Tag Archives: Brazil

Pope Francis: Beware the ‘false peace’ that comes from the devil


Pope Francis greets pilgrims in St. Peters Square before the Wed. general audience April 16, 2014. Credit: Daniel Ibanez/CNA.

Pope Francis greets pilgrims in St. Peters Square before the Wed. general audience April 16, 2014. Credit: Daniel Ibanez/CNA

Vatican City, Aug 7, 2015 / 07:00 am (CNA/EWTN News).- Pope Francis on Friday told a group of youth that the greatest challenge in his vocation so far has been finding true peace, and encouraged them to learn how to discern between this peace and the one offered by the devil.

“I would say finding peace in the Lord. That peace that only Jesus can give, in work and chores,” the Pope said Aug. 7. in response to the question, posed by one of the youth he met with in audience that day.

“The key is finding that peace which means that the Lord is with you and helps you,” he said.

Francis then stressed the importance of knowing how to tell the difference between peace from God, and the false peace offered by the devil.

True peace, he said, always comes from Jesus, and is sometimes “wrapped” in the cross, while the other, false peace that only makes you “kind of happy” comes from the devil.

“We have to ask for this grace to distinguish, to know true peace,” the Pope said, explaining that while on the outside we might think everything is ok and that we’re doing good, “way down inside is the devil.”

“The devil always destroys. He tells you this is the way and then leaves you alone,” he continued, adding that the devil is “a poor payer; he always rips you off.”

A sign of this peace, Francis said, is joy, because true joy is something that only Jesus can give.

The challenge for both them and himself “is to find the peace of Jesus, also in difficult moments, to find Jesus’ peace and to recognize that peace which has make-up on it,” the Pope said.

He made his comments during an audience with more than 1500 members of the International Eucharistic Youth Movement. They are meeting in Rome from Aug. 4-10 in honor of the 100th anniversary of their founding in 1915. The theme for the gathering is “Joy be with you.”

Six of the youth present, from Italy, Indonesia, Argentina, Brazil, Taiwan, and France got to meet the Pope personally and ask him questions on things that affect their daily life.

Among the topics discussed were tensions and conflicts within families and society, the discernment between true and false peace, signs of hope in the world and deepening one’s relationship with Jesus in the Eucharist.

In his response to the question on conflict, Pope Francis noted how there are many conflicts present in the world, and said that we should neither be afraid of them nor seek them out. Some conflicts, he said, can be good and help us to understand differences.

One problem with the world’s current conflicts is that “one culture doesn’t tolerate another,” he said, and pointed to the Rohingya as an example.

Rohingya people are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group largely from the Rakhine state of Burma, in west Myanmar. Since clashes began in 2012 between the state’s Buddhist community and the long-oppressed Rohingya Muslim minority, more than 100,000 Rohingya’s have fled Myanmar by sea, according to the U.N.

In order to escape forced segregation from the rest of the population inside rural ghettos, many of the Rohingya – who are not recognized by the government as a legitimate ethnic group or as citizens or Myanmar – have made the perilous journey at sea in hopes of evading persecution.

In May Pope Francis spoke out after a number of Rohingya people – estimated to be in the thousands – were stranded at sea in boats with dwindling supplies while Southeastern nations such as Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia refused to take them in.

This, he told the youth, “is called killing. It’s true. If I have a conflict with you and I kill you, its war.”

Conflict is normal when so many different cultures exist in one country, the Pope observed, but emphasized that there must be mutual respect in order for these conflicts to be resolved.

He said that dialogue is the best resolution to the great social problems of today, and pointed to the persecution of Christians in the Middle East as an example of when one culture doesn’t respect the identity or faith of another.

Yesterday Pope Francis wrote a letter to the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem S.B. Fouwad Toual for the Aug. 8 anniversary of the first arrival of Iraqi refugees in Jordan.

In his letter, the Pope thanked Jordan for welcoming the refugees, saying their actions bear witness to Christ’s resurrection.

He also noted how these refugees are “victims of fanaticism and intolerance, often under the eyes and silence of all,” and called on the international community to step up their efforts in putting an end to the persecution of Christians and other religious minorities.

In his speech to the youth, Francis said that even if you disagree with another culture’s practice, “Respect. Look for the good in it. Respect. In this way, conflicts are resolved with respect for the identity of others. Conflicts are resolved with dialogue.”

Another question posed to the Pope was if he sees true signs of joy in amid the problems of the 21st century.

Pope Francis responded by saying that the signs are there, and that one of them is seeing so many youth gathered together who believe that Jesus is truly in the Eucharist.

He also pointed to the family, noting that right now there are many strong tensions between generations.

Often when we speak of generations, parents and children come to mind, but grandparents are frequently left out, Francis observed.

“Grandparents are the great forgotten of this time,” he said, and encouraged the youth to speak to their grandparents, who are sources of wisdom due to the memory they have of life, tensions, conflicts and faith.

“Always when you meet your grandparents you find a surprise. They are patient, they know how to listen…don’t forget grandparents, understand?”

The last question the Pope answered, posed by a youth named Maradona, was what he would say to young people so that they might discover the depth of the Eucharist.

Francis immediately turned to the Last Supper, where Jesus gave us his body and blood for our salvation.

“The memory of Jesus…is there. The memory of the gesture of Jesus who then went to the Mount of Olives to start his Passion,” which is a personal act of love for each individual, he said.

The Pope stressed that Mass is not a ritual or a ceremony like what we see in the military or cultural celebration. Instead, going to Mass means going to Calvary with Jesus, where he gave his life for us, the Pope said.

In order to deepen in the mystery of the Eucharist, Francis suggested remembering St. Paul’s invitation to “remember Jesus Christ. When they are there at the table, he is giving his life for me. And so you deepen in the mystery.”

Pope Francis concluded by saying that although “we are at war” and there are so many conflicts, there are also many good and beautiful things, such as the hidden everyday saints among the people of God.

“God is present and there are so many reasons to be joyful. Take courage and go forward!” he finished.
via
http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/whats-pope-francis-biggest-challenge-finding-true-peace-25749/

 

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this day in the yesteryear: Kyoto Protocol Comes into Force (2005)


Kyoto Protocol Comes into Force (2005)

The 1992 Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, produced a treaty aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions in order to combat global warming. Representatives of 172 nations agreed to work toward the sustainable development of the planet, although most of the agreements were not legally binding. In 1997, an amendment was negotiated called the Kyoto Protocol, by which participating nations commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide. Which countries have not ratified the agreement? More… Discuss

today’s holiday: Carnival of Blacks and Whites (2015)


English: Blacks and Whites Pasto Carnival Play...

English: Blacks and Whites Pasto Carnival Players Français : Joueurs du Carnaval des Blancs et Noirs de Pasto en Colombie (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Carnival of Blacks and Whites (2015)

The Carnival of Blacks and Whites, held each year in Pasto, Colombia, is one of the oldest Carnival celebrations in South America. The Carnival officially opens on January 4 with a parade commemorating the arrival in Pasto of the Castañeda family, who are presented as a zany group overburdened with luggage, mattresses, and cooking equipment. The following day is the Day of the Blacks. Using special paints and cosmetics, revelers paint themselves and their friends black. Festivities continue on January 6 with the Day of the Whites, in which white paints and cosmetics are used. More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: Oscar Niemeyer (1907)


Today’s Birthday

Oscar Niemeyer (1907)

Considered one of the most important figures in modern architecture, Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer was a pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete. His buildings feature smooth curves that are distinct from those of his more utilitarian contemporaries. Niemeyer’s remarkable work in the creation of Brazil’s capital, Brasília, included his design for the President’s Palace and the cathedral. In 1947, Niemeyer joined a team of architects to design what internationally recognized US building? More… Discuss

Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdi – Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 1/Nathalie Stutzmann,: Great compositions/performances


The first Miss America Pageant, 1921 — Historical Pics (@HistoricalPics)


The object of objectifying is never more than an objectionable! 

Johnny Cash – When The Man Comes Around


Johnny Cash – When The Man Comes Around ((Original Version))

Brazil’s capoeira gets Unesco status


Brazil‘s capoeira gets Unesco status http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-30219941

Capoeira.avi

Uploaded on Jun 11, 2011

Capoeira (Portuguese pronunciation: [kapuˈejɾɐ]) is a Brazilian art form that combines elements of martial arts, sports, and music. It was created in Brazil mainly by descendants of African slaves with Brazilian native influences, probably beginning in the 16th century. It is known by quick and complex moves, using mainly power kicks and quick leg sweeps, with some ground and aerial acrobatics, knee strikes, take-downs, elbow strikes, punches and headbutts. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capoeira)

The berimbau (English pronounced /bərɪmˈbaʊ/, Brazilian Portuguese [beɾĩˈbaw]) is a single-string percussion instrument, a musical bow, from Brazil. The berimbau’s origins are not entirely clear, but there is not much doubt on its African origin, as no Indigenous Brazilian or European people use musical bows, and very similar instruments are played in the southern parts of Africa. The berimbau was eventually incorporated into the practice of the Afro-Brazilian martial art capoeira, where it commands how the capoeiristas move in the roda. The instrument is known for being the subject matter of a popular song by Brazilian guitarist Baden Powell, with lyrics by Vinicius de Moraes. The instrument is also a part of Candomblé-de-caboclo tradition.
The berimbau consists of a wooden bow (verga — traditionally made from biribá wood, which grows in Brazil), about 4 to 5 feet long (1.2 to 1.5 m), with a steel string (arame — often pulled from the inside of an automobile tire) tightly strung and secured from one end of the verga to the other. A gourd (cabaça), dried, opened and hollowed-out, attached to the lower portion of the Verga by a loop of tough string, acts as a resonator. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berimbau)

You can contact If you are interested in this sport you can contact Carlos at (562) 929-1050
Or Email: Bomca@live.com

this day in the yesteryear: Tasmania Sighted by Dutch (1642)


Tasmania Sighted by Dutch (1642)

While in the service of the Dutch East India Company, Abel Tasman became the first European to sight the island of Tasmania, naming it Van Diemen’s Land after the Governor of the Dutch East Indies. In 1803, Britain took possession of the island and established a penal colony there. The indigenous population, which had been on the island some 35,000 years, was soon decimated. In 1856, the island was granted self-government and renamed Tasmania. Today, Tasmania is a state of what country? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Brazil Becomes a Republic (1889)


Brazil Becomes a Republic (1889)

In 1889, discontented Brazilian militarists staged a coup and exiled Emperor Pedro II. Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, leader of the revolutionaries, led the provisional government that established the republic and became president. Although Brazil was flourishing financially thanks to coffee and wild rubber exports, its political situation remained uneasy. Faced with growing opposition, Fonseca dissolved Congress in 1891 and was forced to resign. What was Brazil’s official name during this period? More… Discuss

today’s birthday: Bernie Ecclestone (1930)


Bernie Ecclestone (1930)

Ecclestone is a controversial British business magnate and one of the most powerful people in the world of Formula One (F1) racing. Briefly a racer, he gave up the sport after several accidents but later returned as a manager and team owner. In the 1970s, he secured his position in the F1 organization by negotiating TV broadcasting rights, vastly increasing the sport’s popularity. In 2004, the billionaire’s home became the most expensive ever sold when a steel magnate bought it for how much? More… Discuss

Ancient Easter Islanders Mingled with South Americans


Ancient Easter Islanders Mingled with South Americans

Easter Island is perhaps best known for its mysterious, monolithic stone statues that have been the subject of countless investigations, but the ancient Polynesian people who populated the island are also a focus of study. Easter Island is separated from South America by 2,300 miles (3,700 km) of ocean, ostensibly leaving its population fairly isolated prior to the arrival of Westerners in 1722. However, genetic analysis shows that the islanders had intimate contact with native South Americans sometime between 1300 and 1500, suggesting that a migration route between Polynesia and the Americas had been established by this period. More… Discuss

today’s birthday: Pelé (1940)


Pelé (1940)

In 1999, Brazilian footballer Edson Arantes do Nascimento, better known as Pelé, was named Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee. Over the course of his 21-year career from 1956 to 1977, he scored 1,281 goals, captured every scoring record in Brazil, and led his national team to three World Cup victories. After his superb first World Cup appearance in 1958, Brazilian officials feared that their star player might be poached by a European club and did what prevent this? More… Discuss

today’s holiday: Uruguay Independence Day


Uruguay Independence Day

This national holiday commemorates the declaration of independence of Uruguay from Portuguese rule on this day in 1825. By 1828, Uruguay was officially autonomous. Patriotic ceremonies are held in the capital city of Montevideo, with speeches and the singing of the national anthem. More… Discuss

Elevazione – Adagio para oboé violoncelo, orquestra de cordas e orgão. Domenico Zipoli: make music part of your life series


Elevazione – Adagio para oboé violoncelo, orquestra de cordas e orgão. Domenico Zipoli

 FROM

Recital de formatura em oboé. Oboé: Lília Reis; Cello: Rodolpho Borges.
Escola de Música de Brasília. 10/09/2009.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Domenico Zipoli (17 October 1688 – 2 January 1726) was an Italian Baroque composer who worked and died in Córdoba (Argentina). He became a Jesuit in order to work in the Reductions of Paraguay where his musical expertise contributed to develop the natural musical talents of the Guaranis. He is remembered as the most accomplished musician among Jesuit missionaries.

Early training and career

Zipoli was born in Prato, Italy, where he received elementary musical training. However, there are no records of him having entered the cathedral choir. In 1707, and with the patronage of Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, he was a pupil of the organist Giovani Maria Casini in Florence. In 1708 he briefly studied under Alessandro Scarlatti in Naples, then Bologna and finally in Rome under Bernardo Pasquini. Two of his oratorios date to this early period: San Antonio di Padova (1712) and Santa Caterina, Virgine e martire (1714). Around 1715 he was made the organist of the Church of the Gesù (a Jesuit parish, the mother church for The Society of Jesus), in Rome, a prestigious post. At the very beginning of the following year, he finished his best known work, a collection of keyboard pieces titled Sonate d’intavolatura per organo e cimbalo.

Jesuit musician-missionary

For reasons that are not clear, Zipoli travelled to Sevilla, Spain, in 1716, where, on 1 July, he joined the Society of Jesus with the desire to be sent to the Reductions of Paraguay in Spanish Colonial America. Still a novice, he left Spain with a group of 53 missionaries who reached Buenos Aires on 13 July 1717.

He completed his formation and sacerdotal studies in Cordoba (in contemporary Argentina) (1717–1724) though, for the lack of an available bishop, he could not be ordained priest. All through these few years he served as music director for the local Jesuit church. Soon his works came to be known in Lima, Peru. Struck by an unknown infectious disease, Zipoli died in the Jesuit house of Cordoba, on 2 January 1726. A previous theory placing his death in the ancient Jesuit church of Santa Catalina, in the hills of the Province of Córdoba (Argentina), has now been discredited. His burial place has never been found.

Legacy

Zipoli continues to be well known today for his keyboard music. His Italian compositions have always been known but recently some of his South American church music was discovered in Chiquitos, Bolivia: two Masses, two psalm settings, three Office hymns, a Te Deum laudamus and other pieces. A Mass copied in Potosí, Bolivia in 1784, and preserved in Sucre, Bolivia, seems a local compilation based on the other two Masses. His dramatic music, including two complete oratorios and portions of a third one, is mostly gone. Three sections of the ‘Mission opera’ San Ignacio de Loyola – compiled by Martin Schmid in Chiquitos many years after Zipoli’s death, and preserved almost complete in local sources – have been attributed to Zipoli.

Society of Jesus
The JHS or IHS monogram of the name of Jesus (...

The JHS or IHS monogram of the name of Jesus (or traditional Christogram symbol of western Christianity), derived from the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus, Iota-Eta-Sigma (ΙΗΣΟΥΣ). Partly based on memories of church decorations. Has some degree of resemblance to a portion of the emblem of the Jesuits, due to common medieval influences (see Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus), but is not exactly the same, nor intended to be so. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

History of the Jesuits
Regimini militantis
Suppression

Jesuit Hierarchy
Superior General
Adolfo Nicolás

Ignatian Spirituality
Spiritual Exercises
Ad majorem Dei gloriam
Magis

Notable Jesuits
St. Ignatius of Loyola
St. Francis Xavier
St. Peter Faber
St. Aloysius Gonzaga
St. Robert Bellarmine
St. Peter Canisius
St. Edmund Campion
Pope Francis

 

 


Oswaldo Cruz (1872)

Cruz was a Brazilian physician, scientist, and the founder of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute for research and development in biomedical sciences in Rio de Janeiro. As the Director General of Public Health, Cruz took strong measures to combat the bubonic plague, smallpox, and yellow fever in Brazil. He instituted sanitary reforms that included isolating the sick and exterminating the rat population in Rio. What happened when he tried to reinstate a law imposing mandatory smallpox vaccination? More… Discuss

Flashmob – Bolero de Ravel na Pinacoteca de São Paulo, Brasil, Conservatoire de Paris, GURI & EMESP


[youtube.com/watch?v=fTd3ZsvqDiQ]

Flashmob – Bolero de Ravel na Pinacoteca de São Paulo, Brasil, Conservatoire de Paris, GURI & EMESP

Project of Marine Gandon, Ghislain Roffat & Pierre-Olivier Schmitt

During three weeks, between August and September of 2013, musicians of the Conservatoire de Paris (CNSMDP) were in Sao Paulo for pedagogical activities with teachers and students of Tom Jobim EMESP and Guri. The exchange is the result of a partnership between the Santa Marcelina Cultura and the prestigious french Institution. One of the results of the project was the execution of Ravel’s Bolero in the shape of a flashmob, at the Pinacoteca do Estado, on 14th September.

Durante três semanas, entre agosto e setembro de 2013, músicos do Conservatório de Paris estiveram em São Paulo para atividades pedagógicas com professores e alunos da EMESP Tom Jobim e do Guri. O intercâmbio é fruto de parceria entre a Santa Marcelina Cultura e a prestigiada instituição francesa. Como um dos resultados deste intercâmbio, surgiu o flashmob Bolero de Ravel na Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo.

Brazil Sewage Tests Positive for Polio


Brazil Sewage Tests Positive for Polio

Air travel has made it easier for people to see the world—and, unfortunately, for infectious agents to hitch a ride along with them. Sewage samples near São Paulo, Brazil, one of the World Cup venues, have tested positive for poliovirus. Brazil has been polio-free since 1989, and the presence of the virus in sewage does not change its status, but it does highlight how easily diseases can be spread from place to place in this day and age. More… Discuss

Yerba mate (from Spanish [ˈʝeɾβa ˈmate]; Portuguese: erva-mate [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmatʃe]) is a species of the holly (family Aquifoliaceae), with the binomial name of Ilex paraguariensis.


Yerba_mate_young_plant (Ilex Paraguariensis)

Yerba_mate_young_plant (Ilex Paraguariensis)

Yerba mate (from Spanish [ˈʝeɾβa ˈmate]; Portuguese: erva-mate [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmatʃe]) is a species of the holly (family Aquifoliaceae), with the binomial name of Ilex paraguariensis.

It is well known as the source of the beverage called mate, Chimarrão, Tererê (or Tereré) and other variations, traditionally consumed in subtropical South America, particularly northeastern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay.[1] It was first used and cultivated by the Guaraní people and in some Tupí communities in southern Brazil, prior to the European colonization. It was scientifically classified by the Swiss botanist Moses Bertoni, who settled in Paraguay in 1895.

Yerba mate, erva mate, mate, or maté
Ilex paraguariensis
Ilex paraguariensis
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Aquifoliales
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Genus: Ilex
Species: I. paraguariensis
Binomial name
Ilex paraguariensis
A. St. Hil.

Use as a beverage

Main article: Mate (beverage)

Steaming mate infusion in its customary gourd

The infusion, called mate in Spanish-speaking countries or chimarrão in south Brazil, is prepared by steeping dry leaves (and twigs) of the mate plant in hot water rather than in boiling water. It is consumed similar to a tea, more traditionally hot, but sometimes cold.

Drinking mate with friends from a shared hollow gourd (also called a guampa, porongo or mate in Spanish, or cabaça or cuia in Portuguese, or zucca in Italian) with a metal straw (a bombilla in Spanish, bomba in Portuguese) is a common social practice in Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil among people of all ages.

Yerba mate is most popular in Uruguay, where people are seen walking on the street carrying the “mate” and “termo” in their arms and where you can find hot water stations to refill the “termo” while on the road. In Argentina, 5 kg (11 lb) of yerba mate is consumed each year per every man, woman, and child, while in Uruguay, the largest consumer of mate per capita, 10 kg (22 lb) of yerba mate is consumed per person per year.[5]

The flavor of brewed mate resembles an infusion of vegetables, herbs, and grass, and is reminiscent of some varieties of green tea. Some consider the flavor to be very agreeable, but it is generally bitter if steeped in boiling water. Flavored mate is also sold, in which the mate leaves are blended with other herbs (such as peppermint) or citrus rind.[6]

In Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina, a toasted version of mate, known as mate cocido (Paraguay), chá mate (Brazil) or just mate, is sold in teabags and in a loose leaf form. It is often served sweetened in specialized shops or on the street either hot or iced with fruit juice or milk. In Argentina and southern Brazil, this is commonly consumed for breakfast or in a café for afternoon tea, often with a selection of sweet pastries.

An iced, sweetened version of toasted mate is sold as an uncarbonated soft drink, with or without fruit flavoring.[7][better source needed] In Brazil, this cold version of chá mate is specially popular in South and Southeast regions, and can easily be found in retail stores in the same cooler as soft-drinks.[8] Mate batido, which is toasted, has less of a bitter flavor and more of a spicy fragrance. Mate batido becomes creamy when shaken. Mate batido is more popular in the coastal cities of Brazil, as opposed to the far southern states, where it is consumed in the traditional way (green, consumed with a silver straw from a shared gourd), and called chimarrão.and in Argentina, this is called cimarrón.[9]

In Paraguay, western Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, west of São Paulo) and the Litoral Argentino, a mate infusion is also consumed as a cold or iced beverage and called tereré or tererê (in Spanish and Portuguese, respectively), and is usually sucked out of a horn cup called guampa with a bombilla. Tereré can be prepared using cold or iced water (the most common way in Paraguay) or using cold or iced fruit juice (the most common way in Argentina). The “only water” version may be too bitter, but the one prepared using fruit juice is sweetened by the juice itself. Medicinal herbs, known as yuyos, are mixed in a mortar and pestle and added to the water for taste or medicinal reasons. Tereré is most popular in Paraguay, Brazil, and the Litoral (northeast Argentina).[10]

In the Rio de la Plata region, people often consume daily servings of mate. It is common for friends to convene to matear several times a week. In cold weather, the beverage is served hot and in warm weather the hot water is often substituted with lemonade, but not in Uruguay. Children often take mate with lemonade or milk, as well.[citation needed]

As Europeans often meet at a coffee shop, drinking mate is the impetus for gathering with friends in Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Sharing mate is ritualistic and has its own set of rules. Usually, one person, the host or whoever brought the mate, prepares the drink and refills the gourd with water. In these three countries, the hot water can be contained in a vacuum flask, termo (appropriate for drinking mate in the outside) or garrafa térmica (Brazil), or in a pava (kettle), which only can be done at home.[citation needed]

The gourd is passed around, often in a circle, and each person finishes the gourd before giving it back to the brewer. The gourd (also called a mate) is passed in a clockwise order. Since mate can be rebrewed many times, the gourd is passed until the water runs out. When persons no longer want to take mate, they say gracias (thank you) to the brewer when returning the gourd to signify they do not want any more.[citation needed]

During the month of August, Paraguayans have a tradition of mixing mate with crushed leaves, stems, and flowers of the plant known as flor de Agosto[11] (the flower of August, plants of the Senecio genus), which contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Modifying mate in this fashion is potentially toxic, as these alkaloids can cause a rare condition of the liver, veno-occlusive disease, which produces liver failure due to progressive occlusion of the small venous channels in the liver.[12]

In South Africa, mate is not well known, but has been introduced to Stellenbosch by a student who sells it nationally. In the tiny hamlet of Groot Marico in the northwest province, mate was introduced to the local tourism office by the returning descendants of the Boers, who in 1902 had emigrated to Patagonia in Argentina after losing the Anglo Boer War. It is also commonly consumed in Lebanon, Syria and some other parts of the Middle East, as well as amongst communities of expatriate from the Southern Cone.[13]

Chemical composition and properties

Xanthines

Yerba mate contains three xanthines: caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, the main one being caffeine. Caffeine content varies between 0.7% and 1.7% of dry weight[14] (compared with 0.4– 9.3% for tea leaves, 2.5–7.6% in guarana, and up to 3.2% for ground coffee);[15] theobromine content varies from 0.3% to 0.9%; theophylline is present in small quantities, or can be completely absent.[16] A substance previously called “mateine” is a synonym for caffeine (like theine and guaranine).

Preliminary limited studies of mate have shown that the mate xanthine cocktail is different from other plants containing caffeine, most significantly in its effects on muscle tissue, as opposed to those on the central nervous system, which are similar to those of other natural stimulants.[citation needed] The three xanthines present in mate have been shown to have a relaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue, and a stimulating effect on myocardial (heart) tissue.[citation needed]

Mineral content

Yerba mate also contains elements such as potassium, magnesium and manganese.[17]

Health effects

As of 2011 there has not been any double-blind, randomized prospective clinical trial of mate drinking with respect to chronic disease.[18] However, yerba does contain polyphenols, which may benefit the immune system,[19][20] relieve allergies,[21] reduce the risk of diabetes and hypoglycemia in mice,[22] contain compounds that, when extracted from green tea burns more calories,[23] acts as an appetite suppressant and weight loss tool,[24][25] increases the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart,[26] may reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes,[27] increases mental energy and focus,[28][29] improves mood,[30] and promotes a deeper sleep, however sleep may be affected in people who are sensitive to caffeine.[28][31]

Lipid metabolism

Some non-blinded studies have found mate consumption to be effective in lipid lowering.[18] Studies in animals and humans have observed hypocholesterolemic effects of Ilex paraguariensis aqueous extracts. A single-blind controlled trial of 102 volunteers found that after 40 days of drinking 330 mL / day of mate tea (concentration 50g dry leaves / L water), people with already-healthy cholesterol levels experienced an 8.7% reduction in LDL, and hyperlipidemic individuals experienced an 8.6% reduction in LDL and a 4.4% increase in HDL, on average. Participants already on statin therapy saw a 13.1% reduction in LDL and a 6.2% increase in HDL. The authors thus concluded that drinking yerba mate infusions may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases.[32]

Cancer

Any hot consumption of mate is associated with oral cancer[33] esophageal cancer, cancer of the larynx,[34] and squamous cell of the head and neck.[35][36] Studies show a correlation between temperature and likelihood of cancer, making it unclear how much a role mate itself plays as a carcinogen.[34]

A study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer showed a limited correlation between oral cancer and the drinking of large quantities of “hot mate”.[37] Smaller quantities (less than 1 liter daily) were found to increase risk only slightly, though alcohol and tobacco consumption had a synergistic effect on increasing oral, throat, and esophageal cancer. The study notes the possibility that increased risk could be credited to the high (near-boiling) temperatures at which the mate is consumed in its most traditional way, the chimarrão. The cellular damage caused by thermal stress could lead the esophagus and gastric epithelium to be metaplastic, adapting to the chronic injury. Then, mutations would lead to cellular dysplasia and to cancer.[38] While the IARC study does not specify a specific temperature range for “hot mate”, it lists general (not “hot”) mate drinking separately, but does not possess the data to assess its effect. It also does not address, in comparison, any effect of consumption temperature with regard to coffee or tea.

Obesity

Few data are available on the effects of yerba mate on weight in humans and further study may be warranted.[39]

Mechanism of action

E-NTPDase activity

Research also shows that mate preparations can alter the concentration of members of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) family, resulting in an elevated level of extracellular ATP, ADP, and AMP. This was found with chronic ingestion (15 days) of an aqueous mate extract, and may lead to a novel mechanism for manipulation of vascular regenerative factors, i.e., treating heart disease.[40]

Antioxidants

In an investigation of mate antioxidant activity, there was a correlation found between content of caffeoyl-derivatives and antioxidant capacity (AOC).[41][42] Amongst a group of Ilex species, Ilex paraguariensis antioxidant activity was the highest.[41]

History

Main article: History of yerba mate

Yerba mate growing in the wild

Mate was first consumed by the indigenous Guaraní and also spread in the Tupí people that lived in southern Brazil and Paraguay, and became widespread with the European colonization.[citation needed] In the Spanish colony of Paraguay in the late 16th century, both Spanish settlers and indigenous Guaranís, who had, to some extent, before the Spanish arrival, consumed it.[citation needed] Mate consumption spread in the 17th century to the River Plate and from there to Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru.[citation needed] This widespread consumption turned it into Paraguay’s main commodity above other wares, such as tobacco, and Indian labour was used to harvest wild stands.[citation needed]

In the mid 17th century, Jesuits managed to domesticate the plant and establish plantations in their Indian reductions in Misiones, Argentina, sparking severe competition with the Paraguayan harvesters of wild stands.[citation needed] After their expulsion in the 1770s, their plantations fell into decay, as did their domestication secrets.[citation needed] The industry continued to be of prime importance for the Paraguayan economy after independence, but development in benefit of the Paraguayan state halted after the War of the Triple Alliance (1864–1870) that devastated the country both economically and demographically.[citation needed] Some regions with mate plantations in Paraguay became Argentinean territory.[citation needed]

Lithograph of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, a 19th-century ruler of Paraguay, with a mate and its respective bombilla

Brazil then became the largest producer of mate.[43] In Brazilian and Argentine projects in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the plant was domesticated once again, opening the way for plantation systems.[citation needed] When Brazilian entrepreneurs turned their attention to coffee in the 1930s, Argentina, which had long been the prime consumer,[44] took over as the largest producer, resurrecting the economy in Misiones Province, where the Jesuits had once had most of their plantations. For years, the status of largest producer shifted between Brazil and Argentina.[44]

Now, Brazil is the largest producer, with 53%, followed by Argentina, 37% and Paraguay, 10%.[4]

There is a Parque Historico do Mate, funded by the State of Parana, Brazil, to educate people on the sustainable harvesting methods needed to maintain the integrity and vitality of the oldest wild forests of mate in the world.[3]

Nomenclature

The name given to the plant in Guaraní, language of the indigenous people who first cultivated and enjoyed mate, is ka’a, which has the same meaning as “herb”.[citation needed] Congonha, in Portuguese, is derived from the Tupi expression, meaning something like “what keeps us alive”, but a term rarely used nowadays.[citation needed] Mate is from the Quechua mati,[45] a word that means container for a drink, infusion of an herb, as well as gourd.[46] The word mate is used in both, Portuguese and Spanish languages.[citation needed]

The pronunciation of yerba mate in Spanish is [ˈʝe̞rβ̞ä ˈmäte̞][45] The accent on the word is on the first syllable, not the second as might be implied by the variant spelling “maté”.[45] The word hierba is Spanish for “herb”; yerba is a variant spelling of it which was quite common in Argentina.[47] (Nowadays in Argentina “yerba” refers exclusively to the “yerba mate” plant.[47]) Yerba mate, therefore, originally translated literally as the “gourd herb”, i.e. the herb one drinks from a gourd.[citation needed]

The (Brazilian) Portuguese name is either erva-mate [ˈɛʁvɐ ˈmätʃi] (also pronounced [ˈɛrvɐ ˈmäte] or [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmätɪ] in some regions), the most used term, or rarely “congonha” [kõˈɡõȷ̃ɐ], from Old Tupi kõ’gõi, which means “what sustains the being”.[48] It is also used to prepare the drinks chimarrão (hot), tereré (cold) or chá mate (hot or cold). While the chá mate (tea) is made with the toasted leaves, the other drinks are made with green leaves, and are very popular in the south of the country and Mato Grosso. Most people colloquially address both the plant and the beverage simply by the word mate.[8]

Both the spellings “mate” and “maté” are used in English, but the latter spelling is never used in Spanish where it means “I killed” as opposed to “gourd”.[49] There are no variation of spellings in Spanish.[45] The addition of the acute accent over the final “e” was likely added as a hypercorrection, indicating that the word and its pronunciation are distinct from the common English word “mate“.[50][51][52][53][54]

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Make Music Part of Your Life Series: Voces8 performs ‘Maria’ from West Side Story


[youtube.com/watch?v=4HWeo_eV_zA]
International award winning a cappella octet, Voces8 performs ‘Maria’ from West Side Story. The arrangement was written especially for Voces8 by Composer in Residence, Jim Clements and was recorded live in Spain in November 2007.

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ARTICLE: THE AMAZON RAINFOREST


The Amazon Rainforest

The Amazon Rainforest, which encompasses 2.7 million square miles (7 million sq km), extends into nine South American nations. The rainforest boasts 2.5 million species of insects and is home to an extraordinary diversity of birds, mammals, and other wildlife, likely including many unknown species. Since the 1960s, the effects of economic exploitation on the region’s ecology and the destruction of the rainforest have generated worldwide concern. What is the deforested land usually used for?More… Discuss

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TODAY’S BIRTHDAY: ARTURO TOSCANINI (1867)


Arturo Toscanini (1867)

Internationally recognized as one of the world’s great conductors, Toscanini first took the baton as a substitute conductor in Brazil. Toscanini’s artistry is preserved in recordings, notably of the symphonies of Beethoven and works by Brahms, Wagner, Verdi, and others. A tempestuous personality greatly respected by his performers, he also served as musical director of La Scala, Milan, and of the Metropolitan Opera, New York City. Before becoming a conductor, Toscanini studied what instrument?More… Discuss

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TODAY’S BIRTHDAY: PIERRE PAUL FRANÇOIS CAMILLE SAVORGNAN DE BRAZZA (1852)


Pierre Paul François Camille Savorgnan de Brazza (1852)

Born to Italian nobility in Brazil, Brazza joined the French navy and explored present-day Gabon from 1875 to 1878. Racing his British-American counterpart Henry Morton Stanley, Brazza explored the Congo River region, where he founded the French Congo and Brazzaville—now capital of the Republic of the Congo. He added some 200,000 square miles (500,000 sq km) to the French colonial empire and was the French Congo’s commissioner general from 1886 to 1898. Why was he sent back to the Congo in 1905? More… Discuss

 

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Flashmob – Bolero de Ravel na Pinacoteca de São Paulo, Brasil, Conservatoire de Paris, GURI & EMESP



Project of Marine Gandon, Ghislain Roffat & Pierre-Olivier Schmitt

During three weeks, between August and September of 2013, musicians of the Conservatoire de Paris (CNSMDP) were in Sao Paulo for pedagogical activities with teachers and students of Tom Jobim EMESP and Guri. The exchange is the result of a partnership between the Santa Marcelina Cultura and the prestigious french Institution. One of the results of the project was the execution of Ravel’s Bolero in the shape of a flashmob, at the Pinacoteca do Estado, on 14th September.

Durante três semanas, entre agosto e setembro de 2013, músicos do Conservatório de Paris estiveram em São Paulo para atividades pedagógicas com professores e alunos da EMESP Tom Jobim e do Guri. O intercâmbio é fruto de parceria entre a Santa Marcelina Cultura e a prestigiada instituição francesa. Como um dos resultados deste intercâmbio, surgiu o flashmob Bolero de Ravel na Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo.

 

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Inside the Classroom with Britannica School, Grade 7



Published on Aug 30, 2013
See how Britannica School supports differentiated learning, builds 21st century skills, and helps with research.

 

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ANOTHER MAGNUM EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE: Britannica Library (FOR ALL AGES!)


Published on Jan 7, 2014

One subscription to Britannica Library gives your library three sites in one: Children, Young Adults, and the Reference Center for older students and adults.

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AMAZONIA: LAST CALL (The lungs of the Planet are getting to small for the Planet’s survival)



Ep. 3.THE VOICE OF THE JUNGLE: The protection of Indian cultures, headed by Sidney Pssuelo. This series travels across Brazilian landscapes by way of one of the main links still binding the essence of humanity with the Earth: the Amazon. The filming of the first point of contact with an isolated race, the Zos, the encroachment on areas of the Amazonian forest previously uncaptured on film, the evidence relating to the development of the illegal trafficking of species or the recording of the immeasurable value of Brazil’s natural spaces; these are just excerpts from the series. The underlying theme is the conflict between the development and conservation of one of the key natural areas underpinning the stability of the planet.

 

DANGER ON THE ROADS


Danger on the Roads

Spending hours at the wheel can make anyone sleepy, but for truck drivers, whose livelihoods depend on how quickly they can get to their destinations, taking a break is often not seen as an option. Instead, many truckers opt for alcohol or other mind-altering substances, like marijuana, amphetamines, and cocaine, to keep them on the road. An analysis of 36 studies shows that this is going on all over the world in varying degrees. Substance use seems to be linked to poor working conditions, suggesting that taking steps to improve working conditions for truckers could reduce this dangerous practice. More… Discuss

 

Thid Day in the Yesteryear: BRAZILIAN RUNNER ATTACKED BY SPECTATOR DURING OLYMPIC MARATHON (2004)


Brazilian Runner Attacked by Spectator during Olympic Marathon (2004)

At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, Vanderlei de Lima was on track to become the first Brazilian to win an Olympic gold medal in the marathon, leading the pack in the last miles of the race, when he was pushed into the crowd by a spectator named Cornelius Horan, a defrocked Irish priest. De Lima lost about 10 seconds in the incident and finished third. Brazil appealed for de Lima to be awarded a gold medal but was denied. What other sporting event had Horan previously disrupted?More… Discuss

 

Bachianas Brasileiras No 5 – Aria (Heitor Villa-Lobos) – Salli Terri & Laurindo Almeida



Bachianas Brasileiras No 5 (Aria)
music – Heitor Villa Lobos
lyrics – Ruth V Correa

Salli Terri (vocal)
Laurindo Almeida (guitar)

producer: Robert E Myers
recording engineer: Sherwood Hall, III

“Duets with the Spanish Guitar”
US Capitol 8406 (recorded 1958)

The sheet music (with fingering by Andres Segovia) is published by Associated Music Publishers (G Schirmer Inc).

1959 grammy nominations –
Best Engineered Record, Classical (winner)
Best Classical Performance, Vocal Soloist

Villa Lobos considered this version of the Aria, by Salli Terri and Laurindo Almeida, to be the best recorded performance. He originally scored it for voice and eight cellos, and later arranged it for voice and guitar.

“Tarde, uma nuvem rosea lenta e transparente,
sobre o espaco sonhadora e bela!
Surge no infinito a lua docemente,
Enfeitando a darde, qual meiga donzela
Que se a presta e alinda sonhadoramente,
Em anseios d’alma para ficar bela,
Grita ao ceo e a terra toda a Natureza!!!
Ca la a passarada aos seus tristes queixumes,
E reflete o mar to da a sua riqueza…
Suave a luz da lua desperta agora,
A cruel saudade que ri e chora!
Tarde uma nuvem rosea lenta e transparente,
Sobre o espaco sonhadora e bela!”

“Lo, at midnight clouds are slowly passing, rosy and lustrous,
o’er the spacious heav’n with loveliness laden.
From the boundless deep the moon arises
wondrous, glorifying the evening like a beauteous maiden.
Now she adorns herself in half unconscious duty,
eager, anxious that we recognize her beauty,
while sky and earth, yea all nature with applause salute her.
All the birds have ceased their sad and mournful com-plaining;
now appears on the sea in a silver reflection
moonlight softly waking the soul and constraining hearts
to cruel tears and bitter dejection.
Lo, at midnight clouds are slowly passing rosy and lustrous
o’er the spacious heavens dreamily wondrous.”

(English translation – Harvey Officer)

 

This Day in the Yesteryear: FORCED RESIGNATION PROMPTS BRAZILIAN PRESIDENT TO TAKE HIS OWN LIFE (1954)


Forced Resignation Prompts Brazilian President to Take His Own Life (1954)

President Getúlio Vargas led Brazil for 18 years, holding power from 1930 to 1945 and 1951 to 1954. Though defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he led a successful revolt that gained him the presidency. Vargas then set up the totalitarian Estado Novo—”New State”—but was overthrown in a coup d’état in 1945. He regained the presidency six years later but committed suicide under threat of impeachment as his popularity dwindled. What were the last words in his suicide noteMore… Discuss

 

UNCONTACTED PEOPLES


Uncontacted Peoples

It is hard to believe that in this day and age there are still isolated peoples who have rarely, if ever, communicated with members of modernized civilizations—but there are, though their numbers are few. Aerial surveying technology has made it possible to observe and photograph some of these groups from afar. Pursuing contact with such tribes, however, is highly controversial. Opponents maintain that doing so could, and likely would, have deadly consequences. Why do they say this is? More… Discuss

 

In the News: New Uncontacted Tribe Observed in Amazon


New Uncontacted Tribe Observed in Amazon

The Brazilian government has confirmed the existence of an uncontacted tribe of about 200 individuals in a southwestern area of the Amazon rainforest. After the clearings where they live were identified by satellite, airplane expeditions were mounted to verify the discovery and collect more information about the group without disrupting its way of life. These revealed that the tribe lives in four large, straw-roofed buildings and grows corn, bananas, peanuts, and other crops. It is estimated that the Amazon is home to at least 68 uncontacted tribes. More… Discuss