Tag Archives: reign of terror

today’s birthday Olympe de Gouges (1748)


Olympe de Gouges (1748)

Born Marie Gouze, de Gouges was a French author whose feminist writings during the French Revolution demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding. In 1791, alarmed that the new constitution did not address woman’s suffrage, she wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, challenging the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. Why was she executed by guillotine during the Reign of Terror? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Maximilien Robespierre Guillotined (1794)


Maximilien Robespierre Guillotined (1794)

Known as “the Incorruptible” for his emphasis on civic morality, Robespierre became one of the leading figures of the French Revolution. He was an influential member of the Committee of Public Safety, the political body that controlled France during the bloody revolutionary period known as the “Reign of Terror.” However, popular discontent with the committee’s brutal measures soon grew, and Robespierre was guillotined in the coup of 9 Thermidor. What might have been his last words? More… Discuss

today’s birthday: Paul François Jean Nicolas, Vicomte de Barras (1755)


Paul François Jean Nicolas, Vicomte de Barras (1755)

Barras was a Provençal nobleman who became disenchanted with the royal regime and joined the French Revolution. When, after the fall of the monarchy, a war dictatorship replaced it, Barras played a key role in overthrowing Maximilien Robespierre and ending the Reign of Terror. Eventually given command of the army of the interior and the police, he suppressed a royalist uprising in 1795 by turning the troops over to a young officer in whose marriage he later played a role. Who was this officer? More… Discuss

THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: Antoine Lavoisier Tried, Convicted, and Guillotined (1794)


Antoine Lavoisier Tried, Convicted, and Guillotined (1794)

Known today as the “father of modern chemistry,” Lavoisier was among the first to use quantitative methods in chemical investigations. He stated the first version of the Law of Conservation of Mass, named oxygen and discovered its role in combustion, and helped to construct the metric system. Lavoisier also worked to improve economic and social conditions in France. He was beheaded during the Reign of Terror because, as a member of the farmers general, one of his duties was to do what? More… Discuss

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ARTICLE: IDEOLOGY


Ideology

Though commonly used today, the word “ideology” was born in the highly controversial philosophical and political debates and fights of the French Revolution. French philosopher Antoine Louis Claude, Comte Destutt de Tracy, coined the term in 1796 after having been inspired by John Locke and Etienne de Condillac while imprisoned during the Reign of Terror. He used the word as a label for his “science of ideas.” Who gave it its modern meaning when he used it to rail against political opponents? More… Discuss

 

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This Day in the Yesteryear: CULT OF THE SUPREME BEING INAUGURATED IN FRANCE WITH NATIONAL FESTIVAL (1794)


 

Festival of the Cult of the Supreme Being, 1794

Festival of the Cult of the Supreme Being, 1794 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Cult of the Supreme Being Inaugurated in France with National Festival (1794)

During the Reign of Terror, leading French revolutionary Maximilien Robespierre devised the Cult of the Supreme Being as the official state religion in an attempt to counter the atheistic Cult of Reason. The deist religion, which avowed patriotism and the immortality of the soul, was celebrated with a huge festival in Paris in 1794. However, other revolutionaries soon sought to end Robespierre’s growing power, and he was guillotined less than two months later. What became of the religion? More… Discuss

Today’s Birthday: MAXIMILIEN FRANÇOIS MARIE ISIDORE DE ROBESPIERRE (1758)


Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (1758)

Robespierre was one of the leading figures of the French Revolution. He was elected to the National Assembly in 1789 and became an influential orator. After calling for the execution of the king in 1792, he led the Jacobins and the Committee of Public Safety in establishing the Reign of Terror, during which hundreds

Maximilien Robespierre and his Followers on th...

Maximilien Robespierre and his Followers on their Way to the Scaffold on 28 July 1794 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 of thousands of political opponents were arrested and thousands were guillotined. In 1794, he was overthrown and executed. What was his role in the Cult of the Supreme BeingMore… Discuss