Tag Archives: wikipedia
historic musical bits, Vladimir Horowitz plays Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto No.3 (live 1978), great compositions/performances
Vladimir Horowitz plays Rachmaninov Piano Concerto No.3 (live 1978)
Best Classical Music, O. Respighi Ancient Airs and Dances Suite III. Complete , great compositions/performances
O. Respighi Ancient Airs and Dances Suite III. Complete
1915 Armenian Massacre Now Called a Genocide by Germany
Added by Alex Lemieux on April 20, 2015.
Saved under Breaking News!, Germany, World
Tags: 1915 Armenian Massacre
1915 Armenian Massacre
Germany has now reversed its stance to use the term “genocide” to describe the 1915 Armenian massacre when around 1.5 million Armenians were slaughtered by Ottoman Turkish forces. The major reversal is crucial due to the fact that Germany is Turkey’s top European Union trading partner. Germany comes after France, Pope Francis, and the European parliament to condemn the violence.
Germany has resisted using the term of genocide even though other European nations have. Though, the government has come under scrutiny from officials to use the word in a resolution. Steffen Seibert, a spokesman for Chancellor Angela Merkel, stated Germany would support a parliamentary resolution, declaring the 1915 Armenian massacre an example of genocide.
Turkey’s government currently denies that the slaughters constituted genocide. Officials stated there was no organized nation campaign to kill off Armenians and no such other orders from the Ottoman Empire. The word Genocide has not been used by any other nations to avoid upsetting Turkey and trading negotiations.
Originally, the German government refused to use the term due to some concerns of the Herero massacres done in 1904 and 1905 by German forces. This lead to reparation demands in what is now Namibia.
By Alex Lemieux
The Daily Mail
Photo by Luke Ma – Flickr License
More>>>>>>> HERE <<<<<<<<<
Best Classical Music:, “Debussy: La Mer – 2. Play of the Waves (Jeux de vagues)” by London Symphony Orchestra, make music part of your life series
Debussy – La Mer
Mozart – Piano Concerto No. 21, K.467 / Yeol Eum Son
Historic Musical Bits: Mischa Maisky & Martha Argerich – Debussy: Cello Sonata , great compositions/performances
Mischa Maisky & Martha Argerich – Debussy: Cello Sonata
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Cello Sonata is a late work by the French composer Claude Debussy. It was the first of a planned series of ‘Six sonates pour divers instruments’, however Debussy only completed two others, the sonata for violin and the sonata for flute, viola and harp. The sonata for cello and piano was written in 1915, and is notable for its brevity, most performances not exceeding 11 minutes. It is a staple of the modern cello repertoire and is commonly regarded as one of the finest masterpieces written for the instrument.
It is divided into three short movements:
- I. Prologue: Lent, sostenuto e molto risoluto
- II. Sérénade: Modérément animé
- III. Finale: Animé, léger et nerveux
The two final movements are joined by an attacca. Instead of sonata form, Debussy structures the piece in the style of the eighteenth-century monothematic sonata, and was particularly influenced by the music of François Couperin.
The piece makes use of modes and whole-tone and pentatonic scales, as is typical of Debussy’s style. It also utilises many types of extended cello technique, including left-hand pizzicato, spiccato and flautando bowing, false harmonics and portamenti. Not surprisingly, the piece is considered technically demanding.
Happy Birthday Mozart: Eine kleine Nachtmusik KV 525 Karl Bohm, Wiener Philharmoniker , great compositions/performances
El Cóndor Pasa…Única Versión Original, según la partitura de Daniel Alomía Robles.
It is the year 1456 and Gutenberg Produces the First Printed Bible: Using his revolutionary invention—printing from movable type—he made the Scriptures potentially accessible to every person. MORE HERE (http://www.ctlibrary.com/ch/1990/issue28/2825.html)
The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the first major book printed in the West using movable type. It marked the start of the “Gutenberg Revolution” and the age of the printed book in the West. Widely praised for its high aesthetic and artistic qualities, the book has an iconic status. Written in Latin, the Gutenberg Bible is an edition of the Vulgate, printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, in present-day Germany, in the 1450s. Forty-eight copies, or substantial portions of copies, survive, and they are considered to be among the most valuable books in the world, even though no complete copy has been sold since 1978. The 36-line Bible, believed to be the second printed version of the Bible, is also sometimes referred to as a Gutenberg Bible, but is likely the work of another printer.
“All that has been written to me about that marvelous man seen at Frankfurt [sic] is true. I have not seen complete Bibles but only a number of quires of various books of the Bible. The script was very neat and legible, not at all difficult to follow—your grace would be able to read it without effort, and indeed without glasses.”
The Bible was not Gutenberg’s first work. Preparation of it probably began soon after 1450, and the first finished copies were available in 1454 or 1455. It is not known exactly how long the Bible took to print. The first precisely datable printing is the Gutenberg’s 31-line Indulgence which is known to already exist on 22 October 1454.
Gutenberg made three significant changes during the printing process. The first sheets were rubricated by being passed twice through the printing press, using black and then red ink. This was soon abandoned, with spaces being left for rubrication to be added by hand.
Some time later, after more sheets had been printed, the number of lines per page was increased from 40 to 42, presumably to save paper. Therefore, pages 1 to 9 and pages 256 to 265, presumably the first ones printed, have 40 lines each. Page 10 has 41, and from there on the 42 lines appear. The increase in line number was achieved by decreasing the interline spacing, rather than increasing the printed area of the page.
Finally, the print run was increased, necessitating resetting those pages which had already been printed. The new sheets were all reset to 42 lines per page. Consequently, there are two distinct settings in folios 1-32 and 129-158 of volume I and folios 1-16 and 162 of volume II.
The most reliable information about the Bible’s date comes from a letter. In March 1455, the future Pope Pius II wrote that he had seen pages from the Gutenberg Bible, being displayed to promote the edition, in Frankfurt. It is not known how many copies were printed, with the 1455 letter citing sources for both 158 and 180 copies. Scholars today think that examination of surviving copies suggests that somewhere between 160 and 185 copies were printed, with about three-quarters on paper.  However, some books say that about 180 copies were printed and it took about three years to produce them.
The production process: Das Werk der Bücher
In a legal paper, written after completion of the Bible, Gutenberg refers to the process as “Das Werk der Bücher”: the work of the books. He had invented the printing press and was the first European to print with movable type. But his greatest achievement was arguably demonstrating that the whole process of printing actually produced books.
Many book-lovers have commented on the high standards achieved in the production of the Gutenberg Bible, some describing it as one of the most beautiful books ever printed. The quality of both the ink and other materials and the printing itself have been noted.
The paper size is ‘double folio’, with two pages printed on each side (four pages per sheet). After printing the paper was folded once to the size of a single page. Typically, five of these folded sheets (10 leaves, or 20 printed pages) were combined to a single physical section, called a quinternion, that could then be bound into a book. Some sections, however, had as few as 4 leaves or as many as 12 leaves. Some sections may have been printed in a larger number, especially those printed later in the publishing process, and sold unbound. The pages were not numbered. The technique was not new, since it had been used to make blank “white-paper” books to be written afterwards. What was new was determining beforehand the correct placement and orientation of each page on the five sheets to result in the correct sequence when bound. The technique for locating the printed area correctly on each page was also new.
The folio size, 307 x 445 mm, has the ratio of 1.45:1. The printed area had the same ratio, and was shifted out of the middle to leave a 2:1 white margin, both horizontally and vertically. Historian John Man writes that the ratio was chosen to be close to the golden ratio of 1.61:1. To reach this ratio more closely the vertical size should be 338 mm, but there is no reason why Gutenberg would let this non-trivial difference of 8 mm go by in a work so detailed in other aspects.
A single complete copy of the Gutenberg Bible has 1,286 pages (usually bound in two volumes); with 4 pages per folio-sheet, 322 sheets of paper are required per copy. The handmade paper used by Gutenberg was of fine quality and was imported from Italy. Each sheet contains a watermark left by the papermold.
In Gutenberg’s time, inks used by scribes to produce manuscripts were water-based. Gutenberg developed an oil-based ink that would better adhere to his metal type. His ink was primarily carbon, but also had a high metallic content, with copper, lead, and titanium predominating. Head of collections at the British Library Dr Kristian Jensen described it thus:” if you look (at the pages of The Gutenberg Bible) closely you will see this is a very shiny surface. When you write you use a water based ink, you put your pen into it and it runs off. Now if you print that’s exactly what you don’t want. One of Gutenberg’s inventions was an ink which wasn’t ink, it’s a varnish. So what we call printer’s ink is actually a varnish, and that means it sticks to its surface.” 
The first part of the Gutenberg idea was using a single, hand-carved character to create identical copies of itself. Cutting a single letter could take a craftsman a day of work. A single page taking 2500 letters made this way was impractical. A less labour-intensive method of reproduction was needed. Copies were produced by stamping the original into an iron plate, called a matrix. A rectangular tube was then connected to the matrix, creating a container in which molten type metal could be poured. Once cooled, the solid metal form was released from the tube. The fundamental innovation is that this matrix can be used to produce many duplicates of the same letter. The result of each molding was a rectangular block of metal with the form of the desired character protruding from the end. This piece of type could be put in a line, facing up, with other pieces of type. These lines were arranged to form blocks of text, which could be inked and pressed against paper, transferring the desired text to the paper.
Each unique character requires a master piece of type in order to be replicated. Given that each letter has uppercase and lowercase forms, and the number of various punctuation marks and ligatures (e.g. the sequence ‘fi’ combined in one character, commonly used in writing) the Gutenberg Bible needed a set of 290 master characters. It seems probable that six pages, containing 15600 characters altogether, would be set at any one moment.
The Gutenberg Bible is printed in the blackletter type styles that would become known as Textualis (Textura) and Schwabacher. The name texture refers to the texture of the printed page: straight vertical strokes combined with horizontal lines, giving the impression of a woven structure. Gutenberg already used the technique of justification, that is, creating a vertical, not indented, alignment at the left and right-hand sides of the column. To do this, he used various methods, including using characters of narrower widths, adding extra spaces around punctuation, and varying the widths of spaces around words. On top of this, he subsequently let punctuation marks go beyond that vertical line, called Hanging punctuation, thereby using the massive black characters to make this justification stronger to the eye.
Rubrication, illumination and binding
Copies left the Gutenberg workshop unbound, without decoration, and for the most part without rubrication.
Initially the rubrics — the headings before each book of the Bible — were printed, but this experiment was quickly abandoned, and gaps were left for rubrication to be added by hand. A guide of the text to be added to each page, printed for use by rubricators, survives.
The spacious margin allowed illuminated decoration to be added by hand. The amount of decoration presumably depended on how much each buyer could or would pay. Some copies were never decorated. The place of decoration can be known or inferred for about 30 of the surviving copies. Perhaps 13 of these received their decoration in Mainz, but others were worked on as far away as London. The vellum Bibles were more expensive and perhaps for this reason tend to be more highly decorated, although the vellum copy in the British Library is completely undecorated. There has been speculation that the Master of the Playing Cards was partly responsible for the illumination of the Princeton copy, though all that can be said for certain is that the same model book was used for some of the illustrations in this copy and for some of the Master’s playing cards.
Although many Gutenberg Bibles have been rebound over the years, nine copies retain fifteenth-century bindings. Most of these copies were bound in either Mainz or Erfurt. Most copies were divided into two volumes, the first volume ending with The Book of Psalms. Copies on vellum were heavier and for this reason were sometimes bound in three or four volumes.
The Bible seems to have sold out immediately, with initial sales to owners as far away as England and possibly Sweden and Hungary. At least some copies are known to have sold for 30 florins – about three years wages for a clerk. Although this made them significantly cheaper than manuscript Bibles, most students, priests or other people of ordinary income would have been unable to afford them. It is assumed that most were sold to monasteries, universities and particularly wealthy individuals. At present only one copy is known to have been privately owned in the fifteenth century. Some are known to have been used for communal readings in monastery refectories; others may have been for display rather than use, and a few were certainly used for study. Kristian Jensen suggests that many copies were bought by wealthy and pious laypeople for donation to religious institutions.
Influence on later Bibles
The Gutenberg Bible had a profound effect on the history of the printed book. Textually, it also had an influence on future editions of the Bible. It provided the model for several later editions, including the 36 Line Bible, Mentelin’s Latin Bible, and the first and third Eggestein Bibles. The third Eggestein Bible was set from the copy of the Gutenberg Bible now in Cambridge University Library. The Gutenberg Bible also had an influence on the Clementine edition of the Vulgate commissioned by the Papacy in the late sixteenth century.
Dr. Niels Henry Sonne, the Head Librarian, said, “A notable possession of the General Theological Seminary Library is a complete and excellent copy of the Gutenberg Bible.” The copy of the Gutenberg Bible held by the General Theological Seminary Library, was found to have a forged leaf. The forged leaf was discovered by Mr. Joseph Martini, a New York book dealer. The leaf carried part of Chapter 14, all of Chapter 15, and part of Chapter 16 of the Book of Ezekiel. It was impossible to tell when the forged leaf had been inserted into the volume. In the fall of 1953, a generous friend of the Seminary gave a copy of the missing leaf to the General Theological Seminary Library, “…and the Seminary’s great Bible became the first imperfect Gutenberg Bible ever restored to completeness. The substitute leaf was taken from a defective copy of volume two, which was being broken up for sale in parts and leaves.”
As of 2009, forty-eight 42-line Bibles are known to exist, but of these only 21 are complete. Others have leaves or even whole volumes missing. In addition, there are a substantial number of fragments, some as small as individual leaves, which are likely to represent about another 16 copies. Many of these fragments have survived because they were used as part of the binding of later books. There are twelve surviving copies on vellum, although only four of these are complete and one is of the New Testament only.
Copy numbers listed below are as found in the Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, taken from a 1985 survey of existing copies by Ilona Hubay; the two copies in Russia were not known to exist in 1985, and so were not catalogued.
|Austria (1)||Austrian National Library, Vienna||27||complete||paper||Online images (German)|
|Belgium (1)||Library of the University of Mons-Hainaut, Mons||1||incomplete||paper||Vol. I. Part of the same copy as the volume in Indiana (see below)|
|Denmark (1)||Danish Royal Library, Copenhagen||12||incomplete||paper||Vol. II|
|France (4)||Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris||15||complete||vellum|
|17||incomplete||paper||Contains note by binder dating it to 24 August 1456|
|Bibliothèque Mazarine, Paris||16||complete||paper|
|Bibliothèque Municipale, Saint-Omer||18||incomplete||paper|
|Germany (13)||Gutenberg Museum, Mainz||8||incomplete||paper||One copy is vol. I; the other both vols. It is unclear which is which.
Online images of the 2 volume copy (German)
|Landesbibliothek, Fulda||4||incomplete||vellum||Vol. I. Two individual leaves from Vol. II survive in other libraries.|
|Leipzig University Library, Leipzig||14||incomplete||vellum|
|Göttingen State and University Library, Göttingen||2||complete||vellum||Online images|
|Berlin State Library, Berlin||3||incomplete||vellum|
|Bavarian State Library, Munich||5||complete||paper||Online images of vol. 1 vol. 2 (German)|
|Frankfurt University Library, Frankfurt am Main||6||complete||paper|
|Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart||10||incomplete||paper||Online images Purchased in April 1978 for 2.2 million US dollars (ex General Theological Seminary)|
|Stadtbibliothek, Trier||11||incomplete||paper||Vol. I|
|Landesbibliothek, Kassel||12||incomplete||paper||Vol. I|
|Gottorf Castle, Schleswig||–||incomplete||paper||The Rendsburg Fragment|
|Japan (1)||Keio University Library, Tokyo||45||incomplete||paper||Vol. I, Purchased in October 1987 for 4.9 million (plus an auction house commission of $490,000) for a total of 5.4 million US dollars
|Poland (1)||Biblioteka Seminarium Duchownego, Pelpin||28||incomplete||paper||Online images of vol. 1 vol. 2 (Polish)|
|Portugal (1)||Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, Lisbon||29||complete||paper|
|Russia (2)||Russian State Library, Moscow||–||incomplete||vellum||Confiscated in 1945 from the Deutsches Buch- und Schriftmuseum, Leipzig|
|Moscow State University, Moscow||–||complete||paper||Confiscated in 1945 from the Library of the University of Leipzig|
|Spain (2)||Biblioteca Universitaria y Provincial, Seville||32||incomplete||paper||New Testament only
Online images (Spanish)
|Biblioteca Pública Provincial, Burgos||31||complete||paper|
|Switzerland (1)||Bodmer Library, Cologny||30||incomplete||paper|
|United Kingdom (8)||British Library, London||?||complete||vellum||Online images|
|National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh||26||complete||paper||Online images|
|Lambeth Palace Library, London||20||incomplete||vellum||New Testament only|
|Eton College Library, Eton College||23||complete||paper|
|John Rylands Library, Manchester||25||complete||paper||Online images of 11 pages|
|Bodleian Library, Oxford||24||complete||paper||High Resolution Online images|
|Cambridge University Library, Cambridge||22||complete||paper||Online images of vol. 1; vol. 2|
|United States (11)||The Morgan Library & Museum, New York||37||incomplete||vellum||PML 13 & PML 818|
|44||incomplete||paper||PML 1. Old Testament only
|Library of Congress, Washington DC||35||complete||vellum||Online images|
|New York Public Library||42||incomplete||paper|
|Widener Library, Harvard University||40||complete||paper|
|Beinecke Library, Yale University||41||complete||paper|
|Scheide Library, Princeton University||43||paper||Online images|
|Lilly Library, Indiana University||46||incomplete||paper||New Testament only. Part of the same copy as the volume in Mons (see above).
|Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA||36||complete||vellum|
|Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin||39||complete||paper||Purchased in 1978 for 2.4 million US dollars.
|Vatican City (2)||Vatican Library||33||incomplete||vellum|
Today, few copies remain in religious institutions, with most now owned by university libraries and other major scholarly institutions. After centuries in which all copies seem to have remained in Europe, the first Gutenberg Bible reached North America in 1847. It is now in the New York Public Library. In the last hundred years, several long-lost copies have come to light, considerably improving the understanding of how the Bible was produced and distributed. The only copy held outside Europe or North America is the first volume of a Gutenberg Bible (Hubay 45) at Keio University in Tokyo. The HUMI Project team at Keio University is known for its high-quality digital images of Gutenberg Bibles and other rare books.
In 1921 a New York rare book dealer, Gabriel Wells, bought a damaged paper copy, dismantled the book and sold sections and individual leaves to book collectors and libraries. The leaves were sold in a portfolio case with an essay written by A. Edward Newton, and were referred to as “Noble Fragments”. In 1953 Charles Scribner’s Sons, also book dealers in New York, dismembered a paper copy of volume II. The largest portion of this, the New Testament, is now owned by Indiana University. The matching first volume of this copy was subsequently discovered in Mons, Belgium.
The last sale of a complete Gutenberg Bible took place in 1978. It fetched $2.2 million. This copy is now in Stuttgart. The price of a complete copy today is estimated at $25−35 million. Individual leaves now sell for $20,000–$100,000, depending upon condition and the desirability of the page.
A two-volume edition of the Gutenberg Bible was stolen from Moscow State University in 2009 and subsequently recovered in a FSB sting operation in 2013. This particular copy had been looted by the Soviet Army after World War II from the Deutsches Buch- und Schriftmuseum, Leipzig, Germany, and is estimated to be worth in excess of $20.4 million.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gutenberg Bible.|
The Unanswered Question
The Unanswered Question is a musical work by American composer Charles Ives. Originally paired with Central Park in the Dark as Two Contemplations in 1908,[a] The Unanswered Question was revived by Ives in 1930–1935. As with many of Ives’ works, it was largely unknown until much later in his life, and was not performed until 1946.
Against a background of slow, quiet strings representing “The Silence of the Druids“, a solo trumpet poses “The Perennial Question of Existence”, to which a woodwind quartet of “Fighting Answerers” tries vainly to provide an answer, growing more frustrated and dissonant until they give up. The three groups of instruments perform in independent tempos and are placed separately on the stage—the strings offstage.
The Unanswered Question is scored for three groups: a string ensemble, a solo trumpet, and a woodwind quartet. The groups’ play in independent tempos and are placed in such a way that they might not be able to see each other; the strings play offstage.
Ives provided a short text by which to interpret the work, giving it a narrative as in program music. Throughout the piece the strings sustain slow tonal triads that, according to Ives, represent “The Silence of the Druids—who Know, See and Hear Nothing”. Against this background, the trumpet poses a nontonal phrase seven times—”The Perennial Question of Existence”—to which the woodwinds “answer” the first six times in an increasingly erratic way. Ives wrote that the woodwinds’ answers represented “Fighting Answerers” who, after a time, “realize a futility and begin to mock ‘The Question'” before finally disappearing, leaving “The Question” to be asked once more before “The Silences” are left to their “Undisturbed Solitude”.
The strings twice repeat a pianissimo thirteen-bar progression, so slowly it has a static feel. It uses voice leading, passing tones, and ornamental notes in a manner reminiscent of a hymn or chorale. After the repetition, the strings’ part varies in subtle ways that are difficult for the listener to detect. In contrast to this ever-changing but seemingly regular “Silence”, the trumpet repeats the same “Question”, the first six times each louder than the last; it is the woodwinds’ atonal answers that change in obvious ways, growing increasingly agitated and dissonant. After the woodwinds finally give up, the trumpet poses the question quietly one last time.
Kupfer ex Eckblad (1968)
(Peck) Kupfer ex Eckblad (1968)
|Distribution in Texas (above), and Japan (below) shown in red and dark green, respectively.|
|Urnula geaster Peck (1893)
Chorioactis geaster (Peck) Kupfer (1902)
Chorioactis is a genus of fungus that contains the single species Chorioactis geaster. The mushroom is commonly known as the devil’s cigar or the Texas star in the United States, while in Japan it is called kirinomitake ( キリノミタケ?). This extremely rare mushroom is notable for its unusual appearance and disjunct distribution: it is found only in select locales in Texas and Japan. The fruit body, which grows on the stumps or dead roots of cedar elms (in Texas) or dead oaks (in Japan), somewhat resembles a dark brown or black cigar before it splits open radially into a starlike arrangement of four to seven leathery rays. The interior surface of the fruit body bears the spore-bearing tissue known as the hymenium, and is colored white to brown, depending on its age. The fruit body opening can be accompanied by a distinct hissing sound and the release of a smoky cloud of spores.
Fruit bodies were first collected in Austin, Texas, and the species was named Urnula geaster in 1893; later it was found in Kyushu in 1937, but the mushroom was not reported again in Japan until 1973. Although the new genus Chorioactis was proposed to accommodate the unique species a few years after its original discovery, it was not until 1968 that it was accepted as a valid genus. Its classification has also been a source of confusion. Historically, Chorioactis was placed in the fungus family Sarcosomataceae, despite inconsistencies in the microscopic structure of the ascus, the saclike structure in which spores are formed. Phylogenetic analyses of the past decade have clarified the fungus’s classification: Chorioactis, along with three other genera, make up the family Chorioactidaceae, a grouping of related fungi formally acknowledged in 2008. In 2009, Japanese researchers reported discovering a form of the fungus missing the sexual stage of its life cycle; this asexual state was named Kumanasamuha geaster.
Marcus Underwood, who sent the specimens to mycologist Charles Horton Peck for identification. Peck described the species as Urnula geaster in that year’s Annual Report of the New York State botanist, although he expressed doubt about its generic placement in Urnula. In 1902, student mycologist Elsie Kupfer questioned the proposed classification of various species in the genera Urnula and Geopyxis, as suggested in an 1896 publication on the Discomycetes by German mycologist Heinrich Rehm. She considered Rehm’s transfer of the species to the genus Geopyxis illogical:
“Even externally the fungus does not closely answer Rehm’s own description of the genus Geopyxis under which he places it; the texture of the apothecium is described as fleshy, the stem, as short and sometimes thin; while in this plant, the leathery character of the cup and the length and thickness of the stem are its noticeable features.”
Working with Underwood’s guidance, Kupfer compared the microscopic
structure of the hymenium (the fertile, spore-bearing tissue) of the Texan species with a number of similar ones—Geopyxis carbonaria, Urnula craterium, and Urnula terrestris (now known as Podophacidium xanthomelum). She concluded that the Texan species was so dissimilar as to warrant its own genus, which she named Chorioactis. Although this taxonomical change was opposed in later studies of the fungus by Frederick De Forest Heald and Frederick Adolf Wolf (1910) and Fred Jay Seaver (1928, 1942), Chorioactis was established as a valid genus in 1968 by Finn-Egil Eckblad in his comprehensive monograph about the Discomycetes.[8
Great compositions/Performances: Bach: Cantata, BWV 147, Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring: make music part of your life
Gymnema sylvestre: used for thousands of years as tea for various ailments of the digestive system and Type 2 daibetes
|in Karyavattam University Campus of Kerala, India.|
Gymnema sylvestre (Sinhala: මස්බැද්ද / Masbadda)(Malayalam:ചക്കരക്കൊല്ലി ,Tamil:சிறுகுறிஞ்சா) is an herb native to the tropical forests of southern and central India and Sri Lanka. Chewing the leaves suppresses the sensation of sweet. This effect is attributed to the eponymous gymnemic acids. G. sylvestre has been used in herbal medicine as a treatment for diabetes for nearly two millennia, and though there is insufficient scientific evidence to draw definitive conclusions about its efficacy two small clinical trials have shown gymnema to reduce glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Common names include gymnema, cowplant, Australian cowplant, gurmari, gurmarbooti, gurmar, periploca of the woods, meshasringa (मेषशृंग), Bedki cha pala (बेडकीचा पाला) and miracle fruit(also a common name for two unrelated plants).
The major bioactive constituents of G. sylvestre are a group of oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins known as gymnemic acids. The latter contain several acylated (tigloyl, methylbutyroyl etc.,) derivatives of deacylgymnemic acid (DAGA) which is the 3-O-glucuronide of gymnemagenin (3,16,21,22,23,28-hexahydroxy-olean-12-ene). The individual gymnemic acids (saponins) include gymnemic acids I-VII, gymnemosides A-F, and gymnemasaponins.
G. sylvestre leaves contain triterpene saponins belonging to oleanane and dammarene classes. Oleanane saponins are gymnemic acids and gymnemasaponins, while dammarene saponins are gymnemasides. Besides this, other plant constituents are flavones, anthraquinones, hentriacontane, pentatriacontane, α and β-chlorophylls, phytin, resins, d-quercitol, tartaric acid, formic acid, butyric acid, lupeol, β-amyrin-related glycosides and stigmasterol. The plant extract also tests positive for alkaloids. Leaves of this species yield acidic glycosides and anthroquinones and their derivatives.
Use as herbal medicine
||This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (December 2012)|
The effects of the herb are not entirely known. Gymnema reduces the taste of sugar when it is placed in the mouth. From extract of the leaves were isolated glycosides known as gymnemic acids, which exhibit anti-sweet activity. This effect lasts up to about 2 hours. Some postulate that the herb may block sugar receptors on the tongue. This effect was observed in isolated rat neurons.
The active ingredients are thought to be the family of compounds related to gymnemic acid: purified gymnemic acids are widely used as experimental reagents in taste physiology and have also an anti-diabetic effect in animal models, reduce intestinal transport of maltose in rats when combined with acarbose, and reduce absorption of free oleic acid in rats.
A water-soluble extract of G. sylvestre caused reversible increases in intracellular calcium and insulin secretion in mouse and human β-cells when used at a concentration (0.125 mg/ml) without compromising cell viability. This in vitro data suggests that extracts derived from G. sylvestre may be useful as therapeutic agents for the stimulation of insulin secretion in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The rise in insulin levels may be due to regeneration of the cells in the pancreas. G. sylvestre can also help prevent adrenal hormones from stimulating the liver to produce glucose in mice, thereby reducing blood sugar levels. Clinical trials with type 2 diabetics in India have used 400 mg per day of water-soluble acidic fraction of the Gymnema leaves administered for 18–20 months as a supplement to the conventional oral drugs. During GS4 supplementation, the patients showed a significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and glycosylated plasma proteins, and conventional drug dosage could be decreased. Five of the 22 diabetic patients were able to discontinue their conventional drug and maintain their blood glucose homeostasis with GS4 alone. These data suggest that the beta cells may be regenerated/repaired in Type 2 diabetic patients on GS4 supplementation. This is supported by the appearance of raised insulin levels in the serum of patients after GS4 supplementation. Though for the moment G. sylvestre cannot be used in place of insulin to control blood sugar by people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, further evidence of its positive effect is accumulating[unreliable source?]
Despite the part used being the leaf, one common name of this species is miracle fruit, a name shared by two other species: Synsepalum dulcificum and Thaumatococcus daniellii. Both species are used to alter the perceived sweetness of foods.
In English the species is also known as gymnema, cowplant, and Australian cowplant.
This species also goes under many other names such as; Gurmari, Gurmarbooti, Gurmar, periploca of the woods and Meshasringa. The Hindi word Gur-mar (Madhunaashini in Sanskrit, Chakkarakolli in Malayalam,Podapatri in Telugu), literally means sugar destroyer. Meshasringa (Sanskrit) translates as “ram’s horn”, a name given to the plant from the shape of its fruits. Gymnema derives from the Greek words “gymnos” (γυμνὀς) and “nēma” (νῆμα) meaning “naked” and “thread” respectively; the species epitheton sylvestre means “of the forest” in Latin.
October 29, 1875 in History Born:
Marie, queen consort of Ferdinand I of Romania, 1914-27
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Princess Marie of Edinburgh, more commonly known as Marie of Romania (Marie Alexandra Victoria; 29 October 1875 – 18 July 1938),[note 1] was the last Queen consort of Romania as the wife of King Ferdinand I.
Born into the British royal family, she was titled Princess Marie of Edinburgh at birth. Her parents were Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. Marie’s early years were spent in Kent, Malta and Coburg. After refusing a proposal from her cousin, the future King George V, she was chosen as the future wife of Crown Prince Ferdinand of Romania, the heir apparent of King Carol I, in 1892. Marie was Crown Princess between 1893 and 1914, and became immediately popular with the Romanian people.
After the outbreak of World War I, Marie urged Ferdinand to ally himself with the Triple Entente and declare war on Germany, which he eventually did in 1916. During the early stages of fighting, Bucharest was occupied by the Central Powers and Marie, Ferdinand and their five children took refuge in Moldavia. There, she and her three daughters acted as nurses in military hospitals, caring for soldiers who were wounded or afflicted by cholera. On 1 December 1918, the province of Transylvania, following Bessarabia and Bukovina, united with the Old Kingdom. Marie, now Queen consort of Greater Romania, attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, where she campaigned for international recognition of the enlarged Romania. In 1922, she and Ferdinand were crowned in a specially-built cathedral in the ancient city of Alba Iulia, in an elaborate ceremony which mirrored their status as queen and king of a united state.
As queen, she was very popular, both in Romania and abroad. In 1926, Marie and two of her children undertook a diplomatic tour of the United States. They were received enthusiastically by the people and visited several cities before returning to Romania. There, Marie found that Ferdinand was gravely ill and he died a few months later. Now queen dowager, Marie refused to be part of the regency council which reigned over the country under the minority of her grandson, King Michael. In 1930, Marie’s eldest son Carol, who had waived his rights to succession, deposed his son and usurped the throne, becoming King Carol II. He removed Marie from the political scene and strived to crush her popularity. As a result, Marie moved away from Bucharest and spent the rest of her life either in the countryside, or at her home by the Black Sea. In 1937, she became ill with cirrhosis and died the following year.
Following Romania’s transition to a Socialist Republic, the monarchy was excoriated by communist officials. Several biographies of the royal family described Marie either as a drunkard or as a promiscuous woman, referring to her many alleged affairs and to orgies she had supposedly organised before and during the war. In the years preceding the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Marie’s popularity recovered and she was offered as a model of patriotism to the population. Marie is primarily remembered for her work as a nurse, but is also known for her extensive writing, including her critically acclaimed autobiography.
|Queen consort of Romania|
|Reign||10 October 1914 – 20 July 1927|
|Coronation||15 October 1922|
|Spouse||Ferdinand I, King of Romania|
|House||House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (by birth)
House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (by marriage)
|Father||Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh|
|Mother||Maria Alexandrovna of Russia|
|Born||29 October 1875
Eastwell Park, Kent, England
|Died||18 July 1938 (aged 62)
Pelișor Castle, Sinaia, Romania
|Burial||24 July 1938
Curtea de Argeș Cathedral
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Adele – Skyfall (Lyrics on screen) Published Published on Oct 5, 2012/views: 4,798,136: make music part of your life series
Adele – Skyfall Lyrics on screen
this pressed: El Monte residents tell us how they envision their town — KCET-TV SoCal (@KCET)/Wikipedia
El Monte residents tell us how they envision their town @ the annual Dia de los Muertos event. http://t.co/XYBWmpxIIA pic.twitter.com/93of1FQIOO
— KCET-TV SoCal (@KCET) October 25, 2014
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Day of the Dead (Spanish: Día de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday observed throughout Mexico and around the world in other cultures. The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died. It is particularly celebrated in Mexico where the day is a bank holiday. The celebration takes place on October 31, November 1 and November 2, in connection with the triduum of Allhallowtide: All Hallows’ Eve, Hallowmas, and All Souls’ Day. Traditions connected with the holiday include building private altars called ofrendas, honoring the deceased using sugar skulls, marigolds, and the favorite foods and beverages of the departed, and visiting graves with these as gifts. They also leave possessions of the deceased.
Scholars trace the origins of the modern Mexican holiday to indigenous observances dating back hundreds of years and to an Aztec festival dedicated to the goddess Mictecacihuatl. The holiday has spread throughout the world. In Brazil Dia de Finados is a public holiday that many Brazilians celebrate by visiting cemeteries and churches. In Spain there are festivals and parades and, at the end of the day, people gather at cemeteries and pray for their dead loved ones. Similar observances occur elsewhere in Europe, and similarly themed celebrations appear in many Asian and African cultures.
|Day of the Dead|
|Observed by||Mexico, and regions with large Hispanic populations|
|Significance||Prayer and remembrance of friends and family members who have died|
|Celebrations||Creation of altars to remember the dead, traditional day of the dead’s food|
|Next time||31 October 2014|
Roman Carnival Overture – Hector Berlioz
Mendelssohn A Midsummer Night’s Dream Overture Op.2, LGO|Masur (1997), Great compositions/performances,
this pressed: Glycemic index diet: What’s behind the claims – Mayo Clinic (with additional chart and data from wikipwdia)
GI values can be interpreted intuitively as percentages on an absolute scale and are commonly interpreted as follows:
|Low GI||55 or less||beans (white, black, pink, kidney, lentil, soy, almond, peanut, walnut, chickpea); small seeds (sunflower, flax, pumpkin, poppy, sesame); most whole intact grains (durum/spelt/kamut wheat, millet, oat, rye, rice, barley); most vegetables, most sweet fruits (peaches, strawberries, mangos); tagatose; fructose; mushrooms; chilis|
|Medium GI||56–69||not intact whole wheat or enriched wheat, pita bread, basmati rice, unpeeled boiled potato, grape juice, raisins, prunes, pumpernickel bread, cranberry juice, regular ice cream, sucrose, banana|
|High GI||70 and above||white bread (only wheat endosperm), most white rice (only rice endosperm), corn flakes, extruded breakfast cereals, glucose, maltose, maltodextrins, potato, pretzels, bagels|
excerpts from Mayo article:
Understanding GI values
There are various research methods for assigning a GI value to food. In general, the number is based on how much a food item raises blood glucose levels in healthy research participants compared with how much pure glucose raises their blood glucose. GI values are generally divided into three categories:
Low GI: 1 to 55
Medium GI: 56 to 69
*High GI: 70 and higher
For example, raw carrots have a GI value of 35. This means that if you eat enough carrots to consume 1.8 ounces (50 grams) of digestible carbohydrates (sugars and starches), your blood glucose level after eating the carrots will be 35 percent of the blood glucose level after eating 1.8 ounces (50 grams) of pure glucose.
Comparing these values, therefore, can help guide healthier food choices. For example, an English muffin made with white wheat flour has a GI value of 77. A whole-wheat English muffin has a GI value of 45.
via Glycemic index diet: What’s behind the claims – Mayo Clinic.
Mozart Flute Concerto No 1 in G – Jean-Pierre Rampal, Sydney Symphony Orchestra: make music part of your life series
Sibelius, Symphonie Nr 7 C Dur op 105 Leonard Bernstein, Wiener Philharmoniker: great compositions/performances
Felix Mendelssohn: Piano Concerto No. 1 in G minor, Op. 25:
- Molto allegro con fuoco in G minor
- Andante in E major
- Presto—Molto allegro e vivace in G major
|Definition:||(noun) A secret store of valuables or money.|
|Usage:||In case of an emergency, I have a small cache of money and weapons hidden in the shed. Discuss.|
Mozart: Symphony ‘Jupiter’ No.41 in C major, K 551 (Jaap Ter Linden & Mozart Akademie Amsterdam): great compositions/performances
Johanes Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphony ‘Jupiter’ No.41 in C major, (K 551)
Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony no.8 in F Major, Op 93
Mendelssohn-Piano Concerto No. 1 in g minor Op. 25, Rudolf Serkin/Philadelphia Orchestra- Eugene Ormandy: great compositions/perfornmances
Mendelssohn-Piano Concerto No. 1 in g minor Op. 25
Rome (music: Respighi – Fountains of Rome)
Ludwig van Beethoven: Piano Sonata No. 15 in D major, op. 28, “Pastoral”- Daniel Barenboim: great compositions/performances
Symphony No. 3 in D Major, Op. 29 “Polish” – Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: great compositions/performances
quotation: Music expresses that which cannot be said and on which it is impossible to be silent. Victor Hugo
Music expresses that which cannot be said and on which it is impossible to be silent.
Victor Hugo (1802-1885) Discuss
Éléonore Darmon et Éric Astoul jouent Tchaikovsky “Souvenir d’un Lieu Cher” op. 42: make music part of your life series
Mendelssohn: Symphony No.3 – Blomstedt/RCO(2008Live)
Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 “From The New World” / Karajan · Vienna Philarmonic : great compositions/performances
Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 “From The New World” / Karajan · Vienna Philarmonic
The Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 35, was written by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1878. It is one of the best known violin concertos, and is considered one of the most technically difficult works for the violin.
Giuseppe Sammartini Oboe Concerto in E flat major
Ciociaria (Italian pronunciation: [tʃotʃaˈɾiːa]) is the name of a traditional region of Central Italy without a defined border nor historical identity. The name was adopted by a fascist movement of Frosinone as an ethnical denomination for the province of Frosinone, when it was created in 1927. In the Middle Ages, this region was referred to as Campagna. The local dialect, now known as ciociaro, was earlier referred to as campanino. In more recent times, the term Campagna Romana, or Roman Campagna, a favorite subject of countless painters from all over Europe, has referred to the adjoining region to the north of Ciociaria, but part of the Province of Rome.