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The Cloister of Pater Noster – Jerusalem


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Tatal Nostru (Convent of Pater Noster - Ierusalim)

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Human Civilization Heritage – Historic Sites: Petra – Jordan (Listed by UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists) and Smithsonian Magazine’s – “28 Places to See Before You Die”


Petra

This article is about the Jordanian ancient city of Petra. For other uses, see Petra (disambiguation).
Petra
Al Khazneh.jpg

Al Khazneh or The Treasury at Petra
Location Ma’an Governorate, Jordan
Coordinates 30°19′43″N 35°26′31″ECoordinates: 30°19′43″N 35°26′31″E
Elevation 810 m (2,657 ft)
Built possibly as early as 5th century BC [1]
Visitation 580,000 (in 2007)
Governing body Petra Region Authority
 
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, iv
Designated 1985 (9th session)
Reference no. 326
State Party Jordan
Region Arab States
 
Website www.visitpetra.jo
Petra is located in Jordan

Petra
 
Location of Petra in Jordan

Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα) is a historical and archaeological city in the southern Jordanian governorate of Ma’an that is famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. Another name for Petra is the Rose City due to the color of the stone out of which it is carved.

Established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans,[2] it is a symbol of Jordan, as well as Jordan’s most-visited tourist attraction.[3] It lies on the slope of Jebel al-Madhbah (identified by some as the biblical Mount Hor[4]) in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985.

The site remained unknown to the Western world until 1812, when it was introduced by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. It was described as “a rose-red city half as old as time” in a Newdigate Prize-winning poem by John William Burgon. UNESCO has described it as “one of the most precious cultural properties of man’s cultural heritage”.[5] See: UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Petra was chosen by the Smithsonian Magazine as one of the “28 Places to See Before You Die”.[6]

Geography

Pliny the Elder and other writers identify Petra as the capital of the Nabataeans and the center of their caravan trade. Enclosed by towering rocks and watered by a perennial stream, Petra not only possessed the advantages of a fortress, but controlled the main commercial routes which passed through it to Gaza in the west, to Bosra and Damascus in the north, to Aqaba and Leuce Come on the Red Sea, and across the desert to the Persian Gulf.

Map of Petra

 

The narrow passage (Siq) that leads to Petra

Excavations have demonstrated that it was the ability of the Nabataeans to control the water supply that led to the rise of the desert city, creating an artificial oasis. The area is visited by flash floods and archaeological evidence demonstrates the Nabataeans controlled these floods by the use of dams, cisterns and water conduits. These innovations stored water for prolonged periods of drought, and enabled the city to prosper from its sale.[7][8]

In ancient times, Petra might have been approached from the south on a track leading across the plain of Petra, around Jabal Haroun (“Aaron’s Mountain”), where the Tomb of Aaron, said to be the burial-place of Aaron, brother of Moses, is located. Another approach was possibly from the high plateau to the north. Today, most modern visitors approach the site from the east. The impressive eastern entrance leads steeply down through a dark, narrow gorge (in places only 3–4 m (9.8–13.1 ft) wide) called the Siq (“the shaft”), a natural geological feature formed from a deep split in the sandstone rocks and serving as a waterway flowing into Wadi Musa. At the end of the narrow gorge stands Petra’s most elaborate ruin, Al Khazneh (popularly known as and meaning “the Treasury”), hewn into the sandstone cliff. While remaining in remarkably preserved condition, the face of the structure is marked by hundreds of bullet holes made by the local Bedouin tribes that hoped to dislodge riches that were once rumored to be hidden within it.[9]

A little farther from the Treasury, at the foot of the mountain called en-Nejr, is a massive theatre, positioned so as to bring the greatest number of tombs within view. At the point where the valley opens out into the plain, the site of the city is revealed with striking effect. The amphitheatre has been cut into the hillside and into several of the tombs during its construction. Rectangular gaps in the seating are still visible. Almost enclosing it on three sides are rose-colored mountain walls, divided into groups by deep fissures and lined with knobs cut from the rock in the form of towers.

History

One of the many dwellings in Petra

 

General view of Petra

 

Some of the earliest recorded farmers settled in Beidha, a pre-pottery settlement just north of Petra, by 7000 BC.[10] Petra is listed in Egyptian campaign accounts and the Amarna letters as Pel, Sela or Seir. Though the city was founded relatively late, a sanctuary has existed there since very ancient times. Stations 19 through 26 of the stations list of Exodus are places associated with Petra.[11] This part of the country was biblically assigned to the Horites, the predecessors of the Edomites.[12] The habits of the original natives may have influenced the Nabataean custom of burying the dead and offering worship in half-excavated caves. Although Petra is usually identified with Sela, which means a rock, the Biblical references[13] refer to it as “the cleft in the rock”, referring to its entrance. In the parallel passage, however, Sela is understood to mean simply “the rock” (2 Chronicles xxv. 12, see LXX).

Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews iv. 7, 1~ 4, 7), Eusebius and Jerome (Onom. sacr. 286, 71. 145, 9; 228, 55. 287, 94) assert that Rekem was the native name, and this name appears in the Dead Sea Scrolls[14] as a prominent Edomite site most closely describing Petra, and associated with Mount Seir. But in the Aramaic versions, Rekem is the name of Kadesh, implying that Josephus may have confused the two places. The Semitic name of the city, if not Sela, remains unknown. The passage in Diodorus Siculus (xix. 94–97) which describes the expeditions which Antigonus sent against the Nabataeans in 312 BC is understood to throw some light upon the history of Petra, but the “petra” referred to as a natural fortress and place of refuge cannot be a proper name and the description implies that the town was not yet in existence.

 
The Rekem Inscription before it was buried by the bridge abutments.

The name “Rekem” was inscribed in the rock wall of the Wadi Musa opposite the entrance to the Siq,[15] but about twenty years ago[timeframe?] the Jordanians built a bridge over the wadi and this inscription was buried beneath tons of concrete.[citation needed]

More satisfactory evidence of the date of the earliest Nabataean settlement may be obtained from an examination of the tombs. Two types of tombs have been distinguished: the Nabataean and the Greco-Roman. The Nabataean type starts from the simple pylon-tomb with a door set in a tower crowned by a parapet ornament, in imitation of the front of a dwelling-house. Then, after passing through various stages, the full Nabataean type is reached, retaining all the native features and at the same time exhibiting characteristics which are partly Egyptian and partly Greek. Of this type close parallels exist in the tomb-towers at Mada’in Saleh in north Arabia, which bear long Nabataean inscriptions and supply a date for the corresponding monuments at Petra. Then comes a series of tombfronts which terminate in a semicircular arch, a feature derived from north Syria. Finally come the elaborate façades copied from the front of a Roman temple; however, all traces of native style have vanished. The exact dates of the stages in this development cannot be fixed. Few inscriptions of any length have been found at Petra, perhaps because they have perished with the stucco or cement which was used upon many of the buildings. The simple pylon-tombs which belong to the pre-Hellenic age serve as evidence for the earliest period. It is not known how far back in this stage the Nabataean settlement goes, but it does not go back farther than the 6th century BC. A period follows in which the dominant civilization combines Greek, Egyptian and Syrian elements, clearly pointing to the age of the Ptolemies. Towards the close of the 2nd century BC, when the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms were equally depressed, the Nabataean kingdom came to the front. Under Aretas III Philhellene, (c.85–60 BC), the royal coins begin. The theatre was probably excavated at that time, and Petra must have assumed the aspect of a Hellenistic city. In the reign of Aretas IV Philopatris, (9 BC–40 AD), the tombs of the el-I~ejr[clarification needed] type may be dated, and perhaps also the High-place.

Roman rule

In 106 AD, when Cornelius Palma was governor of Syria, the part of Arabia under the rule of Petra was absorbed into the Roman Empire as part of Arabia Petraea and became its capital. The native dynasty came to an end but the city continued to flourish under Roman rule. It was around this time that the Petra Roman Road was built. A century later, in the time of Alexander Severus, when the city was at the height of its splendor, the issue of coinage comes to an end. There is no more building of sumptuous tombs, owing apparently to some sudden catastrophe, such as an invasion by the neo-Persian power under the Sassanid Empire. Meanwhile, as Palmyra (fl. 130–270) grew in importance and attracted the Arabian trade away from Petra, the latter declined. It appears, however, to have lingered on as a religious centre. Another Roman road was constructed at the site. Epiphanius of Salamis (c.315–403) writes that in his time a feast was held there on December 25 in honor of the virgin Khaabou (Chaabou) and her offspring Dushara (Haer. 51).[citation needed]

Byzantine era – decline

Petra declined rapidly under Roman rule, in large part from the revision of sea-based trade routes. In 363 an earthquake destroyed many buildings, and crippled the vital water management system.[16] The last inhabitants abandoned the city (further weakened by another major earthquake in 551) when the Arabs conquered the region in 663. The ruins of Petra were an object of curiosity in the Middle Ages and were visited by Sultan Baibars of Egypt towards the end of the 13th century. The first European to describe them was Swiss traveller Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812.

Because the structures weakened with age, many of the tombs became vulnerable to thieves, and many treasures were stolen. In 1929, a four-person team, consisting of British archaeologists Agnes Conway and George Horsfield, Palestinian physician and folklore expert Dr Tawfiq Canaan and Dr Ditlef Nielsen, a Danish scholar, excavated and surveyed Petra.[17]

T. E. Lawrence

 Petra siq in 1947 (left) compared with the same location in 2013

In October 1917, as part of a general effort to divert Ottoman military resources away from the British advance before the Third Battle of Gaza, a revolt of Syrians and Arabians in Petra was led by British Army officer T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) against the Ottoman regime. The Bedouin women living in the vicinity of Petra and under the leadership of Sheik Khallil’s wife were gathered to fight in the revolt of the city. The rebellions, with the support of English military, were able to devastate the Ottoman forces.[18]

Religion

 The Theatre
See also: Nabataean art

The Nabataeans worshipped the Arab gods and goddesses of the pre-Islamic times as well as a few of their deified kings. One, Obodas I, was deified after his death. Dushara was the primary male god accompanied by his female trinity: Al-‘Uzzá, Allat and Manāt. Many statues carved in the rock depict these gods and goddesses.

A stele is dedicated to Qos-Allah ‘Qos is Allah’ or ‘Qos the god’, by Qosmilk (melech – king) is found at Petra (Glueck 516). Qos is identifiable with Kaush (Qaush) the God of the older Edomites. The stele is horned and the seal from the Edomite Tawilan near Petra identified with Kaush displays a star and crescent (Browning 28), both consistent with a moon deity. It is conceivable the latter could have resulted from trade with Harran (Bartlett 194). There is continuing debate about the nature of Qos (qaus – bow) who has been identified both with a hunting bow (hunting god) and a rainbow (weather god) although the crescent above is also a bow.

Nabatean inscriptions in Sinai and other places display widespread references to names including Allah, El and Allat (god and goddess), with regional references to al-Uzza, Baal and Manutu (Manat) (Negev 11). Allat is also found in Sinai in South Arabian language. Allah occurs particularly as Garm-‘allahi – god dedided (Greek Garamelos) and Aush-allahi – ‘gods covenant’ (Greek Ausallos). We find both Shalm-lahi ‘Allah is peace’ and Shalm-allat, ‘the peace of the goddess’. We also find Amat-allahi ‘she-servant of god’ and Halaf-llahi ‘the successor of Allah’.[19]

The Monastery, Petra’s largest monument, dates from the 1st century BC. It was dedicated to Obodas I and is believed to be the symposium of Obodas the god. This information is inscribed on the ruins of the Monastery (the name is the translation of the Arabic “Ad Deir“).

Christianity found its way to Petra in the 4th century AD, nearly 500 years after the establishment of Petra as a trade center. Athanasius mentions a bishop of Petra (Anhioch. 10) named Asterius. At least one of the tombs (the “tomb with the urn”?) was used as a church. An inscription in red paint records its consecration “in the time of the most holy bishop Jason” (447). After the Islamic conquest of 629–632 Christianity in Petra, as of most of Arabia, gave way to Islam. During the First Crusade Petra was occupied by Baldwin I of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and formed the second fief of the barony of Al Karak (in the lordship of Oultrejordain) with the title Château de la Valée de Moyse or Sela. It remained in the hands of the Franks until 1189. It is still a titular see of the Catholic Church.[20]

Two Crusader-period castles are known in and around Petra. The first is al-Wu’ayra and is situated just north of Wadi Musa. It can be viewed from the road to “Little Petra”. It is the castle of Valle Moise which was seized by a band of Turks with the help of local Muslims and only recovered by the Crusaders after they began to destroy the olive trees of Wadi Musa. The potential loss of livelihood led the locals to negotiate surrender. The second is on the summit of el-Habis in the heart of Petra and can be accessed from the West side of the Qasr al-Bint.

According to Arab tradition, Petra is the spot where Moses (Musa) struck a rock with his staff and water came forth, and where Moses’ brother, Aaron (Harun), is buried, at Mount Hor, known today as Jabal Haroun or Mount Aaron. The Wadi Musa or “Wadi of Moses” is the Arab name for the narrow valley at the head of which Petra is sited. A mountaintop shrine of Moses’ sister Miriam was still shown to pilgrims at the time of Jerome in the 4th century, but its location has not been identified since.[21]

Threats to Petra

The site suffers from a host of threats, including collapse of ancient structures, erosion due to flooding and improper rainwater drainage, weathering from salt upwelling,[22] improper restoration of ancient structures, and unsustainable tourism.[23] The last has increased substantially, especially since the site received widespread media coverage in 2007 during the controversial New Seven Wonders of the World Internet and cell phone campaign.[24]

In an attempt to reduce the impact of these threats, Petra National Trust (PNT) was established in 1989. Over this time, it has worked together with numerous local and international organizations on projects that promote the protection, conservation and preservation of the Petra site.[25] Moreover, UNESCO and ICOMOS recently collaborated to publish their first book on human and natural threats to these sensitive World Heritage sites. They chose Petra as its first, and the most important example of threatened landscapes. A book released in 2012, Tourism and Archaeological Heritage Management at Petra: Driver to Development or Destruction?, was the first in a series of important books to address the very nature of these deteriorating buildings, cities, sites, and regions. The next books in the series of deteriorating UNESCO World Heritage Sites will include Macchu Picchu, Angkor Wat, and Pompeii. (25).

 
Camel sitting in front of Al Khazneh

Petra today

On December 6, 1985, Petra was designated a World Heritage Site. Some of the sights of Petra are available on Google Street View.

In popular culture

Petra is the main topic in John William Burgon‘s sonnet (rhyme scheme aabbccddeeffgg) “Petra” which won the Newdigate Prize in 1845. The poem refers to Petra as the inaccessible city which he had heard described but had never seen:

It seems no work of Man’s creative hand,

by labour wrought as wavering fancy planned;

But from the rock as if by magic grown,

eternal, silent, beautiful, alone!

Not virgin-white like that old Doric shrine,

where erst Athena held her rites divine;

Not saintly-grey, like many a minster fane,

that crowns the hill and consecrates the plain;

But rose-red as if the blush of dawn,

that first beheld them were not yet withdrawn;

The hues of youth upon a brow of woe,

which Man deemed old two thousand years ago,

match me such marvel save in Eastern clime,

a rose-red city half as old as time.

In 1977, the Lebanese Rahbani brothers wrote the musical “Petra” as a response to the Lebanese Civil War.[26]

The site is featured in films such as: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Arabian Nights, Passion in the Desert, Mortal Kombat: Annihilation, Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger, The Mummy Returns and Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen.

It was recreated for the video games Spy Hunter (2001), King’s Quest V, Lego Indiana Jones, Sonic Unleashed, Knights of the Temple: Infernal Crusade and Civilization V.

Petra appeared in the novels Left Behind Series, Appointment with Death, The Eagle in the Sand, The Red Sea Sharks, the nineteenth book in The Adventures of Tintin series and in Kingsbury’s The Moon Goddess and the Son. It featured prominently in the Marcus Didius Falco mystery novel Last Act in Palmyra. In Blue Balliett‘s novel, Chasing Vermeer, the character Petra Andalee is named after the site.[27]

The Sisters of Mercy filmed their music video for “Dominion/Mother Russia” in and around Al Khazneh (“The Treasury”) in February 1988.

In 1994 Petra featured in the video to the Urban Species video Spiritual Love.

Petra was featured in episode 3 of the 2010 series An Idiot Abroad.

In 1979 Marguerite van Geldermalsen from New Zealand married Mohammed Abdullah, a Bedouin in Petra.[28] They lived in a cave in Petra until the death of her husband. She authored the book Married to a Bedouin. Geldermalsen is the only western woman who has ever lived in Petra.

Petra was featured in episode 20 of Misaeng_(TV_series). [29][30]

Sister cities

Views of Petra
The road to the Siiq 
The Siiq, path to Petra 
El Deir (“The Monastery”) 
Byzantine mosaic in the Byzantine Church of Petra 
The end of the Siq, with its dramatic view of Al Khazneh (“The Treasury”) 
The Hadrian Gate and the Cardo Maximus in Petra 
Petra is known as the Rose-Red City[31] for the colour of the rocks from which Petra is carved 
The Great Temple of Petra 
Ad Deir (“The Monastery”) in 1839, by David Roberts 
The Petra Visitors Centre in Wadi Musa, the closest town to the historic site 
Drimia maritima bulbs in Petra in early December (2010) 
Sandstone Rock-cut tombs (Kokhim) in Petra 
Obelisk Tomb and the Triclinium 
Street of Façades 
The Silk Tomb 
Uneishu Tomb 
Lonely cave 
Sandstone rocks 
Main entrance (Al Khazneh) 
Theatre 
General view 
Ancient columns 
Tourist attraction 

See also

Petra one of the most Mysterious Archaeological Sites on Earth [FULL DOCUMENTARY]

Theodosius the Great (Cenobiarch) Sfantul Teodosie cel Mare)


Theodosius the Great (Cenobiarch)

Theodosius the Great (Cenobiarch) – 11th century mosaic in the Nea Moni Monastery (Greece)

The Venerable Saint Theodosius the Great, also Theodosius the Cenobiarch lived during the fifth-sixth centuries (423 AD – 529 AD), and was the founder and organizer of the cenobitic way of monastic life.[note 1] The monastery that he founded in 476 AD became known as the “Monastery of St. Theodosius“, and includes his tomb.[note 2] His feast day is on January 11.

Life

Saint Theodosius was born in the province of Cappadocia in the village of Mogarissus. His parents Proheresius and Eulogia were very devout.

Endowed with a splendid voice, he zealously toiled at church reading and singing. St Theodosius prayed fervently that the Lord would guide him on the way to salvation. In his early years he visited the Holy Land and met with St Symeon the Stylite (September 1), who blessed him and predicted future pastoral service for him.

Yearning for the solitary life, Saint Theodosius settled in Palestine into a desolate cave, in which, according to Tradition, the three Magi had spent the night, having come to worship the Savior after His Nativity. He lived there for thirty years in great abstinence and unceasing prayer. People flocked to the ascetic, wishing to live under his guidance.

When the cave could no longer hold all the monks, St Theodosius prayed that the Lord Himself would indicate a place for the monks to live. Taking a censer with cold charcoal and incense, the monk started walking into the desert. At a certain spot the charcoal ignited by itself and the incense smoke began to rise. Here the monk established the first cenobitic monastery, or Lavra (meaning “broad” or “populous”).

It was around this time that Theodosius’ friend and countryman Sabbas the Sanctified was appointed Archimandrite of all the isolated monks in Palestine, by Patriarch Sallustius of Jerusalem (486-493). Therefore Theodosius was made the leader of all those monks who lived in community, and this was the origin of his being called “the Cenobiarch”, which translates as chief of those living a life in common.

Monastery of St. Theodosius

Soon the Lavra of St Theodosius became renowned, and up to 700 monks gathered at it. According to the final testament of St Theodosius, the Lavra rendered service to neighbor, gave aid to the poor and provided shelter for wanderers. There was a communal table for all, communal property, communal penance, communal labor, communal patience and, not too rare, communal hunger. Theodosius was an exalted model of life to all the monks; an example in labor, prayer, fasting, watchfulness and in all Christian virtues.

St Theodosius was extremely compassionate. Once, when there was a famine in Palestine and a multitude of people gathered at the monastery, he gave orders to allow everyone into the monastery enclosure. His disciples were annoyed, knowing that the monastery did not have the means to feed all those who had come. But when they went into the bakery, they saw that through the prayers of the abba, it was filled with bread. This miracle was repeated every time St Theodosius wanted to help the destitute.

At the monastery, St Theodosius built a home for taking in strangers, separate infirmaries for monks and laymen, and also a shelter for the dying.

Seeing that people from various lands gathered at the Lavra, the saint arranged for services and hymns to be offered to God in the various languages: Greek, Georgian and Armenian. However when all were gathered to receive the Holy Mysteries in the large church, the divine services were chanted in Greek.

Opponent of Monophysitism

During the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius (491-518) there arose the heresy of Eutychius and Severus, which recognized neither the sacraments nor the clergy. The emperor accepted the false teaching, and the Orthodox began to suffer persecution. St Theodosius stood firmly in defense of Orthodoxy and wrote a letter to the emperor on behalf of the monks, in which they denounced him and refuted the heresy with the teachings of the Ecumenical Councils. He affirmed moreover, that the desert-dwellers and monks would firmly support the Orthodox teaching. The emperor showed restraint for a short while, but then he renewed his persecution of the Orthodox. The holy Elder then showed great zeal for the truth. Leaving the monastery, he came to Jerusalem and in the church, he stood at the high place and cried out for all to hear: “Whoever does not honor the four Ecumenical Councils, let him be anathema!” For this bold deed the monk was sent to prison, but soon returned after the death of the emperor.

Miracles

St Theodosius accomplished many healings and other miracles during his life. God granted him the gift of working miracles by which he was able to heal the sick, to appear from a distance, to tame wild beasts, to discern the future and to cause bread and wheat to multiply. Prayer was on his lips day and night.

Through his prayers he once destroyed the locusts devastating the fields in Palestine. Also by his intercession, soldiers were saved from death, and he also saved those perishing in shipwrecks and those lost in the desert.

Once, the saint gave orders to strike the semandron (a piece of wood hit with a mallet), so that the brethren would gather at prayer. He told them, “The wrath of God draws near the East.” After several days it became known that a strong earthquake had destroyed the city of Antioch at the very hour when the saint had summoned the brethren to prayer.

Death

Before his death, St Theodosius summoned to him three beloved bishops and revealed to them that he would soon depart to the Lord. After three days, he died peacefully at the age of 105, in 529 AD. The saint’s body was buried with reverence in his first cell, the cave in which he lived at the beginning of his ascetic deeds.

Hymns

Troparion – Tone 8
By a flood of tears you made the desert fertile,
and your longing for God brought forth fruits in abundance.
By the radiance of miracles you illumined the whole universe!
Our Father Theodosius, pray to Christ God to save our souls!

Kontakion – Tone 8
Planted in the courts of your Lord, you blossomed beautifully with virtue,
and increased your children in the desert, showering them with streams of
your tears, O chief shepherd of the divine flock of God.
Therefore, we cry to you: “Rejoice, Father Theodosius.”

Gallery

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Teodosie cel Mare (Cenobiarch) 11 mozaicul din secolul în Mănăstirea Moni Nea (Grecia)
Venerabilul Sfântul Teodosie cel Mare, aussi Teodosie Cenobiarch a trăit în timpul cincea – sasea secolele (423 AD 529 d.Hr.). Și fondator și organizator a fost a modului de obște monahală de viață [nota 1] Manastirea a fondat de asta în 476 AD exista devenu Cunoscut sub numele de Mănăstirea Sf. Teodosie,” și include mormântul lui. [nota 2] Prăznuirea sa se la 11 ianuarie.

Saint Teodosie sa născut în provincia Cappadocia în orașul Mogarissus. Rudele lui Proheresius și Eulogia au fost foarte devotat.

Dotat cu o voce splendidă, a trudit cu zel la lectură biserică și cântând. St Teodosie sa rugat cu fervoare que la Domnul l-ar Ghid pe drumul spre mântuire. În primii ani a vizitat Țara Sfântă și aduce cu Sf Simeon Stâlpnicul (1 septembrie), care îl și viitorul Serviciu previzibilă pastorală Pentru el binecuvântat.

Dorinta pentru viața solitară, Sf. Teodosieau stabilit în Palestina într-o peșteră pustie, în qui, selon la tradiție, trei magi a petrecut noaptea, după ce a ajuns să se închine Mântuitorului După Nașterea Domnului Său. El a trăit timp de treizeci de ani în mare abstinență și rugăciune neîncetată. Oamenii s-au înghesuit la ascet, dorința de a trăi sub îndrumarea Lui.

Când pestera de-a lungul nr putut ține toți călugării, Sf Teodosie sa rugat que la Domnul Însuși ar indica indicație are loc pentru călugări să trăiască. Având o cădelniță cu cărbune rece și tămâie, călugărul a început de mers pe jos în deșert. La un loc sigur cărbune aprins de la sine și fumul de tămâie a început să crească. Aici călugărul Infiintata prima obște aur mănăstire Lavra (însemnând larg” sau populat”).

Acesta a fost momentul în care Teodosie jurul acestui prieten și Countryman Sava cel Sfintit a fost numit Arhimandritul a tuturor călugărilor izolate din Palestina, prin Sallustius Patriarhul Ierusalimului (486-493). Prin urmare, Teodosie a fost făcută liderul tuturor celor care au trăit în comunitate călugări, iar aceasta a fost de origine de fiul fiind alb numit expirat “Cenobiarch” qui se traduce ca șef celor care trăiesc o viață în comun.
Manastirea Sf. Teodosie de

Curând Lavra Sfântului Teodosie est devenu renumit, și până la 700 de călugări au adunat la el. Selon testamentul final al Sf Teodosie, Lavra prestate serviciile la vecin, dat ajutor la adăpost săraci și Asigurarea pentru Wanderers. Nu a fost o masă comună pentru toți, proprietate comunală, penitență comunale, Muncii comunale, răbdare comunale, și, foame comunale nu prea rare. Teodosie a fost un model de înaltă a vieții pentru toți călugării; un exemplu în Muncii, rugăciune, post, veghere și în toate virtuțile creștine.

St Teodosie a fost extrem de plin de compasiune. Odată, când a existat o foamete în Palestina și o mulțime de oameni adunați la mănăstire, a dat ordin să permită tuturor în incintă mănăstirii. Ucenicii lui au fost contrariat, Știind que la mănăstire Despre nuavea mijloace gruparea să se hrănească pe toți cei care au venit. Scopul Când au intrat în brutăria, au vazut ca prin rugăciunile Abba, acesta a fost umplut cu pâine. A fost aceasta minune a repetat de fiecare dată Sf Teodosie a vrut să ajute nevoiași.

La mănăstire, Sf Teodosie construit o casă pentru a lua în străini, infirmerii separate, pentru călugări și laici, precum și aussi un adăpost pentru moarte.

Văzând că oamenii din diferite țări au adunat la Lavra, sfântul amenajat pentru servicii și imnuri a fi oferite lui Dumnezeu în diferite limbi: Greacă, georgiene și armene. Oricum, când toate s-au adunat recevoir Sfintele Taine în biserică mai larg, serviciile divine Au fost cântată în greacă.
Adversar de monofizitismului

În timpul domniei împăratului bizantin Anastasie (491-518) Acolo propuneri erezia lui Eutihie și Sever, qui reconnu Nici clerul, nici sacramentele. Împăratul a acceptat învățătura falsă, iar ortodocșii au început să sufere Prigoana. St Teodosie a stat sudate ferm în apărarea Ortodoxiei și a scris o scrisoare către împărat la facilitatea de numele călugărilor, în qui El și a respins-au denunțat erezia cu învățăturile Sinoadelor Ecumenice. El a afirmat în plus, que Le desertlocuitori și călugări Vreti sudate de sprijin ferm învățătura ortodoxă. Împăratul arătat reținere pentru o scurtă perioadă de timp, poartă Apoi, el reînnoită persecuție Lui a ortodocșilor. Sfântul Bătrân Atunci dat dovadă de multă râvnă pentru adevăr. Lăsând mănăstire, el cam la Ierusalim și în biserică, el sa ridicat la ridicat și a strigat pentru toți să audă: ! Cine nu cinstește pe Sinoadele Ecumenice cuptor, să fie anatemaPentru aceasta fapta îndrăzneț călugăr leur Envoi la închisoare, pentru a întors imediat partener după moartea împăratului.
Minunile

St Teodosie Realizat Multe vindecări și miracole –Alte pandantiv viața Lui. Desigur L pe Dumnezeu darul de minuni prin qui a fost ble pentru a vindeca pe bolnavi, să apară de la o distanță, pentru a îmblânzi fiarele sălbatice, pentru a discerne viitor și în pâine și grâu pentru a se multiplica. Rugăciunea a fost în ziua Lui buzele și noapte.

Prin rugăciunile sale, el a distrus odată lăcustele devastatoare câmpurile din Palestina. De asemenea, prin mijlocirea lui au fost soldați salvat de la moarte, iar el a salvat aussi Cei care pier în epave și cele pierdute în deșert.

Odată, sfântul a dat ordin să lovească semandron (o bucată de lemn lovit cu un ciocan), astfel încât que la frații se adunau la rugăciune. El le-a spus, Mânia lui Dumnezeu se apropie Est.” După câteva zile, exista devenu cunoscut faptul că un cutremur puternic a distrus orașul HAD Antiohia chiar ora la care Sfânt ia chemat frații la rugăciune.
moarte

Înainte de moartea sa, Sf Teodosie chemat la el trei episcopi iubiți și le-a descoperit că va abate de curând la Domnul. După trei zile, a murit liniștită la vârsta de 105, în 529 AD. Corpul sfântului îngropat cu respect a fost în prima sa celulă, peștera în Qui a trăit la începutul de fiul fapte ascetice.
Imnurile

Tropar Tone 8
Printr-o potop de lacrimi aveti si voi deșert fertil,
și dorul pentru Dumnezeu brought roade din abundență.
Prin strălucirea miracolelor ai luminat întregul univers!
Tatăl nostru Teodosie, roagă-te lui Hristos Dumnezeu mântuiască sufletele noastre!

Condac Tone 8
Plantate în instanțele Domnului vostru, înflorit frumos cu virtute,
Creșterea și copiii voștri în deșert, dușurile cu fluxuri de ele
lacrimile tale, O, șef păstor al turmei lui Dumnezeu divin.
De aceea, noi strigăm la tine: Bucură-te, Părinte Teodosie.”

 

Beta Israel


Beta Israel

The Beta Israel, or “House of Israel,” are Jews of Ethiopian origin. Long isolated from mainstream Judaism, they do not use the Talmud but adhere strictly to the Mosaic law and observe some festivals of Judaism. In 1975, the Israeli rabbinate legally recognized them as Jews, and during the Ethiopian civil war, about 10,000 were airlifted to Israel in an effort to save them from persecution. A second airlift of more than 14,000 occurred in 1991. What were these secret operations called? More… Discuss

word: tacit


tacit 

Definition: (adjective) Implied by or inferred from actions or statements.
Synonyms: understood, silent
Usage: Management has given its tacit approval to the plan. Discuss.

This Day in the Yesteryear: THE BATTLE OF TOURS (732 CE)


The Battle of Tours (732 CE)

In 661 CE, the first Islamic dynasty rose to prominence and sought to extend its power. The Muslims, seeking control of Aquitaine, were met by Charles Martel‘s Frankish forces, who were able to halt them at the Battle of Tours. It was not a decisive victory, but the Arabs retreated after their leader was killed, and some historians deem it a watershed moment in preserving Christianity in Europe. The battle greatly enhanced Martel’s prestige at the time. What nickname was bestowed on him? More… Discuss