Tag Archives: Ottoman Empire

Basiliscus


Basiliscus

Shortly after seizing control of the Eastern Roman Empire, Flavius Basiliscus alienated his supporters by promoting Miaphysitism—a doctrine which holds that in the person of Jesus there was but a single nature that merged both the human and the divine rather than a dual nature. Consequently, his rule lasted just 20 months. Earlier in his career, Basiliscus led the disastrous invasion of Vandal Africa, one of the greatest military operations in history. How many ships and soldiers were involved? More… Discuss

Advertisements

Saint of the Day for Wednesday, May 13th, 2015: St. John the Silent


Image of St. John the Silent

St. John the Silent

Bishop of Colonia in Palestine and a hermit. Born in Nicopolis, Armenia, he established a monastery at the age of eighteen. Appointed a bishop at the age of twenty-eight, he spent nine years in his … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

today’s holiday/commemoration: Lebanon Martyrs’ Day


Martyrs' Statue in Martyrs' Square

Martyrs’ Statue in Martyrs’ Square (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Lebanon Martyrs’ Day

Martyrs’ Day has been observed as a public holiday since 1970 to honor the fallen heroes of Arab nationalism. The date, May 6, was selected to commemorate the 21 Arab intellectuals who were hanged on that date in 1916 in Beirut, Lebanon, and Damascus, Syria, by an official of the occupying Ottoman Empire. On Martyrs’ Day, ceremonies of public commemoration are led by government officials in Beirut at Martyrs’ Square, named in honor of the murdered nationalists. Officials and citizens also lay wreaths at martyrs’ monuments in Beirut and throughout the country. More… Discuss

Today In History. What Happened This Day In History


 

Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

April 24

858   St. Nicholas I begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
1519   Envoys of Montezuma II attend the first Easter mass in Central America.
1547   Charles V’s troops defeat the Protestant League of Schmalkalden at the battle of Muhlburg.
1558   Mary, Queen of Scotland, marries the French dauphin, Francis.
1792   Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle composes “La Marseilles”. It will become France’s national anthem.
1800   The Library of Congress is established in Washington, D.C. with a $5,000 allocation.
1805   U.S. Marines attack and capture the town of Derna in Tripoli from the Barbary pirates.
1833   A patent is granted for first soda fountain.
1877   Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
1884   Otto von Bismarck cables Cape Town, South Africa that it is now a German colony.
1898   Spain declares war on United States, rejecting an ultimatum to withdraw from Cuba.
1915   Turks of the Ottoman Empire begin massacring the Armenian minority in their country.
1916   Irish nationalists launch the Easter Uprising against British occupation.
1944   The first B-29 arrives in China, over the Hump of the Himalayas.
1948   The Berlin airlift begins to relieve surrounded city.
1953   Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
1961   President John Kennedy accepts “sole responsibility” for the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs.
1968   Leftist students take over Columbia University in protest over the Vietnam War.
1980   A rescue attempt of the U.S. hostages held in Iran fails when a plane collides with a helicopter in the Iranian desert.
1981   The IBM Personal Computer is introduced.
1989   Thousands of Chinese students strike in Beijing for more democratic reforms.
Born on April 24
1620   John Graunt, statistician, founder of demography.
1743   Edmund Cartwright, English parson who invented the power loom.
1766   Robert Bailey Thomas, founder of the Farmer’s Almanac.
1769   Arthur Wellesley, general during the Napoleonic Wars, Duke of Wellington.
1815   Anthony Trollope, British novelist.
1856   Henri Philippe Pétain, French Marshall, WWI hero, Nazi collaborator.
1900   Elizabeth Goudge, English author.
1904   Willem de Kooning, abstract impressionist painter.
1905   Robert Penn Warren, novelist, America’s first poet laureate.
1906   William Joyce, ‘Lord Haw-Haw,’ British traitor, Nazi propagandist.

– See more at: http://www.historynet.com/today-in-history#sthash.vamhMxBS.dpuf

 

this day in the yesteryear: Armenian Genocide Begins (1915) (yet another day that will live in infamy forever)


Armenian Genocide Begins (1915)

Known by Armenians as the Great Calamity, the Armenian Genocide refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Ottoman Empire’s Armenian population during and after World War I.

Characterized by the use of massacres and forced marches designed to lead to the death of deportees, the genocide is estimated to have claimed up to 1 million Armenian lives. The onset of the genocide is generally accepted to be April 24, 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities did what? More… Discuss
Related Articles:  HEREHERE ,

this day in the yesteryear: 10,500 Besieged Residents Flee Messolonghi (1826)


10,500 Besieged Residents Flee Messolonghi (1826)

Messolonghi was a major stronghold of Greek insurgents in the Greek War of Independence. Its inhabitants successfully resisted a siege by forces of the Ottoman Empire in 1822 and 1823 and held out heroically against a second siege from 1825 to 1826, when the Ottomans captured the town. Facing starvation after a year of relentless attacks, the people of Messolonghi—approximately 10,500—finally decided to leave the beleaguered city on the night of April 10, 1826. What happened when they left? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Bulgaria Regains Independence from Ottoman Empire (1878)


Bulgaria Regains Independence from Ottoman Empire (1878)

Though the April Uprising of 1876, a Bulgarian revolt against the perceived Ottoman oppression, failed as a revolution, it succeeded in raising international support for the Bulgarian plight. News of atrocities committed by Ottoman troops suppressing the uprising quickly spread to the international community, and Russia soon declared war on the Ottomans. The subsequent Treaty of San Stefano created a large autonomous Bulgaria within the Ottoman Empire, but it was later revised. Why? More… Discuss

The Battle of Gallipoli Begins (1915)


The Battle of Gallipoli Begins (1915)

The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during World War I. It was initiated by the Allies to open a Black Sea supply route to Russia and capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople. The Allied navy arrived at Gallipoli in February 1915 but did not get sufficient land support for two months, giving the Turkish army ample time to reinforce its troops. After months of fighting, the Allied forces withdrew in January 1916. What had caused the Allied army’s delay? More… Discuss

Siege of Pleven (Plevna): The fight to disrupt the expansion of the ottoman empire costed many precios lives but for the most noble of causes: the right to self determination, Liberty and Independence from an evil empire


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Siege of Pleven
Part of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
Grivita 1877.jpg
Date 20 July – 10 December 1877
Location Plevne, Ottoman Empire
(now Pleven, Bulgaria)

43°25′N 24°37′ECoordinates: 43°25′N 24°37′E
Result Russian/Romanian victory[1]
Belligerents
 Russian Empire
Romania Romania
Flag of Stiliana Paraskevova.svg Bulgarian volunteers
 Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Russian Empire Tsar Alexander II[2]
Russian Empire Grand Duke Nicholas
Russian Empire Eduard Totleben
Romania Prince Carol I of Romania
Ottoman Empire Osman Nuri Pasha Surrendered
Strength
150,000 40,000
Casualties and losses
40,000 killed or wounded 10,000 killed or wounded
30,000 surrendered

 Map

The Siege of Plevna, or Siege of Pleven, was a major battle of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), fought by the joint army of Russia and Romania against the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman defense held up the main Russian advance southwards into Bulgaria, encouraging other great powers of the time to actively support the Ottoman cause. Eventually, superior Russian and Romanian numbers forced the garrison to capitulate.

Background

In July 1877 the Russian Army, under the command of Grand Duke Nicholas, moved toward the Danube River virtually unopposed, as the Ottomans had no sizable force in the area. The Ottoman high command sent an army under the command of Osman Nuri Pasha to reinforce Nikopol, but the city fell to the Russian vanguard in the Battle of Nikopol (16 July 1877) before Osman reached it. He settled on Plevna, a town among vineyards in a deep rocky valley some twenty miles to the south of Nikopol, as a defensive position. The Ottomans quickly created a strong fortress, raising earthworks with redoubts, digging trenches, and quarrying out gun emplacements. From Plevne (Plevna) Osman’s army dominated the main strategic routes into the heart of Bulgaria. As the Turks hurried to complete their defenses, Russian forces began to arrive.

The Siege

First Battle

Gen. Schilder-Schuldner, commanding the Russian 5th Division, IX Corps, received orders to occupy Plevna. Schilder-Schuldner arrived outside the town on 19 July and began bombarding the Ottoman defenses. The next day his troops attacked and succeeded in driving Ottoman forces from some of the outer defenses; however, Osman Pasha brought up reinforcements and launched a series of counterattacks, which drove the Russians from the captured trenches, inflicting 4,000 casualties at a cost of 1,000 of his own men.

Second Battle

Osman Pasha strengthened his defences and built more redoubts, his force growing to 20,000 men, while the Russians obtained reinforcements from the army of Prince Carol of Romania (later king Carol I of Romania), who made the stipulation that he be given command of the joint besieging force. Gen. Nikolai Kridener also arrived with the Russian IX Corps. On 31 July Russian headquarters ordered Kridener to assault the town, attacking from three sides, with every expectation of a Russo-Romanian triumph. General Schakofsky’s cavalry attacked the eastern redoubts, while an infantry division under General Mikhail Skobelev assailed the Grivitsa redoubt to the north. Schakofsky managed to take two redoubts, but by the end of the day the Ottoman forces succeeded in repulsing all the attacks and retaking lost ground. Russian losses amounted to 7,300, and the Ottomans’ to 2,000.

Third Battle

 King Carol I salutes the Romanian army crossing the Danube

After repulsing the Russian attacks, Osman failed to press his advantage and possibly drive off the besiegers; he did, however, make a cavalry sortie on 31 August that cost the Russian 1,300 casualties, and the Ottomans 1,000. The Russians continued to send reinforcements to Plevna, and their army swelled to 100,000 men, now personally led by the Grand Duke. On 3 September Skobelev reduced the Turkish garrison at Lovech, guarding the Ottoman supply lines, before Osman could move out to relieve it (see main article: Battle of Lovcha). The Ottoman army organized the survivors of Lovech into 3 battalions for the Plevna defenses. Osman also received a reinforcement of 13 battalions, bringing his total strength to 30,000—the highest it would reach during the siege.

In August, Romanian troops led by General Alexandru Cernat crossed the Danube and entered the battle with 43,414 men.[3]

On 11 September the Russians and Romanians made a large-scale assault on Plevna. The Ottoman forces were dug in and equipped with German Krupp-manufactured steel breech-loading artillery and American-manufactured Winchester repeaters[4] and Peabody-Martini rifles. For three hours they poured murderous fire into the waves of advancing Russians.[5] Czar Alexander II and his brother Grand Duke Nicolas watched from a pavilion built on a hillside out of the line of fire.[6] Skobelev took two southern redoubts. The Romanian 4th division lead by General George Manu took the Grivitsa redoubt after 4 bloody assaults, personally assisted by Prince Carol. The next day, the Turks retook the southern redoubts, but could not dislodge the Romanians, who repelled three counterattacks. From the beginning of September, Russian losses had amounted to roughly 20,000, while the Ottomans lost only 5,000.

 The Plevna Chapel on St Elijah’s Square in Moscow, opened in 1882, commemorates the Russian soldiers who died in the Battle of Plevna.

Fourth Battle

Growing Russian and Romanian casualties put a halt to frontal assaults. Gen. Eduard Ivanovich Todleben arrived to oversee the conduct of the siege as the army chief of staff. Todleben had proven command experience in siege warfare, having gained renown for his defense of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War. He decided on a complete encirclement of the city and its defenders. Osman requested permission from his superiors to abandon Plevna and retreat, but the Ottoman high command would not allow him to do so. By 24 October the Russians and Romanians had closed the ring. Supplies began to run low in the city, and Osman finally made an attempt to break the Russian siege in the direction of Opanets. On 9 December the Ottoman forces silently emerged at dead of night, threw bridges over and crossed the Vit River, attacked on a two-mile front, and broke through the first line of Russian trenches. Here they fought hand to hand and bayonet to bayonet, with, at first, little advantage to either side; however, outnumbering the Ottoman forces almost 5 to 1, the Russians eventually drove them back across the Vit, wounding Osman in the process (he was hit in the leg by a stray bullet, which killed his horse beneath him). Rumours of his death created panic. After making a brief stand, the Ottoman forces found themselves driven back into the city, losing 5,000 men to the Russians’ 2,000. The next day Osman surrendered the city, the garrison and his sword to Romanian Col. Mihail Cerchez. He was treated honorably, but his troops perished in the snows by the thousands as they straggled off into captivity.

Results

 Sword surrendered by Edhem Pasha after the defeat at Plevna.

 The monument 2008

“Plevna is one of the few engagements which changed the course of history” A. J. P. Taylor, The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848-1918, (Oxford 1954) p. 245. The Siege of Plevna seriously delayed the main Russian advance into Bulgaria, but its end freed up Russian reinforcements, which were sent to Gen. Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko, who then decisively defeated the Ottoman forces in the fourth battle of Shipka Pass. The siege was widely reported on and followed by the public in Europe and beyond. Although the declining Ottoman Empire was by this time often regarded as “the sick man of Europe”, the Ottoman Army’s five-month-long resistance in the face of overwhelming odds earned a degree of admiration, which may have contributed to the unsympathetic treatment of the Russian Empire at the Congress of Berlin. The siege of Plevna also signalled the introduction of the repeating rifle into European warfare.[5] Russian troops at Plevna were largely armed with the M1869 Krnka, a single shot lifting breech block conversion of the muzzle loading M1857 rifled musket even though some units had been reequipped with the more modern, but still single shot, Berdan rifle.[5] The old Krnka was soundly outperformed by the more modern single shot Turkish Peabody-Martini rifles and it became clear that the new Berdan rifle had also been rendered obsolete even as it was being introduced into service, outclassed by the Turkish Winchester repeaters. Reports of the heavy losses suffered by the Russian army at the hands of the Turks at Plevna forced armies across Europe to begin the process of either reequipping with repeating rifles or finding a way to convert their existing single shot rifles into magazine fed weapons.

Legacy

  • A large new factory building, completed in 1877, of the Finlayson & Co cotton mill in Tampere, Finland was named Plevna commemorating the battle and the Guard of Finland that took part.[7]
  • The city of Plevna, Montana in the United States was given its name by Bulgarian immigrants building the railroad there in honor of the battle of Plevna.
  • In other countries, there are five cities and towns named after Plevna, and there are eighteen Plevna streets in Britain alone.
  • At least one main Street in Bucharest Romania has received the name the  PLevna’s Way (Calea Plevnei)  to comemmorate the marching regiments of Dorobants (Romanian Army),  of which many have never returned home!

In popular culture

  • The best-selling Russian detective novel The Turkish Gambit, the second book in the Erast Fandorin series, is set at the Siege of Plevna.
  • A famous Mehteran (Ottoman military band) piece “Osman Paşa Marşı” (Osman Pasha March) honors the courageous defense of the Plevna; and is one of the most well-known marches in Turkey.
  • Under the Red Crescent by Charles Snodgrass Ryan, Australian Surgeon at the Siege of Plevna, who later operated in the Gallipoli campaign and negotiated with his old friends for burial armistices.

Islam in Europe: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Islam in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Islam gained its first foothold in continental Europe in 711 with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. They advanced into France but in 732, were defeated by the Franks at the Battle of Tours. Over the centuries the Umayyads were gradually driven south and in 1492 the Moorish Emirate of Granada surrendered to Ferdinand V and Isabella. Muslim civilians were expelled from Spain and by 1614 none remained.[2]

Islam entered Eastern and Southeastern Europe in what are now parts of Russia and Bulgaria in the 13th century. The Ottoman Empire expanded into Europe taking portions of the Byzantine Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries. Over the centuries, the Ottoman Empire also gradually lost almost all of its European territories, until its collapse in 1922. However, parts of the Balkans (such as Albania and Bosnia) continued to have a large populations of Muslims.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries substantial numbers of Muslims immigrated to Europe. By 2010 an estimated 44 million Muslims were living in Europe.

Islam in Europe
by percentage of country population[1]

 
 
FROM WIKIPEDIA: Islam in Europe

FROM WIKIPEDIA: Islam in Europe (click to enlarge)

Islam gained its first foothold in continental Europe in 711 with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. They advanced into France but in 732, were defeated by the Franks at the Battle of Tours. Over the centuries the Umayyads were gradually driven south and in 1492 the Moorish Emirate of Granada surrendered to Ferdinand V and Isabella. Muslim civilians were expelled from Spain and by 1614 none remained.[2]

Islam entered Eastern and Southeastern Europe in what are now parts of Russia and Bulgaria in the 13th century. The Ottoman Empire expanded into Europe taking portions of the Byzantine Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries. Over the centuries, the Ottoman Empire also gradually lost almost all of its European territories, until its collapse in 1922. However, parts of the Balkans (such as Albania and Bosnia) continued to have a large populations of Muslims.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries substantial numbers of Muslims immigrated to Europe. By 2010 an estimated 44 million Muslims were living in Europe.

Iberia and Southern France

 
A manuscript page of the Qur’an in the script developed in al-Andalus, 12th century.
Main articles: Al-Andalus and Moors

 
The Moors request permission from James I of Aragon, Spain, 13th century

Muslim forays into Europe began shortly after the religion’s inception, with a short lived invasion of Byzantine Sicily by a small Arab and Berber force that landed in 652. Islam gained its first foothold in continental Europe from 711 onward, with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The invaders named their land Al-Andalus, which expanded to include what is now Portugal and Spain except for the northern highlands of Asturias, Basque country, Navarra and few other places protected by mountain chains from southward invasions.

Al-Andalus has been estimated to have had a Muslim majority by the 10th century after most of the local population converted to Islam.[3]:42 This coincided with the La Convivencia period of the Iberian Peninsula as well as the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. Pelayo of Asturias began the Christian counter-offensive known as the Reconquista after the Battle of Covadonga in 722. Slowly, the Christian forces began a conquest of the fractured taifa kingdoms of al-Andalus. By 1236, practically all that remained of Muslim Spain was the southern province of Granada.

In the 8th century, Muslim forces pushed beyond Spain into Aquitaine, in southern France, but suffered a temporary setback when defeated by Eudes, Duke of Aquitaine, at the Battle of Toulouse (721). In 725 Muslim forces captured Autun in France. The town would be the easternmost point of expansion of Umayyad forces into Europe; just seven years later in 732, the Umayyads would be forced to begin their withdrawal to al-Andalus after facing defeat at the Battle of Tours by Frankish King Charles Martel. From 719 to 759, Septimania was one of the five administrative areas of al-Andalus. The last Muslim forces were driven from France in 759, but maintained a presence, especially in Fraxinet all the way into Switzerland until the 10th century.[4] At the same time, Muslim forces managed to capture Sicily and portions of southern Italy, and even sacked Rome in 846 and later sacked Pisa in 1004.

Sicily

Muslim musicians at the court of the Norman King Roger II of Sicily, 12th century

Sicily was gradually conquered by the Arabs and Berbers from 827 onward, and the Emirate of Sicily was established in 965. They held onto the region until their expulsion by the Normans in 1072.[5][6]

The local population conquered by the Muslims were Romanized Catholic Sicilians in Western Sicily and partially Greek speaking Christians, mainly in the eastern half of the island, but there were also a significant number of Jews.[7] These conquered people were afforded a limited freedom of religion under the Muslims as dhimmi, but were subject to some restrictions. The dhimmi were also required to pay the jizya, or poll tax, and the kharaj or land tax, but were exempt from the tax that Muslims had to pay (Zakaat). Under Arab rule there were different categories of Jizya payers, but their common denominator was the payment of the Jizya as a mark of subjection to Muslim rule in exchange for protection against foreign and internal aggression. The conquered population could avoid this subservient status simply by converting to Islam. Whether by honest religious conviction or societal compulsion large numbers of native Sicilians converted to Islam. However, even after 100 years of Islamic rule, numerous Greek speaking Christian communities prospered, especially in north-eastern Sicily, as dhimmi. This was largely a result of the Jizya system which allowed co-existence. This co-existence with the conquered population fell apart after the reconquest of Sicily, particularly following the death of King William II of Sicily in 1189.

Cultural impact and Christian interaction

“Araz” coat of arms of Polish Tatar nobility. Tatar coats of arms often included motifs related to Islam.

 
Mosque of Rome, in Rome, the largest in the EU

 
The East London Mosque is the first mosque which was allowed to broadcast the adhan in European Union.

The Christian reconquests the Iberian peninsula and southern Italy helped to reintroduce ideas and concepts lost to the Western World after the fall of Rome in A.D. 476. Arab speaking Christian scholars saved influential pre-Christian texts and this coupled with the introduction of aspects of medieval Islamic culture (including the arts, agriculture, economics, philosophy, science and technology) assisted with fomenting conditions required for a rebirth of European thought and art (Renaissance). (See Latin translations of the 12th century and Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe for more information).

Muslim rule endured in the Emirate of Granada, from 1238 as a vassal state of the Christian Kingdom of Castile, until the completion of La Reconquista in 1492.[3]:41 The Moriscos (Moorish in Spanish) were finally expelled from Spain between 1609 (Castile) and 1614 (rest of Spain), by Philip III during the Spanish Inquisition.

Throughout the 16th to 19th centuries, the Barbary States sent Barbary pirates to raid nearby parts of Europe in order to capture Christian slaves to sell at slave markets in the Arab World throughout the Renaissance period.[8][9] According to Robert Davis, from the 16th to 19th centuries, pirates captured 1 million to 1.25 million Europeans as slaves. These slaves were captured mainly from the crews of captured vessels[10] and from coastal villages in Spain and Portugal, and from farther places like Italy, France or England, the Netherlands, Ireland, the Azores Islands, and even Iceland.[8]

For a long time, until the early 18th century, the Crimean Khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East.[11] The Crimean Tatars frequently mounted raids into the Danubian principalities, Poland-Lithuania, and Russia to enslave people whom they could capture.[12]

The Great Mosque of Paris, built after World War I.

The Balkans, Russia and Ukraine

 
Log pod Mangartom Mosque was the only mosque ever built in Slovenia, in the town of Log pod Mangartom, during World War I.

There are accounts of the trade connections between the Muslims and the Rus, apparently people from Baltic region who made their way towards the Black Sea through Central Russia. On his way to Volga Bulgaria, Ibn Fadlan brought detailed reports of the Rus, claiming that some had converted to Islam. “They are very fond of pork and many of them who have assumed the path of Islam miss it very much.” The Rus also relished their nabidh, a fermented drink Ibn Fadlan often mentioned as part of their daily fare.[13]

The Ottoman campaign for territorial expansion in Europe in 1566, Crimean Tatars as vanguard.

The Mongols began their conquest of Rus’, Volga Bulgaria, and the Cuman-Kipchak Confederation (present day Russia and Ukraine) in the 13th century. After the Mongol empire split, the eastern European section became known as the Golden Horde. Despite the fact that they were not Muslim at the time, the western Mongols adopted Islam as their religion in the early 14th century under Berke Khan, and later Uzbeg Khan who established it as the official religion of the state. Much of the mostly Turkic-speaking population of the Horde, as well as the small Mongol aristocracy, were Islamized (if they were not already Muslim, such as the Volga Bulgars) and became known to Russians and Europeans as the Tatars. More than half[14] of the European portion of what is now Russia and Ukraine, were under suzerainty of Muslim Tatars and Turks from the 13th to 15th centuries. The Crimean Khanate became a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in 1475 and subjugated what remained of the Great Horde by 1502. The Khanate of Kazan was conquered by Ivan the Terrible in 1552.

Balkans during the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, awaits the arrival of his Greek Muslim Grand Vizier Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha at Buda, in the year 1529.

 
Medieval Bulgaria particularly the city of Sofia, was the administrative centre of almost all Ottoman possessions in the Balkans also known as Rumelia.[15]

The Ottoman Empire began its expansion into Europe by taking the European portions of the Byzantine Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries up until the 1453 capture of Constantinople, establishing Islam as the state religion in the region. The Ottoman Empire continued to stretch northwards, taking Hungary in the 16th century, and reaching as far north as the Podolia in the mid-17th century (Peace of Buczacz), by which time most of the Balkans was under Ottoman control. Ottoman expansion in Europe ended with their defeat in the Great Turkish War. In the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699), the Ottoman Empire lost most of its conquests in Central Europe. The Crimean Khanate was later annexed by Russia in 1783.[16] Over the centuries, the Ottoman Empire gradually lost almost all of its European territories, until its collapse in 1922, when the former empire was transformed into the nation of Turkey.

Between 1354 (when the Ottomans crossed into Europe at Gallipolli) and 1526, the Empire had conquered the territory of present day Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Hungary. The Empire laid siege to Vienna in 1683. The intervention of the Polish King broke the siege, and from then afterwards the Ottomans battled the Habsburg Emperors until 1699, when the Treaty of Karlowitz forced them to surrender Hungary and portions of present day Croatia, Slovenia and Serbia. From 1699 to 1913, wars and insurrections pushed the Ottoman Empire further back until it reached the current European border of present-day Turkey.

For most of this period, the Ottoman retreats were accompanied by Muslim refugees from these province (in almost all cases converts from the previous subject populations), leaving few Muslim inhabitants in Hungary, Croatia, and the Transylvania region of present day Romania. Bulgaria remained under Ottoman rule until around 1878, and currently its population includes about 131,000 Muslims (2001 Census) (see Pomaks).

Painting of the bazaar at Athens, Ottoman Greece, early 19th century

Bosnia was conquered by the Ottomans in 1463, and a large portion of the population converted to Islam in the first 200 years of Ottoman domination. By the time Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia in 1878, the Habsburgs had shed the desire to re-Christianize new provinces. As a result, a sizable Muslim population in Bosnia survived into the 20th century. Albania and the Kosovo area remained under Ottoman rule until 1913. Previous to the Ottoman conquest, the northern Albanians were Roman Catholic and the southern Albanians were Christian Orthodox, but by 1913 the majority were Muslim.

Conversion to Islam

Apart from the effect of a lengthy period under Ottoman domination, many of the subject population were converted to Islam as a result of a deliberate move by the Ottomans as part of a policy of ensuring the loyalty of the population against a potential Venetian invasion. However, Islam was spread by force in the areas under the control of the Ottoman Sultan through devşirme and jizya.[17][18]

Rather Arnold explains Islam’s spread by quoting 17th-century pro-Muslim[citation needed] author Johannes Scheffler who stated:

Meanwhile he (i.e. the Turk) wins (converts) by craft more than by force, and snatches away Christ by fraud out of the hearts of men. For the Turk, it is true, at the present time compels no country by violence to apostatise; but he uses other means whereby imperceptibly he roots out Christianity… What then has become of the Christians? They are not expelled from the country, neither are they forced to embrace the Turkish faith: then they must of themselves have been converted into Turks.[19]

Cultural influences

Islam piqued interest among European scholars, setting off the movement of Orientalism. The founder of modern Islamic studies in Europe was Ignác Goldziher, who began studying Islam in the late 19th century. For instance, Sir Richard Francis Burton, 19th-century English explorer, scholar, and orientalist, and translator of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, disguised himself as a Pashtun and visited both Medina and Mecca during the Hajj, as described in his book A Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah.

Islamic architecture influenced European architecture in various ways (for example, the Türkischer Tempel synagogue in Vienna). During the 12th-century Renaissance in Europe, Latin translations of Arabic texts were introduced. The Koran was also translated (for example, Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete).

Current population and its perception

Muslim-majority areas in Europe

According to the Pew Forum, the total number of Muslims in Europe in 2010 was about 44 million (6%),[20] excluding Turkey. The total number of Muslims in the European Union in 2010 was about 19 million (3.8%).[20] Approximately 9 million Turks are living in Europe, excluding the Turkish population of Turkey, which makes up the largest Muslim immigrant community in Europe.[21] However the real number of Muslims in Europe is not well-known. The percentage of Muslims in Russia (the biggest group of Muslims in Europe) varies from 5[22] to 11.7%,[20] depending on sources. It also depends on if only observant Muslims or all people of Muslim descent are counted.[citation needed]

The Mosque of Sultan Mehmet Fatih in Pristina, Kosovo

The Muslim population in Europe is extremely diverse with varied histories and origins. Today, the Muslim-majority regions of Europe are Albania, Kosovo, parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, parts of Bulgaria and Macedonia, as well as some Russian regions in Northern Caucasus and the Volga region. The Muslim-dominated Sandžak of Novi Pazar is divided between Serbia and Montenegro. They consist predominantly of indigenous Europeans of the Muslim faith whose religious tradition dates back several hundred years. The transcontinental countries of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan also are Muslim majority.

The Muslim population in Western Europe is composed primarily of peoples who arrived to the European continent in or after (1945), when France declared itself a country of immigration. Muslim emigration to metropolitan France surged during the Algerian War of Independence. In 1961, West German Government invited first Gastarbeiters. Similar contracts were offered by Switzerland. A 2013 poll by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung says that Islamic fundamentalism is widespread among European Muslims with the majority saying religious rules are more important than civil laws and three quarters rejecting religious pluralism within Islam.[23] The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia reports that the Muslim population tends to suffer Islamophobia all over Europe, although the perceptions and views of Muslims may vary.[24]

The UN High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that 70% of the people of Albania [25][26][27] are Muslim, 91% in Kosovo, and 30% of them in Macedonia are Muslim. Bosnia has a Muslim plurality. In transcontinental countries such as Turkey 99%, and 93% in Azerbaijan[28] of the population is Muslim respectively. Muslims also form about one sixth of the population of Montenegro. In Russia, Moscow is home to an estimated 1.5 million Muslims.[29][30][31]

Projections

 
According to the Pew Research Center, Europe’s population was 6% Muslim in 2010, and is projected to be 8% Muslim by 2030.[20]

Don Melvin wrote in 2004 that, excluding Russia, Europe’s Muslim population will double by 2020. He also says that almost 85% of Europe’s total population growth in 2005 was due to immigration in general.[30][32] Omer Taspinar predicted in 2001 that the Muslim population of Europe will nearly double by 2015, while the non-Muslim will shrink by 3.5%, if the higher Muslim birth rate persists.[33] In the UK, between 2001 and 2009, the Muslim population increased roughly 10 times faster than the rest of the population.[34]

A 2007 Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) report argued that some Muslim population projections are overestimated.[35] Philip Jenkins of Penn State University estimates that by 2100, Muslims will compose about 25% of Europe’s population. Jenkins states this figure does not take account divergent birthrates amongst Europe’s immigrant Christians.[36] Other analysts are skeptical about the accuracy of the claimed Muslim population growth, stating that because many European countries do not ask a person’s religion on official forms or in censuses, it has been difficult to obtain accurate estimates, and arguing that there has been a decrease in Muslim fertility rates in Morocco, the Netherlands and Turkey.[37] A Pew Research Center study, published in January 2011, forecast an increase of Muslims in European population from 6% in 2010 to 8% in 2030.[20] Pew also found that Muslim fertility rate in Europe would drop from 2.2 in 2010 to 2.0 in 2030. On the other hand, the non-Muslim fertility rate in Europe would increase from 1.5 in 2010 to 1.6 in 2030.[20]

by percentage of country population[1]
  < 1%
  1–2%
  2–4%
  4–5%
  5–10%
  10–20%
  20–30%
Cyprus
  30–40%
Rep. of Macedonia
  40–50%
Bosnia–Herzegovina
  80–90%
Albania
  90–95%
Kosovo
  95–100%

MORE READING: HERE

this day in history: The British Museum Opens (1759)


The British Museum Opens (1759)

When the British Museum opened to the public in 1759, its exhibits were based largely on personal collections, including Sir Hans Sloane‘s Cabinet of Curiosities, Robert Harley’s library, and Sir Robert Cotton‘s antiquities. Today, the museum is home to more than 13 million historical items. Its assortment of prints and drawings is one of the world’s finest, and it houses such famous relics as the Rosetta Stone and the Elgin Marbles. Why is the ownership of the latter collection in dispute? More… Discuss

from wikipedia: Defeat and dissolution (1908–1922) of the ottoman empire


from wikipedia

Defeat and dissolution (1908–1922)

Main article: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) was one of a series of treaties[1] that the nations that constituted the Central Powers were made to sign subsequent to their defeat that marked the end of World War I
The terms of the treaty brew hostility and nationalistic feeling amongst Turks. The signatories of the treaty, themselves representatives of the Ottoman Empire, were stripped of their citizenship by the Grand National Assembly led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk,[4] and the treaty ultimately led to the Turkish War of Independence, when a new treaty, the treaty of Lausanne was accepted by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and Turkish nationalists, and which effectively brought into being the modern day republic of Turkey.

 

Declaration of the Second Constitutional Era by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908. The chaos involved in the revolution paved the way for the loss of Bulgaria (5 October 1908) and Bosnia (6 October 1908) immediately afterwards.

The Second Constitutional Era began after the Young Turk Revolution (3 July 1908) with the sultan’s announcement of the restoration of the 1876 constitution and the reconvening of the Ottoman parliament. Although it began a series of massive political and military reform over the next six years, it marked the beginning of the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. This era is dominated by the politics of the Committee of Union and Progress, and the movement that would become known as the Young Turks.

Profiting from the civil strife, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, but it pulled its troops out of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, another contested region between the Austrians and Ottomans, to avoid a war. During the Italo-Turkish War (1911–12) in which the Ottoman Empire lost Libya, the Balkan League declared war against the Ottoman Empire. The Empire lost the Balkan Wars (1912–13). It lost its Balkan territories except East Thrace and the historic Ottoman capital city of Adrianople during the war. Fearing religious persecution, around 400,000 Muslims fled to present-day Turkey. Due to a cholera epidemic, many did not survive the journey.[97] According to the estimates of Justin McCarthy, during the period from 1821 to 1922 alone, the ethnic cleansing of Ottoman Muslims in the Balkans led to the death of several million individuals and the expulsion of a similar number.[98][99][100] By 1914, the Ottoman Empire had been driven out of nearly all of Europe and North Africa. It still controlled 28 million people, of whom 15.5 million were in modern-day Turkey, 4.5 million in Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, and Jordan, and 2.5 million in Iraq. Another 5.5 million people were under nominal Ottoman rule in the Arabian peninsula.[101]

In November 1914, the Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers, in which it took part in the Middle Eastern theatre. There were several important Ottoman victories in the early years of the war, such as the Battle of Gallipoli and the Siege of Kut, but there were setbacks as well, such as the disastrous Caucasus Campaign against the Russians. The United States never declared war against the Ottoman Empire.[102]

 

Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922.

In 1915, as the Russian Caucasus Army continued to advance into ancient Armenia,[103] aided by some Ottoman Armenians, the Ottoman government started the deportation and massacre of its ethnic Armenian population, resulting in what became known as the Armenian Genocide.[104] Massacres were also committed against the Greek and Assyrian minorities.[105]

The Arab Revolt which began in 1916 turned the tide against the Ottomans at the Middle Eastern front, where they initially seemed to have the upper hand during the first two years of the war. The Armistice of Mudros, signed on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities in the Middle Eastern theatre, and was followed with occupation of Constantinople and subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. Under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres, the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire was solidified. The last quarter of the 19th and the early part of the 20th century saw some 7–9 million Turkish-Muslim refugees from the lost territories of the Caucasus, Crimea, Balkans, and the Mediterranean islands migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.[106]

The occupation of Constantinople and İzmir led to the establishment of a Turkish national movement, which won the Turkish War of Independence (1919–22) under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha (later known as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk). The sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922, and the last sultan, Mehmed VI (reigned 1918–22), left the country on 17 November 1922. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey declared the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. The caliphate was abolished on 3 March 1924.[107]

Christianity and Judaism

In the Ottoman Empire, in accordance with the Muslim dhimmi system, Christians were guaranteed limited freedoms (such as the right to worship), but were treated as second-class citizens. They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride on horseback, their houses could not overlook those of Muslims, and their religious practices would have to defer to those of Muslims, in addition to various other legal limitations.[154] Many Christians and a few Jews voluntarily converted to secure full status in the society.[155]

In the system commonly known as devşirme, a certain number of Christian boys, mainly from the Balkans and Anatolia, were periodically conscripted before they reached adolescence and were brought up as Muslims.[156]

Slavery was a part of Ottoman society.[160] Female slaves were still sold in the Empire as late as 1908.[161] During the 19th century the Empire came under pressure from Western European countries to outlaw the practice. Policies developed by various Sultans throughout the 19th century attempted to curtail the slave trade but, since slavery did have centuries of religious backing and sanction, they never directly abolished the institution outright.[citation needed]

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Memorial in Yehud, Israel

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Memorial in Yehud, Israel (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Today’s Holiday: Turkey Republic Day


Turkey Republic Day

The Turkish Republic was founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1923 after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Kemal was named the first president on October 29, a full republican constitution was adopted the following April, and all members of the Ottoman dynasty were expelled from the country. The public celebration, which lasts for two days, includes parades, music, torchlight processions, and other festivities in honor of the founding of the republic. The largest parades are held in Ankara and Istanbul. More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Bulgaria Gains Independence (1908)


Bulgaria Gains Independence (1908)

Bulgaria was absorbed into the Ottoman Empire in 1396, but Turkish rule was often oppressive, and rebellions were frequent. In 1908, taking advantage of the Young Turk revolution in Constantinople and the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria, Prince Ferdinand proclaimed Bulgaria independent with himself as czar. Bulgaria then became involved in a series of conflicts—two Balkan Wars and World War I—that led to Ferdinand’s abdication. Why was Bulgaria regarded as the Balkan Prussia? More…

Historic monuments: Cetatea Fagaras (2min), Tara Fagarasului, Romania


Fagaras IMG 5674

Fagaras IMG 5674 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Română: Panoramic spre sud al Munţilor Făgăraş...

Română: Panoramic spre sud al Munţilor Făgăraş. Fişier media obţinut cu date SRTM oferite liber de NASA. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Cetatea Fagaras (2min)

THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: TUNISIA GAINS INDEPENDENCE FROM FRANCE (1956)


Tunisia Gains Independence from France (1956)

Over the centuries, many nations have fought over, won, and lost the African country of Tunisia. It was under Ottoman rule from 1574 until the late 19th century, when France, England, and Italy contended for it. France emerged the victor. In 1955, it granted Tunisia complete internal self-government. Full independence came in 1956. A year later, the monarchy was abolished and Tunisia became a republic. Prior to the 2011 revolution, how many presidents had Tunisia had since gaining independence? More… Discuss

 

Enhanced by Zemanta

TODAY’S HOLIDAY: SERBIA STATEHOOD DAY OF THE REPUBLIC


Serbia Statehood Day of the Republic

On February 15, 1804, Serbian patriot Djordje Petrovic Karadjordje led an uprising against the Turkish Ottoman Empire to gain independence. A second uprisingoccurred in 1815 and was successful; Serbia formally gained independence in 1829. In 2001, the Serbian Parliament declared February 15 a state holiday to commemorate the day that the first Serbian uprising began. A ceremony is held in Orasac to celebrate the uprising and first constitution (signed in 1835). The main celebrations include festive concerts, film and theater premiers, exhibitions, and many other events.More… Discuss

 

Enhanced by Zemanta

Today’s Birthday: ISMAIL I (1487)


Ismail I (1487)

The young Ismail I went into hiding after his father’s death and emerged at age 14 to proclaim himself Shah of Iran. Despite his youth, he was able to reunify Iran and establish the Safavid Empire, which remained intact until 1736. Ismail converted Iran from the Sunni to the Shi’a sect of Islam, drawing the ire of Selim I, the Sunni sultan of the Ottoman Empire, who wrote Ismail belligerent letters before invading Iran. Ismail was also a prolific poet who wrote under what pseudonym? More…

 

THE ASSYRIAN GENOCIDE


The Assyrian Genocide

Before WWI, Assyrians, a largely Christian minority in the Islamic Ottoman Empire, were subject to violence and forcible conversion. Their plight worsened once war began. The Ottoman Turks, engaging in systematic ethnic cleansing, massacred Armenians and Assyrians. Contemporary reports placed the Assyrian death toll at 270,000, but the figure has since been estimated to be closer to 500,000, or even as high as 750,000. The Assyrian Genocide is also known as sayfo, which means what? More… Discuss

This genocide was committed against the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War by the Young Turks. The Assyrian population of northern Mesopotamia was forcibly relocated and massacred by Ottoman (Turkish and Kurdish) forces between 1914 and 1920. This genocide is part of the same policy of extermination aimed against Armenians and Pontic Greeks.

The American empire: denial, delusion & deception


Published on Oct 16, 2012

A recent poll asked Americans if they felt America actually was an empire. Forty percent said “No.” Lawrence Vance alleges the U.S. is the largest empire in the history of the world, dwarfing the British, Ottoman, and Roman empires in size and scope. Prof. Jerry Kroth looks at the delusion and denial rampant within the American population on this issue, examining our 55 military interventions since World War II, our long and close relationship with dictators, juntas, and monarchs in building our empire, our military presence in over 130 countries of the world (70% of the planet) and what life might look like if we actually dismantled it. More athttp://collectivepsych.com/Home.html

towed out (poetic thought by George_B)


towed out (poetic thought by George_B)

with time we leave 
behind memories,

while some evade,

some revisit now and then,
and some we’re towing out,
passing gravely, looking down,
to nothing in particular
sad  burden like towed out sailboats .

Ilia_Efimovich_Repin_(1844-1930)_-_Volga_Boatmen_(1870-1873)

Ilia_Efimovich_Repin_(1844-1930)_-_Volga_Boatmen_(1870-1873)

Repin Ilya Efimov
RepinSelfPortrait.jpg
Self Portrait (1887)
Born 5 August 1844 
Ciuguev , Ukraine
Died 29 September 1930
(at 86 years) Kuokkala , Finland
Nationality Russian Russia
Artistic field Picture
Training Imperial Academy of Arts
Artistic movement Realism
Major works Ivan the Terrible and his son 
Zaporozhian Cossacks reply to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire 
on the Volga Edecarii
Influenced by Rembrandt

(Access source)

The Crimean War


As the once-mighty Ottoman Empire declined, major European powers began to compete for control of its territories. Eventually, the conflict escalated into a full-scale war, with Russia on one side and Great Britain, France, Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire on the other. It was commanded poorly by both sides, and in the end, nothing was definitively settled. It was one of the first wars to be documented photographically. What caused many of the hundreds of thousands of casualties on both sides? More…

Latakia


Latakia

Latakia is Syria‘s principal port city and a manufacturing center for nearby agricultural towns and villages. Formerly the ancient Phoenician city of Ramitha, it was rebuilt circa 290 BCE by one of Alexander the Great’s generals and prospered under Roman rule. Byzantines and Arabs fought over it from the 7th to 11th century, and it was captured in 1098 by the Crusaders and in 1188 by Saladin. From the 16th century to WWI, it was part of the Ottoman Empire, after which it fell into whose hands? More… Discuss

This day in History: The Night Attack (1462)


AtaculdeNoapte_ The Night Attack_Teodor Aman

AtaculdeNoapte_ The Night Attack_Teodor Aman


The Night Attack (1462)

The Night Attack was a battle fought between the forces of Wallachian Prince Vlad III, known as Vlad the Impaler, and the forces of Mehmed II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire. After Vlad raided Bulgaria and killed more than 20,000 Turks and Bulgarians, Mehmed marched on Wallachia, and the two powers fought a series of skirmishes. In the Night Attack, Vlad attacked the Turkish camp in an attempt to assassinate Mehmed. The attempt failed, but Mehmed retreated anyway. Why? More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: Karl Friedrich Hieronymus von Münchhausen (1720)



Joseph Nicolas Pancrace Royer (1705 -1755) -Le Vertigo, Pièces de clavecin (1746)
Fernando de Luca, clavicembalo
Karl Friedrich Hieronymus von Münchhausen (1720)

Münchhausen was a German baron who became legendary for his fantastic stories about his adventures as a hunter, sportsman, and soldier. Sent in his youth to serve as a page, he later joined the Russian military and served until 1750, taking part in two campaigns against the Ottoman Turks. Returning home, Münchhausen acquired a reputation as an honest businessman but also as a teller of tall tales. He claimed to have ridden cannonballs, travelled to the moon, and escaped a swamp by doing what? More… Discuss