Brahms chose the title “Tragic” to emphasize the turbulent, tormented character of the piece, in essence a free-standing symphonic movement, in contrast to the mirthful ebullience of a companion piece he wrote the same year, the Academic Festival Overture. Despite its name, the Tragic Overture does not follow any specific dramatic program. Brahms was not very interested in musical storytelling and was more concerned with conveying and eliciting emotional impressions. He summed up the effective difference between the two overtures when he declared “one laughs while the other cries.” Brahms quotes some material from the last movement of the Second Symphony in this overture.
The Tragic Overture comprises three main sections, all in the key of D minor.
Theorists have disagreed in analyzing the form of the piece: Jackson finds Webster’s multifarious description rather obscurist and prefers to label the work’s form as a “reversed sonata design” in which the second group is recapitulated before the first, with Beethoven‘s Coriolan Overture as a possible formal model.(Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragic_Overture)
Second exposition: The piano enters with an ascending scale motif. The structure of the exposition in the piano solo is similar to that of the orchestral exposition.
Development: The piano enters, playing similar scales used in the beginning of the second exposition, this time in D major rather than C minor. The music is generally quiet.
Recapitulation: The orchestra restates the theme in fortissimo, with the wind instruments responding by building up a minor ninth chord as in the exposition. For the return of the second subject, Beethoven modulates to the tonic major, C major. A dark transition to the cadenza occurs, immediately switching from C major to C minor.
Cadenza: Beethoven wrote one cadenza for this movement. The cadenza Beethoven wrote is at times stormy and ends on a series of trills that calm down to pianissimo. Many other composers and pianists have written alternative cadenzas.
Coda: Beethoven subverts the expectation of a return to the tonic at the end of the cadenza by prolonging the final trill and eventually arriving on a dominant seventh. The piano plays a series of arpeggios before the music settles into the home key of C minor. Then the music intensifies before a full tutti occurs, followed by the piano playing descending arpeggios, the ascending scale from the second exposition, and finally a resolute ending on C.
The second movement is in the key of E major, in this context a key relatively remote from the concerto’s opening key of C minor (another example being Brahms’s first symphony.). If the movement adhered to traditional form, its key would be E-flat major (the relative key) or A-flat major (the submediant key). The movement opens with the solo piano and the opening is marked with detailed pedalling instructions.
III. Rondo – Allegro
The finale is in sonata rondo form. The movement begins in C minor with an agitated theme played only by the piano. The movement ends with a C major coda marked presto.
“I saw almost nothing but empty pages; at the most, on one page or another a few Egyptian hieroglyphs wholly unintelligible to me were scribbled down to serve as clues for him; for he played nearly all the solo part from memory since, as was so often the case, he had not had time to set it all down on paper.”
The score was not published until 1867, 40 years after the composer’s death in 1827. The discoverer of the piece, Ludwig Nohl, affirmed that the original autographed manuscript, now lost, was dated 27 April 1810.
The version of “Für Elise” heard today is an earlier version that was transcribed by Ludwig Nohl. There is a later version, with drastic changes to the accompaniment which was transcribed from a later manuscript by Barry Cooper. The most notable difference is in the first theme, the left-hand arpeggios are delayed by a 16th note beat. There are a few extra bars in the transitional section into the B section; and finally, the rising A minor arpeggio figure is moved later into the piece. The tempo marking Poco moto is believed to have been on the manuscript that Ludwig Nohl transcribed (now lost). The later version includes the marking Molto grazioso. It is believed that Beethoven intended to add the piece to a cycle of bagatelles.
The pianist and musicologist Luca Chiantore (es) argued in his thesis and his 2010 book Beethoven al piano that Beethoven might not have been the person who gave the piece the form that we know today. Chiantore suggested that the original signed manuscript, upon which Ludwig Nohl claimed to base his transcription, may never have existed. On the other hand, the musicologist Barry Cooper stated, in a 1984 essay in The Musical Times, that one of two surviving sketches closely resembles the published version.
Identity of “Elise”
It is not certain who “Elise” was. Max Unger suggested that Ludwig Nohl may have transcribed the title incorrectly and the original work may have been named “Für Therese”, a reference to Therese Malfatti von Rohrenbach zu Dezza (1792–1851). She was a friend and student of Beethoven’s to whom he supposedly proposed in 1810, though she turned him down to marry the Austrian nobleman and state official Wilhelm von Droßdik in 1816. Note that the piano sonata no.24, dedicated to Countess Thérèse von Brunswick, is also referred to sometimes as “für Therese”.
According to a 2010 study by Klaus Martin Kopitz (de), there is evidence that the piece was written for the German soprano singer Elisabeth Röckel (1793–1883), later the wife of Johann Nepomuk Hummel. “Elise”, as she was called by a parish priest (she called herself “Betty” too), had been a friend of Beethoven’s since 1808. In the meantime, the Austrian musicologist Michael Lorenz has shown that Rudolf Schachner, who in 1851 inherited Therese von Droßdik’s musical scores, was the son of Babette Bredl, born out of wedlock. Babette in 1865 let Nohl copy the autograph in her possession. Thus the autograph must have come to Babette Bredl from Therese von Droßdik’s estate and Kopitz’s hypothesis is refuted.
In 2012, the Canadian musicologist Rita Steblin suggested that Juliane Katharine Elisabet Barensfeld (de), who used “Elise” as a variant first name, might be the dedicatee. Born in Regensburg and treated for a while as child prodigy, she first travelled on concert tours with Beethoven’s friend Johann Nepomuk Mälzel, also from Regensburg, and then lived with him for some time in Vienna, where she received singing lessons from Antonio Salieri. Steblin argues that Beethoven dedicated this work to the 13-year-old Elise Barensfeld as a favour to Therese Malfatti who lived opposite Mälzel’s and Barensfeld’s residence and who might have given her piano lessons. Steblin admits that question marks remain for her hypothesis.
The piece is in A minor and is set in 3/8 time. It begins with an A minor theme marked Poco moto (little movement), with the left hand playing arpeggios alternating between A minor and E major. It then moves into a brief section based around C major and G major, before returning to the original theme. It then enters a lighter section in the subdominant key of the relative major of A minor (C major), F major. It consists of a similar texture to the A section, where the right hand plays a melody over left hand arpeggios. It then enters a 32nd note C major figure before returning to the A section. The piece then moves to an agitated theme in D minor with an A pedal point, as the right hand plays diminished chords. This section then concludes with an ascending A minor arpeggio before beginning a chromatic descent over two octaves, and then returning to the A section. The piece ends in its starting key of A minor with an authentic cadence. Despite being called a bagatelle, the piece is in rondo form. The structure is A–B–A–C–A. The first theme is not technically difficult and is often taught alone as it provides a good basic exercise for piano pedalling technique. However, much greater technique is required for the B section as well as the rapid rising A minor figure in the C section.
Kopitz presents the finding by the German organ scholar Johannes Quack that the letters that spell Elise can be decoded as the first three notes of the piece. Because an E♭ is called an Es in German and is pronounced as “S”, that makes E–(L)–(I)–S–E: E–(L)–(I)–E♭–E, which by enharmonic equivalents sounds the same as the written notes E–(L)–(I)–D♯–E.
Ludwig van BEETHOVEN: Piano Trio No.7 in B-flat major, Op.97 “Archduke” (1811) 0:10/ I. Allegro moderato [12’36”] 12:46/ II. Scherzo. Allegro [11’35”] 24:22 / III. Andante cantabile ma però con moto [12’06”] 36:28 / IV. Allegro moderato [6’56”] Emil Gilels, piano Leonid Kogan, violin Mstislav Rostropovich, cello (rec: Moscow, 1956) 5CDs: Doremi DHR-7921-5 – ℗2007 _______________ 5CDs set: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=… _______________
Watch at your own risk – I warned you 🙂 Live from Paris, Salle Gaveau , May 21, 2014. Sonata No. 17, Op 31 No.2 D Minor
The Piano Sonata No. 17 in D minor, Op. 31, No. 2, was composed in 1801/02 by Ludwig van Beethoven. It is usually referred to as “The Tempest” (or Der Sturm in his native German), but the sonata was not given this title by Beethoven, or indeed referred to as such during his lifetime. The name comes from a claim by his associate Anton Schindler that the sonata was inspired by the Shakespeare play. However, much of Schindler’s information is distrusted by classical music scholars. The British music scholar Donald Francis Tovey says in A Companion to Beethoven’s Pianoforte Sonatas:
With all the tragic power of its first movement the D minor Sonata is, like Prospero, almost as far beyond tragedy as it is beyond mere foul weather. It will do you no harm to think of Miranda at bars 31–38 of the slow movement… but people who want to identify Ariel and Caliban and the castaways, good and villainous, may as well confine their attention to the exploits of Scarlet Pimpernel when the Eroica or the C minor Symphony is being played (pg. 121).
The piece consists of three movements and takes approximately twenty-five minutes to perform:
Largo – Allegro
Each of the movements is in sonata form, though the second lacks a substantial development section.
The first movement alternates brief moments of seeming peacefulness with extensive passages of turmoil, after some time expanding into a haunting “storm” in which the peacefulness is lost. This musical form is unusual among Beethoven sonatas to that date. Concerning the time period and style, it was thought of as an odd thing to write; a pianist’s skills were demonstrated in many ways, and showing changes in tone, technique and speed efficiently many times in one movement was one of them. The development begins with rolled, long chords, quickly ending to the tremolo theme of the exposition. There is a long recitative section at the beginning of this movement’s recapitulation, again ending with fast and suspenseful passages.
The second movement in B-flat major is slower and more dignified. The rising melodic ideas in the opening six measures are reminiscent of the first movement’s recitative. Other ideas in this movement mirror the first, for instance, a figure in the eighth measure and parallel passages of the second movement are similar to a figure in the sixth measure of the first.
The third movement is a sonata-rondo hybrid in the key of D minor. It is at first flowing with emotion and then reaching a climax, before moving into an extended development section which mainly focuses on the opening figure of the movement, reaching a climax at measures 169–173. The recapitulation, which is preceded by an extensive cadenza-like passage of sixteenth notes for the right hand, is followed by another transition and then another statement of the primary theme. The refrain undergoes phrase expansion to build tension for the climax of the movement at measure 381, a fortissimo falling chromatic scale.
Ludwig van Beethoven Piano Sonata No. 10 in G major, Op. 14, No. 2 Daniel Barenboim, piano -Allegro in G major -Andante variations in C major, subdominant of G major 7:15 -Scherzo: Allegro assai in G major 12:46
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Sonata para piano Nº 7 en Re mayor, Opus 10 Nº 3 1. Presto 2. Largo e mesto 3. Menuetto: Allegro 4. Rondo: Allegro Daniel Barenboim, piano
The Piano SonataNo.7 inD majorOp10No. 3by Ludwig vanBeethovenis the largestof Opus10.It was composedin 1798and dedicatedto CountessAnnaMargaretevonBrowne. The third movement isa minuetwithtrionexttoascherzostyle.The fourth movementis famous for itssilences. ( Google Translate)
La Sonata para piano Nº 7 en Re mayor Opus 10 Nº 3 de Ludwig van Beethoven es la más extensa del Opus 10. Fue compuesta en 1798 y está dedicada a la Condesa Anna Margarete von Browne. El tercer movimiento es un minué con trio, de estilo próximo al de un scherzo. El cuarto movimiento es famoso por sus silencios.
This analysis was assisted in large part by Donald Tovey’s “Companion to Beethoven’s Pianoforte Sonatas”.
My Analysis Cheat Sheet: -SONATA FORM: Most common form, almost always in the 1st movement and often last movement of a work. The basic sequence is Intro, Exposition, Development, Recapitulation and Coda. -EXPOSITION: Main theme(s) are presented, usually in the home key and then a modulated key -THEME / THEME GROUP: musical “paragraph”. These can be broken down into 1 or more “tunes”. These are grouped according to key and end on cadences. The 1st Theme Group is in the home key. The 2nd Theme Group is in the dominant or other key. -CLOSING/CADENCE SECTION: a theme group which closes the Expo or Recap (it follows the 2nd theme) and revives Theme 1 to provide closure. -MODULATING BRIDGE/TRANSITION: material to get from 1 key/theme group to another, often w sequencing. -DEVELOPMENT: free-form “working out”/”fantasia” section where earlier themes are subjected to variations and atomizations. Possibly a new theme is introduced (“Eroica”). -RECAPITULATION: Repeat of the Expo, except that this section remains in the same key throughout and there can be theme variations from the initial Expo versions of themes. -CODA: Follows the Recap, kind of a second development designed to finish off the work. -SEQUENCING: repeating a phrase on different starting notes (keys) -TERNARY FORM: 3-part form in A-B-A, usually a Scherzo or Minuet -SCHERZO/MINUET: 1st pt. of a 3-pt. Scherzo form, usually AA.BA’.BA’ in 3/4 time. Lively. -TRIO: Middle section of a Scherzo movement, slower, broader than the Scherzo section -RONDO: Similar to Sonata form except that the Development is replaced by a new section and there is less transition material. A principal theme (A) alternates with contrasting themes (BCD…). (Ex.ABACABA.) -FUGUE: form in which a subject(s) undergoes canonical permutations -VARIATION: repeat of a theme with variation -CADENZA: unaccompanied instrumental solo -BINARY FORM: Structure in AB. 2-Part Song form. (Disclaimer: I do not have a music degree, all of the above is purely from memory and observation)
Ludwig van Beethoven String Quartet No 2 in G major op. 18 No. 2 Alban Berg Quartet Günter Pichler 1 violin, Gerhard Schulz 2 violin, Thomas Kakuska viola, Valentin Erben cello Allegro 0:00 Adagio cantabile – Allegro – Tempo I 9:18 Scherzo: Allegro 16:08 Allegro molto, quasi presto 20:35 **********************************************************************From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The String Quartet No. 2 in G major, op. 18, No. 2, was written by Ludwig van Beethoven between 1798 and 1800 and published in 1801.
Of the Op. 18 string quartets, this one is the most grounded in 18th-century musical tradition. According to Steinberg, “In German-speaking countries, the graceful curve of the first violin’s opening phrase has earned the work the nickname of Komplimentier-Quartett, which might be translated as ‘quartet of bows and curtseys’.”
The nickname may have originated from one of Haydn’s last string quartets written about the same time (Op. 77, No. 1; 1799), which was also known as the Komplimentier-Quartett. Haydn was Beethoven’s teacher at the time, and there are similarities in style between the two quartets. They are also both in the key of G major.
After he finished the quartet, Beethoven was not satisfied with the second movement and wrote a replacement. Sketches of the original slow movement survive and a complete version has been reconstructed by musicologist Barry Cooper. It was performed publicly, possibly for the first time, by the Quatuor Danel in the Cosmo Rodewald Concert Hall at the Martin Harris Centre, University of Manchester, on 30 September 2011
The trio was written late in the Beethoven’s so-called “middle period”. He began composing it in the summer of 1810, and completed it in March 1811.
Although the “Archduke Trio” is sometimes numbered as “No. 7”, the numbering of Beethoven’s twelve piano trios is not standardized, and in other sources the Op. 97 trio may be shown as having a different number, if any.
The first public performance was given by Beethoven himself, Ignaz Schuppanzigh (violin) and Josef Linke (cello) at the Viennese hotel Zum römischen Kaiser on 11 April 1814, as his deafness continued to encroach upon his ability as a performer. After a repeat of the work a few weeks later, Beethoven did not appear again in public as a pianist.
The violinist and composer Louis Spohr witnessed a rehearsal of the work, and wrote: “On account of his deafness there was scarcely anything left of the virtuosity of the artist which had formerly been so greatly admired. In forte passages the poor deaf man pounded on the keys until the strings jangled, and in piano he played so softly that whole groups of notes were omitted, so that the music was unintelligible unless one could look into the pianoforte part. I was deeply saddened at so hard a fate.”
The pianist and composer Ignaz Moscheles attended the first performance, and wrote about the work: “In the case of how many compositions is the word “new” misapplied! But never in Beethoven’s, and least of all in this, which again is full of originality. His playing, aside from its intellectual element, satisfied me less, being wanting in clarity and precision; but I observed many traces of the grand style of playing which I had long recognized in his compositions.”
A typical performance runs approximately 40 minutes in length.
References in popular culture
The Archduke plays a significant role in Elizabeth George‘s mystery A Traitor to Memory (2001)
In Haruki Murakami‘s novel Kafka on the Shore (2002), the piece and its history are used to explain the relationship between two main characters, Nakata and Hoshino, and the latter’s development as a person
The Piano Quintet in E-flat major, Op. 44, by Robert Schumann was composed in 1842 and received its first public performance the following year. Noted for its “extroverted, exuberant” character, Schumann’s piano quintet is considered one of his finest compositions and a major work of nineteenth-century chamber music.Composed for piano and string quartet, the work revolutionized the instrumentation and musical character of the piano quintet and established it as a quintessentially Romantic genre.
Composition and performance
Clara Schumann (née Wieck) in 1838. Robert Schumann dedicated the piano quintet to Clara, and she performed the piano part in the work’s first public performance in 1843.
Schumann composed his piano quintet in just a few weeks in September and October 1842, in the course of his so-called “Chamber Music Year.” Prior to 1842, Schumann had completed no chamber music at all with the exception of an early piano quartet (in 1829). However, during his year-long concentration on chamber music he composed three string quartets, followed by the piano quintet, a piano quartet, and the Phantasiestücke for piano trio.
Schumann began his career primarily as a composer for the keyboard, and after his detour into writing for string quartet, according to Joan Chisell, his “reunion with the piano” in composing a piano quintet gave “his creative imagination … a new lease on life.”
John Daverio has argued that Schumann’s piano quintet was influenced by Schubert‘s Piano Trio No. 2 in E-flat major, a work Schumann admired. Both works are in the key of E-flat, both feature a funeral march in the second movement, and both conclude with finales that dramatically resurrect earlier thematic material.
Schumann dedicated the piano quintet to his wife, the great pianist Clara Schumann. She was due to perform the piano part for the first private performance of the quintet on 6 December 1842. However, she fell ill and Felix Mendelssohn stepped in, sight-reading the “fiendish” piano part. Mendelssohn’s suggestions to Schumann after this performance led the composer to make revisions to the inner movements, including the addition of a second trio to the third movement.
Clara Schumann did play the piano part at the first public performance of the piano quintet on 8 January 1843, at the Leipzig Gewandhaus. Clara pronounced the work “splendid, full of vigor and freshness.” She often performed the work throughout her life. Robert Schumann, however, on one occasion asked a male pianist to replace Clara in a performance of the quintet, remarking that “a man understands that better.”
By pairing the piano with string quartet, Schumann “virtually invented” a new genre. Prior to Schumann, piano quintets were ordinarily composed for keyboard, violin, viola, cello, and double bass. (This is the instrumentation for Schubert’sTrout Quintet, for example.)
Schumann’s choice to deviate from this model and pair the piano with a standard string quartet lineup reflects the changing technical capabilities and cultural importance, respectively, of these instruments. By 1842, the string quartet had come to be regarded as the most significant and prestigious chamber music ensemble, while advances in the design of the piano had increased its power and dynamic range. Bringing the piano and string quartet together, Schumann’s Piano Quintet takes full advantage of the expressive possibilities of these forces in combination, alternating conversational passages between the five instruments with concertante passages in which the combined forces of the strings are massed against the piano. At a time when chamber music was moving out of the salon and into public concert halls, Schumann reimagines the piano quintet as a musical genre “suspended between private and public spheres” alternating between “quasi-symphonic and more properly chamber-like elements.”
The piece is in four movements, in the standard quick-slow-scherzo-quick pattern:
Schumann had earlier worked on several piano concerti: he began one in E-flat major in 1828, from 1829–31 he worked on one in F major, and in 1839, he wrote one movement of a concerto in D minor. None of these works were completed.
The work may have been used as a model by Edvard Grieg in composing his own Piano Concerto, also in A minor. Grieg’s concerto, like Schumann’s, employs a single powerful orchestral chord at its introduction before the piano’s entrance with a similar descending flourish. Rachmaninov also used the work as a model for his first Piano Concerto.
After this concerto, Schumann wrote two other pieces for piano and orchestra: the Introduction and Allegro Appassionato in G major (Op. 92), and the Introduction and Allegro Concertante in D minor (Op. 134).
The piece, as marked in the score, is in three movements:
Allegro affettuoso (A minor)
Intermezzo: Andantino grazioso (F major)
Allegro vivace (A major)
There is no break between these last two movements (attacca subito).
Schumann preferred that the movements be listed in concert programs as only two movements:
Andantino and Rondo
The three movement listing is the more common form used.
The piece starts with an energetic strike by strings and timpani, followed by a fierce, descending attack by the piano. The first theme is introduced by the oboe along with wind instruments. The theme is then given to the soloist. Schumann provides great variety with this theme. He first offers it in the A minor key of the piece, then we hear it again in major, and we can also hear small snatches of the tune in a very slow, A flat section. The clarinet is often used against the piano in this movement. Toward the end of the movement, the piano launches into a long cadenza before the orchestra joins in with one more melody and builds for the exciting finish.
This movement is keyed in F major. The piano and strings open up the piece with a small, delicate tune, which is heard throughout the movement before the cellos and later the other strings finally take the main theme, with the piano mainly used as accompaniment. The movement closes with small glimpses of the first movement’s theme before moving straight into the third movement.
The movement opens with a huge run up the strings while the piano takes the main, A major theme. Schumann shows great color and variety in this movement. The tune is regal, and the strings are noble. Though it is in 3/4 timing, Schumann manipulates it so that the time signature is often ambiguous. The piece finishes with a restating of the previous material before finally launching into an exciting finale, and ending with a long timpani roll and a huge chord from the orchestra.
As with Beethoven’s other concertos from this time period, this work has a relatively long first movement. (At twenty-five minutes, the Violin Concerto has the longest; Piano Concerto Nos. 4 and 5 each have opening movements of about twenty minutes.)
P. I. Tchaikovsky – Symphony No. 1 “Winter Daydreams” in G minor, Op. 13 (1866) П. И. Чайковский – Симфония № 1 «Зимние грёзы» соль минор, соч. 13: 1. «Грёзы зимнею дорогой (Dreams of a Winter Journey)». Allegro tranquillo g-moll 2. «Угрюмый край, туманный край» (Land of Desolation, Land of Mists). Adagio cantabile ma non tanto 3. Скерцо (Scherzo). Allegro scherzando giocoso 4. Финал (Finale). Andante lugubre. Allegro maestoso
Moskow Radio Symphony Orchestra Conductor – Vladimir Fedoseyev Recorded live at the Alte Oper Frankfurt, 1991
TheSymphonyNo. 9 in D Minor is thelastcompletesymphonycomposed by LudwigvanBeethoven.One of thebestknownworks of theWesternrepertoire, it is consideredone of Beethoven’sgreatestmasterpieces.Incorporatingpart of JohannSchiller’s“Ode to Joy,”sung by soloistsand a chorus, it is thefirstsymphony in which a majorcomposerutilizeshumanvoices on thesamelevel as instruments.Howmanystandingovationsreportedlyfolloweditspremiereperformance in 1824?More…Discuss
Franz Schubert Symphony No. 5 in B flat major, D. 485 Lorin Maazel conducts Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra
Movements: – Allegro in B♭, in cut (2/2) time. – Andante con moto in E♭, in 6/8 time 4:50 – Menuetto. Allegro molto in G minor, in 3/4 time, with a Trio in G major 15:58 – Allegro vivace in B♭, in 2/4 time 21:36
℗ Originally released 1953 SONY BMG MUSIC ENTERTAINMENT
Released on: 1993-11-08
Associated Performer, Piano: Rudolf Serkin / 魯道夫塞爾金 Associated Performer, Cello: Pablo Casals / 卡薩爾斯 Producer: Producer not documented on available sources Composer: Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827) / Ludwig Van Beethoven
As with Beethoven’s other concertos from this time period, this work has a relatively long first movement. (At twenty-five minutes, the Violin Concerto has the longest; Piano Concerto Nos. 4 and 5 each have opening movements of about twenty minutes.)
Piano: Wilhelm Kempff The Piano Sonata No. 18 in E-flat major, Op. 31, No. 3, is a sonata for solo piano by Ludwig van Beethoven, the third and last of his Op. 31 piano sonatas. The work dates from 1802. A playful jocularity is maintained throughout the piece, earning it the occasional nickname of The Hunt, although like many of Beethoven’s early works, the ‘jocular’ style can be heard as a facade, concealing profound ideas and depths of emotion. Be apart of my Facebook page! http://www.facebook.com/Blop888
The Piano Sonata No. 18 in E-flat major, Op. 31, No. 3, is a sonata for solo piano by Ludwig van Beethoven, the third and last of his Op. 31 piano sonatas. The work dates from 1802. A playful jocularity is maintained throughout the piece, earning it the occasional nickname of The Hunt, although like many of Beethoven’s early works, the ‘jocular’ style can be heard as a facade, concealing profound ideas and depths of emotion.
Allegro: Beethoven’s progressive harmonic language is apparent from the very first chord of the piece (3rd inversion of the 11th on dominant B♭), the stability of a tonic chord in root position delayed until bar 8. The expressive harmonic colour, coupled with the changes of tempi in the introduction (1-18), creates an evocative opening, reminiscent of the improvisatory style of C. P. E. Bach‘s piano sonatas. This opening cell is repeated extensively throughout the movement – at the start of the development (89), in the recapitulation (137), and also during the coda (transposed into the subdominant (220), and then at its original pitch (237)). The codetta (33-45) explores this opening chord in a minor variation (with a C flat, implying ii7 of E♭ minor), even appearing in bar 36 in the exact spacing (albeit with different spelling) of the ‘Tristan chord‘, written by Richard Wagner some 55 years later.
Scherzo. Allegrettovivace: This scherzo is different from regular scherzos, as it is written in 2/4 time as opposed to 3/4, and because it is in sonata form. However, its still contains many characteristics of a scherzo, including unexpected pauses and a playful nature. The theme is in the right hand while the left-hand contains staccatoaccompaniment. This wasn’t the first time Beethoven wrote a scherzo that wasn’t in ternary form; the scherzo in the Op. 14, No. 2 sonata has a scherzo as its third movement, which is in rondo form.
Menuetto. Moderato e grazioso: It is surprisingly the most serious of the movements, with a sweet and tender nature presented in the piece, with both the minuet and the trio presented in E flat major.
Presto con fuoco: A very vigorous and rolling piece, suspended by continuous, rollicking eighth notes in the bass.
The form of the sonata is unusual because it does not have a slow movement, which is instead replaced with a scherzo and followed by a minuet, before launching into the spirited finale.
Camille Saint-Saëns used the Trio section of the Menuetto as the theme for his 1874 Variations sur un thème de Beethoven, Op. 35, for two pianos.
Schubert wrote his Overture in E minor in 1819. It was performed in Vienna two years later, but then disappeared from public view until the publication of Schubert’s collected works in 1886. Some Schubertians regard it as a landmark work of unusual power, breaking ground that he would build on in his last two symphonies. Schubert biographer John Reed appears to disagree when he writes that it “lacks any touch of Schubertian charm. The themes are short and symphonic, rather than lyrical.” But the two opinions are reconcilable. The Overture is, in a sense, Schubert doing Beethoven: The short motifs building into longer sequences and the mounting tension and explosive climaxes all show Beethoven’s influence on the 22-year-old Schubert. At the same time, the actual construction of those sequences, with the same motif repeated at progressively higher or lower pitches, harks back to Baroque music. Orchestration: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, and strings.This performance by the Prague Sinfonia, conducted by Christian Benda
Allegro moderato (la mayor) Scherzo. Vivace (do mayor) — Trio (fa mayor) Adagio non troppo (la menor) Quasi menuetto (re mayor) — Trio (si sostenido menor) Rondo. Allegro (la mayor)
Orquesta de cámara Scottish
Director. Charles Mackerras
Serenatas (Brahms) Las dos serenatas, opp. 11 y 16, representan dos de los primeros intentos de Johannes Brahms de escribir música orquestal. Ambas datan de los años 1850, específicamente del período en el que trabajó en la corte de Detmold. Según sus biografos ese período fue tranquilo y reposado, y a pesar de que al mismo tiempo componía el diabólico primer concierto para piano, compuso algunas piezas corales y el sexteto para cuerda, op. 18.
Serenata n.º 2 en la mayor, op. 16.
La segunda serenata fue escrita entre 1857 y 1860, y está dedicada a Clara Schumann. Llama poderosamente la atención su orquestación: sin timbales, trompetas, ni violínes. En este sentido se le suele relacionar con la ópera Uthal de Etienne Méhul. En 1875 Brahms revisó la partitura para una nueva edición, por lo general usada hoy en día. Algunos autores han sugerido que la peculiar orquestación fue producto de esta revisión. Otros lo desmienten. La serenata consta de cinco movimientos y dura aproximadamente treinta minutos.
Serenades(Brahms) The twoserenades,opp. 11 and16represent twoof the first attemptsofJohannesBrahmsto writeorchestral music.Both datefrom the 1850s, specificallytheperiod whenhe workedat the court ofDetmold.According tohis biographersthat period wasquietand restful, and althoughwhilecomposingthe diabolicalfirst piano concerto, composed somechoral piecesandthe sextetfor strings, op. 18.
Serenade No.2 inA major,op.16.
The secondserenadewas writtenbetween 1857and 1860, and is dedicatedtoClaraSchumann.It is very strikingorchestration: not timpani,trumpets, andviolins. In this senseit isoften associatedwithoperaUthalEtienneMehul. In 1875Brahmsrevised thescorefor a new edition, usually used today. Some authorshave suggested thatthe peculiarorchestrationwas the resultof this review.Otherssay otherwise. The serenadeconsists of fivemovementsand lasts aboutthirty minutes.
The Attacca Quartet performs the Quartet No. 2 in G Major, Op. 18, No 2
WQXR presented the Beethoven String Quartet Marathon on November 18th, 2012. Part of the Beethoven awareness month, all of Beethoven’s string quartets performed in a special marathon at The Jerome L. Greene Performance Space.
The Orion Quartet, the Afiara Quartet, the Amphion Quartet, the Attacca Quartet, the Jasper Quartet and other notable Beethoven interpreters performed.
The String Quartet No. 14 in C-sharp minor, opus 131, by Ludwig van Beethoven was completed in 1826. (The number traditionally assigned to it is based on the order of its publication; it is actually his fifteenth quartet by order of composition.) About 40 minutes in length, it consists of seven movements to be played without a break, as follows: 1. Adagio ma non troppo e molto espressivo 2. Allegro molto vivace 3. Allegro moderato 4. Andante ma non troppo e molto cantabile — Più mosso — Andante moderato e lusinghiero — Adagio — Allegretto — Adagio, ma non troppo e semplice — Allegretto 5. Presto 6. Adagio quasi un poco andante 7. Allegro
This work, which is dedicated to Baron Joseph von Stutterheim, was Beethoven’s favourite from the late quartets. He is quoted as remarking to a friend: “thank God there is less lack of imagination than ever before”. Together with the quartets op. 130 and 132, it goes beyond anything Beethoven had previously written. (Op. 131 is the conclusion of that trio of great works, written in the order 132, 130 with the Grosse Fugue ending, 131; they may be profitably listened to and studied in that sequence.) It is said that upon listening to a performance of this quartet, Schubert remarked, “After this, what is left for us to write?”
The Sanctus recalls features of the Kyrie, and also has a violin figure Mozart used again in Idomeneo. The Benedictus is peculiar for Mozart’s mass settings in that it is an austere fugue in an archaic style.
Fragmentary first Credo setting and its completion
The autograph of the mass features an alternative setting of the Credo. This setting has a length of 136 measures and abruptly ends after the words “cuius regni non erit finis”. It is not clear why Mozart stopped work on this setting and instead began work on the second – and complete – setting of the Credo on the next page of the autograph, but this may be due to the fact that Mozart had forgotten to set the words “sub Pontio Pilato” to music in the first draft. In the years 1989 and 2003 Dr Murl Sickbert completed the fragment; in 2006 it was performed at Hardin–Simmons University, Texas.
Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov had a work ethic that bordered on the obsessive, and when inspiration failed him, he would often busy himself by tidying up works from his youth. This habit accounts for the proliferation of versions of Antar. This work was composed between January and August 1868, and premiered in March of the next year. After a few alterations, it was published in 1880 as his Second Symphony. However, in the “new edition” of 1903, which was dated 1897, “Antar” was substantially revised and called a symphonic suite, with the words Second Symphony in a parenthetical subtitle. In 1913, a final version of Antar came out, called simply a “Symphonic Suite,” as Rimsky-Korsakov had decided that Antar was “a poem, suite, fairy tale, story, anything you like, but not a symphony.” The final version changes the key of the second movement and has more refined and detailed orchestration. However, the earlier version may best preserve the freshness of Rimsky-Korsakov’s response to the myth of Antar, a great warrior from Arabian literature.
Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra/Lucasz Borowicz.
A concert overture by Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), based on themes from Russian Orthodoxliturgical chant. In particular, Rimsky-Korsakov uses chant melodies from the “Obikhod” collection, referencing a number of biblical passages including Psalm 68 and Mark 16. The intention in this overture is not devotional – indeed, Rimsky-Korsakov was an atheist – but he attempted to capture “the legendary and heathen aspect of the holiday, and the transition from the solemnity and mystery of the evening of Passion Saturday to the unbridled pagan-religious celebrations of Easter Sunday morning” (quoted from the composer’s autobiography). The piece is also notable for its use of the unusual 5/2 and 3/1 time signatures.
This recording was made by conductor Jos van Immerseel and the Anima Eterna Orchestra, which plays on period instruments.
2 successive performances of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Turkish March from “Die Ruinen von Athen”, arranged by Richard Blackford for 8 pianos. Played by Gina Bachauer, Jorge Bolet, Jeanne-Marie Darré, Alicia De Larrocha, John Lill, Radu Lupu, Garrick Ohlsson and Bálint Vázsonyi at a Gargantuan Pianistic Extravaganza in London, 1974.
Please note that the 2nd performance is NOT a shredding video – these great pianists were actually playing what you hear!
The audio goes out of sync after a while, sorry about that.
Álbum: Beethoven: Edition Vol. 02 – Concertos (Disc 1) Interprete del álbum: Maurizio Pollini, Wiener Philharmoniker & Sviatoslav Richter, Wiener Symphoniker Compositor: Ludwig van Beethoven Año: 1997 Genero: Clásico Romántico Alemán Movimientos: Allegro con Brio-Adagio-Rondo Molto Allegro ************************************************************************ From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Piano Concerto No. 2 in B-flat major, Op. 19, by Ludwig van Beethoven was composed primarily between 1787 and 1789, although it did not attain the form it was published as until 1795. Beethoven did write another finale for it in 1798 for performance in Prague, but that is not the finale that it was published with. It was used by the composer as a vehicle for his own performances as a young virtuoso, initially intended with the Bonn Hofkapelle. It was published in 1801, by which time he had also published the Piano Concerto No. 1 in C major, although it had been composed after this work, in 1796 and 1797.
The B-flat major Piano Concerto became an important display piece for the young Beethoven as he sought to establish himself after moving from Bonn to Vienna. He was the soloist at its premiere on 29 March 1795, at Vienna’sBurgtheater in a concert marking his public debut. (Prior to that, he had performed only in the private salons of the Viennese nobility.) While the work as a whole is very much in the concerto style of Mozart, there is a sense of drama and contrast that would be present in many of Beethoven’s later works. Beethoven himself apparently did not rate this work particularly highly, remarking to the publisher Franz Anton Hoffmeister that, along with the Piano Concerto No. 1, it was “not one of my best.” The version that he premiered in 1795 is the version that is performed and recorded today.
The first movement begins with a triumphant orchestral opening on the tonic chord, and maintains a playfulness while using chromatic passages to show off the soloist’s dizzying technique. The second movement is characteristically serene and peaceful, while the closing Rondo brings back the youth-filled playfulness heard in the opening movement.
***I. Allegro con brio
This movement is in the concerto variant of sonata form (double-exposition sonata form). The orchestra introduces the main theme and the subordinate theme in its exposition. The second exposition is in F major. The development wanders in key and ends on a long B-flat major scale. The recapitulation is similar to the exposition and is in B-flat major.
There is a rather difficult cadenza composed by Beethoven himself, albeit much later than the concerto itself. Stylistically, the cadenza is very different from the concerto, but it makes good use of the first opening theme. Beethoven applies this melody to the cadenza in several different ways, changing its character each time and displaying the innumerable ways that a musical theme can be used and felt.
This movement was written between 1787 and 1789 in Bonn. Average performances last from thirteen to fourteen minutes.
This movement is in E-flat major, the subdominant key. Like many slow movements, it has ABA (ternary) form, where the opening section introduces the themes, and the middle section develops them. This movement was written between 1787 and 1789 in Bonn. Average performances last from eight to nine minutes.
***III. Rondo. Molto allegro
This movement takes the form of a Third Rondo (ABACABA). Beethoven’s playfulness of his early period can be heard here. There is a constant angular feel within the 6/8 melody itself that Beethoven plays on with each return of the rondo theme. The C section is also highly contrasting with the others, being that it is in a minor key and more forceful and stern in meaning. Also, prior to the last appearance of the rondo theme, Beethoven brings the piano in in the “wrong” key of G major, before the orchestra “discovers” the discrepancy and returns to the correct tonic key. This musical joke can be seen in many of Beethoven’s subsequent compositions.
This rondo is the one that Beethoven wrote in 1795 and premiered in Vienna that year. It does show Haydn’s influence. Average performances last from five to six minutes.
SONATAS 1. Sonata in C, K279 2. Sonata in F, K280 3. Sonata in B flat, K281 4. Sonata in E flat, K282 5. Sonata in G, K283 6. Sonata in D, K284 “Durnitz” 7. Sonata in C, K309 8. Sonata in A minor, K310 9. Sonata in D, K311 10. Sonata in C, K330 11. Sonata in A, K331 12. Sonata in F, K332 13. Sonata in B flat, K333 14. Fantasia in C minor, K475 15. Sonata in C minor, K457 16. Sonata in C, K545 “fur Anfanger” 17. Sonata in B flat, K570 18. Sonata in D, K576 19. Sonata in F, K533 & 494
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 — 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, cuyo nombre completo era Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart,1 (Salzburgo, 27 de enero de 1756 – Viena, 5 de diciembre de 1791), fue un compositor y pianista austriaco, maestro del Clasicismo, considerado como uno de los músicos más influyentes y destacados de la historia.
Classical Music: Piano Sonatas – Mozart Musique classique: Sonates pour piano – Mozart Música Clásica: Piano Sonatas – Mozart Klassische Musik: Klaviersonaten – Mozart Musica classica: Piano Sonatas – Mozart Música clássica: Sonatas para Piano – Mozart