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Watch “Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake – The Kirov Ballet” on YouTube


Swan Lake

This article is about the ballet. For other uses, see Swan Lake (disambiguation).

Swan Lake (Russian: Лебеди́ное о́зеро, romanized: Lebedínoye ózero), Op. 20, is a ballet composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1875–76. Despite its initial failure, it is now one of the most popular of all ballets.
The scenario, initially in two acts, was fashioned from Russian and German folk tales[a] and tells the story of Odette, a princess turned into a swan by an evil sorcerer’s curse. The choreographer of the original production was Julius Reisinger(Václav Reisinger). The ballet was premiered by the Bolshoi Ballet on 4 March [O.S. 20 February] 1877[1][2] at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. Although it is presented in many different versions, most ballet companies base their stagings both choreographically and musically on the 1895 revival of Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov, first staged for the Imperial Ballet on 15 January 1895, at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg. For this revival, Tchaikovsky’s score was revised by the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatre’s chief conductor and composer Riccardo Drigo.[3]

History

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Design by F. Gaanen for the décor of act 2, Moscow 1877

Origins of the ballet

There is no evidence to prove who wrote the original libretto, or where the idea for the plot came from. Russian and German folk tales have been proposed as possible sources, including “The White Duck” and “The Stolen Veil” by Johann Karl August Musäus, but both those tales differ significantly from the ballet.[4]
One theory is that the original choreographer, Julius Reisinger, who was a Bohemian (and therefore likely to be familiar with The Stolen Veil), created the story. Another theory is that it was written by Vladimir Petrovich Begichev, director of the Moscow Imperial Theatres at the time, possibly with Vasily Geltser, danseurof the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre (a surviving copy of the libretto bears his name). Since the first published libretto does not correspond with Tchaikovsky’s music in many places, one theory is that the first published version was written by a journalist after viewing initial rehearsals (new opera and ballet productions were always reported in the newspapers, along with their respective scenarios).
Some contemporaries of Tchaikovsky recalled the composer taking great interest in the life story of Bavarian King Ludwig II, whose life had supposedly been marked by the sign of Swan and could have been the prototype of the dreamer Prince Siegfried.[5] However, Ludwig’s death happened 10 years after the first performance of the ballet.
Begichev commissioned the score of Swan Lake from Tchaikovsky in May 1875 for 800 rubles. Tchaikovsky worked with only a basic outline from Julius Reisinger of the requirements for each dance.[6] However, unlike the instructions for the scores of The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker, no written instruction is known to have survived.

Tchaikovsky’s influences

From around the time of the turn of the 19th century until the beginning of the 1890s, scores for ballets were almost always written by composers known as “specialists,” who were highly skilled at scoring the light, decorative, melodious, and rhythmically clear music that was at that time in vogue for ballet. Tchaikovsky studied the music of “specialists” such as the Italian Cesare Pugni and the Austrian Ludwig Minkus, before setting to work on Swan Lake.
Tchaikovsky had a rather negative opinion of the “specialist” ballet music until he studied it in detail, being impressed by the nearly limitless variety of infectious melodies their scores contained. Tchaikovsky most admired the ballet music of such composers as Léo Delibes, Adolphe Adam, and later, Riccardo Drigo. He would later write to his protégé, the composer Sergei Taneyev, “I listened to the Delibes ballet Sylvia … what charm, what elegance, what wealth of melody, rhythm, and harmony. I was ashamed, for if I had known of this music then, I would not have written Swan Lake.” Tchaikovsky most admired Adam’s 1844 score for Giselle, which used the Leitmotiftechnique: associating certain themes with certain characters or moods, a technique he would use in Swan Lake, and later, The Sleeping Beauty.
Tchaikovsky drew on previous compositions for his Swan Lake score. According to two of Tchaikovsky’s relatives – his nephew Yuri Lvovich Davydov and his niece Anna Meck-Davydova – the composer had earlier created a little ballet called The Lake of the Swans at their home in 1871. This ballet included the famous Leitmotif, the Swan’s Theme or Song of the Swans. He also made use of material from The Voyevoda, an opera he had abandoned in 1868. The Grand adage (a.k.a. the Love Duet) from the second scene of Swan Lake was fashioned from an aria from that opera, as was the Valse des fiancéesfrom the third scene. Another number which included a theme from The Voyevoda was the Entr’acte of the fourth scene.
By April 1876 the score was complete, and rehearsals began. Soon Reisinger began setting certain numbers aside that he dubbed “undanceable.” Reisinger even began choreographing dances to other composers’ music, but Tchaikovsky protested and his pieces were reinstated. Although the two artists were required to collaborate, each seemed to prefer working as independently of the other as possible.[7]

Composition process

Tchaikovsky’s excitement with Swan Lake is evident from the speed with which he composed: commissioned in the spring of 1875, the piece was created within one year. His letters to Sergei Taneyev from August 1875 indicate, however, that it was not only his excitement that compelled him to create it so quickly but his wish to finish it as soon as possible, so as to allow him to start on an opera. Respectively, he created scores of the first three numbers of the ballet, then the orchestration in the fall and winter, and was still struggling with the instrumentation in the spring. By April 1876, the work was complete. Tchaikovsky’s mention of a draft suggests the presence of some sort of abstract but no such draft has ever been seen. Tchaikovsky wrote various letters to friends expressing his longstanding desire to work with this type of music, and his excitement concerning his current stimulating, albeit laborious task.[8]

Performance history

Adelaide Giuri as Odette and Mikhail Mordkin as Prince Siegfried in Aleksandr Gorsky’s staging of the Petipa/Ivanov Swan Lake for the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow, 1901. A young Vera Karalli is seen kneeling.

Moscow première (world première)

Date: 4 March (OS 20 February) 1877

Place: Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow

Balletmaster: Julius Reisinger

Conductor: Stepan Ryabov

Scene Designers: Karl Valts (acts 2 & 4), Ivan Shangin (act 1), Karl Groppius (act 3)

St. Petersburg première

Date: 27 January 1895

Place: Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg

Balletmaster: Marius Petipa (acts 1 & 3), Lev Ivanov (acts 2 & 4)

Conductor: Riccardo Drigo

Scene Designers: Ivan Andreyev, Mikhail Bocharov, Henrich Levogt

Costume Designer: Yevgeni Ponomaryov[9]

Other notable productions

1880 and 1882, Moscow, Bolshoi Theatre, staged by Joseph Hansenafter Reisinger, conductor and designers as in première

1901, Moscow, Bolshoi Theatre, staged by Aleksandr Gorsky, conducted by Andrey Arends, scenes by Aleksandr Golovin (act 1), Konstantin Korovin (acts 2 & 4), N. Klodt (act 3)

1911, London, Ballets Russes, Sergei Diaghilev production, choreography by Michel Fokineafter Petipa–Ivanov, scenes by Golovin and Korovin

Original interpreters
RoleMoscow 1877Moscow 1880St. Petersburg 1895[9]Moscow 1901London 1911QueensopranoOlga NikolayevaGiuseppina CecchettiSiegfriedtenorVictor GillertAlfred BekefiPavel GerdtMikhail MordkinVaslav NijinskyBennoSergey NikitinAleksandr OblakovWolfgangWilhelm WannerGillertOdettePelageya KarpakovaYevdokiya KalmїkovaPierina LegnaniAdelaide GiuriMathilde KschessinskaVon RothbartSergey SokolovAleksey BulgakovK. KubakinOdilesopranoPierina LegnaniMathilde Kschessinska

Original production of 1877

The première on Friday, 4 March 1877, was given as a benefit performance for the ballerina Pelageya Karpakova (also known as Polina Karpakova), who performed the role of Odette, with première danseur Victor Gillert as Prince Siegfried. Karpakova may also have danced the part Odile, although it is believed the ballet originally called for two different dancers. It is now common practice for the same ballerina to dance both Odette and Odile.
The Russian ballerina Anna Sobeshchanskaya was originally cast as Odette, but was replaced when a governing official in Moscow complained about her, claiming she had accepted jewelry from him, only to then marry a fellow danseur and sell the pieces for cash.
The première was not well-received. Though there were a few critics who recognised the virtues of the score, most considered it to be far too complicated for ballet. It was labelled, “too noisy, too ‘Wagnerian’ and too symphonic.”[10] The critics also thought Reisinger’s choreography was “unimaginative and altogether unmemorable.”[10] The German origins of the story were “treated with suspicion while the tale itself was regarded as ‘stupid’ with unpronounceable surnames for its characters.”[10] Karpakova was a secondary soloist and “not particularly convincing.”[10]

The poverty of the production, meaning the décor and costumes, the absence of outstanding performers, the Balletmaster’s weakness of imagination, and, finally, the orchestra … all of this together permitted (Tchaikovsky) with good reason to cast the blame for the failure on others.

— Modest Tchaikovsky, brother of the composer

Yet the fact remains (and is too often omitted in accounts of this initial production) that this staging survived for six years with a total of 41 performances – many more than several other ballets from the repertoire of this theatre.[11]

Tchaikovsky pas de deux 1877

Anna Sobeshchanskaya [ru] as Odette in Julius Reisinger’s original production

Pierina Legnani as Odette (1895)

During the late 1880s and early 1890s, Petipa and Vsevolozhsky discussed with Tchaikovsky the possibility of reviving Swan Lake. However, Tchaikovsky died on 6 November 1893, just when plans to revive Swan Lake were beginning to come to fruition. It remains uncertain whether Tchaikovsky was prepared to revise the music for this revival. Whatever the case, as a result of Tchaikovsky’s death, Drigo was forced to revise the score himself, after receiving approval from Tchaikovsky’s younger brother, Modest. There are major differencesbetween Drigo’s and Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake score. Today, it is Riccardo Drigo’s revision of Tchaikovsky’s score, and not Tchaikovsky’s original score of 1877, that most ballet companies use.

Pavel Gerdt as Prince Siegfried (Mariinsky Theatre, 1895)

In February 1894, two memorial concerts planned by Vsevolozhsky were given in honor of Tchaikovsky. The production included the second act of Swan Lake, choreographed by Lev Ivanov, Second Balletmaster to the Imperial Ballet. Ivanov’s choreography for the memorial concert was unanimously hailed as wonderful.

The revival of Swan Lake was planned for Pierina Legnani‘s benefit performance in the 1894–1895 season. The death of Tsar Alexander III on 1 November 1894 and the ensuing period of official mourning brought all ballet performances and rehearsals to a close for some time, and as a result all efforts could be concentrated on the pre-production of the full revival of Swan Lake. Ivanov and Petipa collaborated on the production, with Ivanov retaining his dances for the second act while choreographing the fourth, with Petipa staging the first and third acts.

Modest Tchaikovsky was called upon to make changes to the ballet’s libretto, including the character of Odette changing from a fairy swan-maiden into a cursed mortal woman, the ballet’s villain changing from Odette’s stepmother to the magician von Rothbart, and the ballet’s finale: instead of the lovers simply drowning at the hand of Odette’s stepmother as in the original 1877 scenario, Odette commits suicide by drowning herself, with Prince Siegfried choosing to die as well, rather than live without her, and soon the lovers’ spirits are reunited in an apotheosis.[13] Aside from the revision of the libretto the ballet was changed from four acts to three—with act 2 becoming act 1, scene 2.

All was ready by the beginning of 1895 and the ballet had its première on Friday, 27 January. Pierina Legnani danced Odette/Odile, with Pavel Gerdtas Prince Siegfried, Alexei Bulgakov as Rothbart, and Alexander Oblakov as Benno. Most of the reviews in the St. Petersburg newspapers were positive.

Unlike the première of The Sleeping Beauty, Swan Lake did not dominate the repertory of the Mariinsky Theatre in its first season. It was given only sixteen performances between the première and the 1895–1896 season, and was not performed at all in 1897. Even more surprising, the ballet was performed only four times in 1898 and 1899. The ballet belonged solely to Legnani until she left St. Petersburg for her native Italy in 1901. After her departure, the ballet was taken over by Mathilde Kschessinskaya, who was as much celebrated in the rôle as was her Italian predecessor.

Later productions

Watch “Henry & June / Je M’Ennuie” on YouTube


“>Marlene Dietrich: Moi, Je M’Ennuie Lyrics

De ce que fut mon enfance
Je n’ai plus de souvenir
C’est peut-être que la chance
Ne m’offrit pas de plaisir
Et chaque jour qui se lève
Ne m’apporte aucun espoir
Je n’ai même pas de rêves
Quand luit l’étoile du soir

Moi je m’ennuie
C’est dans ma vie
Une manie
Je n’y peux rien
Le plaisir passe
Il me dépasse
En moi sa trace
Ne laisse rien
Partout je traîne
Comme une chaîne
Ma lourde peine
Sans autre bien
C’est dans ma vie
Une manie
Moi, je m’ennuie

Par de longs vagabondages
J’ai voulu griser mon cœur
Et souvent sur mon passage
J’ai vu naître des malheurs
Sur chaque nouvelle route
À l’amour j’ai du mentir
Et, le soir, lorsque j’écoute
La plainte du vent mourir

Moi j’ m’ennuie
C’est dans ma vie
Une manie
Je n’y peux rien
Le plaisir passe
Il me dépasse
En moi sa trace
Ne laisse rien
Partout je traîne
Comme une chaîne
Ma lourde peine
Sans autre bien
C’est dans ma vie
Une manie
Moi, je m’ennuie

The best pianist of our generation, YouTube generation: Valentina Lisitsa


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentina_Lisitsa

Valentina Lisitsa

Valentina Lisitsa (Ukrainian: Валенти́на Євге́нівна Лиси́ця, romanized: Valentýna Jevhénivna Lysýcja, IPA: [wɐlenˈtɪnɐ jeu̯ˈɦɛn⁽ʲ⁾iu̯nɐ lɪˈsɪtsʲɐ]; Russian: Валентина Евгеньевна Лисица, romanized: Valentina Evgen’evna Lisica, IPA: [vɐlʲɪnˈtʲinə jɪvˈɡʲenʲɪvnə lʲɪˈsʲitsə]; born 25 March 1973) is a Ukrainian-American[1] pianist. She previously resided in North Carolinabefore moving to Canada, and then to France.[2][3]

Valentina Lisitsa

Background informationBorn25 March 1973(age 46)
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet UnionGenresClassicalOccupation(s)Classical pianistInstrumentsPianoYears active1977-presentWebsitevalentinalisitsa.com
Lisitsa is among the most frequently viewed pianists on YouTube – particularly her renderings of Romantic Era virtuoso piano composers, including Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin and Sergei Rachmaninoff.[4][5] Lisitsa independently launched her career on social media, without initially signing with a tour promoter or record company.[4][5]

Life and career

Lisitsa was born in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1973. Her mother, also named Valentina, is a seamstress and her father, Evgeny, was an engineer.[4] Her older brother Eugene died in 2009.[6][4]
She started playing the piano at the age of three, performing her first solo recital at the age of four.[7] She is of Russian and Polish descent.[8]
Despite her early aptitude for music, her dream at that point was to become a professional chess player.[9]Lisitsa attended the Lysenko music school and, later, the Kiev Conservatory,[10] where she and her future husband, Alexei Kuznetsoff, studied under Dr. Ludmilla Tsvierko.[11]When Lisitsa met Kuznetsoff, she began to take music more seriously.[12] In 1991, they won the first prize in The Murray Dranoff Two Piano Competition in Miami, Florida.[10][13]That same year, they moved to the United States to further their careers as concert pianists.[4] In 1992 the couple married.[4] Their New York debut was at the Mostly Mozart Festival at Lincoln Center in 1995.[11]

Lisitsa posted her first YouTube video in 2007. Her set of Chopin etudes reached the number-one slot on Amazon’s list of classical video recordings, and became the most-viewed online collection of Chopin etudes on YouTube.[14][15]

To advance her career, in 2010 Lisitsa and her husband put their life savings into recording a CD of Rachmaninoff concertos with the London Symphony Orchestra.[4] In the spring of 2012, before her Royal Albert Hall debut, Lisitsa signed with Decca Records, who later released her Rachmaninoff CD set.[4] By mid-2012 she had logged nearly 50 million views of her YouTube videos.[5]
Lisitsa has performed in various venues around the world, including Carnegie Hall, David Geffen Hall, Benaroya Hall, Musikverein and the Royal Albert Hall. She is well known for her online recitals and practicing streams. She has also collaborated with violinist Hilary Hahn at various recital engagements.[10]

Controversy

Lisitsa has received criticism for her opposition to the Ukrainian government and support of pro-Russian separatists since the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine and the ensuing armed conflict.[16] In April 2015, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra cancelled concerts with Lisitsa, citing her “provocative” online remarks on her Twitter account; the orchestra initially did not specify which tweets or other commentary it believed crossed a line.[17][18] Later, on 8 April 2015, the CEO of Toronto Symphony, Jeff Melanson provided a PDF document of seven pages listing the most “offensive” tweets. Melanson alleged that the document would “help people understand why we made this decision, and understand as well how this is not a free speech issue, but rather an issue of someone practicing very intolerant and offensive expression through Twitter.”[19]
In response, the Toronto Star criticized the orchestra’s decision in an editorial, noting that, “Lisitsa was not invited to Toronto to discuss her provocative political views. She was scheduled to play the piano. And second, banning a musician for expressing “opinions that some believe to be offensive” shows an utter failure to grasp the concept of free speech.”[20] Lisitsa said that the orchestra threatened her if she spoke about the cancellation.[21]
According to Paul Grod, then president of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress: “Ms. Lisitsa has been engaged in a long campaign on social media belittling, insulting and disparaging the people of Ukraine as they face direct military aggression at the hands of the Russian Federation”. Grod elaborated that “Most disturbing are Ms. Lisitsa’s false allegations that the government of Ukraine is “Nazi”, and stating that the Government of Ukraine is setting up ‘filtration camps.'” The New Jersey-based Ukrainian Weekly has described her postings as “anti-Ukraine hate speech.”[8][17] In response she commented that “satire and hyperbole [are] the best literary tools to combat the lies”.[8][17]

DiscographyEdit

Lisitsa has recorded six CDs for Audiofon Records, including three solo CDs and two discs of duets with her husband Alexei Kuznetsoff; a Gold CD for CiscoMusic label with cellist DeRosa; a duet recital on VAI label with violinist Ida Haendel; and DVDs of Frédéric Chopin’s 24 Études and Schubert-Liszt Schwanengesang.[22]
Her recording of the four sonatas for violin and piano by composer Charles Ives, made with Hilary Hahn, was released in October 2011 on Deutsche Grammophon label. Her album Valentina Lisitsa Live at the Royal Albert Hall (based on her debut performance at that venue 19 June 2012) was released 2 July 2012.
Lisitsa has reproduced several compositions by various artists, including Sergei Rachmaninoff, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin and Ludwig van Beethoven. Decca Records released her complete album of Rachmaninoff concertos in October 2012.[23] An album of Liszt works was released in October 2013 on Decca label in 2 formats – CD and 12″ LP which was cut unedited from analog tape. An even more recent album comprises a number of works of the composer and pianist Philip Glass.[24] As of July 2019, her latest release on Decca records is a 10CD set titled Tchaikovsky: The Complete Solo Piano Works.

ReferencesEdit

^ Everett-Green, Robert (7 December 2012). “Valentina Lisitsa: Playing the odds – by way of Rachmaninoff”. The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 8 April 2015.

^ “Valentina Lisitsa and Alexei Kuznetsoff”. Southern Arts Federation. Retrieved 12 July2009.

^

Watch “Rachmaninoff Rhapsody on theme of Paganini, op. 43 – Valentina Lisitsa, piano” on YouTube


Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini

Paganini’s theme

Play (help·info)

The Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43, (Russian: Рапсодия на тему Паганини, Rapsodiya na temu Paganini) is a concertante work written by Sergei Rachmaninoff. It is written for solo piano and symphony orchestra, closely resembling a piano concerto, albeit in a single movement. The work was written at his summer home, the Villa Senar in Switzerland, according to the score, from July 3 to August 18, 1934. Rachmaninoff himself, a noted interpreter of his own works, played the solo piano part at the piece’s premiere at the Lyric Opera House in Baltimore, Maryland, on November 7, 1934 with the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokowski. Rachmaninoff, Stokowski, and the Philadelphia Orchestra made the first recording, on December 24, 1934, at RCA Victor’s Trinity Church Studio in Camden, New Jersey.

Instrumentation

Continue reading

Watch “Rachmaninov: The Isle of the Dead, Symphonic poem Op. 29 – Andrew Davis” on YouTube, painting Isle of the Dead, by Arnold Böecklin


FROM WIKIPEDIA

Isle of the De (Rchmaninoff)

A black and white reproduction of Isle of the Dead by Arnold Böcklin was the inspiration for the piece.

Isle of the Dead (Russian: Остров мёртвых), Op. 29, is a symphonic poem composed by Sergei Rachmaninoff, written in the key of A minor. He concluded the composition while staying in Dresden in 1908.[1] It is considered a classic example of Russian late-Romanticism of the beginning of the 20th century.

The piece was inspired by a black and white reproduction of Arnold Böcklin‘s painting, Isle of the Dead, which Rachmaninoff saw in Paris in 1907. Rachmaninoff was disappointed by the original painting when he later saw it, saying, “If I had seen first the original, I, probably, would have not written my Isle of the Dead. I like it in black and white.”[2]

The music begins by suggesting the sound of the oars as they meet the waters on the way to the Isle of the Dead. The slowly heaving and sinking music could also be interpreted as waves. Rachmaninoff uses a recurring figure in 5/8 time to depict what may be the rowing of the oarsman or the movement of the water, and as in several other of his works, quotes the Dies Irae plainchant, an allusion to death. In contrast to the theme of death, the 5/8 time also depicts breathing, creating a holistic reflection on how life and death are intertwined.

In 1929, Rachmaninoff conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra in a recording of the music for the Victor Talking Machine Company, which was purchased by RCA that same year and became known as RCA Victor. This recording was made in the Academy of Music in Philadelphia, using one microphone, and was later reissued on LP and CD by RCA Victor.

References

  1. ^ Wehrmeyer (2006:51)
  2. ^ Tarasti, Eero (2012). Semiotics of Classical Music: How Mozart, Brahms and Wagner Talk to Us. Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co., KG. p. 385. ISBN .

BibliographyEdit

External links

Watch “Immortal Music: Schubert Piano Quintet D667/The Trout/Jacqueline du Pré, Barenboim, Perlman, Pinchas” on YouTube


From WIKIMEDIA

Trout Quintet

The Trout Quintet (Forellenquintett) is the popular name for the Piano Quintet in A major, D. 667, by Franz Schubert. The piano quintet was composed in 1819,[1] when he was 22 years old; it was not published, however, until 1829, a year after his death.[2]

Rather than the usual piano quintet lineup of piano and string quartet, the Trout Quintet is written for piano, violin, viola, cello and double bass. The composer Johann Nepomuk Hummel had rearranged his own Septet for the same instrumentation,[3]and the Trout was actually written for a group of musicians coming together to play Hummel’s work.

Nickname

The piece is known as the Troutbecause the fourth movement is a set of variations on Schubert’s earlier LiedDie Forelle” (“The Trout”). The quintet was written for Sylvester Paumgartner, of Steyr in Upper Austria, a wealthy music patron and amateur cellist, who also suggested that Schubert include a set of variations on the Lied.[1] Sets of variations on melodies from his Lieder are found in four other works by Schubert: the Death and the Maiden Quartet, the “Trockne Blumen” Variations for Flute and Piano (D. 802), the Wanderer Fantasy, and the Fantasia for Violin and Piano in C major (D. 934, on “Sei mir gegrüßt”).

Music

The quintet consists of five movements:

The rising sextuplet figure from the song’s accompaniment is used as a unifying motif throughout the quintet, and related figures appear in four out of the five movements – all but the Scherzo. As in the song, the figure is usually introduced by the piano, ascending.[1]

I. Allegro vivace

The first movement is in sonata form. As is commonplace in works of the Classical genre, the exposition shifts from tonic to dominant; however, Schubert’s harmonic language is innovative, incorporating many mediants and submediants. This is evident from almost the beginning of the piece: after stating the tonic for ten bars, the harmony shifts abruptly into F major (the flatted submediant) in the eleventh bar.

The development section starts with a similar abrupt shift, from E major (at the end of the exposition) to C major. Harmonic movement is slow at first, but becomes quicker; towards the return of the first theme, the harmony modulates in ascending half tones.

The recapitulation begins in the subdominant, making any modulatorychanges in the transition to the second theme unnecessary, a frequent phenomenon in early sonata form movements written by Schubert.[1] It differs from the exposition only in omitting the opening bars and another short section, before the closing theme.

II. Andante

This movement is composed of two symmetrical sections, the second being a transposed version of the first, except for some differences of modulation which allow the movement to end in the same key in which it began. Tonal layout (with some intermediate keys of lower structural significance omitted) as follows:

III. Scherzo: Presto

This movement also contains mediant tonalities, such as the ending of the first section of the Scherzo proper, which is in C major, the flattened mediant, or the relative major of the parallel minor (A minor).

IV. Andantino – Allegretto

The fourth movement is a theme and variations on Schubert’s Lied Die Forelle“. As typical of some other variation movements by Schubert (in contrast to Beethoven’s style),[4] the variations do not transform the original theme into new thematic material; rather, they concentrate on melodic decoration and changes of mood. In each of the first few variations, the main theme is played by a different instrument or group. In the fifth variation, Schubert begins in the flat submediant (B major), and creates a series of modulations eventually leading back to the movement’s main key, at the beginning of the final sixth variation.

A similar process is heard in three of Schubert’s later compositions: the Octet in F major, D. 803 (fourth movement); the Piano Sonata in A minor, D. 845 (second movement); and the Impromptu in B major, D. 935 No. 3. The concluding variation is similar to the original Lied, sharing the same characteristic accompaniment in the piano.

V. Allegro giust

The Finale is in two symmetrical sections, like the second movement. However, the movement differs from the second movement in the absence of unusual chromaticism, and in the second section being an exact transposition of the first (except for some changes of octave register). A repeat sign is written for the first section: if one adheres meticulously to the score, the movement consists of three lengthy, almost identical repeats of the same musical material. Performers sometimes choose to omit the repeat of the first section when playing.

Although this movement lacks the chromaticism of the second movement, its own harmonic design is also innovative: the first section ends in D major, the subdominant. This is contradictory to the aesthetics of the Classical musical style, in which the first major harmonic event in a musical piece or movement, is the shift from tonic to dominant (or, more rarely, to mediant or submediant – but never to the subdominant).[5][6]

Musical significance

Compared to other major chamber works by Schubert, such as the last three string quartets and the string quintet, the Trout Quintet is a leisurely work, characterized by lower structural coherence, especially in its outer movements and the Andante. These movements contain unusually long repetitions of previously stated material, sometimes transposed, with little or no structural reworking, aimed at generating an overall unified dramatic design (“mechanical” in Martin Chusid’s words[1]).

The importance of the piece stems mainly from its use of an original and innovative harmonic language, rich in mediants and chromaticism, and from its timbral characteristics. The Trout Quintet has a unique sonority among chamber works for piano and strings, due mainly to the piano part, which for substantial sections of the piece concentrates on the highest register of the instrument, with both hands playing the same melodic line an octave apart (having been freed to do so by the inclusion of both cello and bass in the ensemble). Such writing also occurs in other chamber works by Schubert, such as the piano trios, but to a much lesser extent,[1][3] and is characteristic of Schubert’s works for piano four-hands,[3] one of his most personal musical genres. Such timbral writing may have influenced the works of Romantic composers such as Frédéric Chopin, who admired Schubert’s music for piano four-hands.[7]

The quintet forms the basis of Christopher Nupen‘s 1969 film The Trout, in which Itzhak Perlman, Pinchas Zukerman, Jacqueline du Pré, Daniel Barenboim and Zubin Mehtaperform it at Queen Elizabeth Hall in London.[8]

Other Uses

The song, in MIDI format, is used on modern Samsung washers and dryers to indicate that the wash or dry cycle is complete. [9]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Chusid, Martin (April 1997). “Schubert’s chamber music: before and after Beethoven”. In Christopher H. Gibbs (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Schubert. Cambridge Companions to Music. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 174–192. ISBN 978-0-521-48424-4.
  2. ^ Gibbs, Christopher H. (April 1997). “German reception: Schubert’s ‘journey to immortality“. In Christopher H. Gibbs (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Schubert. Cambridge Companions to Music. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 241–253. ISBN 978-0-521-48424-4.
  3. ^

Watch “Ludwig van Beethoven Symphony No. 6, (Full version)” on YouTube


Published on Mar 30, 2017

I (0:00)

II (10:56)

in (24:10)

W (29:21)

v (32:22)

Ludwig van Beethoven Symphony No. 6, (Full version) I. Happy Arrival 0:00

It. By the Brook 10:56

III.

V. Shepherd’s Song 32:22

Conducted by Frans Briiggen (Orchestra of the 18th Century) I’m happy for you all. Thank you for watching this nice symphony. Beethoven’s 6th Symphony (Pastoral) A Love of Nature The Pastoral Symphony is a charming masterpiece which both paints a picture of nature and describes man’s feelings towards it. Beethoven‘s great love of nature, the delight in strolling through the countryside in Vienna, the fact that he always found his equilibrium in the heart of nature, all these inspired him to create his sixth symphony. Beethoven’s 6th Symphony is filled with colorful sounds, simple folk tunes. nice development, and a feeling of calm beauty. It contains meaningful emotional aspect which reflects mankind’s feelings towards the natural world. Beethoven began sketching out his 6th symphony in 1802 and finished it in 1808. ‘How happy I am to be able to walk among the shrubs. the trees, the woods, the grass and the rocks! For the woods, the trees and the rocks give man the resonance he needs.‘ Beethoven said in the summer of 1808. The premiere of the 6th Symphony was probably the grandest musical event in Beethoven’s life. It was a massive conceit packed with lndelible moments of brand new Beethoven music! This programmatic endeavor is clearly expressed through the suggestive title of the symphony, as well as through the titles of each movement. When Beethoven found refuge in the midst of nature, he jotted down themes inspired by the trill of birds, the trickling of creeks or the rustle of leaves. In a notebook from 1803 was found an outline of a river’s trickling with the additional note: ‘The greater the river, the more grave the tone.’-Beethoven spread out the sympho-y into five movements and gave each movement a little subtitle explaining what it was about. I. ‘Happy Arrival’ (Awakening of cheerful feelings upon arrival in the country) The Pastoral symphony opens with warmth and calm, setting the scene as we arrive in the countryside. This has a programmatic indication. In this movement, we find a genuine popular sonority through the choice of instruments neatly weaved together. [Allegro ma non troppo]

II. ‘By the Brook’ (T he natural scene of the stream) This slow movement is a beautiful depiction of the delicate nature of… nature itself. It is a wonderful scene of nature with exceptionally musical themes in the pure pastoral air. You can almost breathe the fresh country air! It is more of a description of sensations rather than images. Towards the end, we find the onomatopoeic sounds of birds. [Andante molto mosso]

III. ‘Merrymaking’ (Joyful gathering of countryfolk) Now we turn our attention to the loud, jolly peasants who live in the countryside. Here we see them celebrate with a joyful dance. Of course. these are simple folks, so the music itself is simple, but very energetic. [Allegro]

IV. ‘ThunderStorm’ (Heavy rumblings of natural forces) 29.21 With no pause between the previous movement and this movement, there is a dramatic surprise, hinting at trouble ahead. Yes, a storm is brewing! Beethoven inserts fantastic lightning crashes and a whirl of wind. He renders the stages of the storm as it unravels on the horizon and moves closer more and more threatening.

The instruments with grave chords cellos and double basses through their sounds announce the storm, then the staccato sounds of the violins render the falling raindrops, and through the timpani and the flutes we sense the thunder and lightning. Then comes the rainbow. Above all these images, we feel the tense disposition that captures man facing the realities of nature. There is an urgent sense of human fear since humanity is powerless against the forces of nature. When the storm is over, all living creatures come to the surface, taking their place in the natural cycle. This is rendered by a choral of flutes which come as a sunray. [Allegro]

V. ‘Shepherd‘s Song’ (Expression of thanks when the storm is over) As the storm fades away, all the animals emerge, and there‘s a general feeling of relief. Sunshine reappears, and everyone’s mind is relaxed aqain. This is
the song of gratitude towards nature. It is a calm movement, full of mind is relaxed again. This is the song of gratitude towards nature. It is a calm movement, full of grace. It starts out quiet, but quickly gets faster and happier. The music is fairly simple. but this makes Its emotions of gratitude endearing. [Allegretto]

Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony, through its simplicity. is just sincere and natural.

‘IV. Allegro (Storm and tempest) (extract)’ by Roger Norrington

Watch “Sinnerman (Nina Simone) – Thomas Crown” on YouTube


Watch “Erik Satie – Gnossienne No.1” on YouTube


Erik Satie (1891), by Ramon Casas

The Gnossiennes (French pronunciation: [ɡnosjεn]) are several piano compositions written by the French composer Erik Satie in the late 19th century. The works are for the most part in free time (lacking time signatures or bar divisions) and highly experimental with form, rhythm and chordal structure. The form as well as the term was invented by Satie.

Etymology

Satie’s coining of the word gnossiennewas one of the rare occasions when a composer used a new term to indicate a new “type” of composition. Satie used many novel names for his compositions (vexations, croquis et agaceries and so on). Ogive, for example, is the name of an architectural element which was used by Satie as the name for a composition, the Ogives. Gnossienne, however, was a word that did not exist before Satie used it as a title for a composition. The word appears to derive from gnosis. Satie was involved in gnostic sects and movements at the time that he began to compose the Gnossiennes. However, some published versions claim that the word derives from Cretan “knossos” or “gnossus”; this interpretation supports the theory linking the Gnossiennes to the myth of Theseus, Ariadne and the Minotaur. Several archeological sites relating to that theme were famously excavated around the time that Satie composed the Gnossiennes.
It is possible that Satie may have drawn inspiration for the title of these compositions from a passage in John Dryden’s 1697 translation of the Aeneid, in which it is thought the word first appeared:

Let us the land which Heav’n appoints, explore;
Appease the winds, and seek the Gnossian shore.[1]

Characteristics

The Gnossiennes were composed by Satie in the decade following the composition of the Sarabandes (1887) and the Trois Gymnopédies (1888). Like these Sarabandes and Gymnopédies, the Gnossiennes are often considered dances. It is not certain that this qualification comes from Satie himself – the sarabandeand the Gymnopaedia were at least historically known as dances.
The musical vocabulary of the Gnossiennes is a continuation of that of the Gymnopédies (a development that had started with the 1886 Ogivesand the Sarabandes) later leading to more harmonic experimentation in compositions like the Danses gothiques (1893). These series of compositions are all at the core of Satie’s characteristic late 19th century style, and in this sense differ from his early salon compositions (like the 1885 “Waltz” compositions published in 1887), his turn-of-the-century cabaret songs (Je te veux), and his post-Schola Cantorum piano solo compositions, starting with the Préludes flasques in 1912.

Trois Gnossiennes

Gnossienne No. 1

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 2

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 3

Performed 16 November 2010

Problems playing these files? See media help.
These Three Gnossiennes were composed around 1890 and first published in 1893. A revision prior to publication in 1893 is not unlikely; the 2nd Gnossienne may even have been composed in that year (it has “April 1893” as date on the manuscript). The piano solo versions of the first three Gnossiennes are without time signatures or bar lines, which is known as free time.
These Gnossiennes were first published in Le Figaro musical No. 24 of September 1893 (Gnossiennes Nos. 1 and 3, the last one of these then still “No. 2”) and in Le Cœur No. 6–7 of September–October 1893 (Gnossienne No. 2 printed as facsimile, then numbered “No. 6”).
The first grouped publication, numbered as known henceforth, followed in 1913. By this time Satie had indicated 1890 as composition date for all three. The first Gnossiennewas dedicated to Alexis Roland-Manuel in the 1913 reprint. The 1893 facsimile print of the 2nd Gnossiennecontained a dedication to Antoine de La Rochefoucauld, not repeated in the 1913 print. This de La Rochefoucauld had been a co-founder of Joséphin Péladan’s Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique et Esthetique du Temple et du Graal in 1891. By the second publication of the first set of three Gnossiennes, Satie had broken already for a long time with all Rosicruciantype of endeavours.
Also with respect to the tempo these Gnossiennes follow the Gymnopédiesline: slow tempos, respectively Lent(French for Lento/slow), avec étonnement (“with astonishment”), and again Lent.
A sketch containing only two incomplete bars, dated around 1890, shows Satie beginning to orchestrate the 3rd Gnossienne.
The first and third Gnossiennes share a similar chordal structures, rhythm and share reference to each other’s thematic material.

Gnossiennes Nos. 4–7

Gnossienne No. 4

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 5

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 6

Performed 16 November 2010

Gnossienne No. 7

Performed 16 November 2010

Problems playing these files? See media help.
The Gnossiennes Nos. 4–6 were published only in 1968, long after Satie’s death. None of these appear to have been numbered, not even titledas “Gnossienne” by Satie himself. The sequence of these three Gnossiennesin the 1968 publication by Robert Cabydoes not correspond with the chronological order of composition. It is extremely unlikely that Satie would have seen these compositions as three members of a single set.

Gnossienne No. 4

Lent. Composition date on the manuscript: 22 January 1891.
A facsimile of the four manuscript pages of this composition can be seen on this page of Nicolas Fogwall’sSatie website.
Composed tonally in D minor even though its key signature is empty, the piece features a bass line centred on its minor key, sounding D, A, D, F, A, D, F, D, A, F, D, A, D. The bass part then transposes into a C minor chord I ostinato, following the pattern C, G, C, E♭, G, C, E♭, C, G, E♭, C, G, C. Section B, usually considered a very inspired section, uses semiquavers to contrast the minor melody of Section A.

Gnossienne No. 5

Modéré (French for Moderato). Dated 8 July 1889, this was probably Satie’s first composition after the 1888 Gymnopédies: in any case it predates all other known Gnossiennes(including the three published in 1893). The work is somewhat uncharacteristic of the other Gnossiennes not only in its upbeat style, rhythms and less exotic chordal structures but also in its use of time signatures and bar divisions.

Gnossienne No. 6

Avec conviction et avec une tristesse rigoureuse (“with conviction and with a rigorous sadness”). Composed nearly 8 years after the first, in January 1897.

Le Fils des étoiles – Trois morceaux en forme de poireEdit

The Le Fils des étoiles (“The son of the stars”) incidental music (composed 1891) contains a Gnossienne in the first act. For this one the naming as “Gnossienne” is definitely by Satie (as apparent from the correspondence with his publisher). As a result of that, this music is sometimes known as the 7th Gnossienne. That part of the Le Fils des étoiles music was re-used as Manière de commencement (“A way to begin”), the first of the seven movements of the Trois morceaux en forme de poire (“Three pieces in the shape of a pear”).

^ Dryden, John, The Works of Virgil: Containing his Pastorals, Georgics, and Aeneis. London: Jacob Tonson, 1697. Book III, line 153.

Coppens, Claude, program notes to the integral execution of Satie’s Piano work (Ghent, De Rode Pomp, 1–2 December 1995).

Watch “Lady Diana – Candle in the wind (Goodbye Englands rose) – Elton John – Lyrics in text” on YouTube


Goodbye Norma Jean
Though I never knew you at all
You had the grace to hold yourself
While those around you crawled
They crawled out of the woodwork
And they whispered into your brain
They set you on the treadmill
And they made you change your name

And it seems to me you lived your life
Like a candle in the wind
Never knowing who to cling to
When the rain set in
And I would have liked to have known you
But I was just a kid
Your candle burned out long before
Your legend ever did
Loneliness was tough
The toughest role you ever played
Hollywood created a superstar
And pain was the price you paid
Even when you died
Oh the press still hounded you
All the papers had to say
Was that Marilyn was found in the nude
And it seems to me you lived your life
Like a candle in the wind
Never knowing who to cling to
When the rain set in
And I would have liked to have known you
But I was just a kid
Your candle burned out long before
Your legend ever did
Goodbye Norma Jean
Though I never knew you at all
You had the grace to hold yourself
While those around you crawled
Goodbye Norma Jean
From the young man in the twenty second row
Who sees you as something more than sexual
More than just our Marilyn Monroe
And it seems to me you lived your life
Like a candle in the wind
Never knowing who to cling to
When the rain set in
And I would have liked to have known you
But I was just a kid
Your candle burned out long before
Your legend ever did
Your candle burned out long before
Your legend ever did
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Elton John / Bernie Taupin
Candle in the Wind lyrics © Universal Music Publishing Group, BMG Rights Management

Watch “Our House Crosby Stills Nash & Young” on YouTube


I’ll light the fire
You put the flowers in the vase that you bought today
Staring at the fire for hours and hours while I listen to you
Play your love songs all night long for me, only for me

Come to me now and rest your head for just five minutes, everything is good
Such a cozy room, the windows are illuminated by the
Sunshine through them, fiery gems for you, only for you
Our house is a very, very, very fine house with two cats in the yard
Life used to be so hard
Now everything is easy ’cause of you
And our la, la, la, la, la, la, la, la, la
Our house is a very, very, very fine house with two cats in the yard
Life used to be so hard
Now everything is easy ’cause of you
And our
I’ll light the fire while you place the flowers in the vase that you bought today
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Graham Nash
Our House lyrics © Spirit Music Group

Watch “Elton John – Rocket Man (with lyrics)” on YouTube


She packed my bags last night pre-flight
Zero hour nine AM
And I’m gonna be high as a kite by then
I miss the earth so much I miss my wife
It’s lonely out in space
On such a timeless flight

And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
‘Till touch down brings me round again to find
I’m not the man they think I am at home
Oh no no no I’m a rocket man
Rocket man burning out his fuse up here alone
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
‘Till touch down brings me round again to find
I’m not the man they think I am at home
Oh no no no I’m a rocket man
Rocket man burning out his fuse up here alone
Mars ain’t the kind of place to raise your kids
In fact it’s cold as hell
And there’s no one there to raise them if you did
And all this science I don’t understand
It’s just my job five days a week
A rocket man, a rocket man
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
‘Till touch down brings me round again to find
I’m not the man they think I am at home
Oh no no no I’m a rocket man
Rocket man burning out his fuse up here alone
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
‘Till touch down brings me round again to find
I’m not the man they think I am at home
Oh no no no I’m a rocket man
Rocket man burning out his fuse up here alone
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
And I think it’s gonna be a long long time
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Elton John / Bernie Taupin
Rocket Man lyrics © Universal Music Publishing Group

Watch “Borodin In the Steppes of Central Asia – Svetlanov “In Central Asia” by State Academic Symphony Orch” on YouTube


Three main themes from the composition

In the Steppes of Central Asia (Russian: В средней Азии, romanized: V srednyeĭ Azii, lit. ‘In Central Asia’) is a symphonic poem (or “musical tableau”) composed by Alexander Borodin in 1880. It is dedicated to Franz Liszt.

BackgroundEdit

In the Steppes of Central Asia had been intended to be presented as one of several tableaux vivants to celebrate the silver anniversary of the reign of Emperor Alexander II of Russia, who had done much to expand the Russian Empire
eastward. The intended production never occurred, but the work has been
a concert favorite since its first performance, on 20 April 1880 (8
April Old style) in St. Petersburg by the orchestra of the Russian Opera under the conductorship of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.[1]

StructureEdit

The work depicts an interaction between Russians and Asians in the steppe lands of the Caucasus.
A caravan of Central Asians is crossing the desert under the protection
of Russian troops. The opening theme, representing the Russians, is
heard first; after it, the strains of an ornamented eastern melody on English horn, representing the Asians. The melodies eventually combine contrapuntally. Amid these two ethnic melodies Borodin inserts a “traveling” theme in pizzicato that represents the plodding hoofs of the horses and camels. At the end, only the Russian theme is heard.

InstrumentationEdit

The piece is scored for two flutes, oboe, cor anglais, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns in F, two trumpets in F, two trombones, bass trombone, timpani and strings.

Somewhat unusually, the two scores available via the IMSLP show different tempo markings at the start. The Eulenberg score is marked Allegretto con moto, whereas the Russian Muzyka score shows Allegro con moto.

Borodin also transcribed the piece for piano four hands.

Composer’s noteEdit

The composer provided the following description in a note to the score:

In
the silence of the monotonous steppes of Central Asia is heard the
unfamiliar sound of a peaceful Russian song. From the distance we hear
the approach of horses and camels and the bizarre and melancholy notes
of an oriental melody. A caravan approaches, escorted by Russian
soldiers, and continues safely on its way through the immense desert. It
disappears slowly. The notes of the Russian and Asiatic melodies join
in a common harmony, which dies away as the caravan disappears in the
distance.

References

External links

Watch “Tschaikowsky: 6. Sinfonie (»Pathétique«)” on YouTube


Watch “Prokofiev-Romeo and Juliet ☆The World Orchestra ☆Josep Vicent” on YouTube


Watch “Khachaturian: Violin Concerto in D minor – Oistrakh / Khachaturian / Moscow Radio Symphony Orchestra” on YouTube


Watch “Rimsky-Korsakov – Scheherazade: Symphonic Suite, Op. 35” on YouTube


Other masterpieces: Watch “Camille Saint-Saën – Bacchanale from Samson and Delilah” on YouTube


Watch “You Want It Darker – Leonard Cohen” on YouTube



  1. If you are the dealer, I’m out of the game
    If you are the healer, it means I’m broken and lame
    If thine is the glory then mine must be the shame
    You want it darker
    We kill the flame

    Magnified, sanctified, be thy holy name
    Vilified, crucified, in the human frame
    A million candles burning for the help that never came
    You want it darker

    Hineni, hineni
    I’m ready, my lord

    There’s a lover in the story
    But the story’s still the same
    There’s a lullaby for suffering
    And a paradox to blame
    But it’s written in the scriptures
    And it’s not some idle claim
    You want it darker
    We kill the flame

    They’re lining up the prisoners
    And the guards are taking aim
    I struggled with some demons
    They were middle class and tame
    I didn’t know I had permission to murder and to maim
    You want it darker

    Hineni, hineni
    I’m ready, my lord

    Magnified, sanctified, be thy holy name
    Vilified, crucified, in the human frame
    A million candles burning for the love that never came
    You want it darker
    We kill the flame

    If you are the dealer, let me out of the game
    If you are the healer, I’m broken and lame
    If thine is the glory, mine must be the shame
    You want it darker

    Hineni, hineni
    Hineni, hineni
    I’m ready, my lord

    Hineni
    Hineni, hineni
    Hineni

    Source: LyricFind


    Songwriters: Leonard Cohen / Patrick Leonard

    You Want It Darker lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Kobalt Music Publishing Ltd.


Watch “Season of the Witch” on YouTube



Season Of The Witch
Song by Donovan
Follow


  1. When I look out my window,
    many sights to see.
    And when I look in my window,
    so many different people to be.
    That its strange.
    So strange.

    You got to pick up every stitch. Must be the season of the witch,
    must be the season of the witch, yeah,
    must be the season of the witch.

    When I look over my shoulder,
    what do you think I see?
    Summer kept lookin over his shoulder at me.
    And hes strange,
    sure is strange.

    You got to pick up every stich,
    you got to pick up every stitch, yeah.
    Beatnicks are out to make it rich.
    Oh no
    Must be the season of the witch,
    must be the season of the witch, yeah,
    must be the season of the witch.

    You got to pick up every stitch,
    the rabbits runnin in the ditch.
    Beatnicks are out to make it rich.
    Oh no
    Must be the season of the witch,
    must be the season of the witch,
    must be the season of the witch.

    When I look out my window,
    what do you think I see?
    And when I look in my window,
    so many different people to be.
    Its strange,
    sure is strange.

    You got to pick up every stitch,
    you got to pick up every stitch,
    two rabbits runnin in the ditch.
    Oh no
    Must be the season of the witch,
    must be the season of the witch, yeah,
    must be the season of the witch.

    Source: Musixmatch


    Songwriters: DONOVAN LEITCH

    Season Of The Witch lyrics © Donovan (Music) Limited, Peer International Corporation

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    Aug 9, 2019 · Season of the Witch Lyrics: Hmm, hmm / When I look out my window / Many sights to see / And when I look …


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    Donovan “Season Of The Witch”: When I look out my window Many sights to see And when I look in my window So many different …


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    Wikipedia › wiki › Season_of_the_…

    Season of the Witch (song) – Wikipedia

    “Season of the Witch” is a song written by Donovan and Shawn Phillips, and first ….. External links[edit]. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics …

    Recorded: May 1966

    Released: 26 August 1966

    Songwriter(s): Donovan, Shawn Phillips(uncredited)


    Donovan – Season Of The Witch lyrics | LyricsFreak

    Read or print original Season Of The Witch lyrics 2019 updated! When I look out my window, / Many sights to see. / And when I look in …


    The New Yorker › culture-desk

    The Season of “Season of the Witch” | The New Yorker

    May 16, 2012 · The Season of “ Season of the Witch” … archetypal psychedelic recording, and the song’s lyrics are suitably …

American Suite – Wikipedia


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Suite

The American Suite in A major (Czech: Suita A dur), Op. 98b, B. 190, is an orchestral suite written in 1894–1895 by Czech composer Antonín Dvořák.

BackgroundEdit

MovementsEdit

The suite is written in five movements, each with a marked rhythm:

  1. Andante con moto
  2. Allegro
  3. Moderato (alla pollacca)
  4. Andante
  5. Allegro

Analysis and receptionEdit

As often is the case with
Dvořák, the orchestral version gives the work a new breadth. The cyclic
aspects of Dvořák’s composition are apparent, in that the principal
theme of the first movement recurs during the conclusion of the work.
This opening theme is marked by his American-influenced style. It is difficult to determine whether it comes from the typical folk music of the New World or simply from the music of the Czech emigrants, to which the Dvořák liked to listen during his stay in the United States.

This mix of American influence with Slavic tradition is also
perceptible in the rhythm of the “alla Polacca” third movement, and in
the last movement’s themes native to the Far East, played by flute and oboe in unison, where the orchestra passes easily from the minor theme to the major one.

Far from any exoticism, the art of Dvořák’s orchestral work is in the field of pure music, and it is undoubtedly for this reason that Brahms
appreciated it. Even in New York, when Dvořák encouraged his pupils to
work on their own folk melodies, it was authentic recreation of the
popular folk musics that he called for.

Appearances in popular cultureEdit

Along with several other works by Dvořák (including some of the Slavonic Dances and the second movement of the New World Symphony), the first movement, Andante con moto is part of the sound track to Sid Meier’s Civilization IV.
The allegro was used in the trailer for The Elder Scrolls II Daggerfall.

NotesEdit

  1. Klaus Döge, Grove

References and further readingEdit

  • Döge, Klaus: “Antonín Dvořák”, Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed December 16, 2006), (subscription access)

See also

External links

Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven) – Wikipedia


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphony_No.6%28Beethoven%29

Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68, also known as the Pastoral Symphony (German: Pastorale[1]), is a symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven and completed in 1808. One of Beethoven’s few works containing explicitly programmatic content,[2] the symphony was first performed in the Theater an der Wien on 22 December 1808[3] in a four-hour concert.[4]

Symphony No. 6
by Ludwig van Beethoven
Beethoven sym 6 script.PNG

Part of a sketch by Beethoven for the symphony

Other namePastoral SymphonyKeyF majorOpusOp. 68PeriodClassical periodFormSymphonyBased onNatureComposed1802–1808DedicationPrince Lobkowitz
Count RazumovskyDurationAbout 40 minutesMovementsFiveScoringOrchestraPremiereDateDecember 22, 1808LocationTheater an der Wien, ViennaConductorLudwig van Beethoven

Background

Instrumentation

Form

In film

Notes

References

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MUSIC
Beethoven’s Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Op. 68
June 12, 200610:39 AM ET
Audio will be available later today.
Hear an Interview with Conductor Christoph Eschenbach
“Pastoral”

Composed in 1808

Premiered December 1808

Published 1809 in Leipzig

Many of Beethoven’s works are titled, yet many of these names came from friends or from those to whom the pieces were dedicated. The Sixth Symphony, however, is one of only two symphonies Beethoven intentionally named. Beethoven’s full title was “Pastoral Symphony, or Recollections of Country Life.” Although it was composed in the same time period and dedicated to the same people as the Fifth, the works have many differences. The “Pastoral” is known as a “characteristic” symphony and closely resembles “Le musical de la nature” by Rheinish composer Justin Heinrich Knecht. Beethoven publicly declared the piece’s “extramusical” purpose: an expression of nature. His affinity for nature and his love for walks through the country outside Vienna were captured in the Sixth, as well as in the notes scribbled on sketches of the symphony.

Notes on Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony
CHRISTOPHER H. GIBBS

Most of the familiar titles attached to Beethoven’s works were put there by someone other than the composer. Critics, friends, and publishers invented the labels “Moonlight,” “Tempest,” and “Appassionata” for popular piano sonatas. Prominent patrons’ names—Archduke Rudolph, Count Razumovsky, Count Waldstein—became wedded to compositions they either commissioned or that are dedicated to them, thereby winning a sort of immortality for those who supported the composer.

Beethoven himself crossed out the heading “Bonaparte” from the title page of the Third Symphony, but later wrote in “Sinfonia eroica” (Heroic Symphony), and it is his only symphony besides the Sixth to bear an authentic title. To be sure, stories about “fate knocking at the door” in the Fifth and the choral finale of the Ninth have encouraged programmatic associations for those works, beginning in Beethoven’s own time. But, in the end, it is the Sixth Symphony, the “Pastoral,” that stands most apart from his others, and indeed from nearly all of Beethoven’s instrumental and keyboard music, in its intentional, publicly declared, and often quite audible extramusical content. Beethoven’s full title is: “Pastoral Symphony, or Recollections of Country Life.”

“More an Expression of Feeling Than Painting”

And yet the Sixth Symphony does not aspire to the level of musical realism found in a work like Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique or in Richard Strauss’s later tone poems. In the program for its premiere, Beethoven famously noted that the “Pastoral” contained “more an expression of feeling than painting.” He had earlier objected to some of the musical illustration in Haydn’s oratorios The Creation (1798) and The Seasons (1801), with their imitations of storms, frogs, and other phenomena. He probably would not have cared much for what the “New German School” of Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner would later advocate and create.

Beethoven’s “Pastoral” Symphony belongs to a tradition, going back to the previous century, of “characteristic” symphonies. Indeed, the titles for the movements that Beethoven provided closely resemble those of “Le Portrait musical de la nature,” written nearly 25 years earlier by the Rheinish composer Justin Heinrich Knecht. (It is doubtful Beethoven knew the music of the piece, but he did know the titles.) Scattered comments that Beethoven made in his sketches for the Symphony are revealing: “The hearers should be allowed to discover the situations / Sinfonia caracteristica—or recollection of country life / All painting in instrumental music is lost if it is pushed too far / Sinfonia pastorella. Anyone who has an idea of country life can make out for himself the intentions of the composer without many titles / Also without titles the whole will be recognized as a matter more of feeling than of painting in sounds.”

Regardless of the musical and aesthetic implications that the “Pastoral” Symphony raises with respect to the program music—a key issue for debate over the rest of the century—it unquestionably offers eloquent testimony to the importance and power of nature in Beethoven’s life. The composer reveled in walking in the environs of Vienna and spent nearly every summer in the country. When Napoleon’s second occupation of the city in 1809 meant that he could not leave, he wrote to his publisher: “I still cannot enjoy life in the country, which is so indispensable to me.” Indeed, Beethoven’s letters are filled with declarations of the importance of nature in his life, such as one from 1810: “How delighted I will be to ramble for awhile through the bushes, woods, under trees, through grass, and around rocks. No one can love the country as much as I do. For surely woods, trees, and rocks produce the echo that man desires to hear.”

Companion Symphonies

Beethoven wrote the “Pastoral” primarily during the spring and fall of 1808, although some sketches date back years earlier. Its composition overlapped in part with that of the Fifth Symphony, which might be considered its non-identical twin. Not only did both have the same period of genesis and the same dedicatees (Count Razumovsky and Prince Lobkowitz), but they were also published within weeks of one another in the spring of 1809 and premiered together (in reverse order and with their numbers switched).

The occasion was Beethoven’s famous marathon concert of December 22, 1808, at the Theater an der Wien, and was the only time he premiered two symphonies together. Moreover, the program also included the first public performance of the Fourth Piano Concerto, two movements from the Mass in C, the concert aria Ah! perfido, and the “Choral” Fantasy. Reports indicate that all did not go well, as musicians playing after limited rehearsal struggled their way through this demanding new music, and things fell apart during the “Choral” Fantasy. Although the Fifth and Sixth symphonies are extremely different from one another in overall mood, there are notable points of convergence, such as the innovations in instrumentation (the delayed and dramatic introduction of piccolo and trombones in the fourth movements) and the splicing together of the final movements.

A Closer Look

Beethoven’s descriptive movement titles for the “Pastoral” were made public to the audience before the premiere. The first movement, “Awakening of cheerful feelings upon arriving in the country,” engages with a long musical tradition of pastoral music. From the opening drone of an open fifth in the lower strings to the jovial coda, the leisurely and often repetitive pace of the movement is far from the intensity of the Fifth Symphony. The second movement, “Scene by the brook,” includes the famous birdcalls: flute for the nightingale, oboe for the quail, and two clarinets for the cuckoo (Berlioz copied the effect for two of the birds in the pastoral third movement of his Symphonie fantastique).

This is Beethoven’s only symphony with five movements and the last three lead one into the next. The third is entitled “Merry gathering of peasants” and suggests a town band of limited ability playing dance music. The dance is interrupted by a “Tempest, storm” that approaches from afar as ominous rumblings give way to the full fury of thunder and lightning. The storm is far more intense than other well-known storms—such as by Vivaldi and Haydn—and presages later ones by Berlioz and Wagner. Just as the storm had approached gradually, so it passes, leaving some scattered moments of disruption before the “Shepherds’ hymn—Happy and thankful feelings after the storm” brings the work to its close. Regardless of Beethoven’s declared intentions, this music seems to function on both descriptive and expressive levels, therein fueling arguments about the issue ever since his time.

Program note © 2006. All rights reserved. Program note may not be reprinted without written permission from The Philadelphia Orchestra Association.

Web Resources
The Philadelphia Orchestra’s Site
Philadelphia Orchestra
Ludwig van Beethoven
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Watch “La mauvaise herbe Brassens” on YouTube



Quand le jour de gloire est arrivé
Comme tous les autres étaient crevés
Moi seul connus le déshonneur
De ne pas être mort au champ d’honneur

Je suis de la mauvaise herbe, braves gens, braves gens
C’est pas moi qu’on rumine et c’est pas moi qu’on met en gerbe
La mort faucha les autres, braves gens, braves gens
Et me fit grâce à moi c’est immoral et c’est comme ça
La la la la la la la la
La la la la la la la la
Et je me demande pourquoi, Bon Dieu
Ça vous dérange que je vive un peu
Et je me demande pourquoi, Bon Dieu
Ça vous dérange que je vive un peu
La fille à tout le monde a bon cœur
Elle me donne au petit bonheur
Les petits bouts de sa peau, bien cachés
Que les autres n’ont pas touché
Je suis de la mauvaise herbe, braves gens, braves gens
C’est pas moi qu’on rumine et c’est pas moi qu’on met en gerbe
Elle se vend aux autres, braves gens, braves gens
Elle se donne à moi, c’est immoral et c’est comme ça
La la la la la la la la
La la la la la la la la
Et je me demande pourquoi, Bon Dieu
Ça vous dérange qu’on m’aime un peu
Et je me demande pourquoi, Bon Dieu
Ça vous dérange qu’on m’aime un peu
Les hommes sont faits, nous dit-on
Pour vivre en bande, comme les moutons
Moi, je vis seul, et c’est pas demain
Que je suivrai leur droit chemin
Je suis de la mauvaise herbe, braves gens, braves gens
C’est pas moi qu’on rumine et c’est pas moi qu’on met en gerbe
Je suis de la mauvaise herbe, braves gens, braves gens
Je pousse en liberté dans les jardins mal fréquentés
La la la la la la la la
La la la la la la la la
Et je me demande pourquoi, Bon Dieu
Ça vous dérange que je vive un peu
Et je me demande pourquoi, Bon Dieu
Ça vous dérange que je vive un peu
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Georges Brassens
La mauvaise herbe lyrics © Warner Chappell Music France

Watch “je vous salue marie-georges brassens” on YouTube


Par le petit garçon qui meurt près de sa mère
Tandis que des enfants s’amusent au parterre
Et par l’oiseau blessé qui ne sait pas comment
Son aile tout à coup s’ensanglante et descend
Par la soif et la faim et le délire ardent
Je vous salue, Marie
Par les gosses battus, par l’ivrogne qui rentre
Par l’âne qui reçoit des coups de pied au ventre
Et par l’humiliation de l’innocent châtié
Par la vierge vendue qu’on a déshabillée
Par le fils dont la mère a été insultée
Je vous salue, Marie

Par la vieille qui, trébuchant sous trop de poids
S’écrie “mon Dieu !” par le malheureux dont les bras
Ne purent s’appuyer sur une amour humaine
Comme la Croix du Fils sur Simon de Cyrène
Par le cheval tombé sous le chariot qu’il traîne
Je vous salue, Marie

Par les quatre horizons qui crucifient le monde
Par tous ceux dont la chair se déchire ou succombe
Par ceux qui sont sans pieds, par ceux qui sont sans mains
Par le malade que l’on opère et qui geint
Et par le juste mis au rang des assassins
Je vous salue, Marie

Par la mère apprenant que son fils est guéri
Par l’oiseau rappelant l’oiseau tombé du nid
Par l’herbe qui a soif et recueille l’ondée
Par le baiser perdu par l’amour redonné
Et par le mendiant retrouvant sa monnaie
Je vous salue, Marie

Translate to English
Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Georges Charles Brassens / Francis Jammes / Oswald Antoine Marie D’Andrea
La prière lyrics © Warner Chappell Music France

For interpretation of the lyrics see:

https://fr.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Pri%C3%A8re?wprov=sfla1

Watch “Leonard Cohen Interview – Part 1 of 3” on YouTube


Watch “Isn’t it a Pity – Nina Simone” on YouTube


Isn’t it a pity
You don’t know what I’m talking about, yet
But I will tell you soon
It’s a pity

Isn’t it a pity
Isn’t it a shame
Yes, how we break each other’s hearts
And cause each other pain

How we take each other’s love
Without thinking anymore
Forgetting to give back
Forgetting to remember
Just forgetting and no thank you
Isn’t it a pity

Some things take so long
But how do I explain
Why not too many people can see
That we are all just the same
We’re all guilty

Because of all the tears
Our eyes just can’t hope to see
But I don’t think it’s applicable to me
The beauty that surrounds them
Child, isn’t it a pity

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How we break each other’s hearts
And cause each other pain
How we take each other’s love
The most precious thing
Without thinking anymore

Forgetting to give back
Forgetting to keep open our door
Isn’t it a pity
Isn’t it a pity

Some things take so long
But how do I explain
Isn’t it a pity
Why not too many people
Can see we’re all the same

Because we cry so much
Our eyes can’t, can’t hope to see
That’s not quite true
The beauty that surrounds them
Maybe that’s why we cry
God, isn’t it a pity

Lord knows, it’s a pity
Mankind has been so programmed
That they don’t care about nothin’
That has to do with care
C-a-r-e

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How we take each other’s love
The most precious thing
Without thinking anymore
Forgetting to give back
Forgetting to keep open the door

But I understand some things take so long
But how do I explain
Why not too many people
Can see we’re just the same

And because of all their tears
Their eyes can’t hope to see
The beauty that surrounds them
God, isn’t it a pity
The beauty that surrounds them
It’s a pity

We take each other’s love
Just take it for granted
Without thinking anymore
We give each other pain
And we shut every door

We take each other’s minds
And we’re capable of take each other’s souls
We do it every day
Just to reach some financial goal
Lord, isn’t it a pity, my God
Isn’t it a pity, my God
And so unnecessary

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Just a little time, a little care
A little note written in the air
Just the little thank you
We just forget to give back
‘Cause we’re moving too fast
Moving too fast
Forgetting to give back

But some things take so long
And I cannot explain
The beauty that surrounds us
And we don’t see it
We think things are just the same
We’ve been programmed that way

Isn’t it a pity
If you want to feel sorry
Isn’t it a pity
Isn’t it a pity
The beauty sets the beauty that surrounds us
Because of all our tears
Our eyes can’t hope to see

Maybe one day, at least, I’ll see me
And just concentrate on givin’, givin’, givin’, givin’
And ’til that day
Mankind don’t stand a chance
Don’t know nothin’ about romance
Everything is plastic
Isn’t it a pity
My God

Watch “Nina Simone – Sinnerman” and Tom Ellis on YouTube (2 videos)



Oh, sinnerman, where you gonna run to?
Sinnerman where you gonna run to?
Where you gonna run to?
All on that day
We got to run to the rock
Please hide me, I run to the rock
Please hide me, run to the rock
Please hide here
All on that day
But the rock cried out
I can’t hide you, the rock cried out
I can’t hide you, the rock cried out
I ain’t gonna hide you there
All on that day
I said rock
What’s the matter with you rock?
Don’t you see I need you, rock?
Good Lord, Lord
All on that day
So I run to the river
It was bleedin’, I run to the sea
It was bleedin’, I run to the sea
It was bleedin’, all on that day
So I run to the river
It was boilin’, I run to the sea
It was boilin’, I run to the sea
It was boilin’, all on that day

So I run to the Lord
Please hide me, Lord
Don’t you see me prayin’?
Don’t you see me down here prayin’?
But the Lord said
Go to the Devil, the Lord said
Go to the Devil
He said go to the Devil
All on that day
So I ran to the Devil
He was waitin’, I ran to the Devil
He was waitin’, ran to the Devil
He was waitin’, all on that day
I cried, power, power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Oh yeah
Oh yeah
Oh yeah
Well, I run to the river
It was boilin’, I run to the sea
It was boilin’, I run to the sea
It was boilin’, all on that day
So I ran to the Lord
I said Lord, hide me
Please hide me
Please help me, all on that day
He said, hide?
Where were you?
When you oughta have been prayin’
I said Lord, Lord
Hear me prayin’, Lord, Lord
Hear me prayin’, Lord, Lord
Hear me prayin’, all on that day
Sinnerman, you oughta be prayin’
Outghta be prayin’, sinnerman
Oughta be prayin’, all on that day
Up come power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
(Power, Lord)
Hold down (power, Lord)
Go down (power, Lord)
Kingdom (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Power (power, Lord)
Na-na-na, na-na-na-na
Na-na-na, na-na-na-na
Na-na-na, na-na-na-na
Woah, ho
Ha-ha-ha-ha
Ha-ha-ha-ha, oh Lord
Nu, nu, nu
No-no-no-no, ma-na-na-na-na, don’t you know I need you Lord?
Don’t you know that I need you?
Don’t you know that I need you?
Oh, Lord
Wait
Oh, Lord
Oh, Lord, Lord
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Nina Simone
Sinnerman lyrics © Warner Chappell Music, Inc

Watch “Modigliani’s Women! ( 12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920)” on YouTube


CHOPIN: Nocturne No. 2, E flat major, Op. 9, No. 2

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amedeo_Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (Italian pronunciation: [ameˈdɛːo modiʎˈʎaːni]; 12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. He is known for portraits and nudes in a modern
style characterized by elongation of faces, necks, and figures that
were not received well during his lifetime but later found acceptance.
Modigliani spent his youth in Italy, where he studied the art of
antiquity and the Renaissance. In 1906 he moved to Paris, where he came
into contact with such artists as Pablo Picasso and Constantin Brâncuși. By 1912 Modigliani was exhibiting highly stylized sculptures with Cubists of the Section d’Or group at the Salon d’Automne.

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani Photo.jpg

Amedeo Modigliani

Born

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani

12 July 1884

Died 24 January 1920 (aged 35)

Nationality Italian
Education Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence
Known for Painting, sculpture

Notable work

Redheaded Girl in Evening Dress
Madame Pompadour
Jeanne Hébuterne in Red Shawl

Modigliani’s
œuvre includes paintings and drawings. From 1909 to 1914 he devoted
himself mainly to sculpture. His main subject was portraits and full
figures, both in the images and in the sculptures. Modigliani had little
success while alive, but after his death achieved great popularity. He
died of tubercular meningitis, at the age of 35, in Paris.

Family and early lifeEdit

Modigliani’s birthplace in Livorno

Modigliani was born into a Sephardic Jewish family in Livorno, Italy. A port city, Livorno had long served as a refuge for those persecuted for their religion, and was home to a large Jewish community. His maternal great-great-grandfather, Solomon Garsin, had immigrated to Livorno in the 18th century as a refugee.[1]

Modigliani’s mother, Eugénie Garsin, born and raised in Marseille,
was descended from an intellectual, scholarly family of Sephardic
ancestry that for generations had lived along the Mediterranean
coastline. Fluent in many languages, her ancestors were authorities on
sacred Jewish texts and had founded a school of Talmudic studies. Family legend traced the family lineage to the 17th-century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza.
The family business was a credit agency with branches in Livorno,
Marseille, Tunis, and London, though their fortunes ebbed and flowed.[2][3]

Modigliani’s
father, Flaminio, was a member of an Italian Jewish family of
successful businessmen and entrepreneurs. While not as culturally
sophisticated as the Garsins, they knew how to invest in and develop
thriving business endeavors. When the Garsin and Modigliani families
announced the engagement of their children, Flaminio was a wealthy young
mining engineer. He managed the mine in Sardinia and also managed the almost 30,000 acres (12,141 ha) of timberland the family owned.[4]

A
reversal in fortune occurred to this prosperous family in 1883. An
economic downturn in the price of metal plunged the Modiglianis into
bankruptcy. Ever resourceful, Modigliani’s mother used her social
contacts to establish a school and, along with her two sisters, made the
school into a successful enterprise.[5]

Amedeo
Modigliani was the fourth child, whose birth coincided with the
disastrous financial collapse of his father’s business interests.
Amedeo’s birth saved the family from ruin; according to an ancient law,
creditors could not seize the bed of a pregnant woman or a mother with a
newborn child. The bailiffs entered the family’s home just as Eugenia
went into labour; the family protected their most valuable assets by
piling them on top of her.

Modigliani had a close relationship with his mother, who taught
him at home until he was 10. Beset with health problems after an attack
of pleurisy when he was about 11, a few years later he developed a case of typhoid fever. When he was 16 he was taken ill again and contracted the tuberculosis
which would later claim his life. After Modigliani recovered from the
second bout of pleurisy, his mother took him on a tour of southern
Italy: Naples, Capri, Rome and Amalfi, then north to Florence and Venice.[6][7][8]

His
mother was, in many ways, instrumental in his ability to pursue art as a
vocation. When he was 11 years of age, she had noted in her diary: “The
child’s character is still so unformed that I cannot say what I think
of it. He behaves like a spoiled child, but he does not lack
intelligence. We shall have to wait and see what is inside this
chrysalis. Perhaps an artist?”[9]

Art student yearsEdit

Modigliani is known to have drawn and painted from a very early age, and thought himself “already a painter”, his mother wrote,[10]
even before beginning formal studies. Despite her misgivings that
launching him on a course of studying art would impinge upon his other
studies, his mother indulged the young Modigliani’s passion for the
subject.

At the age of fourteen, while sick with typhoid fever, he raved
in his delirium that he wanted, above all else, to see the paintings in
the Palazzo Pitti and the Uffizi in Florence. As Livorno’s local museum housed only a sparse few paintings by the Italian Renaissance
masters, the tales he had heard about the great works held in Florence
intrigued him, and it was a source of considerable despair to him, in
his sickened state, that he might never get the chance to view them in
person. His mother promised that she would take him to Florence herself,
the moment he was recovered. Not only did she fulfil this promise, but
she also undertook to enroll him with the best painting master in
Livorno, Guglielmo Micheli.

Micheli and the MacchiaioliEdit

Portrait of Pablo Picasso, 1915, private collection

His home in Venice.

Modigliani worked in Micheli’s Art School from 1898 to 1900. Among his colleagues in that studio would have been Llewelyn Lloyd, Giulio Cesare Vinzio, Manlio Martinelli, Gino Romiti, Renato Natali, and Oscar Ghiglia.
Here his earliest formal artistic instruction took place in an
atmosphere steeped in a study of the styles and themes of 19th-century
Italian art. In his earliest Parisian work, traces of this influence,
and that of his studies of Renaissance art, can still be seen. His nascent work was shaped as much by such artists as Giovanni Boldini as by Toulouse-Lautrec.

Modigliani showed great promise while with Micheli, and ceased
his studies only when he was forced to, by the onset of tuberculosis.

In 1901, whilst in Rome, Modigliani admired the work of Domenico Morelli,
a painter of dramatic religious and literary scenes. Morelli had served
as an inspiration for a group of iconoclasts who were known by the
title “the Macchiaioli” (from macchia —”dash
of colour”, or, more derogatively, “stain”), and Modigliani had already
been exposed to the influences of the Macchiaioli. This localized landscape
movement reacted against the bourgeois stylings of the academic genre
painters. While sympathetically connected to (and actually pre-dating)
the French Impressionists, the Macchiaioli did not make the same impact upon international art culture as did the contemporaries and followers of Monet, and are today largely forgotten outside Italy.

Modigliani’s connection with the movement was through Guglielmo
Micheli, his first art teacher. Micheli was not only a Macchiaiolo
himself, but had been a pupil of the famous Giovanni Fattori,
a founder of the movement. Micheli’s work, however, was so fashionable
and the genre so commonplace that the young Modigliani reacted against
it, preferring to ignore the obsession with landscape that, as with
French Impressionism, characterized the movement. Micheli also tried to
encourage his pupils to paint en plein air,
but Modigliani never really got a taste for this style of working,
sketching in cafés, but preferring to paint indoors, and especially in
his own studio. Even when compelled to paint landscapes (three are known
to exist),[11] Modigliani chose a proto-Cubist palette more akin to Cézanne than to the Macchiaioli.

While with Micheli, Modigliani studied not only landscape, but
also portraiture, still life, and the nude. His fellow students recall
that the last was where he displayed his greatest talent, and apparently
this was not an entirely academic pursuit for the teenager: when not
painting nudes, he was occupied with seducing the household maid.[10]

Despite
his rejection of the Macchiaioli approach, Modigliani nonetheless found
favour with his teacher, who referred to him as “Superman”, a pet name
reflecting the fact that Modigliani was not only quite adept at his art,
but also that he regularly quoted from Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Fattori himself would often visit the studio, and approved of the young artist’s innovations.[12]

In 1902, Modigliani continued what was to be a lifelong infatuation with life drawing, enrolling in the Scuola Libera di Nudo, or “Free School of Nude Studies”, of the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence. A year later, while still suffering from tuberculosis, he moved to Venice, where he registered to study at the Regia Accademia ed Istituto di Belle Arti.
It is in Venice that he first smoked hashish
and, rather than studying, began to spend time frequenting disreputable
parts of the city. The impact of these lifestyle choices upon his
developing artistic style is open to conjecture, although these choices
do seem to be more than simple teenage rebellion, or the cliched hedonism and bohemianism
that was almost expected of artists of the time; his pursuit of the
seedier side of life appears to have roots in his appreciation of
radical philosophies, including those of Nietzsche.

Portrait of Chaim Soutine, 1916

Early literary influencesEdit

Having been exposed to erudite philosophical literature as a young
boy under the tutelage of Isaco Garsin, his maternal grandfather, he
continued to read and be influenced through his art studies by the
writings of Nietzsche, Baudelaire, Carducci, Comte de Lautréamont, and others, and developed the belief that the only route to true creativity was through defiance and disorder.

Letters that he wrote from his ‘sabbatical’ in Capri in 1901
clearly indicate that he is being more and more influenced by the
thinking of Nietzsche. In these letters, he advised friend Oscar
Ghiglia;

(hold sacred all) which can exalt and excite your
intelligence… (and) … seek to provoke … and to perpetuate …
these fertile stimuli, because they can push the intelligence to its
maximum creative power.[13]

The work of Lautréamont was equally influential at this time. This doomed poet’s Les Chants de Maldoror became the seminal work for the Parisian Surrealists of Modigliani’s generation, and the book became Modigliani’s favourite to the extent that he learnt it by heart.[12]
The poetry of Lautréamont is characterized by the juxtaposition of
fantastical elements, and by sadistic imagery; the fact that Modigliani
was so taken by this text in his early teens gives a good indication of
his developing tastes. Baudelaire and D’Annunzio similarly appealed to the young artist, with their interest in corrupted beauty, and the expression of that insight through Symbolist imagery.

Modigliani wrote to Ghiglia extensively from Capri, where his
mother had taken him to assist in his recovery from tuberculosis. These
letters are a sounding board for the developing ideas brewing in
Modigliani’s mind. Ghiglia was seven years Modigliani’s senior, and it
is likely that it was he who showed the young man the limits of his
horizons in Livorno. Like all precocious teenagers, Modigliani preferred
the company of older companions, and Ghiglia’s role in his adolescence
was to be a sympathetic ear as he worked himself out, principally in the
convoluted letters that he regularly sent, and which survive today.[14]

Dear friend, I write to pour myself out to you and to
affirm myself to myself. I am the prey of great powers that surge forth
and then disintegrate … A bourgeois
told me today–insulted me–that I or at least my brain was lazy. It did
me good. I should like such a warning every morning upon awakening: but
they cannot understand us nor can they understand life…[15]

Paris

Gallery of works

Montparnasse, ParisEdit

Female Head, 1911/1912, Tate

SculptureEdit

Four sculptures by Modigliani were exhibited at the 1912 Salon d’Automne along with the Cubists. Towards the front left, Joseph Csaky‘s sculpture Groupe de femmes. Other works are shown by František Kupka (Fugue in Two Colors), Francis Picabia (The Spring), Jean Metzinger (Dancer in a Café), and Henri Le Fauconnier (Mountaineers Attacked by Bears).

In 1909, Modigliani returned home to Livorno, sickly and tired from
his wild lifestyle. Soon he was back in Paris, this time renting a studio in Montparnasse. He originally saw himself as a sculptor rather than a painter, and was encouraged to continue after Paul Guillaume, an ambitious young art dealer, took an interest in his work and introduced him to sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. He was Constantin Brâncuși’s disciple for one year.

Although a series of Modigliani’s sculptures were exhibited in the Salon d’Automne
of 1912, by 1914 he abandoned sculpting and focused solely on his
painting, a move precipitated by the difficulty in acquiring sculptural
materials due to the outbreak of war, and by Modigliani’s physical debilitation.[3]

In June 2010 Modigliani’s Tête, a limestone carving of a woman’s head, became the third most expensive sculpture ever sold.

Friends and influencesEdit

Modigliani painted a series of portraits of contemporary artists and friends in Montparnasse: Chaim Soutine, Moïse Kisling, Pablo Picasso, Diego Rivera, Marie “Marevna” Vorobyev-Stebeslka, Juan Gris, Max Jacob, Jacques Lipchitz, Blaise Cendrars, and Jean Cocteau, all sat for stylized renditions.

The war years

Patronage of Léopold Zborowski

Jeanne Hébuterne

Death and funeral

Legacy

Critical reactions

Selected works

See also

References

Further reading

External links

Watch “Iosif Ivanovici – Donauwellen Walzer (Waves of the Danube Waltz)” on YouTube


Watch “Susan Boyle Wins GOLDEN BUZZER on AGT The Champions | Got Talent Global” on YouTube


Watch “Chicago The Musical – “All That Jazz”” on YouTube


Watch “JIM CROCE – I’LL HAVE TO SAY I LOVE YOU IN A SONG” on YouTube



Well, I know it’s kind of late
I hope I didn’t wake you
But what I’ve got to say can’t wait
I know you’d understand
‘Cause every time I tried to tell you
The words just came out wrong
So I’ll have to say “I love you” in a song

Yeah, I know it’s kind of strange
Every time I’m near you
I just run out of things to say
I know you’d understand
‘Cause every time I tried to tell you
The words just came out wrong
So I’ll have to say “I love you” in a song
‘Cause every time the time was right
All the words just came out wrong
So I’ll have to say “I love you” (I love you) in a song
Yeah, I know it’s kind of late (it’s kind of late)
I hope I didn’t wake you
But there’s something that I just got to say
(I know you’d understand)
I know you’d understand
‘Cause every time I tried to tell you
The words just came out wrong
So I’ll have to say “I love you” in a song
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: James Croce
I’ll Have to Say I Love You in a Song lyrics © BMG Rights Management

Watch “Rachmaninov/Respighi: 5 Études-tableaux (P. 160) (1930)” on YouTube


Études-Tableaux, Op. 33

The Études-Tableaux (“study pictures”), Op. 33, is the first of two sets of piano études composed by Sergei Rachmaninoff.
They were intended to be “picture pieces”, essentially “musical
evocations of external visual stimuli”. But Rachmaninoff did not
disclose what inspired each one, stating: “I do not believe in the
artist that discloses too much of his images. Let [the listener] paint
for themselves what it most suggests.”[1] However, he willingly shared sources for a few of these études with the Italian composer Ottorino Respighi when Respighi orchestrated them in 1930.

HistoryEdit

Rachmaninoff composed the Op. 33 Études-Tableaux at his Ivanovka estate in Tambov, Russia between August and September 1911, the year after completing his second set of preludes, Op. 32. While the Op. 33 Études-Tableaux
share some stylistic points with the preludes, they are actually not
very similar. Rachmaninoff concentrates on establishing well-defined
moods and developing musical themes in the preludes. There is also an
academic facet to the preludes, as he wrote 24 of them, one in each of
the 24 major and minor keys.

Rachmaninoff biographer Max Harrison calls the Études-Tableaux
“studies in [musical] composition”; while they explore a variety of
themes, they “investigate the transformation of rather specific climates
of feeling via piano textures and sonorities. They are thus less
predictable than the preludes and compositionally mark an advance” in
technique.[2]

Rachmaninoff
initially wrote nine pieces for Op. 33 but published only six in 1914.
One étude, in A minor, was subsequently revised and used in the Op. 39 set;
the other two appeared posthumously and are now usually played with the
other six. Performing these eight études together could be considered
to run against the composer’s intent, as the six originally published
are unified through “melodic-cellular connections” in much the same way
as in Robert Schumann‘s Symphonic Studies.[3]

Differing
from the simplicity of the first four études, Nos. 5–8 are more
virtuosic in their approach to keyboard writing, calling for
unconventional hand positions, wide leaps for the fingers and
considerable technical strength from the performer. Also, “the
individual mood and passionate character of each piece” pose musical
problems that preclude performance by those lacking strong physical
technique.[3]

Numbering and characterEdit

Rachmaninoff wrote nine études-tableaux at his Ivanovka estate in 1911. Six of them, the original Nos. 1–2 and 6–9, were published that year.[4] The original No. 4 is lost; the piece was revised and published as Op. 39, No. 6.[4] The original Nos. 3 and 5 were published posthumously within Op. 33.[4] Probably best identified by their tempo markings and keys, the 1911 pieces are numbered by the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) as follows,[5] leaving aside the piece that is now part of Op. 39:

  • Allegro non troppo in F minor — No. 1

This study has a martial character. Rachmaninov adored the music of Frédéric Chopin, and there are often parallels between the music of the two composers. This study recalls the Étude Op. 25, No. 4 of Chopin.

  • Allegro in C major — No. 2

This study is characterized by a marked lyricism and a very expressive melody. Notice the similarity to Rachmaninoff’s Prelude op. 32 no. 12, which was composed the year before, in 1910.

  • Grave in C minor — No. 3 (published posthumously)

This study was re-used in the Largo of Rachmaninov’s Fourth Concerto, which was completed in 1926.

  • Moderato in D minor — No. 4 (published posthumously, originally No. 5)

This study is similar to the Prelude op. 23 No. 3 composed by Rachmaninoff in 1903, both in tone and character.

  • Non allegro—Presto in E-flat minor — No. 5 (published as No. 3, originally No. 6)

This
study ranks among the most difficult of the opus, to play. The right
hand runs constantly throughout the whole keyboard with numerous octave
leaps and chromatic scales. Note some similarity to the Prelude op. 28 No. 16 and the Op. Study 25 No. 6 by Chopin. In Russia, this piece is nicknamed The Snow Storm.

  • Allegro con fuoco in E-flat major — No. 6 (published as No. 4, originally No. 7)

This study has primarily a military aspect. The study concludes with a particularly virtuosic coda.

  • Moderato in G minor — No. 7 (published as No. 5, originally No. 8)

This study parallels the finale of the First Ballade in G minor by Chopin.

  • Grave in C-sharp minor — No. 8 (published as No. 6, originally No. 9)

This study was one of the three in this opus that were famously recorded in the Melodiya studios by Sviatoslav Richter, the other two being Moderato in D minor and Non allegro—Presto in E-flat minor.[6]

Arrangements

Recordings

References

External links

Flamingosis – SoundCloud (MAKE THIS MUSIC YOUR KIND OF MUSIC)


Check out Flamingosis on #SoundCloud

MAKE THIS MUSIC YOUR KIND OF MUSIC!

Watch “Willie Nelson – Night Life” on YouTube


  1. 2 of 5

    When that ev’nin’ sun goes down
    Yeah, you’ll find me hangin’ around
    Because the night life
    It ain’t no good life but it’s my life

    Yeah, yeah, yeah listen to the blues
    Listen to what they’re sayin’
    Oh, please listen to the blues
    Listen to the blues they’re playin’

    Ah, ah, all of the people just like you and me
    They’re all dreamin’ about their old used to be
    Because the night life
    It ain’t no good life but it’s my life

    They tell me life’s an empty scene
    An avenue of broken dreams
    Because the night life
    It ain’t no good life but it’s my life

    Source: LyricFind


    Songwriters: Paul Buskirk / Walt Breeland / Willie Nelson

    Night Life lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Glad Music Co., BMG Rights Management

Watch “Bob Seger- Night Moves” on YouTube


  1. 2 of 5

    I was a little too tall
    Could’ve used a few pounds
    Tight pants points hardly reknown
    She was a black haired beauty with big dark eyes
    And points all her own sitting way up high
    Way up firm and high
    Out past the cornfields where the woods got heavy
    Out in the back seat of my ’60 Chevy
    Workin’ on mysteries without any clues
    Workin’ on our night moves
    Trying’ to make some front page drive-in news
    Workin’ on our night moves in the summertime
    In the sweet summertime
    We weren’t in love oh no far from it
    We weren’t searching for some pie in the sky summit
    We were just young and restless and bored
    Living by the sword
    And we’d steal away every chance we could
    To the backroom, the alley, the trusty woods
    I used her she used me
    But neither one cared
    We were getting our share
    Workin’ on our night moves
    Trying to lose the awkward teenage blues
    Workin’ on out night moves
    In the summertime
    And oh the wonder
    Felt the lightning
    And we waited on the thunder
    Waited on the thunder
    I woke last night to the sound of thunder
    How far off I sat and wondered
    Started humming a song from 1962
    Ain’t it funny how the night moves
    When you just don’t seem to have as much to lose
    Strange how the night moves
    With autumn closing in
    Source: Musixmatch


    Songwriters: SEGER ROBERT CLARK
    Night Moves lyrics © Gear Publishing, Gear Publishing Company Inc, GEAR PUBLISHING CO., INC., HIDEOUT RECORDS/DISTRIBTRS INC (GEAR PUBLISHING DI, HIDEOUT RECORDS DIST. INC.

Watch “Willie Nelson – Blue Eyes Crying In The Rain” on YouTube



In the twilight glow I see them
Blue eyes cryin’ in the rain
When we kissed goodbye and parted
I knew we’d never meet again

Love is like a dyin’ ember
Only memories remain
Through the ages I’ll remember
Blue eyes cryin’ in the rain
Some day when we meet up yonder
We’ll stroll hand in hand again
In a land that knows no partin’
Blue eyes cryin’ in the rain
Now my hair has turned to silver
All my life I’ve loved in vain
I can see her star in heaven
Blue eyes crying in the rain
Source: LyricFind


Songwriters: Fred Rose
Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

Watch “Dean Winchester | A Single Man Tear” on YouTube


  1. 2 of 4

    A single man tear slips down his face
    He shows emotion without a trace
    He hides behind a mask so strong
    Worried that he could be wrong
    I wish that he could see the way I see him
    The perfect brother
    A man without sin
    Cause underneath the manly sheen
    It is my brother
    A boy named Dean
    A single man tear
    A single man tear
    A single man tear that’s all we fear
    A single man tear
    That’s all i’ll spare
    I bury feelings, don’t show I care
    Even though I’m haunted
    Must be the man daddy wanted
    Wish I could be as strong as Sam
    Blaze my own trail
    Be my own man
    But underneath this broken mask
    It is my father, with all his wrath
    A single man tear
    A single man tear
    A single man tear that’s all we fear

    Source: Musixmatch


    Songwriters: Christopher J. Lennertz / ROBBIE THOMPSON

    A Single Man Tear lyrics © WARNER OLIVE MUSIC LLC., WARNER-BARHAM MUSIC LLC.

Watch “Gordon Lightfoot – Sundown {HD}” on YouTube


Gordon Lightfoot,

Sundown

I can see her lyin’ back in her satin dress
In a room where ya do what ya don’t confess
Sundown you better take care
If I find you beenn creepin’ ’round my back stairs
Sundown ya better take care
If I find you been creepin’ ’round my back stairs
She’s been lookin’ like a queen in a sailor’s dream
And she don’t always say what she really means
Sometimes I think it’s a shame
When I get feelin’ better when I’m feelin’ no pain
Sometimes I think it’s a shame
When I get feelin’ better when I’m feelin’ no pain
I can picture every move that a man could make
Getting lost in her lovin’ is your first mistake
Sundown you better take care
If I find you been creepin’ ’round my back stairs
Sometimes I think it’s a sin
When I feel like I’m winnin’ when I’m losin’ again
I can see her lookin’ fast in her faded jeans
She’s a hard lovin’ woman, got me feelin’ mean
Sometimes I think it’s a shame
When I get feelin’ better when I’m feelin’ no pain
Sundown you better take care
If I find you been creepin’ ’round my back stairs
Sundown you better take care
If I find you been creepin’ ’round my back stairs
Sometimes I think it’s a sin
When I feel like I’m winnin’ when I’m losin’ again

Source: LyricFind
Songwriters: Gordon Lightfoot
Sundown lyrics © Warner Chappell Music, Inc