Tag Archives: Human rights

Amnesty International

Amnesty International is a human-rights organization founded in 1961 by Englishman Peter Benenson. It campaigns internationally against the detention of prisoners of conscience, for the fair trial of political prisoners, to abolish the death penalty and torture of prisoners, and to end extrajudicial executions and “disappearances.” It was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977. The organization’s official symbol is a candle surrounded by what? More… Discuss

Mind Your History: Ottoman wars in Europe (8 centuries of attack, countless losses)

Ottoman wars in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Ottoman wars in Europe, known as the Ottoman Wars or Turkish Wars for short, were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and a number of European states from the Late Medieval period to the 20th century. Military activities began with the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars from the late 13th century, complemented by the Bulgarian–Ottoman Wars and the Serbian–Ottoman Wars in the 14th century, whereupon the Ottoman Empire rapidly conquered the Balkans. The initial Serbian–Ottoman Wars, Croatian–Ottoman Wars and the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars allowed the further expansion of the Ottomans into Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Turkish political domination was nevertheless kept at bay after the unsuccessful Siege of Vienna (1529), and the Ottoman–Habsburg wars. The so-called Holy League of Christian states was able to partially reverse a number of Ottoman conquests during the Great Turkish War of the late 17th century. The empire was slow to modernise its military along European lines. Internal rebellions such as the Serbian revolution (1804–1817) and the Greek War of Independence (1821–1832), coupled with the frequent wars with Russia and Poland, weakened the empire, which collapsed at the conclusion of World War I with the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres.
Ottoman wars in Europe
Date 14th century–1918
Location Mostly Southeast Europe: Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, Wallachia, Moldova, Transylvania, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Slovenia, and Cyprus, but also Ukraine, Crimea, Hungary, Slovakia, Austria, Malta, Sicily, and the Eastern Mediterranean.
Result Ottoman Turks expand as far as Vienna at their peak, but are eventually pushed back to Eastern Thrace.
Holy League:

 Ottoman Empire
 Kingdom of France (from 1536)
Commanders and leaders
Coa Kastrioti Family.svg Skanderbeg

Rise (1299–1453)

Byzantine Empire

After striking a blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire in 1356 (it is disputed that the year may have been 1358 due to a change in the Byzantine calendar), (see Suleyman Pasha) which provided it a basis for operations in Europe, the Ottoman Empire started its westward expansion into the European continent in the middle of the 14th century.

Constantinople fell in 1453 after the Battle of Varna and the Second Battle of Kosovo.

All of Greece fell in 1460 (see: Ottoman Greece).

Bulgarian Empire

In the latter half of the 14th century the Ottoman Empire proceeded to advance north and west in the Balkans, completely subordinating Thrace and much of Macedonia after the Battle of Maritsa in 1371. Sofia fell in 1382, followed by the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire Tarnovgrad in 1393, and the northwest remnants of the state after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.

Serbian Empire

Main article: Serbian-Ottoman Wars

A significant opponent was the young Serbian Empire, which was worn down by a series of campaigns, notably in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which the leaders of both armies were killed, and which gained a central role in Serbian folklore as an epic battle and beginning of bad luck for Serbia. Much of Serbia fell to the Ottomans by 1459, the Kingdom of Hungary made a partial reconquest in 1480, but it fell again by 1499. Territories of Serbian Empire were divided between Ottoman Empire, Republic of Venice and Royal Hungary, with remaining territories being in some sort of a vassal status towards Hungary, until its own conquest.

Growth and Stagnation (1453–1683)

The defeat in 1456 at the Siege of Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade) held up Ottoman expansion into Catholic Europe for 70 years, though for one year (1480–1481) the Italian port of Otranto was taken, and in 1493 the Ottoman army successfully raided Croatia and Styria.[2]

Wars in Albania

The Ottomans took much of Albania in the 1385 Battle of Savra. The 1444 League of Lezhë briefly restored one part of Albania, until Ottomans captured complete territory of Albania after capture of Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501.

The Ottomans faced the fiercest resistance from Albanians who gathered around their leader, George Castriot, son of a feudal nobleman, and managed to fend off Ottoman attacks for more than 25 years, culminating at the siege of Shkodra in 1478–79. It has been argued that Albanian resilience halted the Ottoman advance along the Eastern flank of the Western Civilization, saving the Italian peninsula from Ottoman conquest. Sultan Mehmet II died in 1481, merely two years after the collapse of the Albanian resistance and one year after he launched an Italian campaign.

Conquest of Bosnia

Ottoman Empire first reached Bosnia in 1388 where they were defeated by Bosnian forces in the Battle of Bileca and then were forced to retreat.[3] After the fall of Serbia in 1389 Battle of Kosovo, where the Bosnians participated through Vlatko Vuković, the Turks began various offensives against the Kingdom of Bosnia. The Bosnians defended themselves but without much success. Bosnians resisted strongly in the Bosnian Royal castle of Jajce, where the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević tried to repel the Turks. The Ottoman army conquered it after a few months of the siege of Jajce, in 1463, and executed the last King of Bosnia, ending the Medieval Bosnia.

The House of Kosača held Herzegovina until 1482.


Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the Klis Fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, an elite Croatian military faction of Uskoci was formed.

After the fall of the Kingdom of Bosnia into Ottoman hands in 1463, the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Croatia remained unprotected, the defense of which was left to Croatian gentry who kept smaller troops in the fortified border areas at their own expense. The Ottomans meanwhile reached the river Neretva and having conquered Herzegovina (Rama) in 1482, they encroached upon Croatia, skillfully avoiding the fortified border towns. A decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava field shook all of Croatia. However, it did not dissuade the Croats from making persistent attempts at defending themselves against the attacks of the superior Ottoman forces. After almost two hundred years of Croatian resistance against the Ottoman Empire, the victory in the Battle of Sisak marked the end of Ottoman rule and the Hundred Years’ Croatian-Ottoman War. The Viceroy’s army, chasing the fleeing remnants at Petrinja in 1595, sealed the victory.

Conquest of central parts of Hungarian Kingdom

The Kingdom of Hungary, which at the time spanned the area from Croatia in the west to Transylvania in the east, was also gravely threatened by Ottoman advances. The origins of such a deterioration can be traced back to the fall of the Árpád ruling dynasty and their subsequent replacement with the Angevin and Jagiellonian kings. After a series of inconclusive wars over the course of 176 years, the kingdom finally crumbled in the Battle of Mohács of 1526, after which most of it was either conquered or brought under Ottoman suzerainty. (The 150-year Turkish Occupation, as it is called in Hungary, lasted until the late 17th century but parts of the Hungarian Kingdom were under Ottoman rule from 1421 and until 1718.)

Conquest of Serbia/ Vojvodina rebellion

As a result of heavy losses inflicted by the Ottomans in the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the Serbian Empire had dissolved into several principalities. In the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, Serbian forces were again annihilated. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, constant struggles took place between various Serbian kingdoms on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The turning point was the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. In 1459 following the siege, the “temporary” Serbian capital of Smederevo fell. Montenegro was overrun by 1499. Belgrade was the last major Balkan city to endure Ottoman forces. Serbs, Hungarians and European crusaders defeated the Turkish army in the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. After repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrade finally fell in 1521, along with the greater part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Vojvodina rebellion between 1526/28 saw the proclamation of Second Serbian Empire in Vojvodina, which was among last Serbian territories to resist the Ottomans. The Serbian Despotate fell in 1540, thus marking the two-century-long Ottoman conquest of Serbian principalities.

Ottoman advances resulted in some of the captive Christians being carried deep into Turkish territory.

1463–1503: Wars with Venice

The wars with the Republic of Venice began in 1463, until a favorable peace treaty was signed in 1479 after the lengthy siege of Shkodra (1478–79). In 1480, now no longer hampered by the Venetian fleet, the Ottomans besieged Rhodes and captured Otranto.[4] War with Venice resumed from 1499 to 1503. In 1500, a Spanish-Venetian army commanded by Gonzalo de Córdoba took Kefalonia, temporarily stopping the Ottoman offensive on eastern Venetian territories. Which is resumed after the Ottoman victory of Preveza, fought between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in 1538.

1462–1483: Wallachian and Moldavian campaigns

In 1462, Mehmed II was driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. However, the latter was imprisoned by Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. This caused outrage among many influential Hungarian figures and Western admirers of Vlad’s success in the battle against the Ottoman Empire (and his early recognition of the threat it posed), including high-ranking members of the Vatican. Because of this, Matthias granted him the status of distinguished prisoner. Eventually, Dracula was freed in late 1475 and was sent with an army of Hungarian and Serbian soldiers to recover Bosnia from the Ottomans. He defeated Ottoman Forces and he gained his first victory against the Ottoman Empire. Upon this victory, Ottoman Forces entered Wallachia in 1476 under the command of Mehmed II.[clarification needed] During the war, Vlad was killed and, according to some sources, his head was sent to Constantinople to discourage the other rebellions.

Ottoman soldiers in the territory of present-day Hungary

The Turkish advance was temporarily halted after Stephen the Great of Moldavia defeated the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II‘s armies at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, which was one of the greatest defeats of the Ottoman Empire until that time. Stephen was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamţului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen’s search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had “cut off the pagan‘s right hand” – as he put it in a letter.

In 1482, Bosnia was completely added to Ottoman Lands.

1526–1566: Conquest of Hungarian Kingdom

After the Mohács, only the southwestern part of the Hungarian Kingdom was actually conquered,[5] but the Ottoman campaign continued with small campaigns and major summer invasions (troops returned south of the Balkan Mountains before winter) through the land between 1526 and 1556. In 1529, they mounted their first major attack on the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (with up to 300,000 troops in earlier accounts, 100,000 according to newer research[who?]), attempting to conquer the city of Vienna (Siege of Vienna). In 1532, another attack on Vienna with 60,000 troops in the main army was held up by the small fort (800 defenders) of Kőszeg in western Hungary, fighting a suicidal battle.[6] The invading troops were held up until winter was close and the Habsburg Empire had assembled a force of 80,000 at Vienna. The Ottoman troops returned home through Styria, laying waste to the country.

In the meantime, in 1538, the Ottoman Empire invaded Moldavia. In 1541, another campaign in Hungary took Buda and Pest (which today together form the Hungarian capital Budapest) with a largely bloodless trick: after concluding peace talks with an agreement, troops stormed the open gates of Buda in the night. In retaliation for a failed Austrian counter-attack in 1542, the conquest of the western half of central Hungary was finished in the 1543 campaign that took both the most important royal ex-capital, Székesfehérvár, and the ex-seat of the cardinal, Esztergom. However, the army of 35–40,000 men was not enough for Suleiman to mount another attack on Vienna. A temporary truce was signed between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires in 1547, which was soon disregarded by the Habsburgs.

The Ottoman campaign in Hungary in 1566, Crimean Tatars as vanguard

In the major but moderately successful campaign of 1552, two armies took the eastern part of central Hungary, pushing the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the second (inner) line of northern végvárs (border castles), which Hungary originally built as defence against an expected second Mongol invasion—hence, afterwards, borders on this front changed little. For Hungarians, the 1552 campaign was a series of tragic losses and some heroic (but pyrrhic) victories, which entered folklore—most notably the fall of Drégely (a small fort defended to the last man by just 146 men[7]), and the Siege of Eger. The latter was a major végvár with more than 2,000 men, without outside help. They faced two Ottoman armies (150,000 troops by earlier accounts, 60-75,000 men according to newer research[who?]), which were surprisingly unable to take the castle within five weeks. (The fort was later taken in 1596.) Finally, the 1556 campaign secured Ottoman influence over Transylvania (which had fallen under Habsburg control for a time), while failing to gain any ground on the western front, being tied down in the second (after 1555) unsuccessful siege of the southwestern Hungarian border castle of Szigetvár.

The Ottoman Empire conducted another major war against the Habsburgs and their Hungarian territories between 1566 and 1568. The 1566 Battle of Szigetvar, the third siege in which the fort was finally taken, but the aged Sultan died, deterring that year’s push for Vienna.

1522–1573: Rhodes, Malta and the Holy League

The siege of Malta – Arrival of the Turkish Fleet by Matteo Perez d’Aleccio

Ottoman forces invaded and captured the island of Rhodes in 1522, after two previous failed attempts (see Siege of Rhodes).[8] The Knights of Rhodes were banished to Malta, which was in turn besieged in 1565.

After a siege of three months, the Ottoman army failed to control all of the Maltese forts. Delaying the Ottomans until bad weather conditions and the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements, made Ottoman commander Kızılahmedli Mustafa Pasha quit the siege. Around 22000 to 48000 Ottoman forces against 6000 to 8500 Maltese forces, the Ottomans failed to conquer Malta, sustaining about 10000 losses, including one of the greatest Muslim corsair generals of the time, Dragut, and were repulsed. Had Malta fallen, Sicily and mainland Italy could have fallen under the threat of an Ottoman invasion. The victory of Malta during this event, which is nowadays known as the Great Siege of Malta, turned the tide and gave Europe hopes and motivation. It also marked the importance of the Knights of Saint John and their relevant presence in Malta to aid Christendom in its defence against the Muslim conquest.

The Ottoman naval victories of this period were in the Battle of Preveza (1538) and the Battle of Djerba (1560).

Battle of Lepanto on 7 October 1571

The Mediterranean campaign, which lasted from 1570 to 1573, resulted in the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus. A Holy League of Venice, the Papal States, Spain, the Knights of Saint John in Malta and initially Portugal was formed against the Ottoman Empire during this period. The League’s victory in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) briefly ended Ottoman predominance at sea.

1570–1571: Conquest of Cyprus

In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, and laid siege to Nicosia. In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell—September 9, every public building and palace was looted. Word of the superior Ottoman numbers spread, and a few days later Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot. Famagusta, however, resisted and put up a defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571.

The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months later, the naval forces of the Holy League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history. The victory over the Turks, however, came too late to help Cyprus, and the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries.

In 1570, the Ottoman Empire first conquered Cyprus, and Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Ottoman governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice. Simultaneously, the Pope formed a coalition between the Papal States, Malta, Spain, Venice and several other Italian states, with no real result. In 1573 the Venetians left, removing the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

1593–1669: Austria, Venice and Wallachia

Turkish Empire, drawn by Hondius, just at the end of the Long War, 1606

1620-1621: Poland

Was fought over Moldavia. The Polish army advanced into Moldavia and was defeated in the Battle of Ţuţora. The Next year, the Poles repelled the Turkish invasion in the Battle of Khotyn. Another conflict started in 1633 but was soon settled.

1657–1683 Conclusion of Wars with Habsburgs

In 1657, Transylvania, the Eastern part of the former Hungarian Kingdom that after 1526 gained semi-independence while paying tribute to the Ottoman Empire, felt strong enough to attack the Tatars (then the Empire’s vassals) to the East, and later the Ottoman Empire itself, that came to the Tatars’ defence. The war lasted until 1662, ending in defeat for the Hungarians. The Western part of the Hungarian Kingdom (Partium) was annexed and placed under direct Ottoman control, marking the greatest territorial extent of Ottoman rule in the former Hungarian Kingdom. At the same time, there was another campaign against Austria between 1663 and 1664. However, the Turks were defeated in the Battle of Saint Gotthard on 1 August 1664 by Raimondo Montecuccoli, forcing them to enter the Peace of Vasvár with Austria, which held until 1683.[9]

Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683

1672–1676: Poland

A year after Poland beat back a Tatar invasion, war with Poland 1672–1676, Jan Sobieski distinguishes himself and becomes the King of Poland.

1683–1699: Great Turkish War – Loss of Hungary and the Morea

The Great Turkish War started in 1683, with a grand invasion force of 140,000 men[10] marching on Vienna, supported by Protestant Hungarian noblemen rebelling against Habsburg rule. To stop the invasion, another Holy League was formed, composed of Austria and Poland (notably in the Battle of Vienna), Venetians and the Russian Empire. After winning the Battle of Vienna, the Holy League gained the upper hand, and conducted the re-conquest of Hungary (Buda and Pest were retaken in 1686, the former under the command of a Swiss-born convert to Islam). At the same time, the Venetians launched an expedition into Greece, which conquered the Peloponnese. During the 1687 Venetian attack on the city of Athens (conquered by the Ottomans), the Ottomans turned the ancient Parthenon into an ammunitions storehouse. A Venetian mortar hit the Parthenon, detonating the Ottoman gunpowder stored inside and partially destroying it.[11]

The war ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Prince Eugene of Savoy first distinguished himself in 1683 and remained the most important Austrian commander until 1718.[12][13]

Stagnation (1699–1828)

18th century

Austrian conquest of Belgrade: 1717 by Eugene of Savoy, during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18

The second Russo-Turkish War took place 1710–1711 near Prut. It was instigated by Charles XII of Sweden after the defeat at the Battle of Poltava, in order to tie down Russia with the Ottoman Empire and gain some breathing space in the increasingly unsuccessful Great Northern War. The Russians were severely beaten but not annihilated, and after the Treaty of Prut was signed the Ottoman Empire disengaged, allowing Russia to refocus its energies on the defeat of Sweden.

Another war with Austria and Venice started in 1714. Austria conquered the remaining areas of the former Hungarian Kingdom, ending with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718.

Another war with Russia started in 1735. The Austrians joined in 1737; the war ended in 1739 with the Treaty of Belgrade (with Austria) and the Treaty of Niš (with Russia).

The fourth Russo-Turkish War started in 1768 and ended in 1774 with the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji.

Yet another war with Russia and Austria started in 1787; it ended by Austria with the 1791 Treaty of Sistova, and with the 1792 Treaty of Jassy with Russia.

An invasion of Egypt and Syria by Napoleon I of France took place in 1798–99, but ended due to British intervention.

Napoleon’s capture of Malta on his way to Egypt resulted in the unusual alliance of Russia and the Ottomans resulting in a joint naval expedition to the Ionian Islands. Their successful capture of these islands led to the setting up of the Septinsular Republic.

19th century

The First Serbian Uprising took place in 1804, followed by the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815; Serbia was fully liberated by 1867. Officially recognized independence followed in 1878.

The sixth Russo-Turkish War began in 1806 and ended in May 1812, just 13 days before Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

Moldavian-Wallachian (Romanian) Uprising (starting simultaneously with the Greek Revolution).

The Greek War of Independence, taking place from 1821 to 1832, in which the Great Powers intervened from 1827, including Russia (seventh Russo–Turkish war, 1828–1829), achieved independence for Greece; the Treaty of Adrianople ended the war.

Ottoman decline (1828–1908)

Ottoman capitulation at Nikopol, 1877

Ottoman Wars with Bosnia 1831–1836, 1836–1837, 1841.

War with Albania 1820-1822, 1830-1835, 1847.

War with Montenegro 1852–1853.

Eighth Russo-Turkish war 1853–1856, Crimean War, in which the United Kingdom and France joined the war on the side of the Ottoman Empire. Ended with the Treaty of Paris.

Second war with Montenegro in 1858–1859.

War with Montenegro, Bosnia and Serbia in 1862.

Cretan Uprising in 1866.

Bulgarian Rebellion in 1876.

The ninth and final Russo–Turkish war started in 1877, the same year the Ottomans withdrew from the Conference of Constantinople. Romania then declared its independence and waged war on Turkey, joined by Serbians and Bulgarians and finally the Russians (see also Russian Foreign Affairs after the Crimean War). Austria occupied Bosnia in 1878. The Russians and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano in early 1878. After deliberations at the Congress of Berlin, which was attended by all the Great Powers of the time, the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 recognized several territorial changes.

Eastern Rumelia was granted some autonomy in 1878, rebelled and joined Bulgaria in 1885. Thessalia ceded to Greece in 1881, but after Greece attacked the Ottoman Empire to help the Second Cretan Uprising in 1897, Greece was broken in Thessalia.

Dissolution (1908–1922)

Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908

Italo-Turkish War

Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising

Bulgarian insurrection from 1903. See Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising.

1912–1913: Balkan Wars

Two Balkan Wars, in 1912 and 1913, involved further action against the Ottoman Empire in Europe. The Balkan League first conquered Macedonia and most of Thrace from the Ottoman Empire, and then fell out over the division of the spoils. Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, after several rebellions and uprisings. This reduced Turkey’s possessions in Europe (Rumelia) to their present borders in Eastern Thrace.

World War I

World War I was the ultimate cause of the collapse of the Empire, which was no more. However, during the operations the Empire prevented the British Royal Navy from passing to Istanbul in the famous Battle of Gallipoli. Nevertheless, Turkey lost most of the rest of what it had left in Europe. Leading to the fall of the empire.

See also

Scotland James IV[citation needed]

today’s commemoration/holiday: Douglass Day (2015)

Douglass Day (2015)

Each year on February 14, Frederick Douglass‘s birthday is commemorated with a ceremony at the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site in Washington, DC. The event features speakers on human rights, recitations of excerpts from Douglass’s speeches, music performances, and a wreath-laying ceremony. Activities, including lectures, readings from his works, and film presentations about his life, are also planned in New Bedford, in Rochester, New York, where Douglass’s grave is located, and in many other locations throughout the country. More… Discuss


Russian Journalist and Human Rights Activist Murdered (2006)

Anna Politkovskaya was a Russian journalist and human rights activist well known for her opposition to the Russian government’s role in the Chechen conflict and her criticism of Russian President Vladimir Putin, notably in her book Putin’s Russia. Her controversial work sparked numerous death threats against her, and she was shot to death in an elevator in her apartment building on October 7, 2006. Her murder, which remains unsolved, coincided with what other occasion? More… Discuss

Quotation: Booker T. Washington about oppression

Oppression of the unfortunate makes one weak.

Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Discuss


Quotation: Henry David Thoreau about Unjust laws

Unjust laws exist: shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once?

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) Discuss


Just a thought: “Be as if you were Humanity’s only hope!”

Just a thought:  “Be as if you were Humanity’s only hope!”



UN General Assembly Adopts Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007)

Over two decades in the making, the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was finally adopted in 2007 despite opposition from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US. The non-binding declaration prohibits discrimination against the world’s estimated 370 million indigenous people and outlines their rights, among them the rights to culture, identity, language, employment, and education. What were some of the key issues that delayed the drafting and adoption of the declaration? More…Discuss


This Day in the Yesteryear: ATTICA PRISON RIOT: 33 GUARDS TAKEN HOSTAGE (1971)

Attica Prison Riot: 33 Guards Taken Hostage (1971)

Though the US made strides in prison reform in the 20th century, not enough had apparently changed at Attica Correctional Facility by 1971 to appease those confined in the overcrowded New York prison. At the time, inmates got just one “shower” a week and one roll of toilet paper a month. It was against these, and other, conditions that prisoners were protesting when they rioted and took 33 guards hostage. Days later, authorities stormed the prison, killing 39, including how many of the hostages? More… Discuss


“Christe, Qui Lux Est et Dies” by Byrd, translated with lyrics

Here’s another piece from 16th century English composer William Byrd, titled “Christe, Qui Lux Es et Dies” or “Christ, Who Art the Light and the Day,” with lyrics, performed by Stile Antico in 2007, and loosely translated by me. This video is from my blog, When Suffering Doesn’t Stop: Life with Chronic Pain at http://life-incessant.blogspot.com/.


Hymn to the Theotokos at Sinaia Monastery in Romania

Pilgrims singing in Sinaia monastery church in Romania


Romanian Anthem

Republic of Romania National Anthem

Wake up, Romanian, from your deadly sleep
Into which you’ve been sunk by the barbaric tyrants
Now, or never, your fate renew,
To which your enemies will bow to.

Now or never let’s give proof to the world
That in these veins still flows a Roman blood,
That in our chests we still maintain our pride in a name
The victor in his battles, the name of Trajan!

Watch on, shadows of highnesses, Mihai, Stefan, Corvine,
The Romanian Nation, your great grandchildren,
With weapons in their arms, with your fire in their veins,
“Life in freedom or death!” shout all.

Priests, lead with your crucifixes! Because our army is Christian,
The motto is Liberty and its goal is holy,
Better to die in battle, in full glory!
Than to once again be slaves upon our ancient ground!


International Day of the Disappeared Observed by UN for First Time (2011)

The International Day of the Disappeared on August 30 is an annual commemoration day to draw attention to the fate of individuals imprisoned at places unknown to their relatives and without legal process. The impulse for the day came from the Latin American Federation of Associations for Relatives of Detained-Disappeared, a non-governmental organization founded in 1981 in Costa Rica. When did the United Nations adopt the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced DisappearanceMore… Discuss


Hell On Wheels – Timshel – Mumford & Sons – As Brothers We Will Stand

Timshel,” a word that loosely translates as “thou mayest;” the word suggests that we as humans, with the consciousness we “achieved” by eating from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil in the Garden of Eden, can in every moment CHOOSE our behavior; we can choose between good and evil.”

Cullily Fandom: http://www.dailymotion.com/Armitage36
Hell on Wheels Fan Group on Facebook:https://www.facebook.com/groups/21078…



Priest Urbain Grandier Burned at the Stake for Witchcraft (1634)

Grandier was a 17th-century French Catholic priest who was accused of bewitching the nuns of the Ursuline convent. Although he was acquitted by an ecclesiastical council, Grandier had published scathing criticisms of Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister and virtual ruler of France, who arranged to have him re-tried. Accused of having entered a pact with the devil, Grandier was tortured, found guilty, and burned at the stake. What was presented as evidence of the Grandier’s diabolical pact?More… Discuss



Born Araminta Ross, Tubman escaped slavery in 1849 by the Underground Railroad and almost immediately returned to the South to help others do the same. Hailed as “the Moses of her people,” she is believed to have led more than 300 slaves, including her parents and brother, to freedom. During the Civil War, she served the Union in various capacities, including as a nurse and spy. She managed all this despite suffering from debilitating headaches and seizures as a result of what childhood trauma? More… Discuss



Dead Man’s Switch

A dead man’s switch is an emergency brake that automatically activates to stop a vehicle or machine in the event that the operator becomes incapacitated. This sort of safety measure became necessary with the advent of electric trains, since they cut the number of required operators down to one, and has become standard in numerous devices, including snowblowers, lawn mowers, and saws. Though developed as a fail-safe, a dead man’s switch can sometimes be a “fail-deadly,” as when built into what? More…Discuss


Samuel Barber – Adagio for Strings

DesiderataMax Ehrmann
Another inspirational poem set to music ;) if you like this check out my other vids, feel free to comment.

Go placidly amid the noise and the haste, 
and remember what peace there may be in silence. 

As far as possible, without surrender, 
be on good terms with all persons. 
Speak your truth quietly and clearly; 
and listen to others, 
even to the dull and the ignorant; 
they too have their story. 
Avoid loud and aggressive persons; 
they are vexatious to the spirit. 

If you compare yourself with others, 
you may become vain or bitter, 
for always there will be greater and lesser persons than yourself. 
Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. 
Keep interested in your own career, however humble; 
it is a real possession in the changing fortunes of time. 

Exercise caution in your business affairs, 
for the world is full of trickery. 
But let this not blind you to what virtue there is; 
many persons strive for high ideals, 
and everywhere life is full of heroism. 
Be yourself. Especially do not feign affection. 
Neither be cynical about love, 
for in the face of all aridity and disenchantment, 
it is as perennial as the grass. 

Take kindly the counsel of the years, 
gracefully surrendering the things of youth. 
Nurture strength of spirit to shield you in sudden misfortune. 
But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings. 
Many fears are born of fatigue and loneliness. 

Beyond a wholesome discipline, 
be gentle with yourself. 
You are a child of the universe 
no less than the trees and the stars; 
you have a right to be here. 
And whether or not it is clear to you, 
no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should. 

Therefore be at peace with God, 
whatever you conceive Him to be. 
And whatever your labors and aspirations, 
in the noisy confusion of life, 
keep peace in your soul. 

With all its sham, drudgery, and broken dreams, 
it is still a beautiful world. 
Be cheerful. Strive to be happy.


THE UNTOUCHABLES (just a thought: Changing oneself…Doesn’t really changes the world, now does it?)

160 million people in India have been born outside any caste; they are called Untouchables and nobody is allowed to touch them for fear of infection!

They call themselves “dalit” which means “broken, shattered people”. Every day, two dalits are murdered, three dalit women are raped and two dalit homes are engulfed in flames, torched by members of the higher castes. In the province of Bihar entire villages of the “shattered” are wiped out by extreme right-wing paramilitaries of the higher castes. In other provinces, the Untouchables have no access to drinking water, cannot enter temples or use public transport. Even at police stations they are often asked to pay “admission”… The documentary records gruesome images of violence and discrimination; images of the trampling of every sense of human rights. Moreover, it reveals the extent of what international bodies describe as the “secret apartheid” of India. A stunning story of class and social discrimination which, with religion as an alibi, has reproduced itself for centuries.


Quotation: Anna Sewell on ignorance and wickedness

Only ignorance! Only ignorance! How can you talk about only ignorance? Don’t you know that it is the worst thing in the world, next to wickedness?

Anna Sewell (1820-1878) Discuss

Quotation: Alexandre Dumas human nature and society

Unless wicked ideas take root in a naturally depraved mind, human nature, in a right and wholesome state, revolts at crime. Still, from an artificial civilization have originated wants, vices, and false tastes, which occasionally become so powerful as to … lead us into guilt and wickedness.

Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870) Discuss


UK Court Finds Gay News and Its Editor Guilty of Blasphemy (1977)

The June 3, 1976, issue of the British newspaper Gay News included James Kirkup‘s poem “The Love that Dares to Speak Its Name,” which depicts Jesus as a homosexual. Mary Whitehouse—a media watchdog known for her “Clean Up TV” campaign—described the poem as a “blasphemous libel” and sought charges against Gay News and its publisher, Denis Lemon. On July 11, 1977, a jury found Lemon guilty, and his later appeal to the House of Lords was unsuccessful. What was Lemon’s sentence? More… Discuss



St. Isidore

In the 4th and 5th centuries, Gothic invaders terrorized the Roman Empire, sacking Rome and establishing a Gothic kingdom in Spain. St. Isidore, archbishop of Seville, set out to convert the various peoples of the Gothic Empire to Christianity, eventually eradicating the Visigoths‘ religion of Arianism. Later hailed by the Church as “the most learned man of the latter ages,” Isidore was the first Christian writer to compose a compendium of universal religious knowledge. What was it called? More… Discuss

Cor de Groot plays Mozart Concerto No. 12 in A K 414

Johnny Cash – The Man Comes Around (“Hear the trumpets, hear the piper…”)


The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition

Born Eduard Schnitzer, Emin Pasha was a German explorer and doctor who served as a medical officer and governor in Equatoria, part of the Egyptian Sudan. In 1885, he was cut off from the outside world by a Mahdist uprising, prompting a European rescue mission. The rescue party undertook a year-long steamer ship journey through densely forested “Darkest Africa,” where food was scarce, disease was rampant, and natives shot them with poison arrows. When they finally reached Pasha, how did he react? More…Discuss



Visit Thy Father and Mother

Filial piety, that is, respecting and caring for one’s parents and ancestors, is a central precept of Confucianism, but cultural shifts in China have reportedly begun to erode this sense of obligation. Cases of elder abuse and neglect appear to be on the rise in China, a trend that dismayed lawmakers are trying to combat with a new law obligating adult children to visit their elderly parents or face possible fines or jail time. The wording of the law is not particularly detailed, leading many to question how and if it will actually be enforced.More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: HENRY WARD BEECHER (1813)

Henry Ward Beecher (1813)

Beecher became one of the most famous and influential American ministers of his time for his advocacy of an emotional “gospel of love” Christianity. Every important issue of the day was discussed from his pulpit and in his lectures. He was a leader in the antislavery movement, a proponent of women’s suffrage, and an advocate of the theory of evolution. In 1874, however, he became the subject of a sensational adultery trial for an alleged affair with Elizabeth Tilton. What was the verdict? More… Discuss

Beecher became one of the most famous and influential American ministers of his time for his advocacy of an emotional “gospel of love” Christianity. Every important issue of the day was discussed from his pulpit and in his lectures. He was a leader in the antislavery movement, a proponent of women’s suffrage, and an advocate of the theory of evolution. In 1874, however, he became the subject of a sensational adultery trial for an alleged affair with Elizabeth Tilton. What was the verdict? More… Discuss


Hold the Applause

A thunderous round of applause following a performance might actually say little about its quality. Clapping, according to a recent study, is a social contagion that can be driven by the actions of just a few members of anaudience. Video footage of groups of undergraduates watching an academic presentation reveals that the sound of just one or two people clapping is enough to prompt a ripple of applause throughout a crowd. Similarly, the power to stop a round of applause lies in the hands of just a couple of individuals. More… Discuss



Edgardo Mortara Kidnapped from Jewish Family after Secret Baptism (1858)

Mortara, the son of a Jewish couple living in the Papal States, was secretly baptized Catholic as an infant by a panicked servant during an infantile illness. The baptism was deemed valid by the Catholic Church and, because canon law forbade non-Christians from raising Christian children, Pope Pius IX ordered the six-year-old Mortara to be taken to Rome as his ward. Several countries objected to the pope’s decision and called for the boy to be returned to his parents. What became of Mortara? More… Discuss



Mexican Emperor Maximilian I Executed by Firing Squad (1867)

In the 1860s, France sought to establish an empire in Mexico. Ferdinand Maximilian, an Austrian navy chief and member of the Habsburg dynasty, accepted Napoleon III’s offer of the throne, naively believing that the Mexicans had voted him their king. In reality, Maximilian’s only support came from the French army, and the empire was doomed. In 1866, Napoleon withdrew his troops. Maximilian refused to abdicate and was captured and executed, ending the empire. What were his last words? More… Discuss


Edward I of England, AKA Edward Longshanks (1239)

Edward became king upon the death of his father, Henry III, in 1272 but was not crowned until he returned from a crusade two years later. His 35-year reign was characterized by constant warfare, including long and costly campaigns to conquer Wales and Scotland. It was a struggle to fund these endeavors, and he did so, in part, by exploiting the Jews under his rule. Finally, in 1290, he expelled them from England and seized their property. For how long did his Edict of Expulsion remain in effect? More… Discuss


Quotation: Alexander Hamilton on willpower

There are men who could neither be distressed nor won into a sacrifice of their duty; but this stern virtue is the growth of few soils; and in the main it will be found that a power over a man’s support is a power over his will.

Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) Discuss

Poems of William Blake read by Sam Stinson: FULL Audio Book – Songs of Innocence and of Experience and The Book of Thel

Published on Nov 1, 2012

Poems of William Blake by William Blake (1757-1827) – FULL Audio Book – Songs of Innocence and of Experience & The Book of Thel Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Shewing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul are two books of poetry by the English poet and painter, William Blake. Although Songs of Innocence was first Continue reading

World Day against the Death Penalty in 2011

Published on October 5, 2011

At least 17,833 people were in the antechamber of death worldwide in late 2010. 
At least 67 countries imposed death sentences in 2010. 
Belarus is the last country in Europe to allow the death penalty.Take Action here: http://www.amnesty.org/fr/50/campaign …


Restaurants Ruinous for Waistlines

Fast food has gotten a bad rap, but regular restaurant fare fares no better when it comes to nutritional value. In fact, researchers found that meals from small US restaurants are 18 percent more caloric than comparable dishes from chain restaurants, and Canadian eateries follow a similar trend. It is typical for patrons of such establishments to unwittingly consume nearly a full day’s worth of calories and fat as well as one and a half times the recommended daily salt intake in a single meal. More…Discuss

Quotation: Joseph Conrad on Almighty Hunger and powerless Hungry…

No fear can stand up to hunger, no patience can wear it out, disgust simply does not exist where hunger is; and as to superstition, beliefs, and what you may call principles, they are less than chaff in a breeze.

Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) Discuss



CoronavirusDeadly New Coronavirus Capable of Passing from Person to Person

The hospital roommate of a man infected with novel coronavirus (NCoV)—a SARS-related virus first identified last year and already linked to 18 deaths—has contracted the illness himself, intensifying concerns about the virus’s ability to spread from person to person. Thus far, the human-to-human transmission of this virus has been somewhat limited, but given the ease of global travel today, it has managed to spread from the Middle East, where it was first detected, to Germany, the UK, and France. The World Health Organization is therefore advising public health officials to remain vigilant in evaluating and tracking cases of severe acute respiratory infectionMore…Discuss


Today’s Birthday: RABINDRANATH TAGORE (1861) a Bengali poet, philosopher, artist and composer (a Renaissance Man)

Rabindranath Tagore (1861)

Tagore was a Bengali poet, philosopher, artist, writer, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His writings, which often exhibit rhythmic lyricism, colloquial language, and philosophical contemplation, received worldwide acclaim. He became Asia’s first Nobel laureate when he received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Knighted by the British government in 1915, Tagore resigned the honor four years later in protest of what? More… Discuss

Brink Of Eternity by Rabindranath Tagore
In desperate hope I go and search for her 
in all the corners of my room; 
I find her not. 

My house is small 
and what once has gone from it can never be regained. 

But infinite is thy mansion, my lord, 
and seeking her I have to come to thy door. 

I stand under the golden canopy of thine evening sky 
and I lift my eager eyes to thy face. 

I have come to the brink of eternity from which nothing can vanish 
—no hope, no happiness, no vision of a face seen through tears. 

Oh, dip my emptied life into that ocean, 
plunge it into the deepest fullness. 
Let me for once feel that lost sweet touch 
in the allness of the universe.

Published on Feb 14, 2013
A poem that bridges the seeking of a beloved person to the finding of God and the immersion into eternity. I am awestruck by this poem. Poem read by Owi Nandi.

Today’s Birthday: SAINT CATHERINE LABOURÉ (1806)

Medal of Mary

Medal of Mary (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Saint Catherine Labouré (1806)

Shortly after Labouré joined the Daughters of Charity, a religious order devoted to serving the poor, she reportedly began having visions of the Virgin Mary. In one, she was shown the design for what has come to be known as the Miraculous Medal, now worn by Christians the world over. Her role in the medal’s creation was concealed until after her death, so she lived out her life in relative obscurity. In 1947, she was canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. What invocation appears on the medal? More…Discuss

For three times in 1830 Our Lady appeared to Catherine Labouré, 24 year old novice of Daughters of Charity in Paris. During second apparition Virgin Mary showed Catherine the medal she wanted to be struck. We know it as Miraculous Medal. Here is the short presentation of the life of Saint Catherine Labouré, Daughter of Charity whom Virgin Mary revealed such gracious gift. (the film is courtesy of Sr. Patricia Evanick DC).
Krótka historia życia św. Katarzyny Labouré, Sostry Miłosierdzia św. Wincentego a Paulo, której w 1830 roku trzykrotnie objawiła się Najswiętsza Pani. W trakcie drugiego objawienia przekazała Katarzynie wizerunek medalu, który Matka Boża chciała aby został wybity. Medal ten znamy jako Cudowny Medalik. Prezentacja obecnie tylko w języku angielskim.

Eusebius of Caesarea

Eusebius of Caesarea

Born circa 263 CE, Eusebius was a Greek historian of early Christianity. A bishop of Caesarea, Palestine, he may have been imprisoned during the Roman persecutions. His fame rests on hisEcclesiastical History, which preserves portions of works no longer extant. He was a staunch supporter of Constantine I‘s attempts to unify Christian doctrine, and his writings include Life of Constantine. Eusebius was excommunicated in 325 CE, after being accused of espousing what doctrine? More… Discuss

Quotation: Sir Walter Scott on freedom! (but also asking what he should do with it after having it…indeed a hard decision to make…There was no blogging back when…)

I have heard men talk of the blessings of freedom, … but I wish any wise man would teach me what use to make of it now that I have it.

Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) Discuss


14th Amendment Text


Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


L’eglise Sacré-Cœur, Paris (From Wikipedia)

The Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Paris, commonly known as Sacré-Cœur Basilica (FrenchBasilique du Sacré-Cœur, pronounced [sakʁe kœʁ]), is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, in ParisFrance. A popular landmark, the basilica is located at the summit of the butte Montmartre, the highest point in the city. Sacré-Cœur is a double monument, political and cultural, both a national penance for the supposed excesses of the Second Empire and socialist Paris Commune of 1871[1] crowning its most rebellious neighborhood, and an embodiment of conservative moral order, publicly dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, which was an increasingly popular vision of a loving and sympathetic Christ.[2]

The Sacré-Cœur Basilica was designed by Paul Abadie. Construction began in 1875 and was finished in 1914. It wasconsecrated after the end of World War I in 1919.

Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of Paris
Basilique du Sacré-Cœur (French)
The Basilica of Sacré-Cœur, as seen from the base of the butte Montmartre.
Basic information
Location ParisFrance
Geographic coordinates 48°53′12.1″N2°20′34.8″ECoordinates48°53′12.1″N 2°20′34.8″E
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Year consecrated 1919
Ecclesiastical or organizational status Minor basilica
Website Basilica of the Sacré Cœur
Architectural description
Architect(s) Paul Abadie
Architectural type Church
Architectural style Romano-Byzantine
Groundbreaking 1875
Completed 1914
Length 35 metres (115 ft)
Width 85 metres (279 ft)
Height (max) 83 metres (272 ft)
Materials Travertine stone





Quotation: Upton Sinclair On prisoners and prisons

There is one kind of prison where the man is behind bars, and everything that he desires is outside; and there is another kind where the things are behind the bars, and the man is outside.

Upton Sinclair (1878-1968) Discuss

credo in unum deum – closing mass of the synod of bishops – 28.10.2012 (2)

Published on Nov 10, 2012

papst benedikt feiert abschlussmesse der bischofssynode im oktober 2012

santa messa per la conclusione del sinodo dei vescovi – presiede il santo padre benedetto XVI


Profession of Faith                                                      Credo

A:  We believe in one God,                A:  Credo in unum Deum,
      the Father, the Almighty,                 Patrem omnipotèntem, 
      maker of heaven and earth,                factòrem caeli et terrae,
      of all that is seen and unseen.           visibìlium òmnium 
                                                  et invisibìlium.

    We believe in one Lord,                   Et in unum Dòminum Jesum Christum,
      Jesus Christ,                             Fìlium Dei unigènitum,
      the only Son of God,                      et ex Patre natum 
      eternally begotten of the Father,           ante òmnia sàecula
      God from God, Light from Light,           Deum de Deo, lumen de lùmine,
      true God from true God,                   Deum verum de Deo vero,
      begotten, not made,                       gènitum, non factum,
        one in Being with the Father.             consubstantiàlem Patri:
    Through him all things were made.           per quem omnia facta sunt.
    For us men and our salvation,             Qui propter nos hòmines et propter
      he came down from heaven:               nostram salùtem descèndit de caelis.

    (All bow during these three lines)        (All bow during these three lines)
    by the power of the Holy Spirit,          Et incarnàtus est de Spìritu Sancto 
      he was born of the Virgin Mary,           ex Marìa Vìrgine, 
      and became man.                           et homo factus est.

    For our sake he was crucified             Crucifìxus etiam 
      under Pontius Pilate,                     pro nobis sub Pòntio Pilàto; 
      he suffered, died and was buried.         passus et sepùltus est, 
      On the third day he rose again            et resurrèxit tèrtia die, 
      in fulfillment of the Scriptures;           secundum Scriptùras, 
      he ascended into heaven                   et ascèndit in caelum, 
        and is seated at the right hand           sedet ad dèxteram 
        of the Father.                           Patris.
    He will come again in glory                Et ìterum ventùras est cum glòria, 
      to judge the living and the dead,           iudicàre vivos et mòrtuos, 
      and his kingdom will have no end.         cuius regni non erit finis.    We believe in the Holy Spirit,            Et in Spìritum Sanctum, 
        the Lord, the giver of life,              Dòminum et vivificàntem: 
      who proceeds from the Father              qui ex Patre Filiòque procèdit.  
        and the Son.                            Qui cum Patre et Fìlio 
      With the Father and the Son                 simul adoràtur 
        he is worshipped and glorified.           et conglorifcàtur: 
      He has spoken through                     qui locùtus est 
        the Prophets.                             per prophètas.
      We believe in one holy catholic           Et unam, sanctam, cathòlicam, 
        and apostolic Church.                     et apostòlicum Ecclèsiam.  
      We acknowledge one baptism                Confiteor unum baptìsma 
        for the forgiveness of sins.              in remissiònem peccatòrum.  
      We look for the resurrection              Et exspècto resurrectiònem 
        of the dead,                              mortuòrum, 
        and the life of the                     et vitam 
        world to come.  Amen.                     ventùri sàeculi.  Amen.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Find the Latin Liturgy Association  HERE

North Korea has the deadliest level of Christian persecution in the world

Uploaded on Feb 7, 2012

The only worship that is allowed is that of the “dear leader” Kim Jong-Il and his father Kim Il-Sung. In North Korea, every other religious activity is labeled an act of insurrection against North Korean … (Rescue Christians.org)


Quotation: Friedrich Nietzsche On state and lies

The state lieth in all languages of good and evil; and whatever it saith it lieth; and whatever it hath it hath stolen.

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Discuss

Abdurrahim El-Keib Libyan Interim Prime Minister (from France24International)

Abdurrahim El-Keib Libyan Interim Prime Minister (from France24International)

Abdurrahim El-Keib Libyan Interim Prime Minister (from France24International) Click here to find out more about Libya Today)