Tag Archives: Roman

Masada


Masada

Masada is a mountaintop fortress in Israel. According to the ancient historian Josephus, it was fortified by Herod the Great in the 1st century BCE. In 66 CE, at the beginning of the Jewish uprising against the Romans, a group of rebels captured Masada. They retained control of the fortress until 73 CE, when, besieged by the Romans, they committed mass suicide rather than surrender. Excavated in the 1950s and 60s, Masada is now a major tourist attraction. How do visitors reach the top of Masada? More… Discuss

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article: The Baths of Bath


The Baths of Bath

Bath is a city in southwest England famous for its baths, which are fed by the only natural hot springs in the country and which some believe have curative properties. The Romans established the city as Aquae Sulis in the first century, building elaborate, lead-lined baths with heating and cooling systems. These were rediscovered in 1755, by which time Bath, as it had since become known, had revived as a spa and become a resort city for the wealthy. What was Jane Austen‘s connection to Bath? More… Discuss

this day in history: Roman Emperor Nero Commits Suicide (68 CE)


Roman Emperor Nero Commits Suicide (68 CE)

Often remembered as a tyrant who played the fiddle while watching Rome burn, Nero was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Though few surviving sources treat him favorably, some portray him as a competent emperor who was popular with the Roman people. In 68 CE, a military coup drove Nero into hiding, where he reportedly stabbed himself to avoid facing execution at the hands of the Roman Senate. Why do historians claim that the legend of Nero and his fiddle is false? More… Discuss

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Great Compositions/Performances: O. Respighi Ancient Airs and Dances Suite III. (1932) Dedicated to all my friends who take time to visit and appreciate my posts! Thank You!


[youtube.com/watch?v=119kyDueHrw]

O. Respighi Ancient Airs and Dances Suite III. Complete

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

Ottorino Respighi (Italian: [ottoˈriːno resˈpiːɡi]; 9 July 1879 – 18 April 1936) was an Italian composer, musicologist and conductor. He is best known for his orchestral music, particularly the three Roman tone poems: Fountains of Rome (Fontane di Roma), Pines of Rome (I pini di Roma), and Roman Festivals (Feste romane). His musicological interest in 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century music led him to compose pieces based on the music of these periods. He also wrote a number of operas, the most famous of which is La fiamma.

Suite No. 1 (1917)

Suite No. 1 was composed in 1917. It was based on Renaissance lute pieces by Simone Molinaro, Vincenzo Galilei (father of Galileo Galilei) and additional anonymous composers.
  1. Balletto, “Il Conte Orlando”
  2. Gagliarda
  3. Villanella
  4. Passo mezzo e mascherada

Suite No. 2 (1923)

Suite No. 2 was composed in 1923. It was based on pieces for lute, archlute, and viol by Fabritio Caroso, Jean-Baptiste Besard, Bernardo Gianoncelli, and an anonymous composer. It also includes an aria attributed to Marin Mersenne.
  1. Laura soave
  2. Danza rustica
  3. Campanae parisienses & Aria
  4. Bergamasc

Suite No. 3 (1932)

Suite No. 3 was composed in 1932. It differs from the previous two suites in that it is arranged for strings only and somewhat melancholy in overall mood. It is based on lute songs by Besard, a piece for baroque guitar by Ludovico Roncalli, and lute pieces by Santino Garsi da Parma and additional anonymous composers.
  1. Italiana (Anonymous: Italiana (Fine sec.XVI) – Andantino)
  2. Arie di corte (Jean-Baptiste Besard: Arie di corte (Sec.XVI) – Andante cantabile – Allegretto – Vivace – Slow with great expression – Allegro vivace – Vivacissimo – Andante cantabile)
  3. Siciliana (Anonymous: Siciliana (Fine sec.XVI) – Andantino)
  4. Passacaglia (Lodovico Roncalli: Passacaglia (1692) – Maestoso – Vivace)
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TODAY’S HOLIDAY: FLORALIA


Floralia

An ancient Roman festival held in honor of Flora, the goddess of flowers and gardens, the Floralia was first instituted in 238 BCE. In 173 BCE, the Roman Senate made it an annual festival extending for six days—starting on the anniversary of the founding of Flora’s temple. Traditionally, the first person to lay a garland on the temple’s statue of Flora was destined to have good fortune. The Floralia, which featured small statues of Flora that children would decorate with flowers, is believed to have been the precedent for Christian-oriented May Day celebrations. More…Discuss

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Sain of the Day Feastday April 23: St. George: Patron of England & Catalonia


Image of St. George

Pictures of St. George usually show him killing a dragon to rescue a beautiful lady. The dragon stands for wickedness. The lady stands for God‘s holy truth. St. George was a brave martyr who was victorious over the devil.

He was a soldier in the army of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, and he was one of the Emperor’s favorite soldiers. Now Diocletian was a pagan and a bitter enemy to the Christians. He put to death every Christian he could find. George was a brave Christian, a real soldier of Christ. Without fear, he went to the Emperor and sternly scolded him for being so cruel. Then he gave up his position in the Roman army. For this he was tortured in many terrible ways and finally beheaded.

So boldly daring and so cheerful was St. George in declaring his Faith and in dying for it that Christians felt courage when they heard about it. Many songs and poems were written about this martyr. Soldiers, especially, have always been devoted to him.

We all have some “dragon” we have to conquer. It might be pride, or anger, or laziness, or greediness, or something else. Let us make sure we fight against these “dragons”, with God’s help. Then we can call ourselves real soldiers of Christ. 

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ARTICLE: AMETHYST


Amethyst

February’s birthstone, amethyst, is the violet or purple

Amethyst

Amethyst (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

variety of quartz. The gemstone’s name comes from the Greek amethustos, meaning not intoxicated, a reference to the ancient belief that the stone could ward off drunkenness. The ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethysts and made drinking vessels of them for this reason. The stone is associated with a number of other superstitions as well, being regarded as a love charm, a potent sleep aid, and what else?More… Discuss

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TODAY’S HOLIDAY: QUIRINALIA


Quirinalia

Quirinus was an ancient Roman deity who closely resembled Mars, the god of war. His name is associated with that of the Quirinal, one of the seven hills on which Rome was built. Eventually, Quirinus was identified withRomulus, one of the legendary founders of Rome, and his festival on February 17 coincided with the date on which Romulus was believed to have been deified. This festival was also associated with the advent of spring warfare, when the shields and weapons of the army, which had been purified and retired for the winter, were brought out. More… Discuss

 

 

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Today’s Saint: St. Valentine (Happy Valentine’s Day!)


Feastday: February 14
Patron of Love, Young People, Happy Marriages
Died: 269
Click Here for St. Valentine Prayer’s 

St. ValentineValentine was a holy priest in Rome, who, with St. Marius and his family, assisted the martyrs in the persecution under Claudius II. He was apprehended, and sent by the emperor to the prefect of Rome, who, on finding all his promises to make him renounce hisfaith ineffectual, commanded him to be beaten with clubs, and afterwards, to be beheaded, which was executed on February 14, about the year 270. Pope Julius I is said to have built a church near Ponte Mole to his memory, which for a long time gave name to the gate now called Porta del Popolo, formerly, Porta Valetini. The greatest part of his relics are now in the church of St. Praxedes. His name is celebrated as that of an illustrious martyr in the sacramentary of St. Gregory, the Roman Missal of Thomasius, in the calendar of F. Fronto and that of Allatius, in Bede, Usuard, Ado, Notker and all other martyrologies on this day. To abolish the heathens lewd superstitious custom of boys drawing the names of girls, in honor of their goddess Februata Juno, on the fifteenth of this month, several zealous pastors substituted the names of saints in billets given on this day.

The Origin of St. Valentine

The origin of St. Valentine, and how many St. Valentines there were, remains a mystery. One opinion is that he was a Roman martyred for refusing to give up his Christian faith. Other historians hold that St. Valentine was a temple priest jailed for defiance during the reign of Claudius. Whoever he was, Valentine really existed because archaeologists have unearthed a Roman catacomb and an ancient church dedicated to Saint Valentine. In 496 AD Pope Gelasius marked February 14th as a celebration in honor of his martyrdom.

The first representation of Saint Valentine appeared in a TheNuremberg Chronicle, a great illustrated book printed in 1493. [Additional evidence that Valentine was a real person: archaeologists have unearthed a Roman catacomb and an ancient church dedicated to Saint Valentine.] Alongside a woodcut portrait of him, text states that Valentinus was a Roman priest martyred during the reign of Claudius the Goth [Claudius II]. Since he was caught marryingChristian couples and aiding any Christians who were being persecuted under Emperor Claudius in Rome [when helping them was considered a crime], Valentinus was arrested and imprisoned. Claudius took a liking to this prisoner — until Valentinus made a strategic error: he tried to convert the Emperor — whereupon this priest was condemned to death. He was beaten with clubs and stoned; when that didn’t do it, he was beheaded outside the Flaminian Gate [circa 269].

Saints are not supposed to rest in peace; they’re expected to keep busy: to perform miracles, to intercede. Being in jail or dead is no excuse for non-performance of the supernatural. One legend says, while awaiting his execution, Valentinus restored the sight of his jailer’s blind daughter. Another legend says, on the eve of his death, he penned a farewell note to the jailer’s daughter, signing it, “From your Valentine.”

St. Valentine was a Priest, martyred in 269 at Rome and was buried on the Flaminian Way. He is the Patron Saint of affianced couples, bee keepers, engaged couples, epilepsy, fainting, greetings, happy marriages, love, lovers, plague, travellers, young people. He is represented in pictures with birds and roses.

 
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from Wikipedia

Saint Valentine (in Latin, Valentinus) is a widely recognized third-century Roman saint commemorated on February 14 and associated since the High Middle Ages with a tradition of courtly love. Nothing is reliably known of St. Valentine except his name and the fact that he died on February 14 on Via Flaminia in the north of Rome. It is uncertain whether St. Valentine is to be identified as one saint or two saints of the same name. Several different martyrologies have been added to later hagiographies that are unreliable. For these reasons this liturgical commemoration was not kept in the Catholic calendar of saints for universal liturgical veneration as revised in 1969.[2] But the “Martyr Valentinus who died on the 14th of February on the Via Flaminia close to the Milvian bridge in Rome” still remains in the list of officially recognized saints for local veneration.[3] Saint Valentine’s Church in Rome, built in 1960 for the needs of the Olympic Village, continues as a modern, well-visited parish church.

Today, Saint Valentine’s Day, also known as the Feast of Saint Valentine, is an official feast day in the Anglican Communion,[4] as well as in the Lutheran Church.[5] In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Saint Valentine the Presbyter is celebrated on July 6[6] and Hieromartyr Saint Valentine (Bishop of Interamna, Terni in Italy) is celebrated on July 30.[7] Notwithstanding, because of the relative obscurity of this western saint in the East, members of the Greek Orthodox Church named Valentinos (male) or Valentina (female) may celebrate their name day on the Western ecclesiastical calendar date of February 14.[8]

 

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TODAY’S HOLIDAY: PARENTALIA


Parentalia

This was an ancient Roman festival held in honor of the manes, or souls of the dead—in particular, deceased relatives. It began a season for remembering the dead, which ended with the Feralia on February 21. This week was a quiet, serious occasion, without the rowdiness that characterized other Roman festivals. Everything, including the temples, closed down, and people decorated graves with flowers and left food—sometimes elaborate banquets—in the cemeteries in the belief that it would be eaten by the spirits of the deceased. More… Discuss

 

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Saint of the Day for Friday, February 7th, 2014: St. Mosses


Saint of the Day for Friday, February 7th, 2014: ST. MOSES

Image of St. Moses

St. Moses

Arab hermit and bishop who is called “the Apostle of the Saracens.” He lived in the desert regions of Syria and Egypt, caring for the local nomadic tribes. When the Romans imposed peace upon the … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

 

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TODAY’S BIRTHDAY: BEATRICE CENCI (1577)


Beatrice Cenci (1577)

Beatrice was a young Roman noblewoman whose execution for patricide aroused public sympathy and inspired various poems, novels, and dramas. Her father, Francesco, was a notoriously vicious and cruel man. After years of brutal treatment, Beatrice, her stepmother, brother, and stepbrother could take no more and had Francesco killed. Despite efforts by the people of Rome to obtain mercy for the conspirators, Pope Clement VIII was unyielding. What might have motivated him to uphold their sentences?More… Discuss

 

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ARTICLE: THE BALLISTA


The Ballista

The ballista is an ancient missile launcher designed to hurl long arrows or heavy balls. The largest could accurately hurl 60-pound (27-kg) weights up to about 500 yards (450 m). The Greek version was basically a huge crossbow, while the Roman ballista was powered by torsion and used two separate arms joined at their ends by the cord that propelled the missile. Once the Roman Empire declined, so too did the ballista—it was too challenging and expensive to build. Which weapons took its place? More… Discuss

 

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TITUS (39 CE)


Titus (39 CE)

The son of Roman emperor Vespasian, Titus gained renown as a military commander and was given command of the Praetorian Guard after repressing the Jewish rebellion in Judea. Upon succeeding his father in 79 CE, he pursued a policy of conciliation and sought popular favor. A benevolent ruler, he halted prosecutions for treason and spent lavishly on subjects, a practice that earned him goodwill in Rome but caused his successor financial trouble. What two disasters struck during his reign? More… Discuss

 

This Day in the Yesteryear: MAXENTIUS BECOMES EMPEROR OF ROME (306 CE)


Maxentius Becomes Emperor of Rome (306 CE)

Shortly after Roman co-emperors Diocletian and Maximian retired, Maximian’s successor, Constantius, died. The Romans, discontented with the shift of power away from Rome, supported Maximian’s son, Maxentius, who claimed the throne. His father came out of retirement to help him when Severus and Galerius claimed the throne and tried to overthrow him. Severus was compelled to surrender, and Galerius withdrew. Maxentius and his father fell out, however, and Maxentius was defeated by whom in 312 CE? More… Discuss

 

Today’s Birthday: POMPEY THE GREAT (106 BCE)


Pompey the Great (106 BCE)

Pompey was a Roman general and the rival of Julius Caesar. Along with Caesar and Crassus, he was a member of the First Triumvirate established in 61 BCE. After the death of Pompey’s wife, Caesar’s daughter Julia, Pompey and Caesar became enemies. When Pompey received the sole consulship as the leader of the senatorial party, Caesar broke with the senate and crossed the Rubicon, and a civil war began. Pompey was defeated at Pharsalus and fled to Egypt, where he was assassinated while doing what? More… Discuss

 

Today’s Birthday: JOHN LOUDON MCADAM (1756)


John Loudon McAdam (1756)

McAdam was a Scottish engineer who invented a process called “macadamization.” After noting the poor condition of the highways near his estate, he recommended that roads be raised above the adjacent ground for good drainage and then covered, first with large stones then with small stones, and bound with fine gravel. It was perhaps the greatest advance in road construction since Roman times and became known as “tarmac,” short for “tarmacadam.” What was the first macadam road in North AmericaMore… Discuss

 

Romanian Anthem



Republic of Romania National Anthem
Lyrics:

Wake up, Romanian, from your deadly sleep
Into which you’ve been sunk by the barbaric tyrants
Now, or never, your fate renew,
To which your enemies will bow to.

Now or never let’s give proof to the world
That in these veins still flows a Roman blood,
That in our chests we still maintain our pride in a name
The victor in his battles, the name of Trajan!

Watch on, shadows of highnesses, Mihai, Stefan, Corvine,
The Romanian Nation, your great grandchildren,
With weapons in their arms, with your fire in their veins,
“Life in freedom or death!” shout all.

Priests, lead with your crucifixes! Because our army is Christian,
The motto is Liberty and its goal is holy,
Better to die in battle, in full glory!
Than to once again be slaves upon our ancient ground!

William Bell Scott: The Romans Cause a Wall to be Built for the Protection of the South


Artist en:William Bell Scott
Title
English: The Romans Cause a Wall to be Built for the Protection of the SouthThe Painting shows a centurion supervising the building of Hadrian’s Wall. The centurion has been given the face of John Clayton, who was responsible for saving parts of the Wall from loss. The painting is in the collection at Wallington Hall, near Morpeth, England.
Date
English: 1857 (completed)
Medium oil on canvas
Dimensions Original dimensions: 182 × 182 cm (71.7 × 71.7 in)
Current location Wallington House
Northumberland, England

William Bell Scott: The Romans Cause a Wall to be Built for the Protection of the South

Painting by William Bell Scott: The Romans Cause a Wall to be Built for the Protection of the South (cllick here to enlarge )

Hadrian’s Wall: What did Rome think when they built it? Thah it will keep Roman’s Empire ememies Outsite!


Hadrian’s Wall

Corbridge_stangate

Corbridge_stangate

Stretching 73.5 mi (118.3 km), Hadrian’s Wall was an ancient Roman wall built in Britain. Constructed mainly in the 2nd century CE under Emperor Hadrian, it guarded the northwestern frontier of the province from Celtic and other invaders. Fragments of the wall, 6 ft (1.8 m) high and 8 ft (2.4 m) thick, and many of its mile stations are still extant and are some of the largest and most significant remains of the Roman occupation. What other wall was built by the Romans in Britain? More… Discuss

“Quis  who magnum   murum  wall inter  Britanniam et  Caledoniam aedificavit”

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