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Human Civilization Heritage – Historic Sites: Petra – Jordan (Listed by UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists) and Smithsonian Magazine’s – “28 Places to See Before You Die”


Petra

This article is about the Jordanian ancient city of Petra. For other uses, see Petra (disambiguation).
Petra
Al Khazneh.jpg

Al Khazneh or The Treasury at Petra
Location Ma’an Governorate, Jordan
Coordinates 30°19′43″N 35°26′31″ECoordinates: 30°19′43″N 35°26′31″E
Elevation 810 m (2,657 ft)
Built possibly as early as 5th century BC [1]
Visitation 580,000 (in 2007)
Governing body Petra Region Authority
 
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, iv
Designated 1985 (9th session)
Reference no. 326
State Party Jordan
Region Arab States
 
Website www.visitpetra.jo
Petra is located in Jordan

Petra
 
Location of Petra in Jordan

Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα) is a historical and archaeological city in the southern Jordanian governorate of Ma’an that is famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. Another name for Petra is the Rose City due to the color of the stone out of which it is carved.

Established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans,[2] it is a symbol of Jordan, as well as Jordan’s most-visited tourist attraction.[3] It lies on the slope of Jebel al-Madhbah (identified by some as the biblical Mount Hor[4]) in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985.

The site remained unknown to the Western world until 1812, when it was introduced by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. It was described as “a rose-red city half as old as time” in a Newdigate Prize-winning poem by John William Burgon. UNESCO has described it as “one of the most precious cultural properties of man’s cultural heritage”.[5] See: UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Petra was chosen by the Smithsonian Magazine as one of the “28 Places to See Before You Die”.[6]

Geography

Pliny the Elder and other writers identify Petra as the capital of the Nabataeans and the center of their caravan trade. Enclosed by towering rocks and watered by a perennial stream, Petra not only possessed the advantages of a fortress, but controlled the main commercial routes which passed through it to Gaza in the west, to Bosra and Damascus in the north, to Aqaba and Leuce Come on the Red Sea, and across the desert to the Persian Gulf.

Map of Petra

 

The narrow passage (Siq) that leads to Petra

Excavations have demonstrated that it was the ability of the Nabataeans to control the water supply that led to the rise of the desert city, creating an artificial oasis. The area is visited by flash floods and archaeological evidence demonstrates the Nabataeans controlled these floods by the use of dams, cisterns and water conduits. These innovations stored water for prolonged periods of drought, and enabled the city to prosper from its sale.[7][8]

In ancient times, Petra might have been approached from the south on a track leading across the plain of Petra, around Jabal Haroun (“Aaron’s Mountain”), where the Tomb of Aaron, said to be the burial-place of Aaron, brother of Moses, is located. Another approach was possibly from the high plateau to the north. Today, most modern visitors approach the site from the east. The impressive eastern entrance leads steeply down through a dark, narrow gorge (in places only 3–4 m (9.8–13.1 ft) wide) called the Siq (“the shaft”), a natural geological feature formed from a deep split in the sandstone rocks and serving as a waterway flowing into Wadi Musa. At the end of the narrow gorge stands Petra’s most elaborate ruin, Al Khazneh (popularly known as and meaning “the Treasury”), hewn into the sandstone cliff. While remaining in remarkably preserved condition, the face of the structure is marked by hundreds of bullet holes made by the local Bedouin tribes that hoped to dislodge riches that were once rumored to be hidden within it.[9]

A little farther from the Treasury, at the foot of the mountain called en-Nejr, is a massive theatre, positioned so as to bring the greatest number of tombs within view. At the point where the valley opens out into the plain, the site of the city is revealed with striking effect. The amphitheatre has been cut into the hillside and into several of the tombs during its construction. Rectangular gaps in the seating are still visible. Almost enclosing it on three sides are rose-colored mountain walls, divided into groups by deep fissures and lined with knobs cut from the rock in the form of towers.

History

One of the many dwellings in Petra

 

General view of Petra

 

Some of the earliest recorded farmers settled in Beidha, a pre-pottery settlement just north of Petra, by 7000 BC.[10] Petra is listed in Egyptian campaign accounts and the Amarna letters as Pel, Sela or Seir. Though the city was founded relatively late, a sanctuary has existed there since very ancient times. Stations 19 through 26 of the stations list of Exodus are places associated with Petra.[11] This part of the country was biblically assigned to the Horites, the predecessors of the Edomites.[12] The habits of the original natives may have influenced the Nabataean custom of burying the dead and offering worship in half-excavated caves. Although Petra is usually identified with Sela, which means a rock, the Biblical references[13] refer to it as “the cleft in the rock”, referring to its entrance. In the parallel passage, however, Sela is understood to mean simply “the rock” (2 Chronicles xxv. 12, see LXX).

Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews iv. 7, 1~ 4, 7), Eusebius and Jerome (Onom. sacr. 286, 71. 145, 9; 228, 55. 287, 94) assert that Rekem was the native name, and this name appears in the Dead Sea Scrolls[14] as a prominent Edomite site most closely describing Petra, and associated with Mount Seir. But in the Aramaic versions, Rekem is the name of Kadesh, implying that Josephus may have confused the two places. The Semitic name of the city, if not Sela, remains unknown. The passage in Diodorus Siculus (xix. 94–97) which describes the expeditions which Antigonus sent against the Nabataeans in 312 BC is understood to throw some light upon the history of Petra, but the “petra” referred to as a natural fortress and place of refuge cannot be a proper name and the description implies that the town was not yet in existence.

 
The Rekem Inscription before it was buried by the bridge abutments.

The name “Rekem” was inscribed in the rock wall of the Wadi Musa opposite the entrance to the Siq,[15] but about twenty years ago[timeframe?] the Jordanians built a bridge over the wadi and this inscription was buried beneath tons of concrete.[citation needed]

More satisfactory evidence of the date of the earliest Nabataean settlement may be obtained from an examination of the tombs. Two types of tombs have been distinguished: the Nabataean and the Greco-Roman. The Nabataean type starts from the simple pylon-tomb with a door set in a tower crowned by a parapet ornament, in imitation of the front of a dwelling-house. Then, after passing through various stages, the full Nabataean type is reached, retaining all the native features and at the same time exhibiting characteristics which are partly Egyptian and partly Greek. Of this type close parallels exist in the tomb-towers at Mada’in Saleh in north Arabia, which bear long Nabataean inscriptions and supply a date for the corresponding monuments at Petra. Then comes a series of tombfronts which terminate in a semicircular arch, a feature derived from north Syria. Finally come the elaborate façades copied from the front of a Roman temple; however, all traces of native style have vanished. The exact dates of the stages in this development cannot be fixed. Few inscriptions of any length have been found at Petra, perhaps because they have perished with the stucco or cement which was used upon many of the buildings. The simple pylon-tombs which belong to the pre-Hellenic age serve as evidence for the earliest period. It is not known how far back in this stage the Nabataean settlement goes, but it does not go back farther than the 6th century BC. A period follows in which the dominant civilization combines Greek, Egyptian and Syrian elements, clearly pointing to the age of the Ptolemies. Towards the close of the 2nd century BC, when the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms were equally depressed, the Nabataean kingdom came to the front. Under Aretas III Philhellene, (c.85–60 BC), the royal coins begin. The theatre was probably excavated at that time, and Petra must have assumed the aspect of a Hellenistic city. In the reign of Aretas IV Philopatris, (9 BC–40 AD), the tombs of the el-I~ejr[clarification needed] type may be dated, and perhaps also the High-place.

Roman rule

In 106 AD, when Cornelius Palma was governor of Syria, the part of Arabia under the rule of Petra was absorbed into the Roman Empire as part of Arabia Petraea and became its capital. The native dynasty came to an end but the city continued to flourish under Roman rule. It was around this time that the Petra Roman Road was built. A century later, in the time of Alexander Severus, when the city was at the height of its splendor, the issue of coinage comes to an end. There is no more building of sumptuous tombs, owing apparently to some sudden catastrophe, such as an invasion by the neo-Persian power under the Sassanid Empire. Meanwhile, as Palmyra (fl. 130–270) grew in importance and attracted the Arabian trade away from Petra, the latter declined. It appears, however, to have lingered on as a religious centre. Another Roman road was constructed at the site. Epiphanius of Salamis (c.315–403) writes that in his time a feast was held there on December 25 in honor of the virgin Khaabou (Chaabou) and her offspring Dushara (Haer. 51).[citation needed]

Byzantine era – decline

Petra declined rapidly under Roman rule, in large part from the revision of sea-based trade routes. In 363 an earthquake destroyed many buildings, and crippled the vital water management system.[16] The last inhabitants abandoned the city (further weakened by another major earthquake in 551) when the Arabs conquered the region in 663. The ruins of Petra were an object of curiosity in the Middle Ages and were visited by Sultan Baibars of Egypt towards the end of the 13th century. The first European to describe them was Swiss traveller Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812.

Because the structures weakened with age, many of the tombs became vulnerable to thieves, and many treasures were stolen. In 1929, a four-person team, consisting of British archaeologists Agnes Conway and George Horsfield, Palestinian physician and folklore expert Dr Tawfiq Canaan and Dr Ditlef Nielsen, a Danish scholar, excavated and surveyed Petra.[17]

T. E. Lawrence

 Petra siq in 1947 (left) compared with the same location in 2013

In October 1917, as part of a general effort to divert Ottoman military resources away from the British advance before the Third Battle of Gaza, a revolt of Syrians and Arabians in Petra was led by British Army officer T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) against the Ottoman regime. The Bedouin women living in the vicinity of Petra and under the leadership of Sheik Khallil’s wife were gathered to fight in the revolt of the city. The rebellions, with the support of English military, were able to devastate the Ottoman forces.[18]

Religion

 The Theatre
See also: Nabataean art

The Nabataeans worshipped the Arab gods and goddesses of the pre-Islamic times as well as a few of their deified kings. One, Obodas I, was deified after his death. Dushara was the primary male god accompanied by his female trinity: Al-‘Uzzá, Allat and Manāt. Many statues carved in the rock depict these gods and goddesses.

A stele is dedicated to Qos-Allah ‘Qos is Allah’ or ‘Qos the god’, by Qosmilk (melech – king) is found at Petra (Glueck 516). Qos is identifiable with Kaush (Qaush) the God of the older Edomites. The stele is horned and the seal from the Edomite Tawilan near Petra identified with Kaush displays a star and crescent (Browning 28), both consistent with a moon deity. It is conceivable the latter could have resulted from trade with Harran (Bartlett 194). There is continuing debate about the nature of Qos (qaus – bow) who has been identified both with a hunting bow (hunting god) and a rainbow (weather god) although the crescent above is also a bow.

Nabatean inscriptions in Sinai and other places display widespread references to names including Allah, El and Allat (god and goddess), with regional references to al-Uzza, Baal and Manutu (Manat) (Negev 11). Allat is also found in Sinai in South Arabian language. Allah occurs particularly as Garm-‘allahi – god dedided (Greek Garamelos) and Aush-allahi – ‘gods covenant’ (Greek Ausallos). We find both Shalm-lahi ‘Allah is peace’ and Shalm-allat, ‘the peace of the goddess’. We also find Amat-allahi ‘she-servant of god’ and Halaf-llahi ‘the successor of Allah’.[19]

The Monastery, Petra’s largest monument, dates from the 1st century BC. It was dedicated to Obodas I and is believed to be the symposium of Obodas the god. This information is inscribed on the ruins of the Monastery (the name is the translation of the Arabic “Ad Deir“).

Christianity found its way to Petra in the 4th century AD, nearly 500 years after the establishment of Petra as a trade center. Athanasius mentions a bishop of Petra (Anhioch. 10) named Asterius. At least one of the tombs (the “tomb with the urn”?) was used as a church. An inscription in red paint records its consecration “in the time of the most holy bishop Jason” (447). After the Islamic conquest of 629–632 Christianity in Petra, as of most of Arabia, gave way to Islam. During the First Crusade Petra was occupied by Baldwin I of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and formed the second fief of the barony of Al Karak (in the lordship of Oultrejordain) with the title Château de la Valée de Moyse or Sela. It remained in the hands of the Franks until 1189. It is still a titular see of the Catholic Church.[20]

Two Crusader-period castles are known in and around Petra. The first is al-Wu’ayra and is situated just north of Wadi Musa. It can be viewed from the road to “Little Petra”. It is the castle of Valle Moise which was seized by a band of Turks with the help of local Muslims and only recovered by the Crusaders after they began to destroy the olive trees of Wadi Musa. The potential loss of livelihood led the locals to negotiate surrender. The second is on the summit of el-Habis in the heart of Petra and can be accessed from the West side of the Qasr al-Bint.

According to Arab tradition, Petra is the spot where Moses (Musa) struck a rock with his staff and water came forth, and where Moses’ brother, Aaron (Harun), is buried, at Mount Hor, known today as Jabal Haroun or Mount Aaron. The Wadi Musa or “Wadi of Moses” is the Arab name for the narrow valley at the head of which Petra is sited. A mountaintop shrine of Moses’ sister Miriam was still shown to pilgrims at the time of Jerome in the 4th century, but its location has not been identified since.[21]

Threats to Petra

The site suffers from a host of threats, including collapse of ancient structures, erosion due to flooding and improper rainwater drainage, weathering from salt upwelling,[22] improper restoration of ancient structures, and unsustainable tourism.[23] The last has increased substantially, especially since the site received widespread media coverage in 2007 during the controversial New Seven Wonders of the World Internet and cell phone campaign.[24]

In an attempt to reduce the impact of these threats, Petra National Trust (PNT) was established in 1989. Over this time, it has worked together with numerous local and international organizations on projects that promote the protection, conservation and preservation of the Petra site.[25] Moreover, UNESCO and ICOMOS recently collaborated to publish their first book on human and natural threats to these sensitive World Heritage sites. They chose Petra as its first, and the most important example of threatened landscapes. A book released in 2012, Tourism and Archaeological Heritage Management at Petra: Driver to Development or Destruction?, was the first in a series of important books to address the very nature of these deteriorating buildings, cities, sites, and regions. The next books in the series of deteriorating UNESCO World Heritage Sites will include Macchu Picchu, Angkor Wat, and Pompeii. (25).

 
Camel sitting in front of Al Khazneh

Petra today

On December 6, 1985, Petra was designated a World Heritage Site. Some of the sights of Petra are available on Google Street View.

In popular culture

Petra is the main topic in John William Burgon‘s sonnet (rhyme scheme aabbccddeeffgg) “Petra” which won the Newdigate Prize in 1845. The poem refers to Petra as the inaccessible city which he had heard described but had never seen:

It seems no work of Man’s creative hand,

by labour wrought as wavering fancy planned;

But from the rock as if by magic grown,

eternal, silent, beautiful, alone!

Not virgin-white like that old Doric shrine,

where erst Athena held her rites divine;

Not saintly-grey, like many a minster fane,

that crowns the hill and consecrates the plain;

But rose-red as if the blush of dawn,

that first beheld them were not yet withdrawn;

The hues of youth upon a brow of woe,

which Man deemed old two thousand years ago,

match me such marvel save in Eastern clime,

a rose-red city half as old as time.

In 1977, the Lebanese Rahbani brothers wrote the musical “Petra” as a response to the Lebanese Civil War.[26]

The site is featured in films such as: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Arabian Nights, Passion in the Desert, Mortal Kombat: Annihilation, Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger, The Mummy Returns and Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen.

It was recreated for the video games Spy Hunter (2001), King’s Quest V, Lego Indiana Jones, Sonic Unleashed, Knights of the Temple: Infernal Crusade and Civilization V.

Petra appeared in the novels Left Behind Series, Appointment with Death, The Eagle in the Sand, The Red Sea Sharks, the nineteenth book in The Adventures of Tintin series and in Kingsbury’s The Moon Goddess and the Son. It featured prominently in the Marcus Didius Falco mystery novel Last Act in Palmyra. In Blue Balliett‘s novel, Chasing Vermeer, the character Petra Andalee is named after the site.[27]

The Sisters of Mercy filmed their music video for “Dominion/Mother Russia” in and around Al Khazneh (“The Treasury”) in February 1988.

In 1994 Petra featured in the video to the Urban Species video Spiritual Love.

Petra was featured in episode 3 of the 2010 series An Idiot Abroad.

In 1979 Marguerite van Geldermalsen from New Zealand married Mohammed Abdullah, a Bedouin in Petra.[28] They lived in a cave in Petra until the death of her husband. She authored the book Married to a Bedouin. Geldermalsen is the only western woman who has ever lived in Petra.

Petra was featured in episode 20 of Misaeng_(TV_series). [29][30]

Sister cities

Views of Petra
The road to the Siiq 
The Siiq, path to Petra 
El Deir (“The Monastery”) 
Byzantine mosaic in the Byzantine Church of Petra 
The end of the Siq, with its dramatic view of Al Khazneh (“The Treasury”) 
The Hadrian Gate and the Cardo Maximus in Petra 
Petra is known as the Rose-Red City[31] for the colour of the rocks from which Petra is carved 
The Great Temple of Petra 
Ad Deir (“The Monastery”) in 1839, by David Roberts 
The Petra Visitors Centre in Wadi Musa, the closest town to the historic site 
Drimia maritima bulbs in Petra in early December (2010) 
Sandstone Rock-cut tombs (Kokhim) in Petra 
Obelisk Tomb and the Triclinium 
Street of Façades 
The Silk Tomb 
Uneishu Tomb 
Lonely cave 
Sandstone rocks 
Main entrance (Al Khazneh) 
Theatre 
General view 
Ancient columns 
Tourist attraction 

See also

Petra one of the most Mysterious Archaeological Sites on Earth [FULL DOCUMENTARY]

today’s birthday; Oscar De La Hoya (1973)


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At age 19, De La Hoya made his professional debut in the world of boxing, following in the footsteps of his pugilist grandfather and father. It came hot on the heels of an impressive Olympic performance, where he earned gold for the US Boxing Team, and he quickly made a name for himself as an international superstar. When De La Hoya defeated Felix Sturm in 2004, he became the first boxer in history to win world titles in six different weight divisions. How many punches did he throw in the fight? More… Discuss

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National Geographic 2014 Hybrid Giant Pythons found in Florida – Best Travel Check out Monster Quest!


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Deep Chakra Meditation *Calming and Relaxing*

word: inured


inured

Definition: (adjective) Made tough by habitual exposure.
Synonyms: hardened
Usage: Doctors become inured to death. Discuss.

Is Schwarzenegger to Blame for Your Spare Tire?


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this pressed from tomsguide.com: Google Blocks Local Content Streaming on Chromecast


“So much for streaming your own content with third-party apps.”

So much for streaming your own content with third-party apps.

Google has reportedly launched an update to its Chromecast media streamer that signals the company’s intention to heavily police what users can do with the device. As it stands now, Chromecast users can no longer stream local content to their HDTVs from a third-party app, a move believed to be no accidental side effect from the recent firmware update.

via Google Blocks Local Content Streaming on Chromecast.

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“My sweet Lord” – George Harrison

 

word: cacophony


cacophony 

Definition: (noun) Jarring, discordant sound; dissonance.
Synonyms: blare, blaring, clamor, din
Usage: I heard a cacophony of horns during the traffic jam. Discuss.

Just a thought: “Fictitious reality…”, by George-B ©Always


Just a thought:  “Fictitious reality: Nothing complicates reality more than fiction
fictitious reality is not something new:It’s been allowed
to make court for emperors and kings,
houses and congresses
presidents and councils

The story of clothes, the story of tailors are
as fictitious as they are real

They’re as real today as they were in the dark aged years
They are cloaked in lies, and shades of no pure thought
They eat the mouth of the truthful and worse: they care not!
They feel the running of colors and fixation of lie, the false apparel that’s as transparent as finest crystal glass.

by George-B ©Always

Fictitious Reality/Spiritual Writers Network

Fictitious Reality/Spiritual Writers Network

 

word: abeyance — (noun) The condition of being temporarily set aside. (“I can thing of many, estecially in our political gladiator type political and economical arena”))


abeyance 

Definition:
Synonyms: suspension
Usage: Every other feeling as it rushed upon him was thrown into abeyance by pity, deep respectful pity, for the man who sat before him. Discuss.

Every Doctor Who Opening (HD) (1963-2013)


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English: The Stromness Hotel

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Sur ma vie



Sur ma vie je t’ai jurée un jour …
De t’aimer jusqu’au dernier jour de mes jours…
Et le même mot devait très bientôt…
Nous unir devant Dieu et les hommes…

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quotation: …when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. Arthur Conan Doyle


…when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.

Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) Discuss

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make music part of your life series: S.Riсhter plays P.Tchaikovsky L’espiegle, Op.72



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THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: Johnny Carson Hosts The Tonight Show for Last Time (1992)


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Carson hosted NBC’s The Tonight Show from 1962 to 1992. His personable demeanor and wry sense of humor appealed to viewers, and during his tenure, the show became America‘s most popular late-night program. The show’s familiar formula included sidekick Ed McMahon introducing Carson by announcing, “Heeere’s Johnny!,” followed by Carson’s monologue, and then guest interviews and occasional comedy sketches. How many people tuned in to watch his last show? More… Discuss

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Compositor: Frédéric Chopin.
Obra: Rondo à la Krakowiak, Op. 14.

Pianista: Garrick Ohlsson.
Regente: Jerzy Maksymiuk.
Orquestra: Sinfônica Nacional da Rádio Polonesa .

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GREAT COMPOSITIONS/PERFORMANCES: Boléro – Maurice Ravel – Münchner Philharmoniker – Sergiu Celibidache


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Sergiu Celibidache dirigiert die Münchner Philharmoniker; Maurice Ravel: Boléro

Inhaltsangabe der TV-Zeitschrift “Gong“:
Anläßlich des Geburtstages von Sergiu Celibidache am 28. Juni zeigt das ZDF eine Aufzeichnung des glanzvollen Interpretation von Maurice Ravels “Bolero” von 1983.

(VHS-Mitschnitt, ZDF, 1987)

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In a career spanning almost 50 years, Cherilyn Sarkisian, better known as Cher, has established herself as an enduring pop culture icon and one of the most popular female artists in music history. Cher first rose to prominence in the 1960s as one half of the pop duo Sonny and Cher. In 1965, their first hit, “I Got You Babe,” topped US and UK charts. Cher went on to become an accomplished solo artist as well as a TV and film actress. What was the biggest-selling single of her career? More… Discuss

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Great Compositions/Performances: Arthur Fiedler, Boston Pops play “The Mikado” Overture


Arthur Fiedler, Boston Pops play “The Mikado” Overture

Recorded June 8, 1951

 

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Fabulous Musical Moments: Mozart Concerto No. 20 in D Minor K466 Freiburger Mozart-Orchester, Michael Erren,Valentina Lisitsa


Mozart Concerto D Minor K466 Freiburger Mozart-Orchester, Michael Erren,Valentina Lisitsa

Filmed live May 20, 2012, Freiburg im Breisgau ,Germany
Cadenzas by Mozart’s favorite student – and billiards pal, Jan Nepomuk Hummel :-) 

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Irony in Quotations: Once Upon a Time (TV Series)/THAT STILL SMALL VOICE (2011)


"Once Upon a Time" That Still Small Voice (TV Episode 2011) Poster

Quotes

Jiminy: We’re making enough from the ticket sales. Do we have to steal, too?

Martin: We don’t need to, but it’s nice. We steal from them, and they steal from someone else.

Myrna: It’s called an economy.

JUST A THOUGHT:  “The  thief always assumes that everybody else was dipped into the same river, or fished from the same pond!”
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Best viewed in 720p

Contains SPOILERS for House seasons 1 to 8
Music – Sunshine by John Murphy

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♫ Hristos a înviat ♫ – Cor Ion Pelearcă

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Trust in Me (English)- Jungle Book ( Is this close to the global political reality….Or what!)


Uploaded on Jul 20, 2008 / views: 1,067,737

Kaa singing “Trust in Me” from the Disney movie: THE JUNGLE BOOK

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WORD: GROUCH


grouch 

Definition: (verb) Show one’s unhappiness or critical attitude.
Synonyms: grumblescold
Usage: He always grouches about his job, but deep down he really loves it. Discuss.

 

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Czechoslovakian Revolt 1968 and Ucraine 2014



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FABULOUS COMPOSITIONS/PERFORMANCES: Marian Anderson “Ave Maria” by Schubert



Marian Anderson “Ave Maria” by Schubert
With Leopold Stokowski, 1944
Latin Text
Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum.
Benedicta tu in mulieribus,
et benedictus fructus ventris tui, Iesus.
Sancta Maria, Mater Dei,
ora pro nobis peccatoribus,
nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.

English Translation
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee.
Blessed art thou among women,
and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
Holy Mary, Mother of God,
pray for us sinners,
now and in the hour of our death. Amen.

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THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: UK CALLS OFF THE TODDLERS’ TRUCE (1957)


UK Calls Off the Toddlers’ Truce (1957)

Today we are used to turning on the television at any hour of the day or night and having access to countless channels broadcasting all manner of program, but this was not always the case. In television’s early days, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was the UK’s sole public broadcaster; it started out with just one channel, and it cut its feed from 6PM to 7PM to accommodate parents putting their children to bed. What caused the BBC to eventually abandon the so-called Toddlers’ Truce?More… Discuss

 

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Dan Spătaru – Ţărăncuţă, Ţărăncuţă


 

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Reporters Without Borders: Because if it cannot be reported…It’s of a dark nature)


2014 World Press Freedom IndexReporters Without Borders.

 

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National Geographic: Mick Dodge Hunting Mushrooms (chanterelle)



Mick turns to the wind when his chanterelle mushroom hunting hits a dead end. THE LEGEND OF MICK DODGE AIRS TUESDAYS at 10P.

 

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BBC News – Cancer ‘tidal wave’ on horizon, warns WHO


MammogramsBBC News – Cancer ‘tidal wave’ on horizon, warns WHO.

 

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Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) – “Dubinuschka”, op. 62.



Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) – “Dubinuschka”, op. 62.

L’Orchestre de la Suisse Romande
Ernest Ansermet

 

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Chuck vs The Goodbye (5×13) – Final Scene, The end



Chuck, one of the most awesome shows has come to an end (T.T), and I wanted to share the final scene with you people from S05E13. I love the ending, but SPOILERS a LITTLE If YOU HAVE NOT SEEN THE EPISODE YET its not fully explained if sarah gets her memories back or not, instead we can only speculate. Well I Guess that why fanfiction exits, to tell us what happened next (^.^)
PS.The song is “Rivers and Roads” by The Head and The Heart if you guys where wondering.DS.
This is not attended for copyright use, all rights belong to NBC and Warner Bros. 
Enjoy

update
Holy shit, over +100k of views, did not expect that many at all. Have a good day internet :)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chuck
Chuck 2007 logo.svg
Format Action-comedy
Created by Josh Schwartz
Chris Fedak
Starring Zachary Levi
Yvonne Strahovski
Adam Baldwin
Joshua Gomez
Sarah Lancaster
Ryan McPartlin
Mark Christopher Lawrence
Vik Sahay
Scott Krinsky
Bonita Friedericy
Julia Ling
Opening theme Short Skirt/Long Jacket” by Cake(instrumental version)
Composer(s) Tim Jones
Country of origin United States
Originallanguage(s) English
No. of seasons 5
No. of episodes 91 (List of episodes)
Production
Executiveproducer(s) Josh Schwartz
Chris Fedak
McG
Location(s) Los AngelesCalifornia
Running time 40-45 minutes.
Productioncompany(s) College Hill Pictures
Fake Empire Productions
Wonderland Sound and Vision
Warner Bros. Television
Distributor Warner Bros. Television Distribution
Broadcast
Original channel NBC
Picture format 480i (SDTV)
1080i (HDTV)
1080i (3DTV)
Original run September 24, 2007 – January 27, 2012
External links
Website

Chuck is an American action-comedy/spy-drama television series created by Josh Schwartz andChris Fedak. The series is about an “average computer-whiz-next-door” named Chuck, played byZachary Levi, who receives an encoded e-mail from an old college friend now working for theCentral Intelligence Agency (CIA); the message embeds the only remaining copy of a software program containing the United States’ greatest spy secrets into Chuck’s brain.[1][2]

Produced by College Hill Pictures, Fake Empire ProductionsWonderland Sound and Vision, andWarner Bros. Television, the series premiered on September 24, 2007, on NBC, airing on Monday nights at 8/7c.[3][4]

As the second season closed, flagging ratings put Chuck in danger of cancellation, but fans mounted a successful campaign to encourage NBC to renew the show.[5] The campaign was unique in that fans specifically targeted a sponsor of the show, the Subway restaurant chain, and the chain struck a major sponsorship deal with NBC to help cover costs of the third season.[6] The series’ renewal was uncertain in each subsequent season. The fifth season was the last; it began on October 28, 2011, moving to Friday nights at 8pm/7 Central.[7] The series concluded on January 27, 2012 with a two-hour finale.[8]

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Shivaree – Goodnight Moon


 

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Leonard Cohen – The Partisan



The Partisan, by Leonard Cohen

When they poured across the border

I was cautioned to surrender,
this I could not do;
I took my gun and vanished.
I have changed my name so often,
I’ve lost my wife and children
but I have many friends,
and some of them are with me.

An old woman gave us shelter,
kept us hidden in the garret,
then the soldiers came;
she died without a whisper.

There were three of us this morning
I’m the only one this evening
but I must go on;
the frontiers are my prison.

Oh, the wind, the wind is blowing,
through the graves the wind is blowing,
freedom soon will come;
then we’ll come from the shadows.

Les Allemands e’taient chez moi, (The Germans were at my home)
ils me dirent, “Signe toi,” (They said, “Sign yourself,”)
mais je n’ai pas peur; (But I am not afraid)
j’ai repris mon arme. (I have retaken my weapon.)

J’ai change’ cent fois de nom, (I have changed names a hundred times)
j’ai perdu femme et enfants (I have lost wife and children)
mais j’ai tant d’amis; (But I have so many friends)
j’ai la France entie`re. (I have all of France)

Un vieil homme dans un grenier (An old man, in an attic)
pour la nuit nous a cache’, (Hid us for the night)
les Allemands l’ont pris; (The Germans captured him)
il est mort sans surprise. (He died without surprise.)

Oh, the wind, the wind is blowing,
through the graves the wind is blowing,
freedom soon will come;
then we’ll come from the shadows.

 

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Nutricide – Criminalizing Natural Health, Vitamins, and Herbs


 

Nutricide – Criminalizing Natural Health, Vitamins, and Herbs

 

WHO

WHO (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

The Codex Alimentarius is a threat to the freedom of people to choose natural healing and alternative medicine and nutrition. Ratified by the World Health Organization, and going into Law in the United States in 2009, the threat to health freedom has never been greater.

This is the first part of a series of talks by Dr. Rima Laibow MD, available on DVD from the Natural Solutions Foundation, an non-profit organization dedicated to educating people about how to stop Codex Alimentarius from taking away our right to freely choose nutritional health.

Natural Solutions Foundation
: Dr. Rima Laibow MD.

 

 

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Granados – Danza Española nº 2 Oriental – Mille Bureau & André Figueroa


 

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FRINGE 4×15 “A Short Story About Love” Ending



FRINGE 4×15 “A Short Story About Love” aired March 23rd, 2012.

Find out more about this episode here

 

 

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La Clemenza Di Tito – K. 621 W.A.Mozart (Overture) – Sarajevo Philharmonic Orchestra-Julio Marić



TVSA (Televizija Sarajevo)
18.12.2009 – Sarajevo National Theater Christmas Gala Sarajevo National Theater´s Choir and Orchestra Conductor: Julio Marić -TV Transmission

 

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Boboteaza la fagaras 2011


Boboteaza la fagaras 2011

 

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“Boboteaza 2011 in Feleac” si “O noapte la Cetatea Fagarasului”



Slujba de Boboteaza si imagini de noapte in Cetatea Fagarasului

 

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Great Performances: Edouard Lalo-Cello Concerto in D minor



Leonard Rose: cello-Philadelphia Orchestra-Eugene Ormandy: conductor-1967

 

Johnny Cash – Come Home, It’s Suppertime


 

Leonard Cohen The Partisan Austin City Limits


Recorded from PBS televised at Austin City Limits. Cohen’s 1988 performance was his first major appearance on American television.