(Quote: Constantin Brâncuşi)
The Little Mermaid is a fairy tale by the Danish author Hans Christian Andersen about a young mermaid who is willing to give up everything to gain the love of a prince and an eternal soul. The story has been adapted into numerous films, TV series, an opera, and a ballet. Who served as the model for the famed Little Mermaid statue that sits on a rock in the Copenhagen harbor? More… Discuss
Este așezată în partea veche a orașului, în Piața Ovidiu, în fața primei clădiri a Primăriei Constanța, azi Muzeului Național de Istorie și Arheologie, lângă portul Tomis.
Primul dintre monumentele statuare ridicat la Constanța după reintrarea sub administrație românească este cel care îl înfățișează pe marele poet roman Publius Ovidius Naso (43 î.e.n. — 17 e.n.). Statuia din bronz îl înfățișează pe Ovidiu într-o atitudine adânc meditativă. Dezvelirea statuii, în august 1887, a prilejuit o adevărată sărbătoare la care au participat toți constănțenii, în frunte cu prefectul Remus Opreanu, inițiatorul „Comitetului pentru statuia lui Ovidiu”.
Statuia se află pe un soclu de marmură albă, pe care este încrustată o placă cu un text din „Tristele”.
Inițial statuia a fost amplasată cu fața spre nord, construcția Palatului Primăriei impunând, în 1921, mutarea pe actualul loc. În cursul ocupației Germano-Bulgare, în anii 1916-1918, statuia a fost dată jos de pe soclu de armata bulgară, pentru a fi luată ca pradă de război, dar intervenția unor ofițeri germani a oprit originala “inițiativă culturală”; până la revenirea autorităților românești, în noiembrie 1918, statuia a fost adăpostită în subsolul Primăriei. În 1925, o replică fidelă a acestei opere a fost dezvelită în orașul natal al poetului – Sulmona.
Statue of Ovidiu Constanta Constanta is a monument in the city. He was executed in 1887 by the Italian sculptor Ettore Ferrari. A replica is from 1925 to Sulmona (Italy).
It is situated in the old town, Ovidiu Square, in front of the first building of Constanta City Hall, today the National Museum of History and Archaeology, near the port Tomis.
Some time ago, [when?] Ovid’s statue was inadequate taken care of. 
Statue of Ovid in 1941
DescriptionThe first statutory monuments raised in Constanta after re under Romanian administration is one that depicts the great Roman poet Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD). The bronze statue depicts Ovidiu a deep meditative attitude. Unveiling the statue, in August 1887 brought about a veritable feast attended by all Constantenii, headed by the Prefect Remus Opreanu initiator “Ovid’s statue Committee”.The statue stands on a pedestal of white marble, which is encrusted plate with a text of “Tristia”.
“Under this stone lies Ovidiu singer
Tender love succumbed to his talent.
O you who pass by and if you ever loved aicea
I pray for him to be his gentle sleep. “
Originally the statue was placed facing north, requiring the construction of the Palace Hall in 1921, moving to the current place. In the German-Bulgarian occupation in the years 1916-1918, the statue was taken down from the pedestal of the Bulgarian army, to be taken as war booty, but the intervention of German officers stopped the original “cultural values”; to return Romanian authorities in November 1918, the statue was housed in the basement of City Hall. In 1925, a replica of this work was unveiled in hometown of poet – Sulmona.
In 1905, photographer Gertrude K?sebier captures the profile of artist and sculputer Auguste Rodin in Meudon, France.
Photo: Library of Congress
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Ad Deir (‘The Monastery’), Petra, Jordan pic.twitter.com/OuoElcsUKz
— AlluringArchitecture (@ArchitectureAce) February 28, 2015
Al Khazneh or The Treasury at Petra
|Location||Ma’an Governorate, Jordan|
|Elevation||810 m (2,657 ft)|
|Built||possibly as early as 5th century BC |
|Visitation||580,000 (in 2007)|
|Governing body||Petra Region Authority|
|Criteria||i, iii, iv|
|Designated||1985 (9th session)|
Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα) is a historical and archaeological city in the southern Jordanian governorate of Ma’an that is famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. Another name for Petra is the Rose City due to the color of the stone out of which it is carved.
Established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans, it is a symbol of Jordan, as well as Jordan’s most-visited tourist attraction. It lies on the slope of Jebel al-Madhbah (identified by some as the biblical Mount Hor) in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985.
The site remained unknown to the Western world until 1812, when it was introduced by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. It was described as “a rose-red city half as old as time” in a Newdigate Prize-winning poem by John William Burgon. UNESCO has described it as “one of the most precious cultural properties of man’s cultural heritage”. See: UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Petra was chosen by the Smithsonian Magazine as one of the “28 Places to See Before You Die”.
Pliny the Elder and other writers identify Petra as the capital of the Nabataeans and the center of their caravan trade. Enclosed by towering rocks and watered by a perennial stream, Petra not only possessed the advantages of a fortress, but controlled the main commercial routes which passed through it to Gaza in the west, to Bosra and Damascus in the north, to Aqaba and Leuce Come on the Red Sea, and across the desert to the Persian Gulf.
In ancient times, Petra might have been approached from the south on a track leading across the plain of Petra, around Jabal Haroun (“Aaron’s Mountain”), where the Tomb of Aaron, said to be the burial-place of Aaron, brother of Moses, is located. Another approach was possibly from the high plateau to the north. Today, most modern visitors approach the site from the east. The impressive eastern entrance leads steeply down through a dark, narrow gorge (in places only 3–4 m (9.8–13.1 ft) wide) called the Siq (“the shaft”), a natural geological feature formed from a deep split in the sandstone rocks and serving as a waterway flowing into Wadi Musa. At the end of the narrow gorge stands Petra’s most elaborate ruin, Al Khazneh (popularly known as and meaning “the Treasury”), hewn into the sandstone cliff. While remaining in remarkably preserved condition, the face of the structure is marked by hundreds of bullet holes made by the local Bedouin tribes that hoped to dislodge riches that were once rumored to be hidden within it.
A little farther from the Treasury, at the foot of the mountain called en-Nejr, is a massive theatre, positioned so as to bring the greatest number of tombs within view. At the point where the valley opens out into the plain, the site of the city is revealed with striking effect. The amphitheatre has been cut into the hillside and into several of the tombs during its construction. Rectangular gaps in the seating are still visible. Almost enclosing it on three sides are rose-colored mountain walls, divided into groups by deep fissures and lined with knobs cut from the rock in the form of towers.
Some of the earliest recorded farmers settled in Beidha, a pre-pottery settlement just north of Petra, by 7000 BC. Petra is listed in Egyptian campaign accounts and the Amarna letters as Pel, Sela or Seir. Though the city was founded relatively late, a sanctuary has existed there since very ancient times. Stations 19 through 26 of the stations list of Exodus are places associated with Petra. This part of the country was biblically assigned to the Horites, the predecessors of the Edomites. The habits of the original natives may have influenced the Nabataean custom of burying the dead and offering worship in half-excavated caves. Although Petra is usually identified with Sela, which means a rock, the Biblical references refer to it as “the cleft in the rock”, referring to its entrance. In the parallel passage, however, Sela is understood to mean simply “the rock” (2 Chronicles xxv. 12, see LXX).
Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews iv. 7, 1~ 4, 7), Eusebius and Jerome (Onom. sacr. 286, 71. 145, 9; 228, 55. 287, 94) assert that Rekem was the native name, and this name appears in the Dead Sea Scrolls as a prominent Edomite site most closely describing Petra, and associated with Mount Seir. But in the Aramaic versions, Rekem is the name of Kadesh, implying that Josephus may have confused the two places. The Semitic name of the city, if not Sela, remains unknown. The passage in Diodorus Siculus (xix. 94–97) which describes the expeditions which Antigonus sent against the Nabataeans in 312 BC is understood to throw some light upon the history of Petra, but the “petra” referred to as a natural fortress and place of refuge cannot be a proper name and the description implies that the town was not yet in existence.
The name “Rekem” was inscribed in the rock wall of the Wadi Musa opposite the entrance to the Siq, but about twenty years ago[timeframe?] the Jordanians built a bridge over the wadi and this inscription was buried beneath tons of concrete.
More satisfactory evidence of the date of the earliest Nabataean settlement may be obtained from an examination of the tombs. Two types of tombs have been distinguished: the Nabataean and the Greco-Roman. The Nabataean type starts from the simple pylon-tomb with a door set in a tower crowned by a parapet ornament, in imitation of the front of a dwelling-house. Then, after passing through various stages, the full Nabataean type is reached, retaining all the native features and at the same time exhibiting characteristics which are partly Egyptian and partly Greek. Of this type close parallels exist in the tomb-towers at Mada’in Saleh in north Arabia, which bear long Nabataean inscriptions and supply a date for the corresponding monuments at Petra. Then comes a series of tombfronts which terminate in a semicircular arch, a feature derived from north Syria. Finally come the elaborate façades copied from the front of a Roman temple; however, all traces of native style have vanished. The exact dates of the stages in this development cannot be fixed. Few inscriptions of any length have been found at Petra, perhaps because they have perished with the stucco or cement which was used upon many of the buildings. The simple pylon-tombs which belong to the pre-Hellenic age serve as evidence for the earliest period. It is not known how far back in this stage the Nabataean settlement goes, but it does not go back farther than the 6th century BC. A period follows in which the dominant civilization combines Greek, Egyptian and Syrian elements, clearly pointing to the age of the Ptolemies. Towards the close of the 2nd century BC, when the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms were equally depressed, the Nabataean kingdom came to the front. Under Aretas III Philhellene, (c.85–60 BC), the royal coins begin. The theatre was probably excavated at that time, and Petra must have assumed the aspect of a Hellenistic city. In the reign of Aretas IV Philopatris, (9 BC–40 AD), the tombs of the el-I~ejr[clarification needed] type may be dated, and perhaps also the High-place.
In 106 AD, when Cornelius Palma was governor of Syria, the part of Arabia under the rule of Petra was absorbed into the Roman Empire as part of Arabia Petraea and became its capital. The native dynasty came to an end but the city continued to flourish under Roman rule. It was around this time that the Petra Roman Road was built. A century later, in the time of Alexander Severus, when the city was at the height of its splendor, the issue of coinage comes to an end. There is no more building of sumptuous tombs, owing apparently to some sudden catastrophe, such as an invasion by the neo-Persian power under the Sassanid Empire. Meanwhile, as Palmyra (fl. 130–270) grew in importance and attracted the Arabian trade away from Petra, the latter declined. It appears, however, to have lingered on as a religious centre. Another Roman road was constructed at the site. Epiphanius of Salamis (c.315–403) writes that in his time a feast was held there on December 25 in honor of the virgin Khaabou (Chaabou) and her offspring Dushara (Haer. 51).
Petra declined rapidly under Roman rule, in large part from the revision of sea-based trade routes. In 363 an earthquake destroyed many buildings, and crippled the vital water management system. The last inhabitants abandoned the city (further weakened by another major earthquake in 551) when the Arabs conquered the region in 663. The ruins of Petra were an object of curiosity in the Middle Ages and were visited by Sultan Baibars of Egypt towards the end of the 13th century. The first European to describe them was Swiss traveller Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812.
Because the structures weakened with age, many of the tombs became vulnerable to thieves, and many treasures were stolen. In 1929, a four-person team, consisting of British archaeologists Agnes Conway and George Horsfield, Palestinian physician and folklore expert Dr Tawfiq Canaan and Dr Ditlef Nielsen, a Danish scholar, excavated and surveyed Petra.
In October 1917, as part of a general effort to divert Ottoman military resources away from the British advance before the Third Battle of Gaza, a revolt of Syrians and Arabians in Petra was led by British Army officer T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) against the Ottoman regime. The Bedouin women living in the vicinity of Petra and under the leadership of Sheik Khallil’s wife were gathered to fight in the revolt of the city. The rebellions, with the support of English military, were able to devastate the Ottoman forces.
The Nabataeans worshipped the Arab gods and goddesses of the pre-Islamic times as well as a few of their deified kings. One, Obodas I, was deified after his death. Dushara was the primary male god accompanied by his female trinity: Al-‘Uzzá, Allat and Manāt. Many statues carved in the rock depict these gods and goddesses.
A stele is dedicated to Qos-Allah ‘Qos is Allah’ or ‘Qos the god’, by Qosmilk (melech – king) is found at Petra (Glueck 516). Qos is identifiable with Kaush (Qaush) the God of the older Edomites. The stele is horned and the seal from the Edomite Tawilan near Petra identified with Kaush displays a star and crescent (Browning 28), both consistent with a moon deity. It is conceivable the latter could have resulted from trade with Harran (Bartlett 194). There is continuing debate about the nature of Qos (qaus – bow) who has been identified both with a hunting bow (hunting god) and a rainbow (weather god) although the crescent above is also a bow.
Nabatean inscriptions in Sinai and other places display widespread references to names including Allah, El and Allat (god and goddess), with regional references to al-Uzza, Baal and Manutu (Manat) (Negev 11). Allat is also found in Sinai in South Arabian language. Allah occurs particularly as Garm-‘allahi – god dedided (Greek Garamelos) and Aush-allahi – ‘gods covenant’ (Greek Ausallos). We find both Shalm-lahi ‘Allah is peace’ and Shalm-allat, ‘the peace of the goddess’. We also find Amat-allahi ‘she-servant of god’ and Halaf-llahi ‘the successor of Allah’.
The Monastery, Petra’s largest monument, dates from the 1st century BC. It was dedicated to Obodas I and is believed to be the symposium of Obodas the god. This information is inscribed on the ruins of the Monastery (the name is the translation of the Arabic “Ad Deir“).
Christianity found its way to Petra in the 4th century AD, nearly 500 years after the establishment of Petra as a trade center. Athanasius mentions a bishop of Petra (Anhioch. 10) named Asterius. At least one of the tombs (the “tomb with the urn”?) was used as a church. An inscription in red paint records its consecration “in the time of the most holy bishop Jason” (447). After the Islamic conquest of 629–632 Christianity in Petra, as of most of Arabia, gave way to Islam. During the First Crusade Petra was occupied by Baldwin I of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and formed the second fief of the barony of Al Karak (in the lordship of Oultrejordain) with the title Château de la Valée de Moyse or Sela. It remained in the hands of the Franks until 1189. It is still a titular see of the Catholic Church.
Two Crusader-period castles are known in and around Petra. The first is al-Wu’ayra and is situated just north of Wadi Musa. It can be viewed from the road to “Little Petra”. It is the castle of Valle Moise which was seized by a band of Turks with the help of local Muslims and only recovered by the Crusaders after they began to destroy the olive trees of Wadi Musa. The potential loss of livelihood led the locals to negotiate surrender. The second is on the summit of el-Habis in the heart of Petra and can be accessed from the West side of the Qasr al-Bint.
According to Arab tradition, Petra is the spot where Moses (Musa) struck a rock with his staff and water came forth, and where Moses’ brother, Aaron (Harun), is buried, at Mount Hor, known today as Jabal Haroun or Mount Aaron. The Wadi Musa or “Wadi of Moses” is the Arab name for the narrow valley at the head of which Petra is sited. A mountaintop shrine of Moses’ sister Miriam was still shown to pilgrims at the time of Jerome in the 4th century, but its location has not been identified since.
The site suffers from a host of threats, including collapse of ancient structures, erosion due to flooding and improper rainwater drainage, weathering from salt upwelling, improper restoration of ancient structures, and unsustainable tourism. The last has increased substantially, especially since the site received widespread media coverage in 2007 during the controversial New Seven Wonders of the World Internet and cell phone campaign.
In an attempt to reduce the impact of these threats, Petra National Trust (PNT) was established in 1989. Over this time, it has worked together with numerous local and international organizations on projects that promote the protection, conservation and preservation of the Petra site. Moreover, UNESCO and ICOMOS recently collaborated to publish their first book on human and natural threats to these sensitive World Heritage sites. They chose Petra as its first, and the most important example of threatened landscapes. A book released in 2012, Tourism and Archaeological Heritage Management at Petra: Driver to Development or Destruction?, was the first in a series of important books to address the very nature of these deteriorating buildings, cities, sites, and regions. The next books in the series of deteriorating UNESCO World Heritage Sites will include Macchu Picchu, Angkor Wat, and Pompeii. (25).
On December 6, 1985, Petra was designated a World Heritage Site. Some of the sights of Petra are available on Google Street View.
Petra is the main topic in John William Burgon‘s sonnet (rhyme scheme aabbccddeeffgg) “Petra” which won the Newdigate Prize in 1845. The poem refers to Petra as the inaccessible city which he had heard described but had never seen:
It seems no work of Man’s creative hand,
by labour wrought as wavering fancy planned;
eternal, silent, beautiful, alone!
where erst Athena held her rites divine;
that crowns the hill and consecrates the plain;
that first beheld them were not yet withdrawn;
which Man deemed old two thousand years ago,
a rose-red city half as old as time.
In 1977, the Lebanese Rahbani brothers wrote the musical “Petra” as a response to the Lebanese Civil War.
The site is featured in films such as: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Arabian Nights, Passion in the Desert, Mortal Kombat: Annihilation, Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger, The Mummy Returns and Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen.
Petra appeared in the novels Left Behind Series, Appointment with Death, The Eagle in the Sand, The Red Sea Sharks, the nineteenth book in The Adventures of Tintin series and in Kingsbury’s The Moon Goddess and the Son. It featured prominently in the Marcus Didius Falco mystery novel Last Act in Palmyra. In Blue Balliett‘s novel, Chasing Vermeer, the character Petra Andalee is named after the site.
The Sisters of Mercy filmed their music video for “Dominion/Mother Russia” in and around Al Khazneh (“The Treasury”) in February 1988.
In 1994 Petra featured in the video to the Urban Species video Spiritual Love.
Petra was featured in episode 3 of the 2010 series An Idiot Abroad.
In 1979 Marguerite van Geldermalsen from New Zealand married Mohammed Abdullah, a Bedouin in Petra. They lived in a cave in Petra until the death of her husband. She authored the book Married to a Bedouin. Geldermalsen is the only western woman who has ever lived in Petra.
|Views of Petra|
Did you know that the City of Downey had been until 1998 the hub of the American Avionics, and then that of the aeronautics, including the Space Shuttle Program? Are you curios to find out (now that dust starts Settling on the last of the Space Shuttles– Atlantis) what happened to the real estate where it all happened? Well now it is a …Mall, yes a shopping center, and a NASA Museum, and Downey Studios. No no more aeronautics in Downey, NASA can look for those cardboard boxes, to get their personal belongings (quite popular for the last decade throughout the land). This never felt right to me, since I believe that the strength of any nation is in what it creates, not in what, and how much it consumes. I may be wrong though, it is harder and harder to make sense of many things: for instance I never understood what a service society ment for the longest, and still can’t wrap my way of thinking around it. May be because…I’m not a bush, a plant. The bush never spoke to me, not in a intelligible language.
So here are few photos I took of the place called Downey Landings, a modest and sincerely felt apology to the avionics community, here and elsewhere, who may miss Rockwell International and the contracts that allowed for the Avionics and Space Programs to become reality.
It’s so hard to build, but so easy to tear down. (Should this be the ending line of this story, I think it will be meaningful one)
As for the photos taken: I found about the insignia (or or as I like to call them symbolically “Headstones”- you know like in a hi-tech cemetery – by chance, because they sure are not standing either out, nor up, they are well hidden in plain view, but not that visible as to disrupt the shopping spree, at this useless outlets, present in every city, since they have nothing to do with avionics, or space exploration, or nothing of the kind: you can buy stuff for your next party, from Party city and dog food from PetsSmart, they have specials for beach torches, office supplies, and few fast, food restaurants: But nothing too fancy, you see…As far as the marvel of architecture, representing the sidewalk (which really cannot qualify for a sidewalk due to the construction and width of 3 feet) if you want to get a headache, or dizzy, that’s the place to be (that would be because one cannot walk streight on the winding sidewalk) I wonder who filled they pockets charging for the design, execution and expensive overhead labor for this one? Nobody in the City Hall could give an aswer…Tough times, you see.
This picture is an introduction to the ” In Memoriam” Project dedicated to the 90 years of uninterrupted avionics presence in Downey, California:03-Downey_Landing_Site_of_American_Avionics
Next there is the “Insignia” of some of the first half of the 20th century avionics companies:
Apollo XIII (1970):
Apollo 14 (1971):
Appollo 15 (1971):
The British Museum has loaned one of the Elgin Marbles statues to Russia.
It is one of a number of relics acquired by Lord Elgin in Athens in the early 19th Century now known collectively as the Elgin Marbles.
It maintains that Lord Elgin removed them illegally while the country was under Turkish occupation as part of the Ottoman Empire.
The items have remained in the British Museum ever since.
Continue reading the main story
The greatest things in the world should be… shared and enjoyed by as many people in as many countries as possible”
Neil McGregor Director, British Museum
The museum director, Neil McGregor, said: “The British Museum is a museum of the world, for the world and nothing demonstrates this more than the loan of a Parthenon sculpture to the State Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg to celebrate its 250th anniversary.”
In a blog for the museum’s website, he wrote that the British Museum had opened its doors in 1759 and the Hermitage just five years later – making them “almost twins… the first great museums of the European Enlightenment“.
The British Museum was today “the most generous lender in the world”, he said, “making a reality of the Enlightenment ideal that the greatest things in the world should be seen and studied, shared and enjoyed by as many people in as many countries as possible”.
“The trustees have always believed that such loans must continue between museums in spite of political disagreements between governments.”
He added: “When our colleagues at the Hermitage asked if we might also make an important loan to celebrate their 250th anniversary, the Trustees immediately answered yes.
“And no loan could more fittingly mark the long friendship of our two houses, or the period of their founding, than a sculpture from the Parthenon.”
Regarded by critics as one of the most original and important American artists, O’Keeffe is known chiefly for her large,
semi-abstract studies of flowers, bones, and other imagery. Immaculate, sculptural, organic forms painted in strong, clear colors predominate in O’Keeffe’s works, and her pristine abstract designs carry strong elements of sexual symbolism. Her work was first exhibited in 1916 at the 291 Gallery of Alfred Stieglitz, whom she later married. What is “O’Keeffe’s Ghost”? More… Discuss
Rodin was a French sculptor noted for his renderings of the human form. He spent 37 years working on The Gates of Hell, a monumental sculptural group commissioned for a proposed Musée des Arts Décoratifs and inspired by Dante’s Inferno. The project was never finished, but many of the 186 figures intended for it, including The Thinker, The Three Shades, and The Kiss, were later presented as individual works. Who was The Thinker intended to represent? More… Discuss
Corfu is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea, off the coast of Albania. The second largest of the Ionian Islands, Corfu rises 2,980 feet (910 m) at Mt. Pantokrator in the northeast but is largely a fertile lowland producing olive oil, figs, wine, and citrus fruit. The island has been identified with Scheria, the island of the Phaeacians in Homer’s Odyssey. It was settled around 730 BCE by Corinthian colonists. What Empress of Austria commissioned the building of a summer palace there? More… Discuss