Tag Archives: Danube

Vlad the Impaler and the fight against the expansionism of the ottman empire


1499 German woodcut showing Dracule waide dini...

1499 German woodcut showing Dracule waide dining among the impaled corpses of his victims. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia (1431–1476/77), was a member of the House of Drăculești, a branch of the House of Basarab, also known, using his patronymic, as (Vlad) Drăculea or (Vlad) Dracula. He was posthumously dubbed Vlad the Impaler (Romanian: Vlad Țepeș, pronounced [ˈvlad ˈt͡sepeʃ]), and was a three-time Voivode of Wallachia, ruling mainly from 1456 to 1462, the period of the incipient Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. His father, Vlad II Dracul, was a member of the Order of the Dragon, which was founded to protect Christianity in Eastern Europe. Vlad III is revered as a folk hero in Romania as well as other parts of Europe for his protection of the Romanian population both south and north of the Danube. A significant number of Romanian common folk and remaining boyars (nobles) moved north of the Danube to Wallachia, recognized his leadership and settled there following his raids on the Ottomans.[1]

 

 

 

As the cognomen “The Impaler” suggests, his practice of impaling his enemies is part of his historical reputation.[2] During his lifetime, his reputation for excessive cruelty spread abroad, to Germany and elsewhere in Europe. The name of the vampire Count Dracula in Bram Stoker‘s 1897 novel Dracula was inspired by Vlad’s patronymic.[2]

 

 

 

Vlad III Dracula
Владъ Цепѣшъ
Voivode of Wallachia
Vlad Tepes 002.jpg

The Ambras Castle portrait of Vlad III, c. 1560, reputedly a copy of an original made during his lifetime[1]
Reign 1448; 1456–1462; 1476
Wives
Issue Mihnea cel Rău, Vlad IV, and Mircea (disputed name)
House House of Drăculești (branch of the House of Basarab)
Father Vlad II Dracul
Mother Cneajna of Moldavia (presumed)
Born November or December 1431[1]
Segesvár, Kingdom of Hungary
(city now known as Sighișoara, Romania)
Died December 1476 or January 1477, exact date unknown (aged 44-45)
Wallachia (exact location unknown)
Signature

 

Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia (1431–1476/77), was a member of the House of Drăculești, a branch of the House of Basarab, also known, using his patronymic, as (Vlad) Drăculea or (Vlad) Dracula. He was posthumously dubbed Vlad the Impaler (Romanian: Vlad Țepeș, pronounced [ˈvlad ˈt͡sepeʃ]), and was a three-time Voivode of Wallachia, ruling mainly from 1456 to 1462, the period of the incipient Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. His father, Vlad II Dracul, was a member of the Order of the Dragon, which was founded to protect Christianity in Eastern Europe. Vlad III is revered as a folk hero in Romania as well as other parts of Europe for his protection of the Romanian population both south and north of the Danube. A significant number of Romanian common folk and remaining boyars (nobles) moved north of the Danube to Wallachia, recognized his leadership and settled there following his raids on the Ottomans.[1]

 

 

 

As the cognomen “The Impaler” suggests, his practice of impaling his enemies is part of his historical reputation.[2] During his lifetime, his reputation for excessive cruelty spread abroad, to Germany and elsewhere in Europe. The name of the vampire Count Dracula in Bram Stoker‘s 1897 novel Dracula was inspired by Vlad’s patronymic.[2

 

 

 

Name

 

 

 

Further information: House of Drăculești

 

 

 

 

Bust of Vlad the Impaler in Sighișoara, his place of birth

 

During his life, Vlad wrote his name in Latin documents as Wladislaus Dragwlya, vaivoda partium Transalpinarum (1475).[3]

 

 

 

His Romanian patronymic Dragwlya (or Dragkwlya)[3] Dragulea,

 

Vlad Drăculea of Wallachia

Vlad Drăculea of Wallachia (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

Dragolea, Drăculea,[4][5] is a diminutive of the epithet Dracul carried by his father Vlad II, who in 1431 was inducted as a member of the Order of the Dragon, a chivalric order founded by Emperor Sigismund in 1408. Dracul is the Romanian definite form, the -ul being the suffixal definite article (deriving from Latin ille). The noun drac “dragon” itself continues Latin draco. In Modern Romanian, the word drac has adopted the meaning of “devil” (the term for “dragon” now being balaur or dragon). This has led to misinterpretations of Vlad’s epithet as characterizing him as “devilish”.

 

 

 

Vlad’s nickname of Țepeș (“Impaler“) identifies his favourite method of execution but was only attached to his name posthumously, in c. 1550.[3] Before this, however, he was known as Kazıklı Bey (Impaler Lord) by the Ottoman Empire after their armies encountered his “forests” of impalement victims.[6]

 

 

 

Early life

 

 

 

Family

 

 

 

English: House of Vlad III the Impaler

English: House of Vlad III the Impaler (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Vlad was born in Sighișoara, Transylvania, in the winter of 1431 to Vlad II Dracul, future voivode of Wallachia. Vlad’s father was the son of the celebrated Voivode Mircea the Elder. His mother is unknown, though at the time his father was believed to have been married to Princess Cneajna of Moldavia (eldest daughter of Alexander “the Good”, Prince of Moldavia and aunt to Stephen the Great of Moldavia) and also to have kept a number of mistresses.[1] He had two older half-brothers, Mircea II and Vlad Călugărul, and a younger brother, Radu III the Handsome.

 

 

 

 

 

In the year of his birth, Vlad’s father traveled to Nuremberg, where he was then vested into the Order of the Dragon,[1] a fellowship of knights sworn to defend Christendom against the encroaching Ottomans and European heresies, such as the Hussites.[7] During his initiation, he was given the epithet Dracul, or dragon, by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund.[8]

 

 

 

Vlad and Radu spent their early formative years in Sighișoara. During the first reign of their father, Vlad II Dracul, the Voivode brought his young sons to Târgoviște, the capital of Wallachia at that time.

 

 

 

The Byzantine chancellor Mikhail Doukas showed that, at Târgoviște, the sons of boyars and ruling princes were well-educated by Romanian or Greek scholars commissioned from Constantinople. Vlad is believed to have learned combat skills, geography, mathematics, science, languages (Old Church Slavonic, German, Latin), and the classical arts and philosophy.

 

 

 

Dealings with the Ottoman Empire

 

 

 

In 1436, Vlad II Dracul ascended the throne of Wallachia. He was ousted in 1442 by rival factions in league with Hungary, but secured Ottoman support for his return by agreeing to pay the tribute to the Sultan.

 

 

 

At 13, Vlad and his brother Radu were held as political hostages by the Ottoman Turks. During his years as hostage, Vlad was educated in logic, the Quran, and the Turkish language and works of literature. He would speak this language fluently in his later years.[1] He and his brother were also trained in warfare and horsemanship.

 

 

 

Despite increasing his cultural capital with the Ottomans, Vlad was not at all pleased to be in Turkish hands. He was resentful and incredibly jealous of his little brother, who soon earned the nickname Radu cel Frumos, or Radu the Handsome. Radu was well behaved and quickly earned the friendship of Sultan Murad’s son, Mehmet; he eventually converted to Islam and entered Ottoman service.[9] Conversely, Vlad was defiant and constantly punished for his impudence. It has been suggested that his traumatic experiences among the Ottomans may have molded him into the sadistic man he grew up to be, especially in regards to his penchant for impaling.[7] In 1457, Vlad helped his cousin Stephen ascend Moldavia‘s throne by providing 6,000 horsemen as military assistance against Petru Aron, who was deposed after two battles. Stephen of Moldavia‘s long lasting reign developed into the most fierce anti-Ottoman resistance.[10]

Bran Castle (click to access gallery!)

 

 

 

 

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today’s holiday: Ladouvane (2014)


Ladouvane (2014)

Ladouvane, or the Singing to Rings, is a Bulgarian fertility ritual. Traditionally, young girls drop their rings, together with oats and barley (symbols of fertility), into a cauldron of spring water. The rings are tied with a red thread to a bunch of ivy, crane’s bill, basil, or some other perennial plant. Ritual dances are performed around the cauldron, and the girls’ fortunes are told. In western Bulgaria, the Central Balkan Range, and along the Danube River, Ladouvane is observed on New Year‘s Eve. In the rest of the country, it is observed on Midsummer Day. More… Discuss

The Blue Danube, Op 314 Johann Strauss II in HD – unofficial Austrian national anthem! : make music part of your life series


The Blue Danube, Op 314 Johann Strauss II in HD – unofficial Austrian national anthem!

The Blue Danube is the common English title of An der schönen blauen Donau, Op. 314 (German for By the Beautiful Blue Danube), a waltz by the Austrian composer Johann Strauss II, composed in 1866. Originally performed 15 February 1867 at a concert of the Wiener Männergesangsverein (Vienna Men’s Choral Association), it has been one of the most consistently popular pieces of music in the classical repertoire. Its initial performance was only a mild success however and Strauss is reputed to have said “The devil take the waltz, my only regret is for the coda—I wish that had been a success!”

After the original music was written, the words were added by the Choral Association’s poet, Joseph Weyl. Strauss later added more music, and Weyl needed to change some of the words. Strauss adapted it into a purely orchestral version for the World’s Fair in Paris that same year, and it became a great success in this form. The instrumental version is by far the most commonly performed today. An alternate text by Franz von Gernerth, Donau so blau (Danube so blue), is also used on occasion. The Blue Danube premiered in the United States in its instrumental version on 1 July 1867 in New York, and in Great Britain in its choral version on 21 September 1867 in London at the promenade concerts at Covent Garden.

The specifically Viennese sentiments associated with the waltz have made it an unofficial Austrian national anthem. The waltz is traditionally broadcast by all public-law television and radio stations exactly at midnight on New Year’s Eve, and on New Year’s Day it is a customary encore piece at the annual Vienna New Year’s Concert. The first few bars are the interval signal of Österreichischer Rundfunk‘s international programs.

When Strauss’s stepdaughter, Alice von Meyszner-Strauss, asked the composer Johannes Brahms to sign her autograph-fan, he wrote down the first bars of The Blue Danube, but adding “Leider nicht von Johannes Brahms” (Alas! not by Johannes Brahms).

A typical performance lasts around 10 minutes, with the seven-minute main piece, followed by a three-minute coda.
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Audio source: Youtube Audio Library
Picture by: Ivanhoe
Picture license: CC BY-SA 3.0
Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bud…

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CESAR FRANCK: PSALM 150 – CONDUCTED BY TAMÁS VÁSÁRY, XAVER VARNUS AT THE GREAT ORGAN



Cesar Franck: Psalm 150 (O Praise God In His Holiness)

with the participation of
XAVER VARNUS on the great organ,
The Budapest Tomkins Vocal Ensemble, The Budapest Opera Orchestra

Conducted by TAMÁS VÁSÁRY
http://www.tamas-vasary.com/biography
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgMSmr…

Taped in the Great Hall of Franz Liszt Academy of Music of Budapest

http://www.facebook.com/xavervarnus

 

Ceata De la Margineni, Fagaras: La Multi Ani MMXI, din Downey California


Visit http://www.margineni.ro/,

One of the best Romanian websites, at least in Fagaras Country (Tara Fagarasului as it is known to us Romanians). Congratulations to the webmasters, Emil Maga and his Family
I am happy to have discovered them earlier this year, and reconnect with places I hold dear.