Amid, entered into communion with Rome, thus separating from the Patriarchal See of Alqosh. In 1681, the Holy See granted Mar Joseph the title of “Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its Patriarch”, thus forming the third Patriarchate of the Assyrian Church of the East. It was this third Patriarchate that was to become known as the Chaldean Catholic Church in 1683.

Josephite line of Amid

Each of Joseph I’s successors took the name Joseph. The life of this Patriarchate was difficult; stricken early on with internal dissent, the Patriarchiate later struggled with financial difficulties due to the tax burden imposed by the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Despite these difficulties, the influence of the Patriarchate expanded from its original homeland of Amid and Mardin towards the area of Mosul, where ultimately the See was relocated.

Mar Yohannan VIII Hormizd, the last of the Eliya hereditary line of the Assyrian Church of the East in Alqosh, made a Catholic profession of faith in 1780. Though entering full communion with the Roman See in 1804, he was not recognized as Patriarch by the Pope until 1830. This move merged the majority of the Patriarcate of Alqosh with the Josephite line of Amid, thus forming the modern Chaldean Catholic Church.

The Shimun line of Patriarchs, based in Qochanis, remained within the Assyrian Church of the East, and refused to enter communion with Rome and join the Chaldean Church. The Patriarchate of the present-day Assyrian Church of the East, with its see in Chicago, forms the continuation of this line.[17]

20th century

 In spite of both ethnic and religious persecution and a serious decline in membership since their height around the fourth century, the Assyrian Church of the East has survived into the 21st century. Here is St. Mary Assyrian Church in Moscow.

In 1915 the Assyrian Church see at Qochanis see was completely destroyed by the Ottoman Turkish Empire in the context of the Assyrian Genocide, Assyrian war of independence and Armenian Genocide. Survivors of the massacres escaped by marching over the mountains into Iran and Iraq to join their kinsmen. In 1918, after the murder of Mar Shimun XXI Benyamin and 150 of his followers, and fearing further massacres at the hands of the Turks and Kurds, the survivors fled from Iran into what was to become Iraq, seeking protection under the British mandate there, and joining ancient indigenous existing Assyrian communities of both Eastern Rite and Catholic persuasions in the north of that country.[18]

The British administration employed Assyrian troops (Assyrian Levies) to put down Arab and Kurdish rebellions in the aftermath of World War I. In consequence, Assyrians of all denominations endured persecution under the Hashemite monarchy, leading many to flee to the West, in particular to the United States, where Chicago became the center of the diaspora community.

Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII

During this period the British-educated Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, born into the line of Patriarchs at Qochanis, agitated for an independent Assyrian state. Following the end of the British mandate in 1933[18] and a massacre of Assyrian civilians at Simele by the Iraqi Army, the Patriarch was forced to take refuge in Cyprus.[19] There, Shimun petitioned the League of Nations regarding his peoples’ fate, but to little avail, and he was consequently barred from entering Syria and Iraq. He traveled through Europe before moving to Chicago in 1940 to join the growing Assyrian diaspora community there.[19]

The Church and the Assyrian community in general faced considerable fragmentation and upheaval as a result of the conflicts of the 20th century, and Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII was forced to reorganize the church’s structure in the United States. He transferred his residence to San Francisco, California in 1954, and was able to travel to Iran, Lebanon, Kuwait, and India, where he worked to strengthen the church.[20]

In 1964 he decreed a number of changes to the church, including liturgical reform, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the shortening of Lent. These changes, combined with Shimun’s long absence from Iraq, caused a rift in the community which led to another schism. In 1968 traditionalists within the church elected Mar Thoma Darmo as a rival patriarch to Shimun XXIII Eshai, creating the Ancient Church of the East.[21]

In 1972, Shimun decided to step down as Patriarch, and the following year, he married, in contravention to longstanding church custom. This led to a synod in 1973 in which further reforms were introduced, most significantly including the permanent abolition of hereditary succession a practice introduced in the middle of the fifteenth century by the patriarch Shemʿon IV Basidi who had died in 1497); however, it was decided that Shimun should be reinstated. This matter was to be settled at additional synods in 1975, however Shimun was assassinated by an estranged relative before this could take place.[22]

Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV

In 1976, the current Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, was elected as Shimun XXIII Eshai’s successor. The 33-year old Dinkha had previously been Metropolitan of Tehran, and operated his see there until the Iran–Iraq War of 1980–1988. Thereafter, Mar Dinkha IV went into exile in the United States, and transferred the patriarchal see to Chicago.[23] Much of his patriarchate has been concerned with tending to the Assyrian diaspora community and with ecumenical efforts to strengthen relations with other churches.[23]

Assyrian Church of the East and Nestorianism

The Nestorian nature of Assyrian Christianity remains a matter of contention. Elements of the Nestorian doctrine were explicitly repudiated by Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV on the occasion of his accession in 1976.[24]

The Christology of the Church of the East has its roots in the Antiochene theological tradition of the early Church. The founders of Assyrian theology are Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, both of whom taught at Antioch. ‘Antiochene’ is a modern designation given to the style of theology associated with the early Church at Antioch, as contrasted with the theology of the church of Alexandria.[25]

Antiochene theology emphasised Christ’s humanity and the reality of the moral choices he faced. In order to preserve the impassibility of Christ’s Divine Nature, the unity of His person was defined in a looser fashion than in the Alexandrian tradition.[25] The normative Christology of the Assyrian church was written by Babai the Great (551–628) during the controversy that followed the First Council of Ephesus (431). Babai held that within Christ there exist two qnome (essences, or hypostases), unmingled, but everlastingly united in the one prosopon(personality).

The precise Christological teachings of Nestorius are shrouded in obscurity. Wary of monophysitism, Nestorius rejected Cyril’s theory of a hypostatic union, proposing instead a union of will. Nestorianism has come to mean dyaphysitism, in which Christ’s dual natures are eternally separate, though it is doubtful whether Nestorius ever taught such a doctrine. Nestorius’ rejection of the term Theotokos (‘God-bearer’, or ‘Mother of God’) has traditionally been held as evidence that he asserted the existence of two persons – not merely two natures – in Jesus Christ, but there exists no evidence that Nestorius denied Christ’s oneness.[26] In the controversy that followed the Council of Ephesus, the term ‘Nestorian’ was applied to all upholding a strictly Antiochene Christology. In consequence the Church of the East was labelled ‘Nestorian’, though its theology is not dyophysite.

Ecumenical relations

Pope John XXIII invited many other Christian denominations, including the Assyrian Church of the East, to send “observers” to the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). These observers, graciously received and seated as honored guests right in front of the podium on the floor of the council chamber, did not formally take part in the Council’s debate, but they mingled freely with the Catholic bishops and theologians who constituted the council, and with the other observers as well, in the break area during the council sessions. There, cordial conversations began a rapproachment that has blossomed into expanding relations among the Catholic Church, the Churches of the Orthodox Communion led by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, and the ancient churches of the East.

On November 11, 1994, a historic meeting between Mar Dinkha IV and Pope John Paul II took place in Rome. The two patriarchs signed a document titled “Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East“. One side effect of this meeting was that the Assyrian Church’s relationship to the fellow Chaldean Catholic Church began to improve.[27]

In 1996, Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV signed an agreement of cooperation with the Chaldean Catholic Patriarch of Baghdad, Raphael I Bidawid, in Southfield, Michigan. In 1997, he entered into negotiations with the Syriac Orthodox Church and the two churches ceased anathematizing each other.

The lack of a coherent institution narrative in the Anaphora of Addai and Mari, which dates to apostolic times, has caused many Western Christians, and especially Roman Catholics, to doubt the validity of this anaphora, used extensively by the Assyrian Church of the East, as a prayer of consecration of the eucharistic elements. In 2001, after a study of this issue, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith promulgated a declaration approved by Pope John Paul II stating that this is a valid anaphora. This declaration opened the door to a joint synodal decree officially implementing the present Guidelines for Admission to the Eucharist between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East which the synods of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church signed and promulgated on 20 July 2001.

This joint synodal decree provides that (1) Assyrian faithful may participate and receive Holy Communion in a Chaldean celebration of the Holy Eucharist, (2) Chaldean catholic faithful may participate and receive Holy Communion in an Assyrian Church celebration of the Holy Eucharist, even if celebrated using the Anaphora of Addai and Mari in its original form, and (3) Assyrian clergy are invited (but not obliged) to insert the institution narrative into the Anaphora of Addai and Mari when Chaldean faithful are present. Far from expressing a relationship of full communion between these churches, however, the joint synodal decree actually identifies several issues that require resolution to permit a relationship of full communion.

From a Catholic canonical point of view, provisions of the joint synodal decree are fully consistent with the provisions of canon 671 of the 1991 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, which states: “If necessity requires it or genuine spiritual advantage suggests it and provided that the danger of error or indifferentism is avoided, it is permitted for Catholic Christian faithful, for whom it is physically or morally impossible to approach a Catholic minister, to receive the sacraments of penance, the Eucharist and anointing of the sick from non-Catholic ministers, in whose Churches these sacraments are valid. 3. Likewise Catholic ministers licitly administer the Sacraments of Penance, the Eucharist and Anointing of the Sick to Christian faithful of Eastern Churches, who do not have full communion with the Catholic Church, if they ask for them on their own and are properly disposed.” Canons 843 and 844 of the Code of Canon Law make similar provisions for the Latin Church. The Assyrian Church of the East follows an Open Communion approach allowing any baptized Christian to receive its Eucharist,[28] so there is also no alteration of Assyrian practice. Nonetheless, from an ecumenical perspective, the joint synodal decree marks a major step toward full mutual collaboration of both churches in the pastoral care of their members.

Structure

The Church is governed by an episcopal polity, which is the same as other Catholic churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses and archdioceses. The Catholicos-Patriarch, currently Mar Dinkha IV is head of the church. The Synod comprises Bishops who oversee individual dioceses, and Metropolitans who oversee episcopal dioceses in there territorial jurisdiction.

The Chaldean Syrian Church in India and the Persian Gulf is the largest diocese of the church. Its story goes back to the Church of the East that established presence in Kerala. The converts were from lower, untouchable castes, for in a caste-ridden Malabar society. During times of disturbances in the Persian Empire and the Middle East, Assyrian inflow into Kerala ceased and local converts had to take responsibility for the churches. Nevertheless, Malabar churches retained their Nestorian connections. Connection between the Malabar church and the Church of the East was sporadic for a long period till the arrival of the Portuguese. The church is represented by the Assyrian Church of the East and is in communion with it.

Hierarchy

The current hierarchy and dioceses is as follows. The Patriarchate of the Church of the East was located for centuries in the cathedral church of Mar Shallita, in the village of Qudshanis in the Hakkari mountains, Ottoman Empire. After the exodus in 1915 the Patriarchs temporarily resided between Urmia and Salmas, and from 1918 the patriarchs resided in Mosul, Iraq. After the Simele massacre of 1933, the then Patriarch Shimun XXIII Eshai was exiled to Cyprus. In 1940 he was welcomed to the United States where he set up his residence in Chicago, Illinois and administrated the United States and Canada as his Patriarchal province. The patriarchate was moved to Modesto, California in 1954, and finally to San Francisco, California in 1958 due to health issues. After the assassination of the Patriarch and the election of Mar Dinkha IV in 1976, the patriarchate was temporarily located in Tehran, Iran where the patriarch already resided. Since 1980, the Patriarchate again returned to Chicago, Illinois where it currently remains. The Diocese of Eastern United States served as the patriarch’s province from 1994 until 2012.

Due to the unstable political, religious and economic situation in the church’s historical homeland of the Middle East, many of the church members now reside in Western countries. Churches and dioceses have been established throughout Europe, America and Oceania. The largest expatriate concentration of church members is in the United States, mainly situated in Illinois and California.

Archdioceses

  1. Archdiosese of India Chaldean Syrian Church – it remains in communion and is the biggest province of the Church with close to 30 active churches, primary and secondary schools, hospitals etc.
  2. Archdiocese of Iraq and Russia – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Iraq. The archdiocese’s territory includes the cities and surroundings of Baghdad, Basra, Kirkuk, and Mosul.
  3. Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon – Established in October 1984.

Dioceses

  1. Diocese of Syria – jurisdiction lies throughout all Syria, particularly in the Al-Hasakah governorate, where most of the community reside in Al-Hasakah, Qamishli and the 35 villages along the Khabur river. There are also small communities in Damascus and Aleppo
  2. Diocese of Iran – territory includes the capital Tehran, the Urmia and Salmas plains
  3. Diocese of Nohadra and Russia – established in 1999 with jurisdiction include the indigenous communities of Dohuk and Arbil, along with Russia and ex-Soviet states such as Armenia and Georgia.
  4. Diocese of Europe – its territory lies in western Europe and includes close to 10 sovereign states: Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands, France, Belgium, Austria, Finland, Norway and Greece.
  5. Diocese of Eastern USA – formerly the Patriarchal Archdiocese from 1994 until 2012 . The territory includes the large Illinois community, along with smaller parishes in Michigan, New England and New York.
  6. Diocese of Western USA-North – jurisdiction includes parishes in Western USA and northern California. Some of the parishes are San Francisco, San Jose, Modesto, Turlock, Ceres, Seattle, and Sacramento.
  7. Diocese of Western USA-South – jurisdiction includes parishes in Arizona and southern California.
  8. Diocese of Canada – includes the territory of Toronto, Windsor, Hamilton and all Canada

Proposed Structure: Archdioceses and Dioceses

  1. Archdiocese of India Chaldean Syrian Church – covers India.
  2. Archdiocese of Iran – covers Iran.
  3. Archdiocese of Iraq – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Iraq except Northern areas. The archdiocese’s territory includes the cities and surroundings of Baghdad, Basra, Kirkuk, and Mosul.
  4. Archdiocese of Nohadra – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Dohuk, Arbil, and Sulaymaniyah in Kurdish northern Iraq.
  5. Archdiocese of Syria & Lebanon – covers Syria and Lebanon.
  6. Archdiocese of Ararat – covers Turkey, Azerbaijan Armenia, and Georgia.
  7. Archdiocese of Russia & Eurasia – covers Russia and ex-Soviet states such as Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia Poland, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan.
  8. Archdiocese of Europe – its territory lies in western Europe and includes close to 10 sovereign states: Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, Germany, Netherlands, France, Belgium, Austria, Finland, Norway and Greece.
  9. Archdiocese of Australia & New Zealand – covers Australia and New Zealand
  10. Archdiocese of North America – It covers 4 dioceses:

Holy Synod

The Holy Synod of the church is made up of:

  • Head: Mar Dinkha IV, Khanania (born 1935, elected 1976), Catholicos-Patriarch of the East (residing in Morton Grove, Illinois)
  • Mar Gewargis Sliwa: Metropolitan of Iraq
  • Mar Aprem Mooken: Metropolitan of India
  • Mar Meelis Zaia: Metropolitan of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon
  • Mar [Sagris Yosip]: Bishop Emeritus of Baghdad (residing in Modesto, California)
  • Mar Isaac Yousif: Bishop of Dohuk-Erbil and Russia
  • Mar Aprem Nathniel: Bishop of Syria
  • Mar Narsai Benyamin: Bishop of Iran
  • Mar Aprim Khamis: Bishop of Western United States
  • Mar Mar Emmanuel Yosip: Bishop of Canada
  • Mar Odisho Oraham: Bishop of Europe
  • Mar Awa Royel: Bishop of California
  • Mar Paulus Benjamin: Bishop of Eastern United States
  • Mar Yohannan Joseph: Auxiliary Bishop of India
  • Mar Awgin Kuriakose: Auxiliary Bishop of India

See also

† this pressed for Christians everywhere †: BBC News – Islamic State: Fears grow for abducted Syrian Christians


It is not clear where the IS militants have taken the abducted Assyrians Continue reading the main story: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-31622883

It i not clear where the IS militants have taken the abducted Assyrians

Continue reading the main story

Islamic State – Other Reports:

Asymmetry of fear

Kobane unbeaten

What is IS?

Key countries

There are fears that more members of an Assyrian Christian community in north-eastern Syria were abducted by Islamic State militants than at first thought.

Initial reports had put the number of missing at 90, but one activist said as many as 285 people had been seized on Monday in Hassakeh province.

Efforts to try to negotiate their release are reported to be under way.

Some 1,000 local Assyrian families are believed to have fled their homes in the wake of the abductions.

Kurdish and Christian militia are battling IS in the area, amid reports of churches and homes having been set ablaze.

Thousands of Christians in Syria have been forced from their homes by the threat from IS militants.

In areas under their control, Christians have been ordered to convert to Islam, pay jizya (a religious levy), or face death. IS militants in Libya also recently beheaded 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians.

via BBC News – Islamic State: Fears grow for abducted Syrian Christians.

find out more about the Assirian Christians HERE

Video: CRIPTA Sf. Ap. si Ev. MATEI – SALERNO (Crypt of St. Matei – Mathew)


CRIPTA Sf. Ap. si Ev. MATEI – SALERNO

today’s holiday: † St. Matthias’s Day (2015)†


St. Matthias’s Day (2015)†

The story of how St. Matthias was elected to replace Judas Iscariot as one of the 12 apostles after Judas committed suicide can be found in the Bible’s Book of Acts. There is no historical record of Matthias’s deeds or death. His fame rests almost entirely upon the fact that he took the betrayer Judas’ place, although legend claims that he was stoned and beheaded in Ethiopia in 64 CE. Episcopalians celebrate his feast day on February 24. More… Discuss

quotation: Faith, n.: Belief without evidence in what is told by one who speaks without knowledge, of things without parallel. Ambrose Bierce


Faith, n.: Belief without evidence in what is told by one who speaks without knowledge, of things without parallel.

Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914) Discuss

this pressed: BBC News – Manannán Mac Lir: Games of Thrones sculptor’s statue found


Manannán Mac Lir: Games of Thrones sculptor’s statue found

23 February 2015 Last updated at 18:36 GMT

A 6 ft sculpture of a Celtic sea god that was stolen from Binevenagh mountain, near Limavady, in County Londonderry has been recovered by soldiers on a training exercise.

Manannán Mac Lir, which is made out of fibre glass and stainless steel, was stolen last month.

BBC News NI’s Keiron Tourish reports.

Online campaign for statue’s return

Religious link to statue theft probe

22 January 2015

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via BBC News – Manannán Mac Lir: Games of Thrones sculptor’s statue found.

Spiritual Reflection_Prayer_is_the_light_of_The_Spirit


Spirtual Reflection_Prayer_is_the_light_of_The_Spirit

Spiritual Reflection_Prayer_is_the_light_of_The_Spirit


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Christianity_in_China

 
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Lin (林).
Lin Yutang
Linyutang.jpg

Lin Yutang, photographed by
Carl Van Vechten, 1939
 
Traditional Chinese 林語堂
 
Simplified Chinese 林语堂

Lin Yutang (Chinese: 林语堂; pinyin: Lín Yǔtáng; October 10, 1895 – March 26, 1976) was a Chinese writer, translator, linguist and inventor. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English made him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English were bestsellers in the West.

Youth

Lin was born in the town of Banzai, Pinghe, Zhangzhou, Fujian. This mountainous region made a deep impression on his consciousness, and thereafter he would constantly consider himself a child of the mountains (in one of his books he commented that his idea of hell was a city apartment). His father was a Christian minister. His journey of faith from Christianity to Taoism and Buddhism, and back to Christianity in his later life was recorded in his book From Pagan to Christian (1959).

Academic career and Shanghai intellectual world

Lin studied for his bachelor’s degree at Saint John’s University in Shanghai, then received a half-scholarship to continue study for a doctoral degree at Harvard University. He later wrote that in the Widener Library he first found himself and first came alive, but he never saw a Harvard-Yale game.[1] He left Harvard early however, moving to work with the Chinese Labor Corps in France and eventually to Germany, where he completed his requirements for a doctoral degree in Chinese philology at the University of Leipzig. From 1923 to 1926 he taught English literature at Peking University.

Enthusiastic about the success of the Northern Expedition, he briefly served in the new Nationalist government, but soon turned to teaching and writing. He found himself in the wake of the New Culture Movement which criticized China’s tradition as feudal and harmful. Instead of accepting this charge, however, Lin immersed himself in the Confucian texts and literary culture which his Christian upbringing and English language education had denied him. His magazine Lun Yu (Analects) attracted essays and readership, and Lin maintained friendship and debate with Hu Shi, Lu Xun, key figures in the Shanghai literary scene of the 1930s. He was a key figure in introducing the Western concept of humor, which he felt China had lacked. In 1933, however, Lu Xun attacked the journal Analects for being apolitical and dismissed Lin’s elegant xiaopin wen 小品文, or small essay as “bric a brac for the bourgeoisie.”.[2]

Lin’s writings in Chinese were critical of the Nationalist government, to the point that he feared for his life. Many of his essays from this time were later collected in With Love and Irony (1940). In 1933, he met Pearl Buck in Shanghai, and she introduced him and his writings to her publisher, Richard Walsh, head of John Day publishers, who published Lin’s works for many years.[3]

Lin’s relation with Christianity changed over the years. His father, of course, was a second generation Christian, but at Tsinghua, Lin asked himself what it meant to be a Christian in China. Being a Christian meant acceptance of Western science and progress, but Lin became angry that being a Christian also meant losing touch with China’s culture and his own personal identity. On his return from study abroad, Lin renewed his respect for his father, yet he plunged into study of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, and did not identify himself as Christian.[4]

Career after leaving China

After 1935 Lin lived mainly in the United States, where he became known as a “wise and witty” popularizer of Chinese philosophy and way of life. Lin’s first best sellers were My Country and My People (simplified Chinese: 吾国与吾民; traditional Chinese: 吾國與吾民) (1935) and The Importance of Living (simplified Chinese: 生活的艺术; traditional Chinese: 生活的藝術) (1937), written in English in a charming style. Others include Between Tears and Laughter (啼笑皆非) (1943), The Importance of Understanding (1960, a book of translated Chinese literary passages and short pieces), The Chinese Theory of Art (1967). The novels Moment in Peking (simplified Chinese: 京华烟云; traditional Chinese: 京華煙雲) (1939), A Leaf in the Storm (1940), and The Vermilion Gate (simplified Chinese: 朱门; traditional Chinese: 朱門) (1953) were well received epics of China in turmoil, while Chinatown Family (1948) presented the lives of Chinese Americans in New York. Partly to avoid controversial contemporary issues, Lin in 1947 published The Gay Genius: The Life and Times of Su Tungpo, which presented the struggle between Su Dongpo and Wang Anshi as parallel to the struggle between Chinese liberals and totalitarian communists.

Lin’s political writings in English sold fewer copies than his cultural works and were more controversial. Between Tears and Laughter (1943) broke with the genial tone of his earlier English writings to criticize Western racism and imperialism. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Lin traveled in China and wrote favorably of the war effort and Chiang Kai-shek in Vigil of a Nation (1944). American China Hands such as Edgar Snow criticized these works.[5]

Mechanics had been a long time avocation. Since Chinese is a character-based rather than an alphabet-based language, with many thousands of separate characters, it was difficult to employ modern printing technologies. Many doubted that a Chinese typewriter could be invented. Lin, however, worked on this problem for decades and eventually came up with a workable typewriter which was brought to market in the middle of the war with Japan. The Mingkwai “Clear and Quick” Chinese-language typewriter played a pivotal role in the Cold War Machine Translation research.[6] Lin also invented and patented several lesser inventions, such as a toothbrush which dispensed toothpaste.

In the mid-1950s, he served briefly and unhappily as president (or chancellor) of the Nanyang University which was newly created in Singapore specifically for Chinese studies as parallel to the English-oriented University of Singapore. He did not, however, choose to continue in that role when the faculty resisted his plans for structural reform and Nanyang (South Seas) University became a focus of the struggle for control of Singapore between the Communist-directed left and the liberal, social democratic right. He felt he was too old for the conflict.

After he returned to New York in the late 1950s, Lin renewed his interest in Christianity. His wife was a devout believer, and Lin admired her serenity and humility. After attending services with her at the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church for several months, he joined the church and announced his return to the faith.[4] His 1959 book From Pagan to Christian explained this move, which many of his readers found surprising.

With his facility for both Chinese and English idiom, Lin presided over the compilation of an outstanding Chinese-English dictionary, Lin Yutang’s Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage (simplified Chinese: 林语堂当代汉英词典; traditional Chinese: 林語堂當代漢英詞典) (1972), which contains a massive English index to definitions of Chinese terms. The work was undertaken at the newly founded Chinese University of Hong Kong.

His many works represent an attempt to bridge the cultural gap between the East and the West. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1940 and 1950.[7]

Dr. Lin was buried at his home in Yangmingshan, Taipei, Taiwan. His home has been turned into a museum, which is operated by Taipei-based Soochow University. The town of Lin’s birth, Banzai, has also preserved the original Lin home and turned it into a museum.

Lin’s reputation and scholarship on Lin

Although his major books have remained in print, Lin is a thinker whose place in modern Chinese intellectual history has been overlooked until recently.[8] Lin themed conventions have been organized in Taiwan and Lin’s native Fujian, and in December 2011, the International Conference on the Cross-cultural Legacy of Lin Yutang in China and America was held at City University of Hong Kong, with professional and private scholars from mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, Malaysia, the United States, Germany and Slovakia. The organizer of the conference was Dr. Qian Suoqiao, whose book, Liberal Cosmopolitan: Lin Yutang and Middling Chinese Modernity (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2010) was the first (and still only) full length academic study of Lin in any language.[9] Jing Tsu’s Sound and Script in Chinese Diaspora (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010) gives a detailed account of Lin Yutang’s typewriter and its role in the context of late 19th century script reform, Chinese national language reform in the early twentieth century, and the fascinating story of his typewriting keyboard and Machine Translation research during the Cold War.

Family

His wife, Liao TsuiFeng (廖翠鳳), was an author, who, along with her daughter Lin Hsiang Ju, wrote three cookery books which popularized Chinese cuisine in the English speaking world. Dr. Lin wrote introductions which explained the historical background and relevance for American life.

His first daughter Adet Lin (林鳳如; also known as Lin Rusi 林如斯) (1923–1971) was an author who also used the pseudonym Tan Yun.

His second daughter Lin TaiYi (林太乙) (1926–2003) was also known as Anor Lin in her earliest writing, and had the Chinese name 玉如. She was an author and the general editor of Chinese Reader’s Digest from 1965 until her retirement in 1988. She also wrote a biography of her father in Chinese (林語堂傳), which shows some signs of her father’s literary flair.

His third daughter Lin HsiangJu (林相如) (1931-), was referred to as MeiMei in childhood. She was co-author of cookbooks with her mother, and was a biochemist at Queen Mary hospital in Hong Kong.

The daughters all had names containing the character 如 (Ju): Adet 鳳如, Anor 玉如, and HsiangJu 相如.

Works in Chinese or published in China to 1935

(courtesy Lin Yutang House [3])

  • (1928) Jian Fu Collection (Shangha: Bei Hsin Book Company)
  • (1930) Letters of a Chinese Amazon and Wartime Essays (Shanghai: Kaiming
  • (1930) Kaiming English Books (Three Volumes) (Shanghai: Kaiming)
  • (1930) English Literature Reader (Two Volumes) (Shanghai: Kaiming)
  • (1930) Kaiming English Grammar (Two Volumes) (Shanghai: Kaiming)
  • (1931) Reading in Modern Journalistic Prose (Shanghai: Oriental Book)
  • (1933) A Collection of Essays on Linguistics (Shanghai: Kaiming Book)
  • (1934) Da Huang Ji (Shanghai: Living)
  • (1934) My Words First Volume (Sing Su Ji) (Shanghai Times)
  • (1935) Kaiming English Materials (Three Volumes) co-written by Lin Yutang and Lin you-ho (Shanghai: Oriental Book Co.)
  • (1935) The Little Critic: Essays Satires and Sketches on China First Series: 1930-1932 (Shanghai: Oriental Book Co.)
  • (1935) The Little Critic: Essays Satires and Sketches on China Second Series: 1933-1935 (Shanghai: Oriental Book Co.)
  • (1935) Confucius Saw Nancy and Essays about Nothing (Shanghai: Oriental)
  • (1936) My Words Second Volume (Pi Jing Ji) (Shanghai Times)

Works in English

  • (1935) My Country and My People, Reynal & Hitchcock, Inc., (A John Day Book)
  • (1936) A History of the Press and Public Opinion in China, Kelly and Walsh
  • (1937) The Importance of Living, Reynal & Hitchcock, Inc., (A John Day Book)
  • (1938) The Wisdom of Confucius, Random House, The Modern Library
  • (1939) Moment in Peking, The John Day Book Company
  • (1940) With Love & Irony, A John Day Book Company
  • (1941) A Leaf in the Storm, A John Day Book Company
  • (1942) The Wisdom of China and India, Random House
  • (1943) Between Tears & Laughter, A John Day Book Company
  • (1944) The Vigil of a Nation, A John Day Book Company
  • (1945) Between Tears and Laughter, written during World War II, as a bitter plea for the west to change its perspective of the world order. Published in London by Dorothy Crisp & Co Ltd.
  • (1947) The Gay Genius: The Life and Times of Su Tungpo, A John Day Book Company
  • (1948) Chinatown Family, A John Day Book Company
  • (1948) The Wisdom of Laotse, Random House
  • (1950) On the Wisdom of America, A John Day Book Company
  • (1951) Widow, Nun and Courtesan: Three Novelettes From the Chinese Translated and Adapted by Lin Yutang, A John Day Book Company
  • (1952) Famous Chinese Short Stories, retold by Lin Yutang, The John Day Book Company, reprinted 1952, Washington Square Press
  • (1953) The Vermilion Gate, A John Day Book Company
  • (1955) Looking Beyond, Prentice Hall (Published in England as The Unexpected island, Heinemann)
  • (1957) Lady Wu, World Publishing Company
  • (1958) The Secret Name, Farrar, Straus and Cudahy
  • (1959) The Chinese Way of Life, World Publishing Company
  • (1959) From Pagan to Christian, World Publishing Company
  • (1960) Imperial Peking: Seven Centuries of China, Crown Publishers
  • (1960) The Importance of Understanding, World Publishing Company
  • (1961) The Red Peony, World Publishing Company
  • (1962) The Pleasure of a Nonconformist, World Publishing Company
  • (1963) Juniper Loa, World Publishing Company
  • (1964) The Flight of Innocents, G. P. Putnam’s Sons
  • (1973) Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage, Hong Kong Chinese University

Saint of the Day for Saturday, February 21st, 2015 : St. Severian


Image of St. Severian

St. Severian

Bishop and martyr. The bishop of Scythopolis in Galilee. He attended the Council of Chalcedon (451) and took part in the complete triumph of the orthodox Christian cause against the heretics of the … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

Giuseppe Verdi: Nabucco – Va, pensiero (Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves)


Giuseppe Verdi: Nabucco – Va, pensiero (Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves)

Bernard Herrmann – North by Northwest: Conversation Piece


Bernard Herrmann – Conversation Piece

this pressed for reality check: Sacred Justice | Marian Mesrobian MacCurdy


Marian Mesrobian MacCurdy Headshot

Writer, professor, singer, author of three books–Sacred Justice, The Mind’s Eye, and Writing and Healing–and essays,articles, and poems.

Sacred Justice

Posted: 02/10/2015 9:57 am EST Updated: 02/10/2015 9:59 am EST

The year 2015 is the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide in which over a million Armenians were murdered by the Ottoman Turks. We are already seeing articles that commemorate the Genocide, but one story essential to understanding the Armenian response remains to be told–that of the leadership of Operation Nemesis, a clandestine effort to carry out the death sentences given to the Turkish architects of the Genocide who had escaped punishment.

I grew up in my maternal grandparents’ small two-story frame house in Syracuse, New York where heated, weighty conversations about Armenian history and culture took place, but I knew nothing about Operation Nemesis. I heard my how grandmother Eliza loaded rifles to protect the town in the siege of Dortyol during the 1909 Adana massacres in which 30,000 Armenians were murdered; how her brother, Mihran stole past Turkish guns to destroy the dam the Turks built to cripple the

via Sacred Justice | Marian Mesrobian MacCurdy.

>>>>find more stories HERE

this pressed as a history lesson: The Conquest of Constantinople, Hagia Sofia and Turkey — EU | Constantine Tzanos


Posted: 06/25/2014 12:02 pm EDT Updated: 08/25/2014 5:59 am EDT

Many countries have a national or independence day to celebrate their nationhood, or their freedom from the yoke imposed on them by another country or an imperial power.

In 1950, the Turkish Council of Ministers established the Istanbul Conquest Society which every year organizes, on May 29, the celebration of the conquest, by the Ottoman Turks, of Constantinople (Istanbul), the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire from 330 to 1453 AD. The conquest was celebrated again this year with speeches, fireworks and reenactments of the assault, heavily sanitized from what really happened, glorifying and attributing lofty ideals to a great human catastrophe.

The Turkish journalist Burak Bekdil wrote in 2012:

Professor Mehmet Görmez, head of the General Directorate for Religious Affairs, who, at least in words, promotes interfaith dialogue, declared ‘Conquest, is not the occupation of lands or the destroying of cities and castles. The conquest is the conquest of hearts! In our history there has never been occupation. In our history, there has always been conquest.’ Sadly, his commemorating remarks for Conquest 1453 echoed Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s sentimental attachment to the Muslim-Turkish supremacy theory. According to Professor Görmez, one of the two pillars of conquest is to ‘open up minds to Islam and hearts to the Quran.’ Therefore, Turkey’s top Muslim cleric reasoned, the Conquest of Constantinople was the conquest of hearts.

The historian S. Runciman in The Fall of Constantinople 1453 writes:

via The Conquest of Constantinople, Hagia Sofia and Turkey — EU | Constantine Tzanos.

Saint of the Day for Thursday, February 19th, 2015 : Bl. Alvarez of Corova


Image of Bl. Alvarez of Corova

Bl. Alvarez of Corova

Alvarez was born in either Lisbon, Portugal, or Cordova, Spain. He entered the Dominican convent at Cordova in 1368. He became known for his preaching prowess in Spain and Italy, was confessor and … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

quotation: Ralph Waldo Emerson Walden by Henry David Thoreau (Full Audiobook)


The days…come and go like muffled and veiled figures sent from a distant friendly party, but they say nothing, and if we do not use the gifts they bring, they carry them as silently away.

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Discuss

Walden by Henry David Thoreau (Full Audiobook)

Just a thought


Just a thought: How toanimated-gif-showcase-davidope animated-gif-showcase-emilio-gomariz create a myth? Simply forbid any reference to it!
 – George-B.

Copyright © 2010-2015 [George-B- euzicasa . All Rights Reserved.

 

 

 

today’s holiday: Bonden Festival (2015)


Bonden Festival (2015)

At the Bonden (or Bonten) Festival at Yokote in the Akita Prefecture of Japan, each district of the city has a team of young men to carry its bonden in a race to the Asahiokayama-jinja shrine. The bonden is a 10-foot (3-m) bamboo pole, draped with heavy cloth and topped by a platform holding a figure of the Animal of the Year. Those carrying the bonden gradually increase their pace until they are running, often pushing members of competing teams to the ground to be the first to the top. The team that arrives first wins the privilege of offering its bonden to the kami, or god. More… Discuss

ascetic


ascetic

Definition: (noun) A person who renounces material comforts and leads a life of austere self-discipline, especially as an act of religious devotion.
Synonyms: abstainer
Usage: His rough clothes and starved frame gave him the look of an ascetic, and he refused the food they tried to give him. Discuss.

Mind Your History: Ottoman wars in Europe (8 centuries of attack, countless losses)


Ottoman wars in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Ottoman wars in Europe, known as the Ottoman Wars or Turkish Wars for short, were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and a number of European states from the Late Medieval period to the 20th century. Military activities began with the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars from the late 13th century, complemented by the Bulgarian–Ottoman Wars and the Serbian–Ottoman Wars in the 14th century, whereupon the Ottoman Empire rapidly conquered the Balkans. The initial Serbian–Ottoman Wars, Croatian–Ottoman Wars and the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars allowed the further expansion of the Ottomans into Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Turkish political domination was nevertheless kept at bay after the unsuccessful Siege of Vienna (1529), and the Ottoman–Habsburg wars. The so-called Holy League of Christian states was able to partially reverse a number of Ottoman conquests during the Great Turkish War of the late 17th century. The empire was slow to modernise its military along European lines. Internal rebellions such as the Serbian revolution (1804–1817) and the Greek War of Independence (1821–1832), coupled with the frequent wars with Russia and Poland, weakened the empire, which collapsed at the conclusion of World War I with the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres.
Ottoman wars in Europe
Date 14th century–1918
Location Mostly Southeast Europe: Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, Wallachia, Moldova, Transylvania, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Slovenia, and Cyprus, but also Ukraine, Crimea, Hungary, Slovakia, Austria, Malta, Sicily, and the Eastern Mediterranean.
Result Ottoman Turks expand as far as Vienna at their peak, but are eventually pushed back to Eastern Thrace.
Belligerents
Holy League:

 Ottoman Empire
 Kingdom of France (from 1536)
Commanders and leaders
Coa Kastrioti Family.svg Skanderbeg

Rise (1299–1453)

Byzantine Empire

After striking a blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire in 1356 (it is disputed that the year may have been 1358 due to a change in the Byzantine calendar), (see Suleyman Pasha) which provided it a basis for operations in Europe, the Ottoman Empire started its westward expansion into the European continent in the middle of the 14th century.

Constantinople fell in 1453 after the Battle of Varna and the Second Battle of Kosovo.

All of Greece fell in 1460 (see: Ottoman Greece).

Bulgarian Empire

In the latter half of the 14th century the Ottoman Empire proceeded to advance north and west in the Balkans, completely subordinating Thrace and much of Macedonia after the Battle of Maritsa in 1371. Sofia fell in 1382, followed by the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire Tarnovgrad in 1393, and the northwest remnants of the state after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.

Serbian Empire

Main article: Serbian-Ottoman Wars

A significant opponent was the young Serbian Empire, which was worn down by a series of campaigns, notably in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which the leaders of both armies were killed, and which gained a central role in Serbian folklore as an epic battle and beginning of bad luck for Serbia. Much of Serbia fell to the Ottomans by 1459, the Kingdom of Hungary made a partial reconquest in 1480, but it fell again by 1499. Territories of Serbian Empire were divided between Ottoman Empire, Republic of Venice and Royal Hungary, with remaining territories being in some sort of a vassal status towards Hungary, until its own conquest.

Growth and Stagnation (1453–1683)

The defeat in 1456 at the Siege of Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade) held up Ottoman expansion into Catholic Europe for 70 years, though for one year (1480–1481) the Italian port of Otranto was taken, and in 1493 the Ottoman army successfully raided Croatia and Styria.[2]

Wars in Albania

The Ottomans took much of Albania in the 1385 Battle of Savra. The 1444 League of Lezhë briefly restored one part of Albania, until Ottomans captured complete territory of Albania after capture of Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501.

The Ottomans faced the fiercest resistance from Albanians who gathered around their leader, George Castriot, son of a feudal nobleman, and managed to fend off Ottoman attacks for more than 25 years, culminating at the siege of Shkodra in 1478–79. It has been argued that Albanian resilience halted the Ottoman advance along the Eastern flank of the Western Civilization, saving the Italian peninsula from Ottoman conquest. Sultan Mehmet II died in 1481, merely two years after the collapse of the Albanian resistance and one year after he launched an Italian campaign.

Conquest of Bosnia

Ottoman Empire first reached Bosnia in 1388 where they were defeated by Bosnian forces in the Battle of Bileca and then were forced to retreat.[3] After the fall of Serbia in 1389 Battle of Kosovo, where the Bosnians participated through Vlatko Vuković, the Turks began various offensives against the Kingdom of Bosnia. The Bosnians defended themselves but without much success. Bosnians resisted strongly in the Bosnian Royal castle of Jajce, where the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević tried to repel the Turks. The Ottoman army conquered it after a few months of the siege of Jajce, in 1463, and executed the last King of Bosnia, ending the Medieval Bosnia.

The House of Kosača held Herzegovina until 1482.

Croatia

 
Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the Klis Fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, an elite Croatian military faction of Uskoci was formed.

After the fall of the Kingdom of Bosnia into Ottoman hands in 1463, the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Croatia remained unprotected, the defense of which was left to Croatian gentry who kept smaller troops in the fortified border areas at their own expense. The Ottomans meanwhile reached the river Neretva and having conquered Herzegovina (Rama) in 1482, they encroached upon Croatia, skillfully avoiding the fortified border towns. A decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava field shook all of Croatia. However, it did not dissuade the Croats from making persistent attempts at defending themselves against the attacks of the superior Ottoman forces. After almost two hundred years of Croatian resistance against the Ottoman Empire, the victory in the Battle of Sisak marked the end of Ottoman rule and the Hundred Years’ Croatian-Ottoman War. The Viceroy’s army, chasing the fleeing remnants at Petrinja in 1595, sealed the victory.

Conquest of central parts of Hungarian Kingdom

The Kingdom of Hungary, which at the time spanned the area from Croatia in the west to Transylvania in the east, was also gravely threatened by Ottoman advances. The origins of such a deterioration can be traced back to the fall of the Árpád ruling dynasty and their subsequent replacement with the Angevin and Jagiellonian kings. After a series of inconclusive wars over the course of 176 years, the kingdom finally crumbled in the Battle of Mohács of 1526, after which most of it was either conquered or brought under Ottoman suzerainty. (The 150-year Turkish Occupation, as it is called in Hungary, lasted until the late 17th century but parts of the Hungarian Kingdom were under Ottoman rule from 1421 and until 1718.)

Conquest of Serbia/ Vojvodina rebellion

As a result of heavy losses inflicted by the Ottomans in the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the Serbian Empire had dissolved into several principalities. In the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, Serbian forces were again annihilated. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, constant struggles took place between various Serbian kingdoms on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The turning point was the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. In 1459 following the siege, the “temporary” Serbian capital of Smederevo fell. Montenegro was overrun by 1499. Belgrade was the last major Balkan city to endure Ottoman forces. Serbs, Hungarians and European crusaders defeated the Turkish army in the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. After repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrade finally fell in 1521, along with the greater part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Vojvodina rebellion between 1526/28 saw the proclamation of Second Serbian Empire in Vojvodina, which was among last Serbian territories to resist the Ottomans. The Serbian Despotate fell in 1540, thus marking the two-century-long Ottoman conquest of Serbian principalities.

 
Ottoman advances resulted in some of the captive Christians being carried deep into Turkish territory.

1463–1503: Wars with Venice

The wars with the Republic of Venice began in 1463, until a favorable peace treaty was signed in 1479 after the lengthy siege of Shkodra (1478–79). In 1480, now no longer hampered by the Venetian fleet, the Ottomans besieged Rhodes and captured Otranto.[4] War with Venice resumed from 1499 to 1503. In 1500, a Spanish-Venetian army commanded by Gonzalo de Córdoba took Kefalonia, temporarily stopping the Ottoman offensive on eastern Venetian territories. Which is resumed after the Ottoman victory of Preveza, fought between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in 1538.

1462–1483: Wallachian and Moldavian campaigns

In 1462, Mehmed II was driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. However, the latter was imprisoned by Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. This caused outrage among many influential Hungarian figures and Western admirers of Vlad’s success in the battle against the Ottoman Empire (and his early recognition of the threat it posed), including high-ranking members of the Vatican. Because of this, Matthias granted him the status of distinguished prisoner. Eventually, Dracula was freed in late 1475 and was sent with an army of Hungarian and Serbian soldiers to recover Bosnia from the Ottomans. He defeated Ottoman Forces and he gained his first victory against the Ottoman Empire. Upon this victory, Ottoman Forces entered Wallachia in 1476 under the command of Mehmed II.[clarification needed] During the war, Vlad was killed and, according to some sources, his head was sent to Constantinople to discourage the other rebellions.

 
Ottoman soldiers in the territory of present-day Hungary

The Turkish advance was temporarily halted after Stephen the Great of Moldavia defeated the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II‘s armies at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, which was one of the greatest defeats of the Ottoman Empire until that time. Stephen was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamţului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen’s search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had “cut off the pagan‘s right hand” – as he put it in a letter.

In 1482, Bosnia was completely added to Ottoman Lands.

1526–1566: Conquest of Hungarian Kingdom

After the Mohács, only the southwestern part of the Hungarian Kingdom was actually conquered,[5] but the Ottoman campaign continued with small campaigns and major summer invasions (troops returned south of the Balkan Mountains before winter) through the land between 1526 and 1556. In 1529, they mounted their first major attack on the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (with up to 300,000 troops in earlier accounts, 100,000 according to newer research[who?]), attempting to conquer the city of Vienna (Siege of Vienna). In 1532, another attack on Vienna with 60,000 troops in the main army was held up by the small fort (800 defenders) of Kőszeg in western Hungary, fighting a suicidal battle.[6] The invading troops were held up until winter was close and the Habsburg Empire had assembled a force of 80,000 at Vienna. The Ottoman troops returned home through Styria, laying waste to the country.

In the meantime, in 1538, the Ottoman Empire invaded Moldavia. In 1541, another campaign in Hungary took Buda and Pest (which today together form the Hungarian capital Budapest) with a largely bloodless trick: after concluding peace talks with an agreement, troops stormed the open gates of Buda in the night. In retaliation for a failed Austrian counter-attack in 1542, the conquest of the western half of central Hungary was finished in the 1543 campaign that took both the most important royal ex-capital, Székesfehérvár, and the ex-seat of the cardinal, Esztergom. However, the army of 35–40,000 men was not enough for Suleiman to mount another attack on Vienna. A temporary truce was signed between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires in 1547, which was soon disregarded by the Habsburgs.

 
The Ottoman campaign in Hungary in 1566, Crimean Tatars as vanguard

In the major but moderately successful campaign of 1552, two armies took the eastern part of central Hungary, pushing the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the second (inner) line of northern végvárs (border castles), which Hungary originally built as defence against an expected second Mongol invasion—hence, afterwards, borders on this front changed little. For Hungarians, the 1552 campaign was a series of tragic losses and some heroic (but pyrrhic) victories, which entered folklore—most notably the fall of Drégely (a small fort defended to the last man by just 146 men[7]), and the Siege of Eger. The latter was a major végvár with more than 2,000 men, without outside help. They faced two Ottoman armies (150,000 troops by earlier accounts, 60-75,000 men according to newer research[who?]), which were surprisingly unable to take the castle within five weeks. (The fort was later taken in 1596.) Finally, the 1556 campaign secured Ottoman influence over Transylvania (which had fallen under Habsburg control for a time), while failing to gain any ground on the western front, being tied down in the second (after 1555) unsuccessful siege of the southwestern Hungarian border castle of Szigetvár.

The Ottoman Empire conducted another major war against the Habsburgs and their Hungarian territories between 1566 and 1568. The 1566 Battle of Szigetvar, the third siege in which the fort was finally taken, but the aged Sultan died, deterring that year’s push for Vienna.

1522–1573: Rhodes, Malta and the Holy League

 
The siege of Malta – Arrival of the Turkish Fleet by Matteo Perez d’Aleccio

Ottoman forces invaded and captured the island of Rhodes in 1522, after two previous failed attempts (see Siege of Rhodes).[8] The Knights of Rhodes were banished to Malta, which was in turn besieged in 1565.

After a siege of three months, the Ottoman army failed to control all of the Maltese forts. Delaying the Ottomans until bad weather conditions and the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements, made Ottoman commander Kızılahmedli Mustafa Pasha quit the siege. Around 22000 to 48000 Ottoman forces against 6000 to 8500 Maltese forces, the Ottomans failed to conquer Malta, sustaining about 10000 losses, including one of the greatest Muslim corsair generals of the time, Dragut, and were repulsed. Had Malta fallen, Sicily and mainland Italy could have fallen under the threat of an Ottoman invasion. The victory of Malta during this event, which is nowadays known as the Great Siege of Malta, turned the tide and gave Europe hopes and motivation. It also marked the importance of the Knights of Saint John and their relevant presence in Malta to aid Christendom in its defence against the Muslim conquest.

The Ottoman naval victories of this period were in the Battle of Preveza (1538) and the Battle of Djerba (1560).

 
Battle of Lepanto on 7 October 1571

The Mediterranean campaign, which lasted from 1570 to 1573, resulted in the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus. A Holy League of Venice, the Papal States, Spain, the Knights of Saint John in Malta and initially Portugal was formed against the Ottoman Empire during this period. The League’s victory in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) briefly ended Ottoman predominance at sea.

1570–1571: Conquest of Cyprus

In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, and laid siege to Nicosia. In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell—September 9, every public building and palace was looted. Word of the superior Ottoman numbers spread, and a few days later Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot. Famagusta, however, resisted and put up a defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571.

The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months later, the naval forces of the Holy League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history. The victory over the Turks, however, came too late to help Cyprus, and the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries.

In 1570, the Ottoman Empire first conquered Cyprus, and Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Ottoman governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice. Simultaneously, the Pope formed a coalition between the Papal States, Malta, Spain, Venice and several other Italian states, with no real result. In 1573 the Venetians left, removing the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

1593–1669: Austria, Venice and Wallachia

 
Turkish Empire, drawn by Hondius, just at the end of the Long War, 1606

1620-1621: Poland

Was fought over Moldavia. The Polish army advanced into Moldavia and was defeated in the Battle of Ţuţora. The Next year, the Poles repelled the Turkish invasion in the Battle of Khotyn. Another conflict started in 1633 but was soon settled.

1657–1683 Conclusion of Wars with Habsburgs

In 1657, Transylvania, the Eastern part of the former Hungarian Kingdom that after 1526 gained semi-independence while paying tribute to the Ottoman Empire, felt strong enough to attack the Tatars (then the Empire’s vassals) to the East, and later the Ottoman Empire itself, that came to the Tatars’ defence. The war lasted until 1662, ending in defeat for the Hungarians. The Western part of the Hungarian Kingdom (Partium) was annexed and placed under direct Ottoman control, marking the greatest territorial extent of Ottoman rule in the former Hungarian Kingdom. At the same time, there was another campaign against Austria between 1663 and 1664. However, the Turks were defeated in the Battle of Saint Gotthard on 1 August 1664 by Raimondo Montecuccoli, forcing them to enter the Peace of Vasvár with Austria, which held until 1683.[9]

 
Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683

1672–1676: Poland

A year after Poland beat back a Tatar invasion, war with Poland 1672–1676, Jan Sobieski distinguishes himself and becomes the King of Poland.

1683–1699: Great Turkish War – Loss of Hungary and the Morea

The Great Turkish War started in 1683, with a grand invasion force of 140,000 men[10] marching on Vienna, supported by Protestant Hungarian noblemen rebelling against Habsburg rule. To stop the invasion, another Holy League was formed, composed of Austria and Poland (notably in the Battle of Vienna), Venetians and the Russian Empire. After winning the Battle of Vienna, the Holy League gained the upper hand, and conducted the re-conquest of Hungary (Buda and Pest were retaken in 1686, the former under the command of a Swiss-born convert to Islam). At the same time, the Venetians launched an expedition into Greece, which conquered the Peloponnese. During the 1687 Venetian attack on the city of Athens (conquered by the Ottomans), the Ottomans turned the ancient Parthenon into an ammunitions storehouse. A Venetian mortar hit the Parthenon, detonating the Ottoman gunpowder stored inside and partially destroying it.[11]

The war ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Prince Eugene of Savoy first distinguished himself in 1683 and remained the most important Austrian commander until 1718.[12][13]

Stagnation (1699–1828)

18th century

 
Austrian conquest of Belgrade: 1717 by Eugene of Savoy, during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18

The second Russo-Turkish War took place 1710–1711 near Prut. It was instigated by Charles XII of Sweden after the defeat at the Battle of Poltava, in order to tie down Russia with the Ottoman Empire and gain some breathing space in the increasingly unsuccessful Great Northern War. The Russians were severely beaten but not annihilated, and after the Treaty of Prut was signed the Ottoman Empire disengaged, allowing Russia to refocus its energies on the defeat of Sweden.

Another war with Austria and Venice started in 1714. Austria conquered the remaining areas of the former Hungarian Kingdom, ending with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718.

Another war with Russia started in 1735. The Austrians joined in 1737; the war ended in 1739 with the Treaty of Belgrade (with Austria) and the Treaty of Niš (with Russia).

The fourth Russo-Turkish War started in 1768 and ended in 1774 with the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji.

Yet another war with Russia and Austria started in 1787; it ended by Austria with the 1791 Treaty of Sistova, and with the 1792 Treaty of Jassy with Russia.

An invasion of Egypt and Syria by Napoleon I of France took place in 1798–99, but ended due to British intervention.

Napoleon’s capture of Malta on his way to Egypt resulted in the unusual alliance of Russia and the Ottomans resulting in a joint naval expedition to the Ionian Islands. Their successful capture of these islands led to the setting up of the Septinsular Republic.

19th century

The First Serbian Uprising took place in 1804, followed by the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815; Serbia was fully liberated by 1867. Officially recognized independence followed in 1878.

The sixth Russo-Turkish War began in 1806 and ended in May 1812, just 13 days before Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

Moldavian-Wallachian (Romanian) Uprising (starting simultaneously with the Greek Revolution).

The Greek War of Independence, taking place from 1821 to 1832, in which the Great Powers intervened from 1827, including Russia (seventh Russo–Turkish war, 1828–1829), achieved independence for Greece; the Treaty of Adrianople ended the war.

Ottoman decline (1828–1908)

 
Ottoman capitulation at Nikopol, 1877

Ottoman Wars with Bosnia 1831–1836, 1836–1837, 1841.

War with Albania 1820-1822, 1830-1835, 1847.

War with Montenegro 1852–1853.

Eighth Russo-Turkish war 1853–1856, Crimean War, in which the United Kingdom and France joined the war on the side of the Ottoman Empire. Ended with the Treaty of Paris.

Second war with Montenegro in 1858–1859.

War with Montenegro, Bosnia and Serbia in 1862.

Cretan Uprising in 1866.

Bulgarian Rebellion in 1876.

The ninth and final Russo–Turkish war started in 1877, the same year the Ottomans withdrew from the Conference of Constantinople. Romania then declared its independence and waged war on Turkey, joined by Serbians and Bulgarians and finally the Russians (see also Russian Foreign Affairs after the Crimean War). Austria occupied Bosnia in 1878. The Russians and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano in early 1878. After deliberations at the Congress of Berlin, which was attended by all the Great Powers of the time, the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 recognized several territorial changes.

Eastern Rumelia was granted some autonomy in 1878, rebelled and joined Bulgaria in 1885. Thessalia ceded to Greece in 1881, but after Greece attacked the Ottoman Empire to help the Second Cretan Uprising in 1897, Greece was broken in Thessalia.

Dissolution (1908–1922)

 
Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908

Italo-Turkish War

Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising

Bulgarian insurrection from 1903. See Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising.

1912–1913: Balkan Wars

Two Balkan Wars, in 1912 and 1913, involved further action against the Ottoman Empire in Europe. The Balkan League first conquered Macedonia and most of Thrace from the Ottoman Empire, and then fell out over the division of the spoils. Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, after several rebellions and uprisings. This reduced Turkey’s possessions in Europe (Rumelia) to their present borders in Eastern Thrace.

World War I

World War I was the ultimate cause of the collapse of the Empire, which was no more. However, during the operations the Empire prevented the British Royal Navy from passing to Istanbul in the famous Battle of Gallipoli. Nevertheless, Turkey lost most of the rest of what it had left in Europe. Leading to the fall of the empire.

See also

Scotland James IV[citation needed]

Saint of the Day for Monday, February 16th, 2015 : St. Daniel


Image of St. Daniel

St. Daniel

Died in 309, He and four companions, Elias, Isaias, Jeremy and Samuel were Egyptians who visited Christians condemned to work in the mines of Cilicia during Maximus persecution, to comfort them. … continue reading

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Johnny Cash-The Man Comes Around “…It’s hard for thee to kick against the pricks…”


Johnny Cash-The Man Comes Around


Uploaded on Sep 6, 2009/ 13,907,847 views 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ME9Xp…

And I heard as it were the noise of thunder
One of the four beasts saying come and see and I saw
And behold a white horse

There’s a man going around taking names
And he decides who to free and who to blame
Everybody won’t be treated all the same
There’ll be a golden ladder reaching down
When the Man comes around

The hairs on your arm will stand up
At the terror in each sip and in each sup
Will you partake of that last offered cup?
Or disappear into the potter’s ground
When the Man comes around

Hear the trumpets, hear the pipers
One hundred million angels singing
Multitudes are marching to the big kettledrum
Voices calling, voices crying
Some are born and some are dying
It’s Alpha and Omega’s kingdom come

And the whirlwind is in the thorn tree
The virgins are all trimming their wicks
The whirlwind is in the thorn tree
It’s hard for thee to kick against the pricks

Till Armageddon no shalam, no shalom
Then the father hen will call his chickens home
The wise man will bow down before the throne
And at His feet they’ll cast their golden crowns
When the Man comes around

Whoever is unjust let him be unjust still
Whoever is righteous let him be righteous still
Whoever is filthy let him be filthy still
Listen to the words long written down
When the Man comes around

Hear the trumpets, hear the pipers
One hundred million angels singing
Multitudes are marching to the big kettledrum
Voices calling and voices crying
Some are born and some are dying
It’s Alpha and Omega’s kingdom come

And the whirlwind is in the thorn tree
The virgins are all trimming their wicks
The whirlwind is in the thorn tree
It’s hard for thee to kick against the pricks

In measured hundred weight and penney pound
When the Man comes around.

Close (Spoken part)
And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts
And I looked and behold, a pale horse
And his name that sat on him was Death
And Hell followed with him.

Today In History. What Happened This Day In History


Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

February 14

Happy Valentine’s Day!Today is St. Valentine’s Day, the feast day of two Christian martyrs named Valentine: one a priest and physician, the other the Bishop of Terni. Both are purported to have been beheaded on this day. The custom of sending handmade ‘valentines’ to one’s beloved became popular during the 17th century and was first commercialized in the United States in the 1840s.

 

1349   2,000 Jews are burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
1400   The deposed Richard II is murdered in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire.
1549   Maximilian II, brother of the Emperor Charles V, is recognized as the future king of Bohemia.
1779   American Loyalists are defeated by Patriots at Kettle Creek, Ga.
1797   The Spanish fleet is destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
1848   James Polk becomes the first U.S. President to be photographed in office by Matthew Brady.
1859   Oregon is admitted as the thirty-third state.
1870   Esther Morris becomes the world’s first female justice of the peace.
1876   Rival inventors Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both apply for patents for the telephone.
1900   General Roberts invades South Africa’s Orange Free State with 20,000 British troops.
1904   The “Missouri Kid” is captured in Kansas.
1912   Arizona becomes the 48th state in the Union.
1915   Kaiser Wilhelm II invites the U.S. Ambassador to Berlin in order to confer on the war.
1918   Warsaw demonstrators protest the transfer of Polish territory to the Ukraine.
1920   The League of Women Voters is formed in Chicago in celebration of the imminent ratification of the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote.
1924   Thomas Watson founds International Business Machines Corp.
1929   Chicago gang war between Al Capone and George “Bugs” Moran culminates with several Moran confederates being gunned down in the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre.
1939   Germany launches the battleship Bismark.
1940   Britain announces that all merchant ships will be armed.
1942   Japanese paratroopers attack Sumatra. Aidan MacCarthy‘s RAF unit flew to Palembang, in eastern Sumatra, where 30 Royal Australian Air Force Lockheed A-28 Hudson bombers were waiting.
1945   800 Allied aircraft firebomb the German city of Dresden. Smaller followup bombing raids last until April with a total death toll of between 35,000 to 130,000 civillians.
1945   The siege of Budapest ends as the Soviets take the city. Only 785 German and Hungarian soldiers managed to escape.
1949   The United States charges the Soviet Union with interning up to 14 million in labor camps.
1955   A Jewish couple loses their fight to adopt Catholic twins as the U.S. Supreme Court refuses to rule on state law.
1957   The Georgia state senate outlaws interracial athletics.
1965   Malcolm X’s home is firebombed. No injuries are reported.
1971   Moscow publicizes a new five-year plan geared to expanding consumer production.
1973   The United States and Hanoi set up a group to channel reconstruction aid directly to Hanoi.
1979   Armed guerrillas attack the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
1985   Vietnamese troops surround the main Khmer Rouge base at Phnom Malai.
1989   Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini charges that Salman Rushdie’s novel, The Satanic Verses, is blasphemous and issues an edict (fatwa) calling on Muslims to kill Rushdie.
Born on February 14
1760   Richard Allen, first black ordained by a Methodist-Episcopal church.
1817   Frederick Douglass, slave, and later, activist and author.
1819   Christopher Latham Sholes, inventor of the first practical typewriter.
1845   Quinton Hogg, English philanthropist.
1859   George Washington Gale Ferris, inventor of the Ferris Wheel.
1894   Jack Benny, comedian, radio and television performer…and violinist.
1894   Mary Lucinda Cardwell Dawson, founded the National Negro Opera Company (NNOC) and was appointed to President John F. Kennedy’s National Committee on Music.

- See more at: http://www.historynet.com/today-in-history#sthash.8Ow54pqd.dpuf

today’s image: Valentine’s Day (Image: Courtesy of My Scrap Album)



Valentine’s Day
Valentine’s Day probably has its origins in the Roman feast of Lupercalia, which was held on February 15. One of the traditions associated with this feast was young men drawing the names of young women whom they would court during the following year–a custom that may have grown into the giving of valentine’s cards. Another legend associated with Valentine’s Day was the martyrdom of the Christian priest St. Valentine on February 14. The Roman emperor believed that men would remain soldiers longer if they were not married, but Valentine earned the wrath of the emperor by secretly marrying young couples. The first American publisher of valentines was printer and artist Esther Howland, who sold elaborate handmade cards for as much as $35 at the end of the 19th century. Complex and beautiful machine-made cards brought the custom of valentine exchanging within the reach of many Americans.

Image: Courtesy of My Scrap Album

- See more at: http://www.historynet.com/picture-of-the-day#sthash.nQwYsmdF.dpuf

Saint of the Day for Saturday, February 14th, 2015 :St. Valentine


Image of St. Valentine

St. Valentine

Click Here for St. Valentine Prayer’s Valentine was a holy priest in Rome, who, with St. Marius and his family, assisted the martyrs in the persecution under Claudius II. He was apprehended, and … continue reading

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Saint of the Day for Friday, February 13th, 2015 : St. Catherine de Ricci


Image of St. Catherine de Ricci

St. Catherine de Ricci

St. Catherine was born in Florence in 1522. Her baptismal name was Alexandrina, but she took the name of Catherine upon entering religion. From her earliest infancy she manifested a great love of … continue reading

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Historic musical moments: Death and Transfiguration (Tod und Verklärung, Op. 24) : Richard Strauss , great compositions/performances


Historic Musical Moments:  Death and Transfiguration (Tod und Verklärung, Op. 24) : Richard Strauss

Must read: Ebola in Liberia: According to Dr. Kwan Kew Lai’s Blog


Today is the Feast of St. Kew, a little known Welsh saint, probably of the fifth century. She was the sister of a hermit called Docco who founded a monastery at or near the village of St. Kew which is now in Cornwall, England. Nothing much is known about her except that she was able to cause some wild boars to obey her, this ability caught the attention of her said brother who condescended to finally speak to her. Why they were not on speaking terms to begin with was a mystery.What is in a name? Kew is my given name. It would be unheard of to have a saint with my name especially someone from Asia. My daughter, Cara, was told by her Confraternity Christian Development (CCD) teacher that everyone has a saint who bears his or her name. She searched in vain for a saint with her name.

via Ebola in Liberia.

***featured on by NPR: The Ebola Diaries: Trying To Heal Patients You Can’t Touch http://n.pr/1EaPxUw

Saint of the Day for Wednesday, February 11th, 2015 : St. Paschal


Image of St. Paschal

St. Paschal

Paschal was the son of Bonosus, a Roman. He studied at the Lateran, was named head of St. Stephen’s monastery, which housed pilgrims to Rome, and was elected Pope to succeed Pope Stephen IV (V) on … continue reading

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How to meditate for beginners at home (www.ishakriya.com for FULL guided meditation technique)


How to meditate for beginners at home (www.ishakriya.com for FULL guided meditation technique)

Guided Meditation (Shavasana) – Deep Relaxation


Guided Meditation (Shavasana) – Deep Relaxation

*Breathing Techniques* (Yoga, Meditation, Relaxation, Stress, Cancer, Blood Pressure) Kapalbhati


*Breathing Techniques* (Yoga, Meditation, Relaxation, Stress, Cancer, Blood Pressure) Kapalbhati


Documentary | The Boy With Divine Powers – History Channel – National Geographic

If you care about God’s handiwork you’ll protect nature, Pope says


If you care about God‘s handiwork you’ll protect nature, Pope says
Lake Mountain Mist Nature (CC0 1.0).

By Ann Schneible

.- Set to finish his encyclical on the environment next month, Pope Francis said during his daily Mass at the Vatican on Monday that Christians who fail to safeguard nature do not care about God’s handiwork.

“A Christian who does not protect creation, who does not allow it to grow, is a Christian who does not care about God’s labors” which are borne out of God’s love for us, the Pope said Feb. 9.

His remarks were based in part on the day’s first reading from Genesis 1:1-19, comparing God’s creation of the universe with the Jesus’ “re-creation” of that which “had been ruined by sin.”

Pope Francis announced to journalists on his way to the Philippines last month that plans to have his much-anticipated encyclical on man’s relationship with creation finished in March. 

More here

Portal:Christianity/DYK Archive ( From Wikipedia)


Wednesday

…that the Bible was the greatest passion of Sir Isaac Newton, who said, “I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God, written by those who were inspired… I study the Bible daily”?
…that the Black Madonna of Częstochowa is credited with miraculously saving the Polish monastery of Jasna Góra (English: Bright Hill) from a Swedish 17th century invasion, known as The Deluge?
…that taking $370m in the United States, Mel Gibson‘s film The Passion of the Christ became the highest-grossing R-rated film ever made?
…that, with 74% of its population Catholic and 15.4% Protestant, Brazil has the largest Christian population in the world?

Saint of the Day for Tuesday, February 10th, 2015 : St. Scholastica


Image of St. Scholastica

St. Scholastica

St. Scholastica, sister of St. Benedict, consecrated her life to God from her earliest youth. After her brother went to Monte Cassino, where he established his famous monastery, she took up her abode … continue reading

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Beethoven piano sonata no. 18, op. 31, in E flat major, Piano: Wilhelm Kempff , great compositions/performances


Beethoven piano sonata no. 18 op. 31 in E flat major

Just a thought: “AUSTERITY is the direct result of cannibalistic banking (lender’s) schemes.”


Just a thought: “AUSTERITY is the direct result of cannibalistic Banking (Lender’s) schemes.”

-George-B.


Copyright © 2015 [George-B]. All Rights Reserved.

 

 

just a thought: Be the torch carrier, then you can always know you’re following the right torch!” -George-B.


just a thought:
“Be the torch carrier, then you can always know you’re following the right torch!”

-George-B.


Copyright © 2015 [George-B]. All Rights Reserved.

 

 

just a thought just a thought: Christianity already lost many churches under the Yatagan. Can Christians afford to loose St.Peters Basilica too? – George-B.


just a thought: “Christianity already lost many churches under the Yatagan. Can Christians afford to loose St.Peters Basilica too?
– George-B. 


Copyright © 2015 [George-B]. All Rights Reserved.

read more  about :  Yatagan

Further reading:  HereHere

 

Saint of the Day for Tuesday, February 10th, 2015: St. Scholastica


Image of St. Scholastica

St. Scholastica

St. Scholastica, sister of St. Benedict, consecrated her life to God from her earliest youth. After her brother went to Monte Cassino, where he established his famous monastery, she took up her abode … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

today’s holiday: Feast of St. Paul’s Shipwreck (2015)


Feast of St. Paul’s Shipwreck (2015)

This feast is a commemoration in Malta of the shipwreck of St. Paul on the island in 60 CE, an event described in the New Testament. Paul was a prisoner on a ship, and when storms drove the ship aground, Paul was welcomed by the “barbarous people” (meaning they were not Greco-Romans). According to legend, he got their attention when a snake bit him on the hand but did him no harm, and he then healed people of diseases. Paul is the patron saint of Malta and snakebite victims. The day is a public holiday observed with family gatherings and religious ceremonies and processions. More… Discuss

Human Civilization Heritage – Historic Sites: Petra – Jordan (Listed by UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists) and Smithsonian Magazine’s – “28 Places to See Before You Die”


Petra

This article is about the Jordanian ancient city of Petra. For other uses, see Petra (disambiguation).
Petra
Al Khazneh.jpg

Al Khazneh or The Treasury at Petra
Location Ma’an Governorate, Jordan
Coordinates 30°19′43″N 35°26′31″ECoordinates: 30°19′43″N 35°26′31″E
Elevation 810 m (2,657 ft)
Built possibly as early as 5th century BC [1]
Visitation 580,000 (in 2007)
Governing body Petra Region Authority
 
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, iv
Designated 1985 (9th session)
Reference no. 326
State Party Jordan
Region Arab States
 
Website www.visitpetra.jo
Petra is located in Jordan

Petra
 
Location of Petra in Jordan

Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα) is a historical and archaeological city in the southern Jordanian governorate of Ma’an that is famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. Another name for Petra is the Rose City due to the color of the stone out of which it is carved.

Established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans,[2] it is a symbol of Jordan, as well as Jordan’s most-visited tourist attraction.[3] It lies on the slope of Jebel al-Madhbah (identified by some as the biblical Mount Hor[4]) in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985.

The site remained unknown to the Western world until 1812, when it was introduced by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. It was described as “a rose-red city half as old as time” in a Newdigate Prize-winning poem by John William Burgon. UNESCO has described it as “one of the most precious cultural properties of man’s cultural heritage”.[5] See: UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Petra was chosen by the Smithsonian Magazine as one of the “28 Places to See Before You Die”.[6]

Geography

Pliny the Elder and other writers identify Petra as the capital of the Nabataeans and the center of their caravan trade. Enclosed by towering rocks and watered by a perennial stream, Petra not only possessed the advantages of a fortress, but controlled the main commercial routes which passed through it to Gaza in the west, to Bosra and Damascus in the north, to Aqaba and Leuce Come on the Red Sea, and across the desert to the Persian Gulf.

Map of Petra

 

The narrow passage (Siq) that leads to Petra

Excavations have demonstrated that it was the ability of the Nabataeans to control the water supply that led to the rise of the desert city, creating an artificial oasis. The area is visited by flash floods and archaeological evidence demonstrates the Nabataeans controlled these floods by the use of dams, cisterns and water conduits. These innovations stored water for prolonged periods of drought, and enabled the city to prosper from its sale.[7][8]

In ancient times, Petra might have been approached from the south on a track leading across the plain of Petra, around Jabal Haroun (“Aaron’s Mountain”), where the Tomb of Aaron, said to be the burial-place of Aaron, brother of Moses, is located. Another approach was possibly from the high plateau to the north. Today, most modern visitors approach the site from the east. The impressive eastern entrance leads steeply down through a dark, narrow gorge (in places only 3–4 m (9.8–13.1 ft) wide) called the Siq (“the shaft”), a natural geological feature formed from a deep split in the sandstone rocks and serving as a waterway flowing into Wadi Musa. At the end of the narrow gorge stands Petra’s most elaborate ruin, Al Khazneh (popularly known as and meaning “the Treasury”), hewn into the sandstone cliff. While remaining in remarkably preserved condition, the face of the structure is marked by hundreds of bullet holes made by the local Bedouin tribes that hoped to dislodge riches that were once rumored to be hidden within it.[9]

A little farther from the Treasury, at the foot of the mountain called en-Nejr, is a massive theatre, positioned so as to bring the greatest number of tombs within view. At the point where the valley opens out into the plain, the site of the city is revealed with striking effect. The amphitheatre has been cut into the hillside and into several of the tombs during its construction. Rectangular gaps in the seating are still visible. Almost enclosing it on three sides are rose-colored mountain walls, divided into groups by deep fissures and lined with knobs cut from the rock in the form of towers.

History

One of the many dwellings in Petra

 

General view of Petra

 

Some of the earliest recorded farmers settled in Beidha, a pre-pottery settlement just north of Petra, by 7000 BC.[10] Petra is listed in Egyptian campaign accounts and the Amarna letters as Pel, Sela or Seir. Though the city was founded relatively late, a sanctuary has existed there since very ancient times. Stations 19 through 26 of the stations list of Exodus are places associated with Petra.[11] This part of the country was biblically assigned to the Horites, the predecessors of the Edomites.[12] The habits of the original natives may have influenced the Nabataean custom of burying the dead and offering worship in half-excavated caves. Although Petra is usually identified with Sela, which means a rock, the Biblical references[13] refer to it as “the cleft in the rock”, referring to its entrance. In the parallel passage, however, Sela is understood to mean simply “the rock” (2 Chronicles xxv. 12, see LXX).

Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews iv. 7, 1~ 4, 7), Eusebius and Jerome (Onom. sacr. 286, 71. 145, 9; 228, 55. 287, 94) assert that Rekem was the native name, and this name appears in the Dead Sea Scrolls[14] as a prominent Edomite site most closely describing Petra, and associated with Mount Seir. But in the Aramaic versions, Rekem is the name of Kadesh, implying that Josephus may have confused the two places. The Semitic name of the city, if not Sela, remains unknown. The passage in Diodorus Siculus (xix. 94–97) which describes the expeditions which Antigonus sent against the Nabataeans in 312 BC is understood to throw some light upon the history of Petra, but the “petra” referred to as a natural fortress and place of refuge cannot be a proper name and the description implies that the town was not yet in existence.

 
The Rekem Inscription before it was buried by the bridge abutments.

The name “Rekem” was inscribed in the rock wall of the Wadi Musa opposite the entrance to the Siq,[15] but about twenty years ago[timeframe?] the Jordanians built a bridge over the wadi and this inscription was buried beneath tons of concrete.[citation needed]

More satisfactory evidence of the date of the earliest Nabataean settlement may be obtained from an examination of the tombs. Two types of tombs have been distinguished: the Nabataean and the Greco-Roman. The Nabataean type starts from the simple pylon-tomb with a door set in a tower crowned by a parapet ornament, in imitation of the front of a dwelling-house. Then, after passing through various stages, the full Nabataean type is reached, retaining all the native features and at the same time exhibiting characteristics which are partly Egyptian and partly Greek. Of this type close parallels exist in the tomb-towers at Mada’in Saleh in north Arabia, which bear long Nabataean inscriptions and supply a date for the corresponding monuments at Petra. Then comes a series of tombfronts which terminate in a semicircular arch, a feature derived from north Syria. Finally come the elaborate façades copied from the front of a Roman temple; however, all traces of native style have vanished. The exact dates of the stages in this development cannot be fixed. Few inscriptions of any length have been found at Petra, perhaps because they have perished with the stucco or cement which was used upon many of the buildings. The simple pylon-tombs which belong to the pre-Hellenic age serve as evidence for the earliest period. It is not known how far back in this stage the Nabataean settlement goes, but it does not go back farther than the 6th century BC. A period follows in which the dominant civilization combines Greek, Egyptian and Syrian elements, clearly pointing to the age of the Ptolemies. Towards the close of the 2nd century BC, when the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms were equally depressed, the Nabataean kingdom came to the front. Under Aretas III Philhellene, (c.85–60 BC), the royal coins begin. The theatre was probably excavated at that time, and Petra must have assumed the aspect of a Hellenistic city. In the reign of Aretas IV Philopatris, (9 BC–40 AD), the tombs of the el-I~ejr[clarification needed] type may be dated, and perhaps also the High-place.

Roman rule

In 106 AD, when Cornelius Palma was governor of Syria, the part of Arabia under the rule of Petra was absorbed into the Roman Empire as part of Arabia Petraea and became its capital. The native dynasty came to an end but the city continued to flourish under Roman rule. It was around this time that the Petra Roman Road was built. A century later, in the time of Alexander Severus, when the city was at the height of its splendor, the issue of coinage comes to an end. There is no more building of sumptuous tombs, owing apparently to some sudden catastrophe, such as an invasion by the neo-Persian power under the Sassanid Empire. Meanwhile, as Palmyra (fl. 130–270) grew in importance and attracted the Arabian trade away from Petra, the latter declined. It appears, however, to have lingered on as a religious centre. Another Roman road was constructed at the site. Epiphanius of Salamis (c.315–403) writes that in his time a feast was held there on December 25 in honor of the virgin Khaabou (Chaabou) and her offspring Dushara (Haer. 51).[citation needed]

Byzantine era – decline

Petra declined rapidly under Roman rule, in large part from the revision of sea-based trade routes. In 363 an earthquake destroyed many buildings, and crippled the vital water management system.[16] The last inhabitants abandoned the city (further weakened by another major earthquake in 551) when the Arabs conquered the region in 663. The ruins of Petra were an object of curiosity in the Middle Ages and were visited by Sultan Baibars of Egypt towards the end of the 13th century. The first European to describe them was Swiss traveller Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812.

Because the structures weakened with age, many of the tombs became vulnerable to thieves, and many treasures were stolen. In 1929, a four-person team, consisting of British archaeologists Agnes Conway and George Horsfield, Palestinian physician and folklore expert Dr Tawfiq Canaan and Dr Ditlef Nielsen, a Danish scholar, excavated and surveyed Petra.[17]

T. E. Lawrence

 Petra siq in 1947 (left) compared with the same location in 2013

In October 1917, as part of a general effort to divert Ottoman military resources away from the British advance before the Third Battle of Gaza, a revolt of Syrians and Arabians in Petra was led by British Army officer T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) against the Ottoman regime. The Bedouin women living in the vicinity of Petra and under the leadership of Sheik Khallil’s wife were gathered to fight in the revolt of the city. The rebellions, with the support of English military, were able to devastate the Ottoman forces.[18]

Religion

 The Theatre
See also: Nabataean art

The Nabataeans worshipped the Arab gods and goddesses of the pre-Islamic times as well as a few of their deified kings. One, Obodas I, was deified after his death. Dushara was the primary male god accompanied by his female trinity: Al-‘Uzzá, Allat and Manāt. Many statues carved in the rock depict these gods and goddesses.

A stele is dedicated to Qos-Allah ‘Qos is Allah’ or ‘Qos the god’, by Qosmilk (melech – king) is found at Petra (Glueck 516). Qos is identifiable with Kaush (Qaush) the God of the older Edomites. The stele is horned and the seal from the Edomite Tawilan near Petra identified with Kaush displays a star and crescent (Browning 28), both consistent with a moon deity. It is conceivable the latter could have resulted from trade with Harran (Bartlett 194). There is continuing debate about the nature of Qos (qaus – bow) who has been identified both with a hunting bow (hunting god) and a rainbow (weather god) although the crescent above is also a bow.

Nabatean inscriptions in Sinai and other places display widespread references to names including Allah, El and Allat (god and goddess), with regional references to al-Uzza, Baal and Manutu (Manat) (Negev 11). Allat is also found in Sinai in South Arabian language. Allah occurs particularly as Garm-‘allahi – god dedided (Greek Garamelos) and Aush-allahi – ‘gods covenant’ (Greek Ausallos). We find both Shalm-lahi ‘Allah is peace’ and Shalm-allat, ‘the peace of the goddess’. We also find Amat-allahi ‘she-servant of god’ and Halaf-llahi ‘the successor of Allah’.[19]

The Monastery, Petra’s largest monument, dates from the 1st century BC. It was dedicated to Obodas I and is believed to be the symposium of Obodas the god. This information is inscribed on the ruins of the Monastery (the name is the translation of the Arabic “Ad Deir“).

Christianity found its way to Petra in the 4th century AD, nearly 500 years after the establishment of Petra as a trade center. Athanasius mentions a bishop of Petra (Anhioch. 10) named Asterius. At least one of the tombs (the “tomb with the urn”?) was used as a church. An inscription in red paint records its consecration “in the time of the most holy bishop Jason” (447). After the Islamic conquest of 629–632 Christianity in Petra, as of most of Arabia, gave way to Islam. During the First Crusade Petra was occupied by Baldwin I of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and formed the second fief of the barony of Al Karak (in the lordship of Oultrejordain) with the title Château de la Valée de Moyse or Sela. It remained in the hands of the Franks until 1189. It is still a titular see of the Catholic Church.[20]

Two Crusader-period castles are known in and around Petra. The first is al-Wu’ayra and is situated just north of Wadi Musa. It can be viewed from the road to “Little Petra”. It is the castle of Valle Moise which was seized by a band of Turks with the help of local Muslims and only recovered by the Crusaders after they began to destroy the olive trees of Wadi Musa. The potential loss of livelihood led the locals to negotiate surrender. The second is on the summit of el-Habis in the heart of Petra and can be accessed from the West side of the Qasr al-Bint.

According to Arab tradition, Petra is the spot where Moses (Musa) struck a rock with his staff and water came forth, and where Moses’ brother, Aaron (Harun), is buried, at Mount Hor, known today as Jabal Haroun or Mount Aaron. The Wadi Musa or “Wadi of Moses” is the Arab name for the narrow valley at the head of which Petra is sited. A mountaintop shrine of Moses’ sister Miriam was still shown to pilgrims at the time of Jerome in the 4th century, but its location has not been identified since.[21]

Threats to Petra

The site suffers from a host of threats, including collapse of ancient structures, erosion due to flooding and improper rainwater drainage, weathering from salt upwelling,[22] improper restoration of ancient structures, and unsustainable tourism.[23] The last has increased substantially, especially since the site received widespread media coverage in 2007 during the controversial New Seven Wonders of the World Internet and cell phone campaign.[24]

In an attempt to reduce the impact of these threats, Petra National Trust (PNT) was established in 1989. Over this time, it has worked together with numerous local and international organizations on projects that promote the protection, conservation and preservation of the Petra site.[25] Moreover, UNESCO and ICOMOS recently collaborated to publish their first book on human and natural threats to these sensitive World Heritage sites. They chose Petra as its first, and the most important example of threatened landscapes. A book released in 2012, Tourism and Archaeological Heritage Management at Petra: Driver to Development or Destruction?, was the first in a series of important books to address the very nature of these deteriorating buildings, cities, sites, and regions. The next books in the series of deteriorating UNESCO World Heritage Sites will include Macchu Picchu, Angkor Wat, and Pompeii. (25).

 
Camel sitting in front of Al Khazneh

Petra today

On December 6, 1985, Petra was designated a World Heritage Site. Some of the sights of Petra are available on Google Street View.

In popular culture

Petra is the main topic in John William Burgon‘s sonnet (rhyme scheme aabbccddeeffgg) “Petra” which won the Newdigate Prize in 1845. The poem refers to Petra as the inaccessible city which he had heard described but had never seen:

It seems no work of Man’s creative hand,

by labour wrought as wavering fancy planned;

But from the rock as if by magic grown,

eternal, silent, beautiful, alone!

Not virgin-white like that old Doric shrine,

where erst Athena held her rites divine;

Not saintly-grey, like many a minster fane,

that crowns the hill and consecrates the plain;

But rose-red as if the blush of dawn,

that first beheld them were not yet withdrawn;

The hues of youth upon a brow of woe,

which Man deemed old two thousand years ago,

match me such marvel save in Eastern clime,

a rose-red city half as old as time.

In 1977, the Lebanese Rahbani brothers wrote the musical “Petra” as a response to the Lebanese Civil War.[26]

The site is featured in films such as: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Arabian Nights, Passion in the Desert, Mortal Kombat: Annihilation, Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger, The Mummy Returns and Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen.

It was recreated for the video games Spy Hunter (2001), King’s Quest V, Lego Indiana Jones, Sonic Unleashed, Knights of the Temple: Infernal Crusade and Civilization V.

Petra appeared in the novels Left Behind Series, Appointment with Death, The Eagle in the Sand, The Red Sea Sharks, the nineteenth book in The Adventures of Tintin series and in Kingsbury’s The Moon Goddess and the Son. It featured prominently in the Marcus Didius Falco mystery novel Last Act in Palmyra. In Blue Balliett‘s novel, Chasing Vermeer, the character Petra Andalee is named after the site.[27]

The Sisters of Mercy filmed their music video for “Dominion/Mother Russia” in and around Al Khazneh (“The Treasury”) in February 1988.

In 1994 Petra featured in the video to the Urban Species video Spiritual Love.

Petra was featured in episode 3 of the 2010 series An Idiot Abroad.

In 1979 Marguerite van Geldermalsen from New Zealand married Mohammed Abdullah, a Bedouin in Petra.[28] They lived in a cave in Petra until the death of her husband. She authored the book Married to a Bedouin. Geldermalsen is the only western woman who has ever lived in Petra.

Petra was featured in episode 20 of Misaeng_(TV_series). [29][30]

Sister cities

Views of Petra
The road to the Siiq 
The Siiq, path to Petra 
El Deir (“The Monastery”) 
Byzantine mosaic in the Byzantine Church of Petra 
The end of the Siq, with its dramatic view of Al Khazneh (“The Treasury”) 
The Hadrian Gate and the Cardo Maximus in Petra 
Petra is known as the Rose-Red City[31] for the colour of the rocks from which Petra is carved 
The Great Temple of Petra 
Ad Deir (“The Monastery”) in 1839, by David Roberts 
The Petra Visitors Centre in Wadi Musa, the closest town to the historic site 
Drimia maritima bulbs in Petra in early December (2010) 
Sandstone Rock-cut tombs (Kokhim) in Petra 
Obelisk Tomb and the Triclinium 
Street of Façades 
The Silk Tomb 
Uneishu Tomb 
Lonely cave 
Sandstone rocks 
Main entrance (Al Khazneh) 
Theatre 
General view 
Ancient columns 
Tourist attraction 

See also

Petra one of the most Mysterious Archaeological Sites on Earth [FULL DOCUMENTARY]