Johannes Brahms – Alto Rhapsody, Op. 53 & Tragic Overture, Op. 81
The first Romanian Rhapsody composed at 19 years (together with a second one, both bearing the opus number 11) gained a worldwide fame for its lovely folk tunes (in fact, all Enescu’s works are imbued with such folk lightmotifs) and vivid Romanian rhythms, becoming definitely the best known of all his compositions. Here the Rhapsody No.2 is performed with an infectious empathy by the Romanian conductor Paul Staïcu along with his outstanding musicians of Montbéliard Philharmonic Orchestra. The performance reveals a mighty symphonist with a keen sense of colours and orchestral textures, a rigorous and honest one devoted to principles and truth, extracting the sap of his composition from folk melodies of his people. The reputed conductor Paul Staïcu has signed a series of recordings devoted to the complete orchestral oeuvres of his fellow compatriot. The celebrated Romanian Rhapsody in D major op.11 , more reflexive than its pair no.1, the second Romanian Rhapsody is also a youthful work (written in 1900, when the composer was 19) with persistent folk aromas and picturesque suggestions, aiming at fructifying the popular Romanian musical treasure and meditative side of its sentimentality. The rhapsodic character compounds its appeal and favours its reception by audiences. It is a composition putting grave questions and depicting outrageous realities, filtered through a sensitive conscience. It conveys the sufferance of a moral man facing the immorality of a corrupt and pointless world, reflecting on duties and faiths, on life’s sense and destiny. The torturing mood is magisterially recreated by the inspired baton of Paul Staïcu, the main themes flow unceasingly with a desolating vigour and reach finally a concluding climax affirming an undefeated hope in the majesty of mankind.
The two Romanian Rhapsodies, Op. 11, for orchestra, are George Enescu‘s best-known compositions. They were both written in 1901, and first performed together in 1903. The two rhapsodies, and particularly the first, have long held a permanent place in the repertory of every major orchestra. They employ elements of lăutărească music, vivid Romanian rhythms, and an air of spontaneity. They exhibit exotic modal coloring, with some scales having ‘mobile’ thirds, sixths or sevenths, creating a shifting major/minor atmosphere, one of the characteristics of Romanian lăutărească music.[not in citation given] They also incorporate some material found in the later drafts of his Poème roumaine, Op. 1.
The two Romanian Rhapsodies were composed in Paris, and premiered together in a concert at the Romanian Athenaeumin Bucharest which also included the world premiere of Enescu’s First Suite for Orchestra, Op. 9 (1903). The composer conducted all three of his own works, which were preceded on the programme by Berlioz’s Overture to Les francs-jugesand Schumann’s Symphony No. 1, both conducted by Eduard Wachmann. The concert took place on 23 February 1903(according to the Julian calendar in use in Romania at that time; 8 March 1903 Gregorian). The Second Rhapsody was played first, and Enescu maintained this order of performance throughout his life.
Rhapsody No. 2 in D major
The Second Rhapsody, like the first, was completed in 1901, but is more inward and reflective. Its essential character is not dance, but song. It is based on the popular 19th-century ballad “Pe o stîncă neagră, într-un vechi castel” (“On a dark rock, in an old castle”) which, like the opening melody of the First Rhapsody Enescu may have learned from the lăutar Chioru, though again there is some doubt whether Enescu actually remembered it from Chioru. After a development culminating in a canonic presentation, this theme is joined by a dance tune, “Sîrba lui Pompieru” (“Sîrba of the Fireman”), followed shortly afterward by the second half of a folksong, “Văleu, lupu mă mănîncă” (“Aiee, I’m being devoured by a wolf!”), which is treated in canon. Toward the end there is a brief moment of animation, bringing to mind the spirit of country lăutari, but the work ends quietly.
Unlike the First Rhapsody, there is no controversy at all about the scoring of the Second, which is given in the published score as: 3 flutes, 2 oboes, cor anglais, 2 clarinets in A, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets in C, 3 trombones, 2 timpani, cymbal, 2 harps, first violins, second violins, violas, cellos, and double basses.
Musical compositions that do not use an established musical key are said to be atonal. Atonality is a radical alternative to the diatonic system—the natural major or minor scales that form the basis of the key system in Western music. After World War I, an atonal system of composing emerged using 12 tones. By World War II, however, “atonality” had become a pejorative term to condemn music perceived as lacking structure and coherence. In Nazi Germany, atonal music was also criticized as what? More…