Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 “From The New World” / Karajan · Vienna Philarmonic
The Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68, also known as the Pastoral Symphony (German Pastoral-Sinfonie), is a symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven, and completed in 1808. One of Beethoven’s few works containing explicitly programmatic content, the symphony was first performed in the Theater an der Wien on 22 December 1808 in a four hour concert.
While the Symphony No. 6 in C minor, Op. 58, of 1896 by Alexander Glazunov is not the most personally characteristic of his eight completed symphonies — the optimistic Third or the Olympian Fifth are more typical of his confident symphonic aesthetic — it is arguably the most typically Russian of his symphonies. Part of the reason for this is the scoring — violins in octaves above massed brass at its climaxes à la Tchaikovsky and gorgeously colorful woodwind writing in its central movements — part of it is the themes — ardent and powerful with a yearning quality characteristic of fin de siècle Russian symphonies — but most of it is the furious tone of the opening movement.
******With the darkly unfolding Adagio leading into a Allegro appassionato that balances a passionately despairing first theme with a fervently supplicating second theme, Glazunov’s Sixth sounds like a Russian symphony composed after the death of Tchaikovsky. But the Sixth is more than the work of a symphonic epigone. While the tone of the opening movement sounds typically Russian, its chromatic melodic and cogent harmonic structure makes it sound much more modern than contemporary symphonies by Kalinnikov or even Rachmaninov. Even more modern are the Sixth’s second and fourth movements.
******The second movement is a theme and seven variations that slowly transmutes the tone of the symphony from the fury of the opening movement to one of calm acceptance.
******The brief third-movement Intermezzo that precedes the Finale is lighter in tone than anything else in the symphony.
******The Finale itself is one of Glazunov’s most successful closing movements. With its magisterial Andante maestoso introduction announcing the chorale theme that will ultimately cap the movement, its highly contrasted themes — the first confidently striding in the winds Moderato maestoso, the second a lilting Scherzando theme for the flutes, horns, and strings — the Finale seems at first too episodic to cohere. Glazunov’s superb technical skills, however, form all the Finale’s material into an organic whole and the tone of the Finale — powerfully positive — is altogether Glazunov’s own. ~ James Leonard, Rovi
The String Sextet in D minor “Souvenir de Florence“, Op. 70, is a string sextet scored for 2 violins, 2 violas, and 2 cellos composed in the European summer of 1890 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Tchaikovsky dedicated the work to the St. Petersburg Chamber Music Society in response to his becoming an Honorary Member. The work, in the traditional four-movement form, was titled “Souvenir de Florence” because the composer sketched one of the work’s principal themes while visiting Florence, Italy, where he composed The Queen of Spades. The work was revised between December 1891 and January 1892, before being premiered in 1892.
1. Allegro con spirito (00:00)
2. Adagio cantabile e con moto (10:16)
3. Allegretto moderato (19:56)
4. Allegro con brio e vivace (26:11)
Vincent d’Indy (French pronunciation: [vɛ̃ˈsɑ̃ dɛ̃ˈdi]) (27 March 1851 – 2 December 1931) was a French composer and teacher.
Paul Marie Théodore Vincent d’Indy was born in Paris into an aristocratic family of royalist and Catholic persuasion. He had piano lessons from an early age from his paternal grandmother, who passed him on to Antoine François Marmontel and Louis Diémer. From the age of 14 he studied harmony with Albert Lavignac. At age 19, during the Franco-Prussian War, he enlisted in the National Guard, but returned to musical life as soon as the hostilities were over. The first of his works he heard performed was a Symphonie italienne, at an orchestral rehearsal under Jules Pasdeloup; the work was admired by Georges Bizet and Jules Massenet, with whom he had already become acquainted. On the advice of Henri Duparc, he became a devoted student of César Franck at the Conservatoire de Paris. As a follower of Franck, d’Indy came to admire what he considered the standards of German symphonism.
Salzman showed an early aptitude for the piano, and gave her first recital at the age of eight. The French pianist and teacher, Alfred Cortot, heard her play in 1932 while she was a student at Shulamit Conservatory and invited her to Paris to study. She graduated at the Ecole Normale de Musique then became a pupil of Magda Tagliaferroat the Conservatoire de Paris, where she was to win the Premier Prix de Piano in 1938, aged 16.
In 1963 she became the first Israeli to be invited to play in the USSR and in 1994, the first Israeli pianist invited to play in China. Besides performing as a soloist, she was a member of the Israel Piano Quartet.
She was a Professor and the head of the piano department at Tel Aviv University and served on the jury of many piano competitions, including the Arthur Rubinstein,Vladimir Horowitz and Marguerite Long competitions. She taught piano to many students, including Dror Elimelech, Nimrod David Pfeffer, Elisha Abas, Iddo Bar-Shai andYossi Reshef.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. 40 in G minor, KV. 550, in 1788. It is sometimes referred to as the “Great G minor symphony,” to distinguish it from the “Little G minor symphony,” No. 25. The two are the only extant minor key symphonies Mozart wrote.
The Symphony No. 3 “Rhenish” in E flat major, Op. 97 is the last of Robert Schumann‘s (1810-1856) symphonies to be composed, although not the last published. It was composed from November 2 to December 9, 1850, and comprises five movements:
The Third Symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets in B♭, two bassoons, four french horns in E♭, two trumpets in E♭, threetrombones, timpani and strings. Its premiere on February 6, 1851 in Düsseldorf, conducted by Schumann himself, was received with mixed reviews, “ranging from praise without qualification to bewilderment”. However according to Peter A. Brown, members of the audience applauded between every movement, and especially at the end of the work when the orchestra joined them in congratulating Schumann by shouting “hurrah!”.
Throughout his life, Schumann explored a diversity of musical genres, including chamber, vocal, and symphonic music. Although Schumann wrote an incomplete G minor symphony as early as 1832-33 (of which the first movement was performed on two occasions to an unenthusiastic reception),he only began seriously composing for the symphonic genre after receiving his wife’s encouragement in 1839. Schumann gained quick success as a symphonic composer following his orchestral debut with his warmly-received First Symphony, which was composed in 1841 and premiered in Leipzig with Felix Mendelssohn conducting. By the end of his career Schumann had composed a total of four symphonies. Also in 1841 he finished the work which was later to be published as his Fourth Symphony. In 1845 he composed his C major Symphony, which was published in 1846 asNo. 2, and, in 1850, his Third Symphony. Therefore, the published numbering of the symphonies is not chronological. The reasoning for the “incorrect” numerical sequencing of the symphonies is because his Fourth Symphony was originally completed in 1841, but it was not well received at its Leipzig premiere. The lukewarm reception caused Schumann to withdraw the score and revise it ten years later in Düsseldorf. This final version was published in 1851 after the “Rhenish” Symphony was published
The same year that Schumann composed his Third Symphony, he completed his Cello Concerto op. 129 which was published four years later. Schumann was inspired to write this symphony after a trip to the Rhineland with his wife. This journey was a happy and peaceful trip with Clara which felt to them as if they were on a pilgrimage. As a result of this trip, he incorporated elements of his journey and portrayed other experiences from his life in the music. The key of the symphony has been connected to Bach’s idea of E flat major and the Holy Trinity.
The Eighth Symphony consists of four movements:
The Eighth Symphony is generally light-hearted, though not lightweight, and in many places cheerfully loud, with many accented notes. Various passages in the symphony are heard by some listeners to be musical jokes. As with various other Beethoven works such as the Opus 27 piano sonatas, the symphony deviates from Classical tradition in making the last movement the weightiest of the four.
The work was begun in the summer of 1812, immediately after the completion of the Seventh Symphony.At the time Beethoven was 41 years old. As Antony Hopkins has noted, the cheerful mood of the work betrays nothing of the grossly unpleasant events that were taking place in Beethoven’s life at the time, which involved his interference in his brother Johann’s love life. The work took Beethoven only four months to complete, and is, unlike many of his works, without dedication.
The premiere took place on 24 February 1814, at a concert in the Redoutensaal, Vienna, at which theSeventh Symphony (which had been premiered two months earlier) was also played. Beethoven was growing increasingly deaf at the time, but nevertheless led the premiere. Reportedly, “the orchestra largely ignored his ungainly gestures and followed the principal violinist instead.”
“In the Fourth movement, the famous Adagietto, harp and strings alone play. The opening melody recalls two of Mahler’s songs, “Nun seh’ ich wohl” (from Kindertotenlieder) and the separate Ruckert setting “Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen”. The long upbeats and expressive appoggiaturas of the melodic lines give the music a yearning, almost heart-breaking quality. The intensity that builds up inthis movement finaly assuages the darkness and doubts of the earlier movements, making the lighter mood and extrovert energy of the Rondo-Finale acceptable. Together, these two movements form the third part of the symphony. The formal function of the Adagietto is ambiguous. It acts as an introduction to the last movement, which follows without a break, and is thematically bound to it, for twice in the Finale we hear the Adagietto’s main theme, now at a fast tempo. The Adagietto also functions as a slow interlude in F major, between two faster movements in D major; but is also has an expressive weight sufficient for it to stand on its own – indeed, it is often performed by itself.
Even without a text or programme, the music’s emotional and referential content implies an existential dimension. Without an explicit programme or titles, we have few clues to the “meaning” of the Fifth Symphony other than the music itself. Mahler offers some guidance by grouping the five movements, which share some thematic Material, as well as an obsession with death, from the first part; the central scherzo stands alone as the second part; and the lat two movements, which are also linked thematically, form the third.