Tag Archives: Islam

Beethoven’s 5th Piano E-flat major, Op. 73 (Emperor) – Daniel Barenboim


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Today In History. What Happened This Day In History


Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

February 14

Happy Valentine’s Day!Today is St. Valentine’s Day, the feast day of two Christian martyrs named Valentine: one a priest and physician, the other the Bishop of Terni. Both are purported to have been beheaded on this day. The custom of sending handmade ‘valentines’ to one’s beloved became popular during the 17th century and was first commercialized in the United States in the 1840s.

 

1349   2,000 Jews are burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
1400   The deposed Richard II is murdered in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire.
1549   Maximilian II, brother of the Emperor Charles V, is recognized as the future king of Bohemia.
1779   American Loyalists are defeated by Patriots at Kettle Creek, Ga.
1797   The Spanish fleet is destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
1848   James Polk becomes the first U.S. President to be photographed in office by Matthew Brady.
1859   Oregon is admitted as the thirty-third state.
1870   Esther Morris becomes the world’s first female justice of the peace.
1876   Rival inventors Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both apply for patents for the telephone.
1900   General Roberts invades South Africa’s Orange Free State with 20,000 British troops.
1904   The “Missouri Kid” is captured in Kansas.
1912   Arizona becomes the 48th state in the Union.
1915   Kaiser Wilhelm II invites the U.S. Ambassador to Berlin in order to confer on the war.
1918   Warsaw demonstrators protest the transfer of Polish territory to the Ukraine.
1920   The League of Women Voters is formed in Chicago in celebration of the imminent ratification of the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote.
1924   Thomas Watson founds International Business Machines Corp.
1929   Chicago gang war between Al Capone and George “Bugs” Moran culminates with several Moran confederates being gunned down in the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre.
1939   Germany launches the battleship Bismark.
1940   Britain announces that all merchant ships will be armed.
1942   Japanese paratroopers attack Sumatra. Aidan MacCarthy‘s RAF unit flew to Palembang, in eastern Sumatra, where 30 Royal Australian Air Force Lockheed A-28 Hudson bombers were waiting.
1945   800 Allied aircraft firebomb the German city of Dresden. Smaller followup bombing raids last until April with a total death toll of between 35,000 to 130,000 civillians.
1945   The siege of Budapest ends as the Soviets take the city. Only 785 German and Hungarian soldiers managed to escape.
1949   The United States charges the Soviet Union with interning up to 14 million in labor camps.
1955   A Jewish couple loses their fight to adopt Catholic twins as the U.S. Supreme Court refuses to rule on state law.
1957   The Georgia state senate outlaws interracial athletics.
1965   Malcolm X’s home is firebombed. No injuries are reported.
1971   Moscow publicizes a new five-year plan geared to expanding consumer production.
1973   The United States and Hanoi set up a group to channel reconstruction aid directly to Hanoi.
1979   Armed guerrillas attack the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
1985   Vietnamese troops surround the main Khmer Rouge base at Phnom Malai.
1989   Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini charges that Salman Rushdie’s novel, The Satanic Verses, is blasphemous and issues an edict (fatwa) calling on Muslims to kill Rushdie.
Born on February 14
1760   Richard Allen, first black ordained by a Methodist-Episcopal church.
1817   Frederick Douglass, slave, and later, activist and author.
1819   Christopher Latham Sholes, inventor of the first practical typewriter.
1845   Quinton Hogg, English philanthropist.
1859   George Washington Gale Ferris, inventor of the Ferris Wheel.
1894   Jack Benny, comedian, radio and television performer…and violinist.
1894   Mary Lucinda Cardwell Dawson, founded the National Negro Opera Company (NNOC) and was appointed to President John F. Kennedy’s National Committee on Music.

– See more at: http://www.historynet.com/today-in-history#sthash.8Ow54pqd.dpuf

Holy See to UN: stop ignoring attacks on Christian women, girls


via Holy See to UN: stop ignoring attacks on Christian women, girls

Young women walk along a street in Bangalore, India. Credit: Hillary Mast/CNA.

from CNA: Holy See to UN: stop ignoring attacks on Christian women, girls (click to access article)

 

Saint of the Day for Wednesday, January 14th, 2015 Image of St. Felix of Nola


Image of St. Felix of Nola

St. Felix of Nola

Felix was the son of Hermias, a Syrian who had been a Roman soldier. He was born on his father’s estate at Nola near Naples, Italy. On the death of his father, Felix distributed his inheritance to … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

this pressed: Suspected member of Islamic State group arrested in Germany-info24.us


Suspected member of Islamic State group arrested in Germany

By Info on January 11, 2015 News

BERLIN – German prosecutors say they have arrested a suspected member of the Islamic State group.

The federal prosecutor’s office said in a statement late Saturday that a 24-year-old man identified as Nils D. was arrested in Dinslaken in western Germany and his apartment was raided.

The suspect allegedly traveled to Syria in October in 2013 where he joined IS fighters. He returned to Germany in November 2014.

A local prosecutor in Duesseldorf had opened a separate terror investigation against the man in early 2014, but federal prosecutors said there was no indication that he was planning any concrete attacks. They also said his arrest was not related to the terror attacks in Paris.

via Suspected member of Islamic State group arrested in Germany.

From NPR (National Public News)News: From Threats Against Salman Rushdie To Attacks On ‘Charlie Hebdo’


From Threats Against Salman Rushdie To Attacks On ‘Charlie Hebdo
http://n.pr/14pQfRP

When Iran’s supreme leader Ayatollah Khomeini issued a 1989 fatwa calling for the killing of British writer Salman Rushdie, many in the West could scarcely believe a literary novel would prompt an international death threat.

We’ve come a long way since then.

Radical Islamists now issue threats against cartoonists, writers and filmmakers with such frequency that they barely cause a stir. Actual attacks have been carried out several times over the past decade, and French authorities suspect Muslim extremists in Wednesday’s slaughter of 12 people in Paris, including eight journalists at the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo.

To see how these threats and attacks have evolved over the past quarter-century, consider al-Qaida‘s most-wanted list, published in 2013 in its online magazine, Inspire.

A couple of things stand out in the article titled “Wanted: Dead or Alive for Crimes Against Islam.” First, it attracted little attention because it’s the kind of thing the group does regularly. Second, the group did not target Western political or military leaders — the people who have actually waged war against the group.

Coptic Architecture


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Coptic Churches” redirects here. For the bodies of the Coptic religion, see  Coptic Church. For church buildings, see List of Coptic churches.
 

Pulpit and section of iconostasis inside the The Hanging Church in Cairo

St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria

Origin and influenceSome authorities trace the origins of Coptic architecture to Ancient Egyptian architecture, seeing a similarity between the plan of ancient Egyptian temples, progressing from an outer courtyard to a hidden inner sanctuary to that of Coptic churches, with an outer narthex or porch, and (in later buildings) a sanctuary hidden behind an iconostasis. Others see the earliest Coptic churches as progressing, like those of the Byzantine and Roman churches, from the Graeco-Roman basilica. The ruins of the Cathedral at Hermopolis Magna (c.430–40) are the major survival of the single brief period when the Coptic Church represented the official religion of the state in Egypt.

Thus, from its early beginnings Coptic architecture fused indigenous Egyptian building traditions and materials with Graeco-Roman and Christian Byzantine styles. The fertile styles of neighbouring Christian Syria had a greatly increased influence after the 6th century, including the use of stone tympani.[2]

Over a period of two thousand years, Coptic architecture incorporated native Egyptian, Graeco-Roman, Byzantine and Western European styles.

 

The Hanging Church is Cairo’s most famous Coptic church first built in the AD 3rd or 4th century

After the Muslim conquest of Egypt, the influence of Coptic art and architecture on Egyptian Islamic architecture and the incorporation of some Coptic features in Islamic building in Egypt can be seen.[3] This can be explained by the fact that the early Muslim rulers of Egypt, much like the Ptolemaic and Byzantine rulers before them, recruited native Egyptians to undertake the building labor. In later centuries, Coptic art and architecture also incorporated motifs inspired by Islamic styles.[4] In particular, very early examples of the pointed arch appear in Coptic churches from the 4th century onwards, and this became a notable feature of Islamic architecture, and may have spread from there to European Gothic architecture, though this whole area remains controversial among architectural historians, with many now seeing the origins among the Assyrians, from whom it spread to Persia, where it joined the Islamic style.[5]

Features

The Coptic Church broke from the other Eastern Orthodox Churches in 451 AD. After that date, the Copts, then a great majority of the Egyptian population, were shunned and often persecuted by their Byzantine rulers until the conquest of Egypt by Islam, after which the slowly declining Coptic population was in a rather precarious position. Coptic architecture therefore lacked the lavish patronage of rulers and the Court, which was directly responsible for most of the important buildings of Byzantine and medieval Catholic architecture. Most buildings are small, conservative in design, and remain closer to vernacular styles. They also have a tendency to massive construction, which is partly a surviving Egyptian taste from the Pharaonic period, partly reflects the need to semi-fortify buildings, partly is an inevitable result of mudbrick construction of large structures, and is also partly to keep them cool in the Egyptian climate.

Well before the break of 451, Egyptian Christianity had pioneered monasticism, with many communities being established in deliberately remote positions, especially in Southern Egypt. The relatively large number of buildings surviving from the early periods of monasticism, from about the 5th century onwards, are one of the most important groups of early Christian buildings to remain, and offer a useful corrective to the Court art of Ravenna or Constantinople. Many very early wall-paintings also survive. Even the ruins of monasteries in many places have survived in a good enough condition to impress the visitor and inform the art historian. Early Coptic architecture is therefore of great importance in the study of Early Christian architecture in general.

 

Archangel Michael’s Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Aswan

Despite the break with the other churches, aspects of the development of the arrangement of Coptic churches have paralleled those in Orthodoxy, such as the emergence of a solid iconostasis to separate the sanctuary, and the West, such as the movement over the centuries of the place of baptism from the narthex or outer porch into the rear of the nave. However the existence of three altars in the sanctuary, sometimes in separate apses, is typically and distinctively Coptic. The altars themselves are always free-standing.

Especially between the Muslim conquest and the 19th century, the external facade of Coptic urban churches is usually plain and discreet, as is the roof-line. Equally the monasteries were often enclosed with high blank walls to defend them from desert raiders during the Middle Ages. However, internally the churches can be ornately decorated, although monumental sculpture of holy figures is avoided as in Orthodoxy.

Many Coptic monasteries and churches scattered throughout Egypt are built of mudbrick on the basilica plan inherited from Graeco-Roman architectural styles. They usually have heavy walls and columns, architraves and barrel-vaulted roofs, and end in a tripartite apse, but many variant plans exist.[6] Domes are small compared to Byzantine churches, and from the 10th-century naves are often roofed with domed cupolas. The dome raised on a circular supporting wall, which is so characteristic of later Byzantine architecture, is rarely used. Massive timber is often used across the nave, sometimes to support a flat roof, and sometimes to give structural strength to the walls. Inside the churches are richly decorated with frescoed murals and reliefs.[7]

Iconostasis

 

Example of modern Coptic Iconostasis of at St Mary and St Mercurius Coptic Orthodox Church in Wales

The screen known as the iconostasis separating the sanctuary from the main body of the church is one of the main features of any Coptic church. The Coptic iconostasis is usually less completely composed of icons than the Eastern Orthodox one, although there will always be several. It is very often an open-work screen, usually made of ebony and sometimes inlaid with ivory like that in Saint Mary Church (Harat Zewila). These may be in geometrical patterns comparable to the secular screens which are a feature of traditional Egyptian houses.

The iconostasis of Saint Mary Church in Harat Zewila in Old Cairo, rebuilt after 1321, shows the mixture of stylistic elements in Coptic architecture. The basic plan is that of the basilica, and recycled ancient columns are used. The older woodwork is Islamic in style, as are the Muqarnas in the pendentives, and a Gothic revival rood cross surmounts the iconostasis. This uses Islamic abstract motifs, which is also common. Some screens are pierced rather than solid.

There are many examples of Coptic iconostasis that predate the earliest surviving Eastern and Western counterparts.[8]

Khurus or Choir

Between the 7th and 12th centuries, many churches were built or modified with a distinctive Coptic feature, the khurus, a space running across the whole width of the church separating the naos or nave from the sanctuary, rather as the choir does in Gothic architecture.

 

Archangel Michael’s Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Aswan

Decorative carving

Early Coptic buildings contain elaborate and vigorous decorative carving on the capitals of columns, or friezes, some of which include interlace, confronted animals, and other motifs. These are also related to Coptic illuminated manuscripts and fabrics, and are often regarded as significant influences both on early Islamic art, like the Mshatta facade and on the Insular art of the British Isles (which appears to have been in contact with Coptic monasteries.[9] From Insular art these motifs developed into European Romanesque art.[10]

Examples

The architecture of many Coptic buildings remains poorly documented, as they become more at risk for abandonment, vandalism, and destruction. Time sensitive architectural and cultural research projects are awaiting initiation.

Examples of significant Coptic architecture include:

 

trtavel- people and places: Shalimar Gardens


Shalimar Gardens (Lahore) 0016aThe reign of Emperor Shah Jahan in India saw the construction of the finest monuments of Mughal architecture, including the Taj Mahal and the Shalimar Gardens. The gardens were completed in Lahore, in what is now Pakistan, in 1642. Only three sections remain of the original seven, which symbolized the divisions of the Islamic paradise. The three descending terraces are elevated about 15 feet (5 m) above one another and are laid out in a parallelogram. How many fountains are in the gardens? More… Discuss

#Pope Francis has just arrived at the Sultan Ahmet (Blue) Mosque in Istanbul in a Renault Symbol. — Alexander Marquardt (@MarquardtA)


Happy Thanksgiving! – this pressed: Pope condemns Islamic State violence against Christians in interview


Pope condemns Islamic State violence against Christians in interview

JERUSALEM – On the eve of a trip to the Middle East, Pope Francis is urging religious and political leaders to speak out against attacks on Christians by Islamic State extremists.

In an interview published Thursday, Francis was quoted as saying that the persecution of Christians today is “the worst” it has been since Christianity‘s earliest days. “In Iraq, for example, barbaric, criminal indescribable things are being committed,” he was quoted as telling the Israeli daily Yediot Ahronot.

Francis told the newspaper that the persecution of Christians, Yazidis and other ethnic communities requires both political and religious leaders, especially Muslims, to “take a clear and brave stand.”

Francis is set to travel to Turkey on Friday for a three-day visit.

Yediot said it would publish the full interview on Friday.

via Pope condemns Islamic State violence against Christians in interview.

this pressed: France: Police Arrest 2 Over Jihadi Propaganda.


France: Police Arrest 2 Over Jihadi Propaganda.

Hundreds of French extremists have joined fighters for the Islamic State group in Syria and Iraq, including young teenagers and families, some from Muslim families and some who are converts. The French government is particularly concerned that extremists will return and stage attacks at home, and is trying to stop them from traveling in the first place.

via France: Police Arrest 2 Over Jihadi Propaganda..

this day in the yesteryear: The Taliban Captures Kabul (1996)


The Taliban Captures Kabul (1996)

During the chaotic period that followed the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, a militia of Islamic fundamentalist students known as the Taliban became increasingly powerful. In 1996, the Taliban captured the capital city of Kabul and declared itself the legitimate government of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, establishing a strict Islamic regime that became a haven for extremists. Whose assassination two days before the 9/11 attacks of 2001 dealt a blow to the anti-Taliban resistance? More… Discuss

word: zealot


zealot 

Definition:

(noun) An immoderate, fanatical, or extremely zealous adherent to a cause, especially a religious one.

Synonyms:

drumbeater, partisan

Usage:

Jane, who had dabbled in vegetarianism during high school, became an environmental zealot while in college. Discuss.

this pressed from Newsweek: Egyptian Islamic Authority Issues Fatwas Against Selfies and Chatting Online


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Egyptian Islamic Authority Issues Fatwas Against Selfies and Chatting Online.

Egyptian Islamic Authority Issues Fatwas Against Selfies and Chatting Online.

today’s birthday: Hilaire Belloc (1870)


Hilaire Belloc (1870)

Belloc was an important English author in the early 20th century. A highly versatile writer, he is best remembered for his light verse, particularly for children, and for his lucid and graceful essays. He wrote from the Roman Catholic viewpoint, and his views on Protestantism and Islam, which he called major heresies and threats to the “Church Universal,” made him a somewhat controversial figure. What was Belloc’s rather tongue-in-cheek response to the question of why he wrote so prolifically? More… Discuss

In Malaysia, Islam’s legal advance divides families and nation | Reuters


 

In Malaysia, Islam’s legal advance divides families and nation | Reuters.

ARTICLE: THE MAMLUKS


The Mamluks

The Mamluks were members of a warrior caste that ruled Egypt from about 1250 to 1517. Islamic rulers created the caste by collecting non-Muslim slave boys, grooming them as cavalry soldiers, and converting them to Islam during training. The Mamluks initially served the Ayyubid sultans but grew powerful enough to challenge them and claim the sultanate. Though the Ottomans crushed the Mamluks and took Cairo in 1517, the word “mamluk” lives on in various cultures today. What meanings does it have? More… Discuss

 

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ARTICLE: THE INCOHERENCE OF THE PHILOSOPHERS


The Incoherence of the Philosophers

The Incoherence of the Philosophers is a landmark 11th-century text by al-Ghazali of the rational-based Asharite school of Muslim theology. In it, he criticizes the Avicennian school of Islamic philosophy, accusing its followers of being irreligious. Among al-Ghazali’s 20 charges against them is their inability to prove the existence of God and inability to prove the impossibility of the existence of two gods. Who refuted al-Ghazali’s views with The Incoherence of the IncoherenceMore…Discuss

 

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This Day in the Yesteryear: THE BATTLE OF TOURS (732 CE)


The Battle of Tours (732 CE)

In 661 CE, the first Islamic dynasty rose to prominence and sought to extend its power. The Muslims, seeking control of Aquitaine, were met by Charles Martel‘s Frankish forces, who were able to halt them at the Battle of Tours. It was not a decisive victory, but the Arabs retreated after their leader was killed, and some historians deem it a watershed moment in preserving Christianity in Europe. The battle greatly enhanced Martel’s prestige at the time. What nickname was bestowed on him? More… Discuss