Tag Archives: History

Today’s Birthday: LEOPOLD II, HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR (1747)


Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747)

The third son of Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, Leopold II succeeded his father as duke of Tuscany in 1765 and his brother as emperor and ruler of the Hapsburg lands in 1790. A practitioner of what has been termed enlightened despotism, Leopold is remembered as a ruler of outstanding diplomatic and administrative abilities. He was emperor for just two years, but in that time, he precipitated the decade-long French Revolutionary Wars by making an alliance with what power? More… Discuss

 

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QUEEN CATHERINE DE’ MEDICI


Queen Catherine de’ Medici

A member of the powerful Medici family, Catherine married Henry II in 1533, and together they had 10 children. She became queen when Henry inherited the crown in 1547. Though he largely excluded her from state affairs, she was thrust into the political arena upon his death in 1559. As regent for her young sons, first Francis II and then Charles IX, she determined state policy to a considerable extent. For that reason, she is generally blamed for what massacre carried out under Charles IX’s rule? More…Discuss

WAGONWAYS


Wagonways

The idea of using “tracked” roads dates back millennia. In the US and England, the first railroads employed not locomotives but horse-drawn wagons, which were used to haul minerals on the tracks. In 1829, locomotives were imported to the US from England, but they were found to be too heavy for the existing tracks. However, steam powered railroads soon grew to dominate the transportation of cargo. How did horses continue to be used by railroads after the advent of steam locomotivesMore… Discuss

 

Today’s Birthday: ROGER MORTIMER, 1ST EARL OF MARCH (1287)


Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (1287)

Mortimer was imprisoned in 1322 for opposing King Edward II, but he escaped to France. When Edward II’s queen, Isabella, came to France in 1325, Mortimer became her lover. Together they invaded England in 1326 and routed Edward, whom they forced to abdicate and later had murdered. Having secured the crown for young Edward III, Mortimer, with Isabella, virtually ruled England and acquired great wealth. In 1330, he was seized by Edward III, convicted by Parliament, and executed by what means? More… Discuss

 

VII. Handel Jubilate Utrecht in D major The English Concert


Eusebius of Caesarea


Eusebius of Caesarea

Born circa 263 CE, Eusebius was a Greek historian of early Christianity. A bishop of Caesarea, Palestine, he may have been imprisoned during the Roman persecutions. His fame rests on hisEcclesiastical History, which preserves portions of works no longer extant. He was a staunch supporter of Constantine I‘s attempts to unify Christian doctrine, and his writings include Life of Constantine. Eusebius was excommunicated in 325 CE, after being accused of espousing what doctrine? More… Discuss

This Day in the Yesteryear: THE “BEECHING AXE” DECIMATES BRITISH RAILWAYS (1963)


The “Beeching Axe” Decimates British Railways (1963)

In an effort to reduce the cost of running the nationalized railway system of the UK, the British government commissioned a report to find ways to save money. Authored by Dr. Richard Beeching, the report concluded that many of the railway’s lines were costing more to operate than they earned and called for the elimination of unprofitable routes and closure of a large percentage of railway stations. More than 2,000 stations were closed as a result of the “Beeching Axe.” What became of Beeching? More… Discuss

Democracy – Leonard Cohen



Leonard Cohen – Democracy
(lyrics from http://www.6lyrics.com)

It’s coming through a hole in the air,
from those nights in Tiananmen Square.
It’s coming from the feel
that this ain’t exactly real,
or it’s real, but it ain’t exactly there.
From the wars against disorder,
from the sirens night and day,
from the fires of the homeless,
from the ashes of the gay:
Democracy is coming to the U.S.A.
It’s coming through a crack in the wall;
on a visionary flood of alcohol;
from the staggering account
of the Sermon on the Mount
which I don’t pretend to understand at all.
It’s coming from the silence
on the dock of the bay,
from the brave, the bold, the battered
heart of Chevrolet:
Democracy is coming to the U.S.A.

It’s coming from the sorrow in the street,
the holy places where the races meet;
from the homicidal bitchin’
that goes down in every kitchen
to determine who will serve and who will eat.
From the wells of disappointment
where the women kneel to pray
for the grace of God in the desert here
and the desert far away:
Democracy is coming to the U.S.A.

Sail on, sail on
O mighty Ship of State!
To the Shores of Need
Past the Reefs of Greed
Through the Squalls of Hate
Sail on, sail on, sail on, sail on.

This Day in History: The Parthenon Is Partially Destroyed by an Explosion (1687)


The Parthenon Is Partially Destroyed by an Explosion (1687)

Built in the 5th century BCE on the Acropolis of Athens, the Parthenon was the chief temple of Athena in ancient Greece and the finest example of Doric architecture. In 1687, during the Venetian attack on Athens, the Turks used it for storing gunpowder. The stores were ignited during the bombardment, causing an explosion that partly destroyed the building. Still, its basic structure remains intact and reconstruction efforts are underway. Where is there a full-scale replica of the Parthenon? More… Discuss

Concordat of Worms (1122)


Concordat of Worms (1122)

The Concordat of Worms was an agreement reached by Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V that put an end to the first phase of the power struggle between Rome and what was becoming the Holy Roman Empire. Under its terms, the king was recognized as having the right to invest bishops “by the lance” but not “by ring and staff,” meaning he could grant them secular but not sacred authority. What message about the divine right of kings did the concordat convey? More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: Julia Drusilla (16 CE)


Julia Drusilla (16 CE)

Drusilla was the sister of the Roman Emperor Caligula, a man widely characterized as insane, autocratic, and cruel. Drusilla was reportedly her brother’s favorite sibling. During banquets at his residence, she consistently occupied the seat of honor normally reserved for the host’s wife and, perhaps because of this practice, was rumored to be Caligula’s lover. Upon Drusilla’s death, Caligula had the Roman Senate declare her “Diva Drusilla,” deifying her as a representation of what goddess? More… Discuss

This day In History: The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh (1547)


The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh (1547)

The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh was part of the War of Rough Wooing, the ruthless war launched by Henry VIII against Scotland to force a marriage between Mary Queen of Scots and his son, the future Edward VI. The first “modern” battle to be fought in the British Isles and the last pitched battle between the English and Scottish royal armies, it resulted in a catastrophic defeat for the Scots, who came to call it Black Saturday. What type of bombardment was used for the first time during the battle? More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: Rocky Marciano (1923)


Rocky Marciano (1923)

Marciano turned to professional boxing in 1947, after failing to become a professional baseball player. On his climb to the heavyweight title, he became the second boxer ever to knock out Joe Louis. He won the title in 1952 and defended it 6 times before retiring. The only heavyweight champion with a perfect professional record, he was undefeated in 49 fights—43 won by knockout. A test of the force of his punch found that it carried enough energy to lift how much weight one foot off the ground? More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: Robert Walpole, First Earl of Orford (1676)


Robert Walpole, First Earl of Orford (1676)

Walpole was an English statesman. Elected to the House of Commons in 1701, he later served as secretary of war. With the accession of George I, he rose rapidly to become first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer. With his consolidation of power, he effectively became the first British prime minister. He avoided foreign entanglement and kept England neutral until 1739, when he was forced into the War of Jenkins’ Ear against Spain. How did the conflict get its name? More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: Madame du Barry (1743)


Madame du Barry (1743) Madame du Barry was the mistress of Louis XV. She was first the mistress of Jean du Barry, who introduced her into Parisian high society. Admired for her beauty, she joined Louis XV’s court in 1769 after a nominal marriage to Jean’s brother, a nobleman, qualified her to be Louis’s official royal mistress. Though she exercised little political influence, her unpopularity contributed to the decline of the prestige of the crown in the early 1770s. What happened to her during the French Revolution? More… Discuss

The Deipnosophistae


The Deipnosophistae

Written in the 3rd-century by the Greek writer Athenaeus, the Deipnosophistae professes to be an account of three banquets held at the house of a scholar and wealthy patron of the arts. The work is invaluable for providing information about the Hellenistic leisure class of the Roman Empire, particularly in terms of food and sexuality. In the course of conversation, the banqueters quote about 700 authors, many of them otherwise unrecorded, and discuss the story behind what famous statue? More… Discuss

This Day in History: The signing of the Weimar Constitution


Weimar Constitution Signed into Law (1919)

Written immediately after World War I, the Weimar Constitution was the document that governed the short-lived Weimar Republic of Germany. It declared the nation a federal republic governed by a president and parliament and was a strong attempt to establish a liberal democracy in Germany. However, it was adopted during a time of civil conflict and failed with the ascent of the Nazi Party in 1933. How did Hitler manage to subvert the Weimar Constitution after he came to power? More… Discuss

“A Declaration of War on the Poor”: Cornel West and Tavis Smiley on the Debt Ceiling Agreement


Hiroshima - Ngasaki - Fukushima and much more via Democracy Now

Hiroshima - Nagasaki - Fukushima and much more via Democracy Now Click here to read more)

The Hiroshima Cover-Up-via-Democracy Now


The Hiroshima Cover-Up-via-Democracy Now

The Hiroshima Cover-Up-via-Democracy Now (click on the picture to read the article)

As the 66th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 approaches, we feature this article by Amy Goodman and David Goodman that was originally published on August 5, 2005 in The Baltimore Sun. (Source: http://www.democracynow.org/blog/2011/8/5/the_hiroshima_cover_up)

This Day in History: Potsdam Conference Concludes (1945)


Potsdam Conference Concludes (1945)

The Potsdam Conference was an Allied conference held in the Berlin suburb of Potsdam after Germany’s surrender in World War II. Representing the US, USSR, and UK, respectively, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin, and Winston Churchill met there to discuss European peace settlements and reparations, the administration of Germany, the demarcation of Poland, the occupation of Austria, the USSR’s role in eastern Europe, and the war against Japan. Who replaced Churchill during the conference? More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: Alexis de Tocqueville (1805): “Democratically Speaking…Greed, Is Undemocratic…”


Alexis de Tocqueville (1805)

Tocqueville was a French political scientist, historian, and politician. Born into an aristocratic family with ties to the king, his future in government was jeopardized by a revolution in 1830. To distance himself from the trying political situation at home, he embarked on a government-sanctioned mission to the US. Out of it came his best-known work, Democracy in America—the first analytical study of the strengths and weaknesses of US society. What conclusions did Tocqueville draw in it? More… Discuss

My take on this issue:
 “Democratically Speaking…Greed, Is Undemocratic…greed is pathological and antisocial…greed is like the pest, that doesn’t survive its last victim!”

This Day in History: Fire Ravages Rome’s Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls (1823)


Fire Ravages Rome’s Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls (1823)

In 1823, a worker repairing the roof of Rome’s Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls accidentally started a fire that resulted in its almost total destruction. The church, built under Emperor Constantine in the 4th century, had retained its original character for nearly 1,500 years. Reconstruction work began almost immediately with the aim of recreating the original structure. The viceroy of Egypt contributed alabaster pillars to the rebuilding effort, while the Russian emperor sent what? More… Discuss

Sumptuary Laws – the Antipode of “Ab Aspera Ad Astra”, Yet More Realistic!


Sumptuary Laws

Sumptuary laws are laws directed against overindulgence or extravagance in diet, drink, and dress based on social, religious, or moral grounds. Historically, these statutes often varied according to rank and were mainly used to mark class distinctions and prevent people from assuming the appearance of a superior class. They were also used to stigmatize disfavored groups, who could be required to wear identifying apparel. How rich did one need to be to wear a belt in the Massachusetts Bay Colony? More… Discuss

This Day in History: French National Assembly Adopts Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790)


French National Assembly Adopts Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790)

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was an act passed during the French Revolution that subordinated the Roman Catholic Church to the state. Under the act, citizens would elect clergymen and the state would pay their wages. When the National Assembly ordered the clergy to take an oath supporting the Civil Constitution, many refused. The resulting schism within the French church caused many Catholics to turn against the Revolution. What effect did the constitution have on monastic orders? More… Discuss

Today in History: Vasco da Gama Sets Sail on First Direct European Voyage to India (1497)


Vasco da Gama Sets Sail on First Direct European Voyage to India (1497)

In 1497, da Gama began his epochal voyage to India, becoming the first European to journey there directly by sea. With four vessels, he rounded the Cape of Good Hope, passed the easternmost point reached by Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, continued up the coast of Africa to Malindi, and sailed across the Indian Ocean to Calicut. His voyage opened up a way for Europe to reach the Indies, and marked the beginning of the Portuguese Empire. For what brutal methods was da Gama known during his travels? More… Discuss

How authentic is your Sandwich (or the “Early” Sandwich)


The Right Honourable
The Earl of Sandwich
PC FRS
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
In office
19 December 1770 – 12 January 1771
Prime Minister Lord North
Preceded by The Earl of Rochdale
Succeeded by The Earl of Halifax
In office
9 September 1763 – 10 July 1765
Prime Minister George Grenville
Preceded by The Earl of Halifax
Succeeded by The Duke of Grafton
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
1771–1782
Prime Minister Lord North
Preceded by Sir Edward Hawke
Succeeded by The Viscount Keppel
In office
1763–1763
Prime Minister The Earl of Bute
Preceded by George Grenville
Succeeded by The Earl of Egmont
In office
1748–1751
Prime Minister George Grenville
Preceded by The Duke of Bedford
Succeeded by The Lord Anson
Postmaster General
In office
1768–1771
Prime Minister The Duke of Grafton
Lord North
Preceded by The Marquess of Downshire
Succeeded by Henry Carteret
Personal details
Born 3 November 1718(1718-11-03)
Died 30 April 1792(1792-04-30) (aged 73)
Chiswick, England
Spouse(s) Dorothy Montagu, Countess of Sandwich
Martha Ray
Alma mater Eton College, Trinity College, Cambridge
Profession Statesman
Religion Anglican

John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, PC, FRS (3 November 1718 – 30 April 1792)[1] was a British statesman who succeeded his grandfather, Edward John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, PC, FRS (3 November 1718 – 30 April 1792)[1] was a British statesman who succeeded his grandfather, Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich, as the Earl of Sandwich in 1729, at the age of ten. During his life he held various military and political offices, including Postmaster General, First Lord of the Admiralty and Secretary of State for the Northern Department, but is perhaps best known for the claim that he invented the modern concept of the sandwich.

Read more about The Right Honorable at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Montagu,_4th_Earl_of_Sandwich

Latakia


Latakia

Latakia is Syria‘s principal port city and a manufacturing center for nearby agricultural towns and villages. Formerly the ancient Phoenician city of Ramitha, it was rebuilt circa 290 BCE by one of Alexander the Great’s generals and prospered under Roman rule. Byzantines and Arabs fought over it from the 7th to 11th century, and it was captured in 1098 by the Crusaders and in 1188 by Saladin. From the 16th century to WWI, it was part of the Ottoman Empire, after which it fell into whose hands? More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: Jean Jaques Rousseau (1712)


Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712)

Rousseau was a Swiss-French philosopher and writer who had a lasting impact on politics, literature, and education. In particular, he strongly influenced the theories of the French Revolution and the romantics. Many of his ideas stemmed from his belief in the natural goodness of man, who he felt had been warped by society. His Confessions, published posthumously in 1782, was a frank account of his life and was a founding work of autobiography. Why was he forced to flee France in 1762? More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday (June20): Lillian Hellman (1905)


Lillian Hellman (1905)

After working as a book reviewer, press agent, and play reader, Hellman began writing plays in the 1930s. Her first major success, The Children’s Hour, concerned two schoolteachers falsely accused of lesbianism. She examined family infighting in her hit The Little Foxes and political injustice in Watch on the Rhine. All were made into successful films. Hellman was called before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1952. What happened when she refused to testify? More… Discuss

Today In History: Happy Birthday Mr. President (1962)-Marilyn Monroe


Marilyn Monroe sings “Happy Birthday, Mr. President” (1962)

In 1962, US President John F. Kennedy‘s birthday was celebrated with a lavish party at Madison Square Garden in New York City. During the event, Monroe took the stage and delivered a sultry version of “Happy Birthday,” substituting “Mr. President” for Kennedy’s name, a gesture that has served to fuel the persistent rumors that she and Kennedy had engaged in an affair. The performance was one of Monroe’s last major public appearances. What did Kennedy say about the song during the party? More… Discuss

Burebista


Burebista (Ancient Greek: “Βοιρεβίστας”) was a king of the Getae and Dacians, who unified for the first time their tribes and ruled them between 82 BC and 44 BC. He led plunder and conquest raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, subjugating most of the neighbouring tribes. After his assassination in an inside plot, the empire was divided into several smaller states.

Today’s Birthday: Ekaterina II Of Russia (1729)


Catherine II of Russia (1729)

Catherine II was empress of Russia from 1762 to 1796. The daughter of a German prince, she was chosen at 14 to be the wife of the future czar, Peter III. In 1762, conspirators led by her lover staged a coup and proclaimed her empress. Peter was murdered shortly thereafter. As czarina, she increased Russia‘s power by skillful diplomacy and by extending its frontiers into central Europe. She was a patron of the arts and corresponded with many of the prominent minds of her era, including whom? More… Discuss

Palace of Versailles: Virtual Tour: Thanks to Google Art Project… Let’s Go!


Marie-Antoinette_Painting_Pallace_Versailles_Tour

Marie-Antoinette_Painting_Pallace_Versailles_Tour (click on the Picture to start your tour)

I hope you’ll enjoy your virtual tour, as much as I did. You can save your link, as a portal to the Google Art Project and visit more  famous museums and their art galleries.