Tag Archives: Body fluid

this pressed: WHO Ebola situation assessment / What we know about transmission of the Ebola virus among humans


GENEVA, Switzerland, October 6, 2014/African Press Organization (APO)/ — Ebola situation assessment – 6 October 2014

The Ebola virus is transmitted among humans through close and direct physical contact with infected bodily fluids, the most infectious being blood, faeces and vomit.

The Ebola virus has also been detected in breast milk, urine and semen. In a convalescent male, the virus can persist in semen for at least 70 days; one study suggests persistence for more than 90 days.

Saliva and tears may also carry some risk. However, the studies implicating these additional bodily fluids were extremely limited in sample size and the science is inconclusive. In studies of saliva, the virus was found most frequently in patients at a severe stage of illness. The whole live virus has never been isolated from sweat.

The Ebola virus can also be transmitted indirectly, by contact with previously contaminated surfaces and objects. The risk of transmission from these surfaces is low and can be reduced even further by appropriate cleaning and disinfection procedures.

Not an airborne virus

Ebola virus disease is not an airborne infection. Airborne spread among humans implies inhalation of an infectious dose of virus from a suspended cloud of small dried droplets.

via WHO Ebola situation assessment / What we know about transmission of the Ebola virus among humans.

this pressed: WHO, CDC dissect Ebola transmission risk | CIDRAP ( Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy)


Levent Konuk / iStock
A study in a patient-care setting found little Ebola virus persistence in non-bloody samples.

In the wake of suggestions from some experts that the Ebola virus could evolve into an airborne pathogen, the World Health Organization (WHO) took pains to explain today that the virus is known to spread only through contact with bodily fluids—mainly blood, feces, and vomit.

The agency also said that the virus has been detected in breast milk, urine, and semen, and that even saliva and tears may pose some risk.

Meanwhile, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in updated guidance for infection control in hospitals, said the virus can persist on environmental surfaces for a few days. But with daily cleaning and disinfection in a US hospital environment, it would be unlikely to survive longer than a day, the agency said.

via WHO, CDC dissect Ebola transmission risk | CIDRAP.

4 more dead from heat-related causes – Chicago Tribune


4 more dead from heat-related causes - Chicago Tribune

4 more dead from heat-related causes - Chicago Tribune

Tips for Preventing Heat-Related Illness

The best defense is prevention. Here are some prevention tips:

  • Photo of athlete drinking water.Drink more fluids (nonalcoholic), regardless of your activity level. Don’t wait until you’re thirsty to drink. Warning: If your doctor generally limits the amount of fluid you drink or has you on water pills, ask him how much you should drink while the weather is hot.
     
  • Don’t drink liquids that contain alcohol or large amounts of sugar–these actually cause you to lose more body fluid. Also, avoid very cold drinks, because they can cause stomach cramps.
     
  • Stay indoors and, if at all possible, stay in an air-conditioned place. If your home does not have air conditioning, go to the shopping mall or public library–even a few hours spent in air conditioning can help your body stay cooler when you go back into the heat. Call your local health department to see if there are any heat-relief shelters in your area.
     
  • Electric fans may provide comfort, but when the temperature is in the high 90s, fans will not prevent heat-related illness. Taking a cool shower or bath, or moving to an air-conditioned place is a much better way to cool off.
     
  • Wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothing.
     
  • NEVER leave anyone in a closed, parked vehicle.
     
  • Although any one at any time can suffer from heat-related illness, some people are at greater risk than others. Check regularly on:
     

    • Infants and young children
    • People aged 65 or older
    • People who have a mental illness
    • Those who are physically ill, especially with heart disease or high blood pressure
       
  • Visit adults at risk at least twice a day and closely watch them for signs of heat exhaustion or heat stroke. Infants and young children, of course, need much more frequent watching.

If you must be out in the heat:

  • Photo of woman relaxing in the shade.Limit your outdoor activity to morning and evening hours.
     
  • Cut down on exercise. If you must exercise, drink two to four glasses of cool, nonalcoholic fluids each hour.  A sports beverage can replace the salt and minerals you lose in sweat. Warning: If you are on a low-salt diet, talk with your doctor before drinking a sports beverage. Remember the warning in the first “tip” (above), too.
     
  • Try to rest often in shady areas.
     
  • Protect yourself from the sun by wearing a wide-brimmed hat (also keeps you cooler) and sunglasses and by putting on sunscreen of SPF 15 or higher (the most effective products say “broad spectrum” or “UVA/UVB protection” on their labels).

This information provided by NCEH’s Health Studies Branch.

(Source: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/heattips.asp)