Category Archives: Hazardous Materials Exposure

picture of the day: The Trinity Atomic Bomb Test



The Trinity Atomic Bomb Test

Just before dawn on July 16, 1945, the first atomic test bomb was exploded at a site called Trinity in the New Mexican desert. It was the culmination of 28 months of intense scientific research conducted under the leadership of physicist Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer (seen above) under the code name Manhattan Project. The successful atomic test was witnessed by only one journalist, William L. Laurence of the New York Times, who described seeing the blinding explosion: ‘One felt as though he had been privileged to…be present at the moment of the Creation when the Lord said: Let There be Light.’ Oppenheimer’s own thoughts from the Hindu Bhagavad-Gita were very different: ‘I am become death, the shatterer of worlds.’

Photo: Library of Congress

this day in the yesteryear: First Test of a Nuclear Weapon (1945) One of the darkest day in human history!


First Test of a Nuclear Weapon (1945)

Called the Trinity test, the first test of a nuclear weapon was conducted by the US in New Mexico on what is now White Sands Missile Range. The detonation of the implosion-design plutonium bomb—the same type used on Nagasaki, Japan, a few weeks later—was equivalent to the explosion of approximately 20 kilotons of TNT, and is usually considered the beginning of the Atomic Age. It is said that the scientists who observed the detonation set up a betting pool on what the result would be. Who won? More… Discuss

Carbon Monoxide


Carbon Monoxide

Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and extremely poisonous gas. It is present in the exhaust of internal-combustion engines, such as in automobiles, and is generated in coal stoves, furnaces, and gas appliances that do not get enough air. Breathing air that contains as little as 0.1% carbon monoxide by volume can be fatal; a concentration of about 1% can cause death within a few minutes. What are the early symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning? More… Discuss

Pool parasite can live in chlorine for ten days – UPI.com


The Centers for Disease Control recommends that swimmers shower before geting in the pool to prevent them from carrying infectious bacteria into the water. Photo: Monkey Business Images/shutterstock

The Centers for Disease Control recommends that swimmers shower before geting in the pool to prevent them from carrying infectious bacteria into the water. Photo: Monkey Business Images/shutterstock

ATLANTA, June 29 (UPI) — The Centers for Disease Control is warning swimmers to shower before going into the pool in order to avoid spreading the chlorine-resistant pathogen cryptosporidium, which has caused several outbreaks in recent years.

While E. coli and norovirus are killed within hours by chemicals used for treating pools, cryptosporidium survives in pools and hot tubs for up to ten days, and can cause gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea.

“This parasite is extremely chlorine-resistant,” Michele Hlavsa, an epidemiologist at the CDC, told CBS News. “Swimmers bring it into the water when they are sick with diarrhea.”

Researchers reviewed data from 2011 and 2012, finding that 90 outbreaks related to recreational water resulted in at least 1,788 cases, 95 hospitalizations and 1 death, according to the CDC’s study, which is published on its website.

Of the outbreaks, 77 percent of them were in treated bodies of water such as pools and spas.

Cryptosporidium was responsible for 52 percent of the treated water outbreaks, and was also responsible for 54 percent of all the outbreaks cause by infectious pathogens.

“Since 1988, the year that the first U.S. treated recreational water-associated outbreak of Cryptosporidium was detected, the number of these outbreaks reported annually has significantly increased,” researchers wrote in the report.

If contracted, the parasite can be cleared from the body in about two to three weeks, however it can be fatal in a person with a weakened immune system, Hlavasa said.

“With these outbreaks, we see they disproportionately affect young children,” Hlavasa told ABC News. “They’re the ones who can go to a pool and young children tend to carry lots of germs.”

The CDC recommends swimmers shower before entering the pool, not swallow the water, and not urinate or defecate in the water while swimming; swimmers are discouraged from entering pools altogether if they have diarrhea.

Like Us on Facebook for more stories from UPI.com

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via Pool parasite can live in chlorine for ten days – UPI.com.

Is your health yours, or in the hands of the unregulated food industry? BPA messes with your hormones—and it’s in these canned foods— Mother Jones (@MotherJones)


Cellophane (safest food grade packaging)


Cellophane

Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet or tube of regenerated cellulose, which is the chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. It is used in packaging, as a membrane for dialysis, and can be moisture-proofed. Invented in 1908, cellophane is made by dissolving cellulose alkali, aging it, then regenerating it by forcing it through a slit into a dilute acid solution where it precipitates. Cellophane sales have dwindled because of the presence of what pollutant in its production process? More… Discuss

Corporate America is obsessed w #Millennials. But health care companies are focused on parents— CNNMoney (@CNNMoney)


How Does Dry Cleaning Work?


How Does Dry Cleaning Work?

Dry cleaning is the process of cleaning fabrics without water. Special solvents and soaps are used so as not to harm fabrics. The practice began in France in the middle of the 19th century, after a dye-works owner noticed that his tablecloth became cleaner after his maid spilled kerosene on it. Early solvents were extremely flammable and led to many fires and explosions. Newer chlorinated hydrocarbon synthetic solvents, such as perchlorethylene, are nonflammable but pose what other dangers? More… Discuss

Kraft removing synthetic colors from iconic macaroni & cheese | Reuters (question: Are food formulators human, or some alien beings, completely different from the rest of us?)


A box of Kraft Velveeta shells and cheese is displayed in a grocery store in New York March 25, 2015. Reuters/Eduardo Munoz

(Reuters) – Kraft Foods Group Inc on Monday said it is revamping its family-friendly macaroni and cheese meal, removing synthetic colors and preservatives from the popular boxed dinner.

The move comes at a time when Kraft is battling sluggish demand as consumers shift to brands that are perceived as healthier, including foods that are organic or less processed.

The company has also been targeted by consumer advocacy groups. The groups have pressured Kraft to remove artificial food dyes from its products, complaining that the additives are not used, and in some cases, banned in other countries.Kraft spokeswoman Lynne Galia said the changes were being made to address concerns expressed by consumers, including demands for improved nutrition and “simpler ingredients.”

“We know parents want to feel good about the foods they eat and serve their families,” Galia said in an emailed statement about the changes to its macaroni and cheese product.

Galia said the changes will be effective by January 2016 for “Original Kraft Macaroni & Cheese” in the United States. The company is also removing synthetic colors by the end of 2016 in Canada for its Kraft Dinner Original.

In 2014, Kraft launched its Mac & Cheese Boxed Shapes with no synthetic colors, and in January of this year, the Northfield, Illinois-based company moved to no artificial preservatives for the Boxed Shapes product in the United States, the company said.

Kraft also said it is replacing synthetic colors with those derived from natural sources, like paprika, annatto and turmeric.

Heather White, executive director of the Environmental Working Group, an advocacy organization for health and environmental issues, applauded Kraft’s move and said it should be an example for other companies.

“The announcement from Kraft should be a wake-up call for other food manufacturers to take notice, go back to the drawing board, reformulate and get rid of these synthetic ingredients of concern, especially in food that is marketed to children,” White said.

Kraft Foods is one of North America’s largest consumer packaged food and beverage companies, with annual revenues of more than $18 billion. Its brands include Capri Sun, Jell-O, Kool-Aid, Lunchables, Maxwell House and Oscar Mayer.

Kraft shares were up about 1 percent at $87.58 on Monday.

(Reporting by Carey Gillam in Kansas City, Missouri; Additional reporting by Anjali Athavaley in New York; Editing by G Crosse and Lisa Shumaker)

via Kraft removing synthetic colors from iconic macaroni & cheese | Reuters.

Champagne


Champagne

The word “Champagne,” when capitalized, refers specifically to the white, sparkling wine made in the Champagne region of France. Generally, production begins with the fermentation of grapes with low sugar and high acid levels to produce a still wine, which is blended with other wines, a small amount of sugar and yeast, and stored. During the second fermentation, carbon dioxide is trapped in the bottle. How should Champagne be poured in order to preserve the bubbles? More… Discuss

this pressed for….TRANSPARENCY: U.S. Nerve Gas Hit Our Own Troops in Iraq| via NEWSWEEK/REUTERS


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Atef Hassan/Reuters

U.S. Nerve Gas Hit Our Own Troops in Iraq

By Barbara Koeppel 3/27/15 at 11:52 AM

Atef Hassan/Reuters

Filed Under: U.S., Iraq War

During and immediately after the first Gulf War, more than 200,000 of 700,000 U.S. troops sent to Iraq and Kuwait in January 1991 were exposed to nerve gas and other chemical agents. Though aware of this, the Department of Defense and CIA launched a campaign of lies and concocted a cover-up that continues today.

A quarter of a century later, the troops nearest the explosions are dying of brain cancer at two to three times the rate of those who were farther away. Others have lung cancer or debilitating chronic diseases, and pain.

More complications lie ahead.

via U.S. Nerve Gas Hit Our Own Troops in Iraq.| NEWSWEEK/REUTERS

this day in the yesteryear: Ireland Bans Smoking in All Public Places (2004)


Ireland Bans Smoking in All Public Places (2004)

In the latter part of the 20th century, research on the health risks of secondhand tobacco smoke spurred legislative bodies throughout the world to consider smoking bans. On March 29, 2004, Ireland became the first country to implement a nationwide ban on smoking in public places, including all enclosed workplaces. Many nations have since followed with similar legislation. Which Pope instituted the first known public smoking ban in 1590 by threatening smokers with excommunication? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Three Mile Island nuclear power plant radiation release Accident (1979)


Three Mile Island Accident (1979)

Both mechanical failure and human error contributed to the 1979 failure of a nuclear reactor cooling system at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Pennsylvania, which led to overheating, partial melting of the reactor’s uranium core, and the release of radioactive gases. Though it caused no immediate deaths or injuries, the incident increased public fears about the safety of nuclear power. What nuclear accident-themed film was released just two weeks before the incident? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989)


Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989)

On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker hit Prince William Sound’s Bligh Reef and spilled approximately 11 million US gallons (41 million liters) of crude oil into the sea, covering 11,000 square miles (28,000 km²) of ocean. As a result of the spill, an estimated 250,000 sea birds, 1,000 sea otters, and countless fish and other wildlife died. The ship’s captain was widely criticized after the incident, but many others factors contributed to the crash. What are some examples? More… Discuss

I stand with @ewg in opposing the chemical industry’s bill that will harm families – RT if you stand with us!


Adulterated food


Adulterated food

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adulterated food is impure, unsafe, or unwholesome food. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), regulates and enforces laws on food safety and has technical definitions of adulterated food in various United States laws.

History

Products that are adulterated under these laws’ definitions cannot enter into commerce for human consumption. In India, food adulteration is increasing daily.

Adulteration Definition

“Adulteration” is a legal term meaning that a food product fails to meet federal or state standards. Adulteration is an addition of a non food item to increase the quantity of the food item in raw form or prepared form, which may result in the loss of actual quality of food item. Among meat and meat products one of the items used to adulterate are water, dead carcasses, Carcasses of animals other than the animal meant to be consumed.

1938 – Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act== The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act (1938) provides that food is “adulterated” if it meets any one othe following criteria: (1) it bears or contains any “poisonous or deleterious substance” which may render it injurious to health; (2) it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than a pesticide residue, food additive, color additive, or new animal drug, which are covered by separate provisions) that is unsafe; (3) its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or (4) it bears or contains a pesticide chemical residue that is unsafe. (Note: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes tolerances for pesticide residues in foods, which are enforced by the FDA.)

Food also meets the definition of adulteration if: (5) it is, or it bears or contains, an unsafe food additive; (6) it is, or it bears or contains, an unsafe new animal drug; (7) it is, or it bears or contains, an unsafe colour additive; (8) it consists, in whole or in part, of “any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance” or is otherwise unfit for food; or (9) it has been prepared, packed, or held under unsanitary conditions (insect, rodent, or bird infestation) whereby it may have become contaminated with filth or rendered injurious to health.

Further, food is considered adulterated if: (10) it has been irradiated and the irradiation processing was not done in conformity with a regulation permitting irradiation of the food in question (the FDA has approved irradiation of a number of foods, including refrigerated or frozen uncooked meat, fresh or frozen uncooked poultry, and seeds for sprouting [21 C.F.R. Part 179].); (11) it contains a dietary ingredient that presents a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury under the conditions of use recommended in labeling (for example, foods or dietary supplements containing aristolochic acids, which have been linked to kidney failure, have been banned.); (12) a valuable constituent has been omitted in whole or in part or replaced with another substance; damage or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or a substance has been added to increase the product’s bulk or weight, reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear of greater value than it is (this is “economic adulteration”); or (13) it is offered for import into the United States and is a food that has previously been refused admission, unless the person reoffering the food establishes that it is in compliance with U.S. law [21 U.S.C. § 342].

Federal Meat Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Act

The Federal Meat Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957 contain similar provisions for meat and poultry products. [21 U.S.C. § 453(g), 601(m).

Poisonous or deleterious substances

Generally, if a food contains a poisonous or deleterious substance that may render it injurious to health. It can cause various harms. It is adulterated. For example, apple cider contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 and Brie cheese contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes are adulterated. There are two exceptions to this general rule. First, if the poisonous substance is inherent or naturally occurring and its quantity in the food does not ordinarily render it injurious to health, the food will not be considered adulterated. Thus, a food that contains a natural toxin at very low levels that would not ordinarily be harmful (for instance, small amounts of amygdalin in apricot kernels) is not adulterated.

Second, if the poisonous or deleterious substance is unavoidable and is within an established tolerance, regulatory limit, or action level, the food will not be deemed to be adulterated. Tolerances and regulatory limits are thresholds above which a food will be considered adulterated. They are binding on FDA, the food industry, and the courts. Action levels are limits at or above which FDA may regard food as adulterated. They are not binding on FDA. FDA has established numerous action levels (for example, one part per million methylmercury in fish), which are set forth in its booklet Action Levels for Poisonous or Deleterious Substances in Human Food and Animal Feed.

If a food contains a poisonous substance in excess of a tolerance, regulatory limit, or action level, mixing it with “clean” food to reduce the level of contamination is not allowed. The deliberate mixing of adulterated food with good food renders the finished product adulterated (FDA, Compliance Policy Guide [CPG § 555.200]).

Filth and foreign matter of adulteration

Filth and extraneous material include any objectionable substances in foods, such as foreign matter (for example, glass, metal, plastic, wood, stones, sand, cigarette butts), undesirable parts of the raw plant material (such as stems, pits in pitted olives, pieces of shell in canned oysters), and filth (namely, mold, rot, insect and rodent parts, excreta, decomposition). Under a strict reading of the FD&C Act, any amount of filth in a food would render it a, however, authorize the agency to issue Defect Action Levels (DALs) for natural, unavoidable defects that at low levels do not pose a human health hazard [21 C.F.R. § 110.110]. These DALs are advisory only; they do not have the force of law and do not bind FDA. DALs are set forth in FDA’s Compliance Policy Guides and are compiled in the FDA and Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) Defect Action Level Handbook.

In most cases, DALs are food-specific and defect-specific. For example, the DAL for insect fragments in peanut butter is an average of thirty or more insect fragments per 100 grams (g) [CPG § 570.300]. In the case of hard or sharp foreign objects, the DAL, which is based on the size of the object and the likelihood it will pose a risk of choking or injury, applies to all foods (see CPG § 555.425).

Economic-adulteration

A food is adulterated if it omits a valuable constituent or substitutes another substance, in whole or in part, for a valuable constituent (for instance, olive oil diluted with tea tree oil); conceals damage or inferiority in any manner (such as fresh fruit with food coloring on its surface to conceal defects); or any substance has been added to it or packed with it to increase its bulk or weight, reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear bigger or of greater value than it is (for example, scallops to which water has been added to make them heavier).

Microbiological contamination and adulteration of food

The fact that a food is contaminated with pathogens (harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or protozoa) may, or may not, render it adulterated. Generally, for ready-to-eat foods, the presence of pathogens will render the food adulterated. For example, the presence of Salmonella on fresh fruits or vegetables or in ready-to-eat meat or poultry products (such as luncheon meats) will render those products are adulterated.

For meat and poultry products, which are regulated by USDA, the rules are more complicated. Ready-to-eat meat and poultry products contaminated with pathogens, such as Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes, are adulterated. (Note that hotdogs are considered ready-to-eat products.) For raw meat or poultry products, the presence of pathogens will not always render a product adulterated (because raw meat and poultry products are intended to be cooked, and proper cooking should kill pathogens). Raw poultry contaminated with Salmonella is not adulterated. then also, USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has ruled that raw meat or poultry products contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 are adulterated. This is because normal cooking methods may not reduce E. coli O157:H7 below infectious levels. E. coli O157:H7 is the only pathogen that is considered an adulterant when present in raw meat or poultry products.

Enforcement actions

If a food is adulterated, FDA and FSIS have a broad array of enforcement tools.They are of various types. These include seizing and condemning the product, detaining imported product, enjoining persons from manufacturing or distributing the product, or requesting a recall of the product. Enforcement action is usually preceded by a Warning Letter from FDA to the manufacturer or distributor of the adulterated product. In the case of an adulterated meat or poultry product, FSIS has certain additional powers. FSIS may suspend or withdraw federal inspection of an official establishment. Without federal inspection, an establishment may not produce or process meat or poultry products, and therefore must cease operations. With the exception of infant formula, neither FDA nor FSIS has the authority to require a company to recall an adulterated food product. However, the ability to generate negative publicity gives them considerable powers of persuasion.

State regulators generally have similar enforcement tools at their disposal to prevent the manufacture and distribution of adulterated food. In addition, many states have the authority to immediately embargo adulterated food and to impose civil fines. Federal agencies often will coordinate with state or local authorities to remove unsafe food from the market as quickly as possible.

Food Adulterant Detection
Arhar Pulse Kesarri Pulse Kesari Pulse has a characteristic wedge shape. Larger Kesari resembles Arhar (Tur). It can be separated by visual examination.
Asafoetida Resin and colour Take a little amount of small parts of the sample in test tube. Add 3 ml of distilled water and shake the tube gently. Pure asafoetida dissolves in water very quickly and produces a milky white colour, but in case of adulteration with a chemical colour the mixture turns to be coloured. The purity of asafoetida may also be examined by taking a little amount of it on the tip of a fork and placing the same on the flame of a spirit lamp. Asafoetida burns quickly, producing bright flame and leaving the impurities behind.
Black Pepper Papaya Seeds Papaya seeds do not have any smell and are relatively smaller in size. Adulteration of papaya seed with Black Pepper may be detected by way of visual examination as also by way of smelling.
Coffee powder Cereal starch Take a small quantity (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube and add 3 ml of distilled water in it. Light a spirit lamp and heat the contents to colourize. Add 33 ml of a solution of potassium permanganate and muratic acid (1:1) to decolourize the mixture. The formation of blue colour in mixture by addition of a drop of 1% aqueous solution of iodine indicated adulteration with starch.
Coffee powder Powder of scorched persimmon stones Take a small quantity (1 tea-spoon) of the sample and spread it on a moistened blotting paper. Pour on it, with much care, 3 ml of 2% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate. A red colouration indicates the presence of powder of scorched persimmon stones in coffee powder.
Coriander powder Saw Dust Take a little amount (a half of tea-spoon) of the sample. Sprinkle it on water in a bowl. Spice powder gets sedimented at the bottom and saw-dust floats on the surface.
Cumin Powder Saw Dust Take a little amount (a half of tea-spoon) of the sample. Sprinkle it on water in a bowl. Spice powder gets sedimented at the bottom and saw-dust floats on the surface.
Dry red chilli Rhodamine B colour Take a red chilli from the sample and rub the outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in liquid paraffin. The sample is adulterated if the cotton becomes red.
Dry turmeric root Metanil yellow colour Take a piece of dry turmeric root and rub the outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in liquid paraffin. A yellow colouration of cotton indicates adulteration of turmeric root with metanil yellow colour.
Gram powder Kesari powder Take a little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube with 3 ml of distilled water. Add 3 ml of muratic acid. Immerse the tube in warm water. Check the tube after 15 minutes. A violet colouration indicates the presence of Kesari powder in Gram powder.
Gram powder Metanil yellow colour Take a small quantity (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. Add 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates adulteration of gram powder with metanil yellow.
Green vegetables like Bitter Gourd, Green Chilli and others Malachite Green Take a small part of the sample and place it on a piece of moistened white blotting paper. The impression of colour on the paper indicates the use of malachite green, or any other low priced artificial colour.
Green vegetables like Bitter Gourd, Green Chilli and others Malachite Green Rub the outer green surface of a small part of the sample with a liquid paraffin soaked cotton. The sample is adulterated when the white cotton turns green.
Jaggery Metanil yellow colour Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol and shake the tube vigorously to mix up the contents. Pour 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates the presence of metanil yellow colour in jaggery.
Jaggery Sodium bicarbonate Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of muratic acid. The presence of sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate effects effervescence.
Parched rice Urea Take 30 pieces of parched rice in a test tube. Add 5 ml of distilled water. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. After 5 minutes, filter water contents and add to it a little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of powder of arhar or soyabean. Wait for another 5 minutes and then dip a red litmus paper in the mixture. Lift the paper after 30 seconds and examine it. A blue colouration indicates the use of urea in parched rice.
Pigeon Pea (Toor Dal) Metanil Yellow Take a small handful of the pulse and boil it. Strain the water and grind the boiled peas with a mortar and pestle. Transfer this sample into a test tube and add 10cc of distlled water.Shake the test tube rigorously to mix up the contents thoroughly. Add 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates adulteration of peas with metanil yellow.
Processed food, sweetmeat or syrup Metanil Yellow Take little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 10 drops of muratic acid or hydrochloric acid in it. The appearance of rosy colour indicates adulteration of food with metanil yellow.
Processed food, sweetmeat or syrup Rhodamine B colour The presence of this chemical colour in food is very easy to detect as it shines very brightly under sun. A more precise methods of detection is also there.Take a little amount (a half of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of carbon tetrachloride and shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. The mixture becomes colourless and an addition of a drop of hydrochloric acid brings the colour back when food contains Rhodamine B colour.
Rice Earth, sand, grit, unhusked paddy, rice bran, talc, etc. These adulterants may be detected visually and removed by way of sorting, picking, and washing.
Sweet potato Rhodamine B colour Take a small part of the sample and rub the red outer surface with a piece of cotton soaked in liquid paraffin. The cotton adhering colour indicates the use of Rhodamine B colour on outer surface of the sweet potato.
Tea Leaves Coal Tar Dye Scatter a little amount (1 tea-spoon) of the sample on a moistened white blotting paper. After 5 minutes, remove the sample and examine the paper. A revelation of coloured spots indicates the use of the dye.
Tea Leaves Iron Flakes Spread a small quantity (2 tea-spoon) of the sample on a piece of paper. Draw a magnet over it. Iron flakes, if present, cling to the magnet. The same test may be carried out to trace iron flakes from tea half-dust and iron filings from tea dust.
Tea Leaves Leather Flakes Prepare a paper-ball. Fire the ball and drop a little amount of the sample on it. The presence of leather flakes emits an odour of burnt leather.
Turmeric powder Metanil yellow colour Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. Add 10 drops of muratic acid or hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates the use of metanil yellow colour in turmeric powder.
Wheat Earth, sand, grit, chopped straw, bran, unhusked grain, and seeds of weeds. These adulterants may be detected visually and removed by way of sorting, picking, and washing.

New Poll: Americans Want Mandatory Vaccines (because ignorance hurts more than oneself)


New Poll: Americans Want Mandatory Vaccines

A new poll conducted by Ipsos for Reuters found that 78 percent of Americans believe all children should be vaccinated. Just over 70 percent think schools should be able to suspend unvaccinated students during outbreaks of contagious diseases. And 65 … More… Discuss

Human Civilization: First Genetically Modified Apple Approved in US


First Genetically Modified Apple Approved in US

The US Department of Agriculture has approved America’s first genetically modified apple—a variety engineered not to turn brown when bruised or sliced. Scientists achieved this effect by turning off a particular gene. Although it will be several years before these apples are sold to the public, they have already sparked a backlash from critics, who say that more human studies should be conducted before genetically modified organisms are widely sold. More… Discuss

Must read: Ebola in Liberia: According to Dr. Kwan Kew Lai’s Blog


Today is the Feast of St. Kew, a little known Welsh saint, probably of the fifth century. She was the sister of a hermit called Docco who founded a monastery at or near the village of St. Kew which is now in Cornwall, England. Nothing much is known about her except that she was able to cause some wild boars to obey her, this ability caught the attention of her said brother who condescended to finally speak to her. Why they were not on speaking terms to begin with was a mystery.What is in a name? Kew is my given name. It would be unheard of to have a saint with my name especially someone from Asia. My daughter, Cara, was told by her Confraternity Christian Development (CCD) teacher that everyone has a saint who bears his or her name. She searched in vain for a saint with her name.

via Ebola in Liberia.

***featured on by NPR: The Ebola Diaries: Trying To Heal Patients You Can’t Touch http://n.pr/1EaPxUw

this day in the yesteryear: Hydrogen Bomb Lost in the Ocean (1958)


Hydrogen Bomb Lost in the Ocean (1958)

The Tybee Bomb is a 7,600-pound (3,500-kg) nuclear bomb containing 400 pounds (180 kg) of conventional high explosives and highly enriched uranium. During a simulated combat mission, the B-47 bomber carrying it collided with an F-86 fighter plane, and the bomb was jettisoned and lost. It is presumed to be somewhere in Wassaw Sound, off the shores of Georgia’s Tybee Island, but recovery efforts have been unsuccessful. In 2004, a retired air force pilot made what discovery in the case? More… Discuss

Health officials: N.Y. Amtrak passenger had measles


WHITE PLAINS, N.Y. — A college student who rode an Amtrak train through New York to last Sunday has the measles, prompting health officials to warn anyone who came in contact with the patient to watch for signs of the illness.

The Bard College student took the No. 283 Empire line train from Penn Station at 1:20 p.m. Jan. 25. The train made stops in Yonkers and Croton-Harmon before continuing to Poughkeepsie, Rhinecliff and the Albany area.

Bard, a liberal arts college in Dutchess County, has held an immunization clinic for students.

Anyone who might have come into contact with the student and is not fully vaccinated or unsure of their vaccination status is urged to see a doctor, health officials said.

The disease is highly contagious and can take several days after exposure to develop. It causes fever, runny nose, cough and a rash all over the body.

USA TODAY

Measles has infected 84 people in 14 states this year

via Health officials: N.Y. Amtrak passenger had measles.

Litvinenko’s Autopsy Called “Most Dangerous” Ever


Litvinenko’s Autopsy Called “Most Dangerous” Ever

The 2006 autopsy of murdered ex-KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko was likely the most dangerous ever conducted, a pathologist told a UK inquiry this week. Litvinenko died of multiple organ failure after drinking tea dosed with polonium-210—a highly radioactive isotope that may have been undetectable post-mortem if police had not taken the unusual move of having him tested by atomic scientists just before he died. During the autopsy, pathologists wore protective suits with hoods fed with filtered air to avoid exposure to radiation. More… Discuss

Alfred Eisenstaedt—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images Mother and child in Hiroshima, Japan, December 1945


Alfred Eisenstaedt—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images Mother and child in Hiroshima, Japan, December 1945 Read more: Hiroshima: Portrait of a Mother and Child in an Atomic Wasteland, 1945 | ( Click to access story) LIFE.com http://life.time.com/history/wasteland-mother-and-child-hiroshima-1945/#ixzz3PwqnNLSp

Alfred Eisenstaedt
’40s

“Japanese doctors said that those who had been killed by the blast itself died instantly. But presently, according to these doctors, those who had suffered only small burns found their appetite failing, their hair falling out, their gums bleeding. They developed temperatures of 104, vomited blood, and died. . . . Last week the Japanese announced that the count of Hiroshima’s dead had risen to 125,000.” — From “What Ended the War,” LIFE magazine, Sept. 17, 1945

Four months after the American B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945, killing roughly 70,000 men, women and children outright and dooming tens of thousands more to either a torturous recovery or a slow death by radiation poisoning, burns or other injuries and afflictions, Alfred Eisenstaedt made this portrait of a Japanese mother and her child amid the ruins of the city.

Beyond the eternal debate about the “morality” of the bombing of Hiroshima and, two days later, Nagasaki; beyond the political and scientific factors that led to the development of nuclear weapons in the first place; beyond the lingering shadow cast by the Atomic Age and the Cold War—beyond all of those considerations, Eisenstaedt’s picture quietly commands us, at the very least, to pay attention.

 

Littering Singapore Smoker Slapped with $15,000 Fine


Littering Singapore Smoker Slapped with $15,000 Fine

A Singapore man recently racked up a record $15,000 in fines, and five hours of community service, after surveillance cameras caught him throwing 34 cigarette butts out of his apartment window over a four-day period. Such drastic measures are not uncommon in Singapore, which is known for its fastidiousness—caning is a typical punishment for vandalism, and the import of chewing gum is banned altogether, to avoid gunking up city streets. Singapore’s National Environment Agency claims to have doled out 206 punishments in 2014 to high-rise litterers captured on some 600 surveillance cameras. More… Discuss

Guided Missiles


Guided Missiles

A guided missile is a self-propelled, unmanned space or air vehicle whose path can be adjusted during flight, either by automatic self-contained controls or remote human control. Often propelled by rockets and carrying explosive warheads, guided missiles were first developed for military applications by the Germans, who employed V-1 and V-2 missiles in World War II. They have since become the key strategic and tactical weapon of modern warfare. What are some other types of missiles? More… Discuss

today’s birthday: Edward Teller (1908)


Edward Teller (1908)

Teller was a Hungarian-born physicist who worked on the first atom bomb and the first hydrogen bomb. After studying with Werner Heisenberg in Germany, Teller came to the US in 1935 to escape the Nazis. Six years later, he began working on the physics of the hydrogen bomb. He took the lead on that project and was instrumental in making possible the first successful US explosion of the device in November 1952. Soon after, he alienated much of the scientific community by speaking out about what? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Insulin First Used to Treat Diabetes (1922)


Insulin First Used to Treat Diabetes (1922)

Insulin, a hormone produced in clusters of pancreatic cells called islets of Langerhans, regulates carbohydrate metabolism and allows the body to use and store glucose. Patients with diabetes have a decreased ability to either produce or absorb insulin. Canadian physiologists Charles Best and Sir Frederick Banting revolutionized the treatment of diabetes when they discovered how to isolate insulin in 1921. What happened when a 14-year-old diabetic was given the first insulin injection in 1922? More… Discuss

New Antibiotic Could Stop Superbugs


New Antibiotic Could Stop Superbugs

Scientists this week announced the discovery of an antibiotic that could prove to be effective against drug-resistant infections caused by superbugs like MRSA. The antibiotic, called teixobactin, works by binding to multiple targets, which may slow the resistance process. Derived from uncultured bacteria, teixobactin has been patented by NovoBiotic Pharmaceuticals. Although the antibiotic has shown promise in trials on mice, experts say it is yet to be determined whether it will be effective in humans. More… Discuss

this pressed for your awareness: 10 Household Products That Have KILLED People – Likes


10 Household Products That Have KILLED People – Likes.

Ibuprofen as Skin Cancer Prevention?


Ibuprofen as Skin Cancer Prevention?

The use of over-the-counter painkillers may lower one’s risk of squamous cell skin cancer—typically caused by sun exposure—by 15 percent, according to a new study. Researchers suspect that Ibuprofen and naproxen—the active ingredients found in the popular drugs Advil, Motrin, and Aleve—disrupt the proteins in the body that contribute to cancerous tumors. The scientists caution that more research is necessary, since painkillers carry their own risks. More… Discuss

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Muslim conquest of Egypt: “We have conquered Alexandria. In this city there are 4,000 palaces, 400 places of entertainment, and untold wealth. -‘Amr”


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

Muslim conquest of EgyptPart of the Muslim conquests and the Arab–Byzantine WarsGiza Plateau - Great Sphinx with Pyramid of Khafre in background.JPG

Date 639–642
Location Egypt, Libya
Result Rashidun victory.
Territorial
changes
Muslims annexed Egypt, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan.

BelligerentsEastern Roman EmpireRashidun CaliphateCommanders and leadersEmperor Heraclius
Theodorus
Aretion
Constans II

Cyrus of Alexandria

Caliph Umar
Amr ibn al-Aas
Zubair ibn al-Awam
Miqdad bin Al-Aswad
Ubaida bin As-Samit

Kharija bin Huzafa

At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople. However, it had been conquered just a decade before by the Persian Empire under Khosrau II (616 to 629 AD). Emperor Heraclius re-captured Egypt after a series of campaigns against the Sassanid Persians, only to lose it to the Muslim Rashidun army ten years later. Before the Muslim conquest of Egypt had begun, the Eastern Romans had already lost the Levant and its Arab ally, the Ghassanid Kingdom, to the Muslims. All this left the Eastern Roman Empire dangerously exposed and vulnerable.[1]

Rashidun invasion of Egypt

Prologue

Rashidun army crossing the Egyptian border

 

Pyramids of Gizah.

In December 639 ‘Amr ibn al-‘As left for Egypt with a force of 4,000 troops. Most of the soldiers belonged to the Arab tribe of ‘Ak, although Al-Kindi mentions that one third of the soldiers belonged to the Arab tribe of Ghafik. The Arab soldiers were also joined by some Roman and Persian converts to Islam. However, ‘Umar, the Muslim caliph, reconsidered his orders to Amr, thinking it foolhardy to expect to conquer such a large country as Egypt with a mere 4,000 soldiers. Accordingly, he wrote a letter to ‘Amr commanding him to come back.[2]

The messenger, ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amr, caught up to Amr at Rafah, a little short of the Egyptian frontier. Guessing what might be in the letter, ‘Amr ordered the army to quicken its pace. Turning to ‘Uqbah, ‘Amr said that he would receive the caliph’s letter from him when the army had halted after the day’s journey. ‘Uqbah, being unaware of the contents of the letter, agreed and marched along with the army. The army halted for the night at Shajratein, a little valley near the city of El Arish, which ‘Amr knew to be beyond the Egyptian border.[3] ‘Amr then received and read the ‘Umar’s letter and went on to consult his companions as to the course of action to be adopted. The unanimous view was that as they had received the letter on Egyptian soil, they had permission to proceed.

When ‘Umar received the reply, he decided to watch further developments and started concentrating fresh forces at Madinah which could be dispatched to Egypt as reinforcements. On Eid al-Adha, the Muslim army marched from Shajratein to El Arish,[2] a small town lacking a garrison. The town put up no resistance, and the citizens offered allegiance on the usual terms. The Muslim soldiers celebrated the Eid festival there.

Conquering of Pelusium and Belbeis

In the later part of December 639 or in early January 640, the Muslim army reached Pelusium, an Eastern Roman garrison city that was considered Egypt’s eastern gate at the time. The Muslims siege of the town dragged on for two months. In February 640 an assault group led by a prominent field commander Huzaifah ibn Wala successfully assaulted and captured the fort and city.[4][5][6][7][8][9] Armanousa, the daughter of Cyrus who fiercely resisted the Muslims in Pelusium and fell hostage in their hands, was sent to her father in the Babylon Fortress.[10]

The losses incurred by the Arab Muslim army were ameliorated by the number of Sinai Bedouins who, taking the initiative, had joined them in conquering Egypt.[11] These Bedouins belonged to the tribes of Rashidah and Lakhm[12] The ease with which Pelusium fell to the Muslim Arabs, and the lack of Byzantine reinforcements to aid the city during the month-long siege is often attributed to the treachery of the Egyptian governor, Cyrus, who was also the Melchite (i.e., Byzantine–Chalcedonian Diaphysite) Patriarch of Alexandria.[13][11]

After the fall of Pelusium the Muslims marched to Bilbeis, 40 miles from Memphis via desert roads and besieged it. Belbeis was the first place in Egypt where the Byzantines showed some measure of resistance towards the Arab invaders. Two Christian monks accompanied by Cyrus of Alexandria and the famous Roman general Aretion came out to negotiate with ‘Amr ibn al-‘As. Aretion was previously the Byzantine governor of Jerusalem, and had fled to Egypt when the city fell to the Muslims. ‘Amr gave them three options: to either convert to Islam, or to pay Jizya, or to fight the Muslims. They requested three days to reflect, then – as mentions al-Tabari – requested two extra days. At the end of the five days, the two monks and the general decided to reject Islam and Jizya and fight the Muslims. They thus disobeyed their ruler, Cyrus of Alexandria, who wanted to surrender and pay Jizya. Cyrus subsequently left for the Babylon Fortress, while the two monks and Aretion decided to fight the Arabs. The fight resulted in the victory of the latter and the death of Aretion. ‘Amr ibn al-‘As subsequently attempted to convince the native Egyptians to aid the Arabs and surrender the city, based on the kinship between Egyptians and Arabs via Hagar.[14] When the Egyptians refused, the siege of Bilbeis was continued until the city fell after a month. Towards the end of March 640 the city surrendered to the Muslims.[13] With the fall of Belbeis, the Arabs were only one day away from the head of the Delta.

Siege of Babylon

 

Map detailing the route of the Muslims’ invasion of Egypt.

Amr had visualized that the conquest of Egypt would be a walkover. This expectation turned out to be wrong. Even at the outposts of Pelusium and Bilbeis the Muslims had met stiff resistance. The siege of Pelusium had lasted for two months and that of Bilbeis for one month. Both battles were preludes to the siege of Babylon, which was a larger and more important city. Here resistance on a larger scale was expected.[15] After the fall of Bilbeis the Muslims advanced to Babylon, near modern Cairo. The Muslims arrived at Babylon some time in May 640 AD.[16] Babylon was a fortified city, and the Romans had prepared it for a siege. Outside the city, a ditch had been dug, and a large force was positioned in the area between the ditch and the city walls. The Muslims besieged the fort of Babylon some time in May 640. The fort was a massive structure 60 ft. high with walls more than 6 ft. thick and studded with numerous towers and bastions. A Muslim force of some 4,000 men attacked the Roman positions unsuccessfully. Early Muslim sources place the strength of the Byzantine force in Babylon about six times the strength of the Muslim force.[17] For the next two months fighting remained inconclusive, with the Byzantines having the upper hand by repulsing every Muslim assault.[18]

Some time in May 640 AD, ‘Amr sent a detachment to raid the city of Fayoum. The Byzantines had anticipated this raid, and thus strongly guarded the roads leading to the city. They had also fortified their garrison in the nearby town of Lahun. When the Muslim Arabs realized that Fayoum was too strong for them to invade, they headed towards the Western Desert where they looted all the cattle and animals they could. They subsequently headed to Oxyrhynchus (Per-Medjed), which was defeated. The Arabs then returned to Lower Egypt down the River Nile.[19]

Reinforcements from Madinah

In July, ‘Amr wrote to ‘Umar requesting reinforcement; but before the letter reached him, the caliph had already dispatched the first reinforcement, which was 4000 strong. The army was composed mostly of the veterans of Syrian campaigns. Even with these reinforcements, ‘Amr was unsuccessful. By August 640, ‘Umar’s assembling of the 4000 strong elite force had been completed. It consisted of four columns. Each column was one thousand strong and appointed a commander each, while Zubair ibn al-Awam, a renowned warrior and commander, veteran of the Battle of Yarmouk and once a part of Khalid ibn Walid‘s elite force mobile guard, was appointed the supreme commander of army. ‘Umar had indeed offered Zubair the chief command and governorship of Egypt, but Zubair had declined the offer. Other commanders were Miqdad ibn al-Aswad; Ubaidah ibn as-Samit, and Kharijah ibn Huzaifah. These reinforcements arrived at Babylon sometime in September 640. The total strength of the Muslim force now rose to 12,000, quite a modest strength to resume the offensive.[3]

Battle of Heliopolis

Ten miles from Babylon was Heliopolis.[20] The Muslim army reached Heliopolis in July 640.[21] It was the city of the Sun Temple of the Pharaohs, and was famous for its grandiose monuments and learning institutions.[22] There was the danger that forces from Heliopolis could attack the Muslims from the flank while it was engaged with the Roman army at Babylon. With some detachments ‘Amr and Zubair marched to Heliopolis. There was a cavalry clash near the current neighbourhood of Abbaseya. The engagement was not decisive although it resulted in the occupation of the fortress located between the current neighbourhoods of Abdyn and Azbakeya. The defeated Byzantine soldiers retreated to either the Babylon Fortress or the fortress of Nikiû.[23] At an unguarded point of the wall of Heliopolis, Zubair and some of his picked soldiers scaled the wall of the city, and after overpowering the guards, opened the gates for the main Muslim army to enter the city. Heliopolis was thus captured by the Muslims. ‘Amr and Zubair returned to Babylon.

Conquering of Fayoum and Babylon

When news of the Muslims’ victory at Heliopolis reached Fayoum, its Byzantine garrison under the command of Domentianus evacuated the city during the night and fled to Abuit. From Abuit, they fled down the Nile to Nikiu without informing the people of Fayoum and Abuit that they were abandoning their cities to the enemy. When news of this reached ‘Amr, he ordered a body of his troops to cross the Nile and invade Fayoum and Abuit. The Muslim soldiers captured the entire province of Fayoum without any resistance from the Byzantines.[24]

The Byzantine garrison at Babylon now grew bolder then ever before and had begun to sally forth across the ditch, though with little success. There had been a stalemate between the Muslim and Byzantine forces at Babylon, until the Muslim commanders devised an ingenious strategy and inflicted heavy casualties on the Byzantine forces by encircling them from three sides in one of their such sallies. The Byzantines were able to retreat back to the fort but were left too weak for any further offensive action. This situation forced the Byzantines to enter in negotiations with the Muslims. The Byzantine general Theodorus shifted his headquarters to the Isle of Rauda, whilst Cyrus of Alexandria, popularly known as Muqawqis in Muslim history entered in negotiations with the Muslims, which failed to give any productive results. Emissaries were also exchanged between Theodorus and ‘Amr, leading to ‘Amr meeting Theodorus in person. After fruitless negotiations, the Muslims acted on 20 December, when, in a night assault, a company of hand picked warriors led by Zubair managed to scale the wall, kill the guards and open the gates for the Muslim army to enter. The city of Babylon was captured by the Muslims on 21 December 640, using tactics similar to those used by Khalid ibn Walid at Damascus. However Theodorus and his army managed to slip away to the island of Rauda during the night.[25]

Surrender of Thebaid (Southeastern Egypt)

On the 22nd of December, Cyrus of Alexandria entered into a treaty with the Muslims.[26] By the treaty, Muslim sovereignty over the whole of Egypt, and effectively on Thebaid, was recognized, and the Egyptians agreed to pay Jizya at the rate of 2 diners per male adult.[27] The treaty was subject to the approval of the emperor Heraclius, but Cyrus stipulated that even if the emperor repudiated the treaty, he and the Copts of whom he was the High Priest would honor its terms, recognize the supremacy of the Muslims and pay them Jizya.[28] Cyrus submitted a report to Heraclius and asked for his approval to the terms of the treaty. He also offered reasons in justification of the acceptance of the terms of the treaty. ‘Amr submitted a detailed report to ‘Umar and asked for his further instructions. When ‘Umar received this report, he wrote back to say that he approved of the terms provided Heraclius agreed to submit to them.[29] He desired that as soon as the reactions of Heraclius were known, he should be informed so that further necessary instructions could be issued promptly.[30] Heraclius’s reaction to Cyrus’s report was violent. He removed him from the viceroyship of Egypt, but he remained the Head of the Coptic Church: this was a matter in which the emperor could not interfere. Heraclius sent strict orders to the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine forces in Egypt that the Muslims should be driven out from Egypt. Cyrus waited on ‘Amr and told him that Heraclius had repudiated the treaty of Babylon. He assured ‘Amr that so far as the Copts were concerned the terms of the treaty would be followed. ‘Amr reported these developments to ‘Umar. ‘Umar desired that before the Byzantines could gather further strength the Muslims should strike at them and drive them from Alexandria. It is recorded that Cyrus requested three favors from the Muslims, namely:

  1. Do not break your treaty with the Copts;
  2. If the Byzantines after this repudiation ask for peace, do not make peace with them, but treat them as captives and slaves; and
  3. When I am dead allow me to be buried in the Church of St. John at Alexandria.[3][31]

This position was to the advantage of the Muslims as the Copts were the natives of the land of Egypt and[32] both the Byzantines and the Muslims were strangers. Though some Copts from personal considerations continued to support the Byzantines, the sympathies of the Copts were now by and large with the Muslims. The Copts were not supposed to fight against the Byzantines on behalf of the Muslims, but they undertook to help the Muslims in the promotion of war effort and in the provision of stores, build roads and bridges for them, and provide them moral support.[33]

March to Alexandria

 

Ancient Roman theaters in Alexandria.

The Byzantine commanders knew that the next target of the Muslims would be Alexandria. They accordingly prepared for the expected siege of the city. Their strategy was to keep the Muslims away from Alexandria by destroying their power through continued sallies and attacks from the fort. Even if this did not keep them away, it would weaken them morally and physically. It would be more of a war of patience than strength.[34] In February 641, ‘Amr set off for Alexandria from Babylon with his army. All along the road from Babylon to Alexandria, the Byzantines had left regiments to delay, and if possible, inflict losses on the advancing Muslims. On the third day of their march from Babylon the Muslims’ advance guard encountered a Byzantine detachment at Tarnut on the west bank of the Nile.[35] The Byzantines failed to inflict heavy losses, but they were able to delay the advance by one more day. The Muslim commanders decided to halt the main army at Tarnut and send the advance guard cavalry forward to clear the way from the possible Byzantine detachments. This was done so that the main army could reach Alexandria as soon as possible without being delayed by Byzantine regiments mid-way. Twenty miles from Tarnut, the Byzantine detachment that had withdrawn from Tarnut the day before, joined the detachment already present at Shareek to form a strong offensive force. They attacked and routed the Muslim advance guard. The next day, before the Byzantines could resume their offensive to annihilate the Muslim advance guard completely, the main Muslim army arrived, prompting the Byzantines to withdraw. At this point the Muslim commanders decided not to send forward the advance guard, so the whole army marched forward, beginning the following day. The Muslims reached Sulteis where they encountered a Byzantine detachment. Hard fighting followed, but the Byzantine resistance soon broke down and they withdrew to Alexandria. The Muslims halted at Sulteis for a day. Alexandria was still two days’ march from Sulteis. After one day’s march the Muslim forces arrived at Kirayun, twelve miles from Alexandria. Here the Muslim advance to Alexandria was blocked by a Byzantine detachment about 20,000 strong. The strategy of the Byzantines was that either the Muslims would be driven away before they actually arrived at Alexandria, or that they would be as weak as possible if they did. The two armies were deployed and fighting followed, but action remained indecisive,.[3] This state of affairs persisted for ten days. On the tenth day the Muslims launched a vigorous assault. The Byzantines were defeated and they retreated to Alexandria. The way to Alexandria was now cleared, and the Muslim forces resumed the march from Kirayun and reached the outskirts of Alexandria in March 641 AD.

Conquest of Alexandria and fall of Egypt

The Muslims laid siege to Alexandria in March 641 AD.[36] The city was heavily fortified: there were walls within walls, and forts within forts. There was no dearth of provisions and food supply in the city. The city also had direct access to the sea, and through the sea route help from Constantinople in the form of men and supplies could come at any time.

As ‘Amr surveyed the military situation, he felt that Alexandria would be a hard nut to crack.[37] The Byzantines had high stakes in Alexandria, and they were determined to offer stiff resistance to the Muslims. They mounted catapults on the walls of the city, and these engines pounded the Muslims with boulders. This caused considerable damage to the Muslims and ‘Amr ordered his men back from the advance position so that they might be beyond the range of the missiles. A see-saw war followed.[3] When the Muslims tried to go close to the city they were hit with missiles. When the Byzantines sallied from the fort, they were invariably beaten back by the Muslims.

It is said that Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, collected a large army at Constantinople. He intended to march at the head of these reinforcements personally to Alexandria. But before he could finalize the arrangements, he died. The troops mustered at Constantinople dispersed, and consequently no help came to Alexandria. This further demoralized the Byzantines. The siege dragged on for six months, and in Madinah ‘Umar got impatient. In a letter addressed to ‘Amr, the caliph expressed his concern at the inordinate delay in the invasion of Egypt. He further instructed that the new field commander would be ‘Ubaidah, and he would launch an assault on the fort of Alexandria. ‘Ubaidah’s assault was successful and Alexandria was captured by the Muslims in September 641. Thousands of Byzantine soldiers were killed or taken captive while others managed to flee to Constantinople on ships that had been anchored in the port. Some wealthy traders also left.[38]

On behalf of the Egyptians, Cyrus of Alexandria sued for peace, and his request was granted. After the invasion of Egypt ‘Amr is reported to have written to Caliph ‘Umar:

“We have conquered Alexandria. In this city there are 4,000 palaces, 400 places of entertainment, and untold wealth.”

The permanent loss of Egypt meant a loss of a huge amount of Byzantium’s food and money. The loss of Egypt and Syria, followed later by the invasion of the Exarchate of Africa also meant that the Mediterranean, long referred to as the “Roman lake”, was now contested between two powers: the Muslim Caliphate and the Byzantine Empire. In these events, the Byzantine Empire, although sorely tested, would be able to hold on to Anatolia, while the mighty walls of Constantinople would save it during two great Arab sieges, from the fate of the Persian Empire.[39]

An attempt was made in the year 645 to regain Alexandria for the Byzantine Empire, but it was retaken by ‘Amr in 646. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country.

Invasion of Nubia

The land of Nubia lay to the south of Egypt. It stretched from Aswan to Khartoum and from the Red Sea to the Libyan Desert. The Nubians were Christians and were ruled by a king. The capital of the kingdom was Dongola. In the summer of 642, ‘Amr ibn al-‘As sent an expedition to Nubia under the command of his cousin ‘Uqbah ibn Nafi. The expedition was ordered by ‘Amr on his own account. It was not a whole scale invasion but merely a pre-emptive raid to show the arrival of a new ruling in Egypt to the bordering kingdoms.[40] ‘Uqbah ibn Nafi, who later made a great name for himself as the Conqueror of Africa, and led his horse to the Atlantic came in for an unhappy experience in Nubia. In Nubia, no pitched battle was fought. There were only skirmishes and haphazard engagements and in such type of warfare the Nubians excelled at. They were skilful archers and subjected the Muslims to a merciless barrage of arrows. These arrows were aimed at the eyes and in the encounter 250 Muslims lost their eyes.

The Nubians were very fast in their movements.[13] The Muslim cavalry was known for its speed and mobility, but it was no match for the Nubian horse riders. The Nubians would strike hard against the Muslims, and then vanish before the Muslims could recover their balance and take counter action. The hit-and-run raids by the Nubians caused considerable damage to the Muslims. ‘Uqbah wrote to ‘Amr of this state of affairs.[41] He said that the Nubians avoided pitched battle, and in the guerilla tactics that they followed the Muslims suffered badly. ‘Uqbah further came to know that Nubia was a very poor land, and there was nothing therein worth fighting for.[citation needed] Thereupon ‘Amr ordered ‘Uqbah to withdraw from Nubia. ‘Uqbah accordingly pulled out of Nubia with his forces.

Conquest of North Africa

After the preemptive raid on Nubia in the south ‘Amr decided to undertake campaigns in the west, so as to secure the western borders of Egypt and clear the region of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan from Byzantine influence. Some time in September 642, ‘Amr led his troops west. After one month of marching the Muslim forces reached the city of Pentapolis. From Burqa, ‘Uqbah bin Nafi was sent at the head of a column to undertake a campaign against Fezzan. ‘Uqbah marched to Zaweela, the capital of Fezzan. No resistance was offered, and the entire district of Fezzan, what is present day north-western Libya, submitted to the Muslims. ‘Uqbah then returned to Burqa. Soon after the Muslim army marched westward from Burqa. They arrived at Tripoli in the spring of 643 C.E. and laid siege to the city. The city fell after a siege of one month. From Tripoli, ‘Amr sent a detachment to Sabratha, a city forty miles from Tripoli. The city put up feeble resistance, and soon surrendered and agreed to pay Jizya. From Tripoli, ‘Amr is reported to have written to the caliph the details of the operations in the following words:

“We have conquered Burqa, Tripoli and Sabratha. The way to the west is clear, and if the Commander of the Faithful wishes to conquer more lands, we could do so with the grace of God.”

‘Umar, whose armies were already engaged in a massive campaign of conquering the Sassanid Empire did not wanted to engage himself further along north Africa, when Muslim rule in Egypt was as yet insecure. The caliph accordingly disapproved of any further advances and ordered ‘Amr to first consolidate the Muslims’ position in Egypt, and issued strict orders that there should be no further campaigning. ‘Amr obeyed, abandoning Tripoli and Burqa and returning to Fustat. This was towards the close of the year 643 AD.[42]

Stance of the Egyptians towards the invading Muslims

The Muslims were assisted by some Copts, who resented the persecutions of the Byzantines, and of these some turned to Islam. Others sided with the Byzantines, hoping that they would provide a defense against the Arab invaders.[43]

In return for a tribute of money and food for the occupying troops, the Christian inhabitants of Egypt were excused from military service and left free in the observance of their religion and the administration of their affairs. This system was a new institution, as a mandate by a religion. But it was adopted as an institution, by the Muslims from previous poll tax systems in the ancient Middle East. Indeed, the Egyptians had been subject to it – as non-Romans – during Roman rule before the adoption of Christianity by the Roman state. After that, all non-Christian subjects of the Roman Empire had to pay it, including non-Christian Egyptians. The Persians also had a similar poll tax system.

On the twentieth of Maskaram Byzantine general Theodorus and all his troops and officers set out and proceeded to the island of Cyprus, abandoning the city of Alexandria. Thereupon ‘Amr, the Muslim commander, made his entry into the city of Alexandria. The inhabitants received him with respect, for they were in great tribulation and affliction. ‘Amr exacted the taxes which had been determined upon, but he took none of the property of the churches, and he committed no act of spoliation or plunder.

Egypt under Muslim rule

 

Rashidun Empire at its peak under third Rashidun Caliph, Uthman- 654

  Strongholds of Rashidun Caliphate

Muslims gained control over Egypt due to a variety of factors, including internal Byzantine politics, religious zeal and the difficulty of maintaining a large empire. The Byzantines did attempt to regain Alexandria, but it was retaken by ‘Amr in 646. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repelled. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of Egypt.

Amr ibn al-Aas had popular support in Egypt amongst the Coptic Christian population. In the book “The Great Arab Conquests” Hugh Kennedy writes that Cyrus the Roman governor had expelled the Coptic patriarch Benjamin into exile. When Amr occupied Alexandria, a Coptic nobleman (duqs) called Sanutius persuaded him to send out a proclamation of safe conduct for Benjamin and an invitation to return to Alexandria. When he arrived, after thirteen years in concealment, Amr treated him with respect. He was then instructed by the governor to resume control over the Coptic Church. He arranged for the restoration of the monasteries in the Wadi Natrun that had been ruined by the Chalcedonian Christians, which still exists as a functioning monastery in the present day.” [44]

On Amr’s return the Egyptian population also worked with Amr.[45] In the book “The Great Arab Conquests” Hugh Kennedy writes “The pious biographer of Coptic patriarch Benjamin presents us with the striking image of the patriarch prayed for the success of the Muslim commander Amr against the Christians of the Cyrenaica. Benjamin survived for almost twenty years after the fall of Egypt to the Muslims, dying of full years and honour in 661. His body was laid to rest in the monastery of St Macarius, where he is still venerated as a saint. There can be no doubt that he played a major role in the survival of the Coptic Church” [44] Coptic patriarch Benjamin also prayed for Amr when he moved to take Libya.[46]

In the book “The Great Arab Conquests” Hugh Kennedy writes “Even more striking is the verdict of John of Nikiu. John was no admirer of Muslim government and was fierce in his denunciation, but he says of Amr: ‘He extracted the taxes which had been determined upon but he took none of the property of the churches, and he committed no act of spoliation or plunder, and he preserved them throughout all his days'”[47] He writes “Of all the early Muslim conquests, that of Egypt was the swiftest and most complete. Within a space of two years the country had come entirely under Arab rule. Even more remarkably, it has remained under Muslim rule ever since. Seldom in history can so massive a political change have happened so swiftly and been so long lasting” [47]

Uqba ibn Nafi then used Egypt as a launch pad to move across North Africa all the way to the Atlantic ocean.[48] In the book “The Great Arab Conquests” Hugh Kennedy writes “When Uqba reached the Atlantic. The moment has passed into legend. He is said to have ridden his horse into the sea until the water came up to its belly. He shouted out ‘O Lord, if the sea did not stop me, I would go through lands like Alexander the Great (Dhu’l l-Qarnayan), defending your faith’ The image of the Arab warrior whose progress in conquering in the name of God was halted only by the ocean remains one of the most arresting and memorable in the whole history of the conquests.[49]

Fustat, the new capital

With the fall of Alexandria the Muslims were the masters of Egypt. At the time of their Egyptian campaign, Alexandria was the capital of the country. When Alexandria was captured by the Muslims, the houses vacated by the Byzantines were occupied by the Muslims. The Muslims were impressed and attracted by Alexandria, “the queen of cities”. ‘Amr wished for Alexandria to remain the capital of Muslim Egypt.[3] He wrote to Caliph ‘Umar seeking his permission to do this. ‘Umar rejected the proposal on the basis that Alexandria was a maritime city and there would always be a danger of Byzantine naval attacks.[50]

He suggested that the capital should be established further inland at a central place, where no mass of water intervened between it and Arabia.[51] As per the treaty with Cyrus of Alexandria, the wealth of the Egyptians in Alexandria was spared and that of Romans and Greeks was taken as booty. Greek citizens were given a choice, to return to Greek territories safely without their wealth, or to stay in Alexandria and pay Jizya. Some chose to stay, while others went to Byzantine lands.

‘Amr next proceeded to choose a suitable site for the capital of Egypt. His choice fell on the site where he had pitched his tent at the time of the battle of Babylon. His tent had been fixed about a quarter of a mile north east of the fort. It is reported that after the battle was over, and the army was about to march to Alexandria, the men began to pull down the tent and pack it for the journey, when it was found that a dove had nested on top of the tent and laid eggs. ‘Amr ordered that the tent should remain standing where it was. The army marched away but the tent remained standing in the plain of Babylon. In this unusual episode ‘Amr saw a sign from Heaven. He decided “where the dove laid its nest, let the people build their city”. As ‘Amr’s tent was to be the focal point of the city, the city was called Fustat, which in Arabic means the tent. The first structure to be built was the mosque which later became famous as Mosque of ‘Amr ibn al-‘As.[43] The city of Fustat was built due east of Babylon. In the course of time, Fustat extended to include the old town of Babylon. It grew to become a bustling city and the commercial centre of Egypt.[52]

Reforms of Caliph Umar

To consolidate his rule in Egypt, ‘Umar imposed the jizya on Egyptians. However, during later Umayyad rule higher taxes were imposed on the Egyptians.

By ‘Umar’s permission, ‘Amr ibn al-‘As decided to build a canal to join the Nile with the Red Sea; it would help the traders and Arabia would flourish through this new trade route. Moreover it would open new markets for the Egyptian merchants and open for them an easy route for the markets of Arabia and Iraq. This project was presented to Caliph ‘Umar, who approved it. A canal was dug, and within a few months was opened for merchants. It was named Nahar Amir ul-Mu’mineen i.e. The canal of Commander of the Faithful referring to the title of the Caliph ‘Umar.[53]

Amr proposed another project: digging a canal that would join the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.[54] The project was once again sent to ‘Umar for approval, but Umar viewed it as a threat to national security and rejected on the basis that it would open a way for Byzantine navy to enter the Red Sea via that canal and posing a threat to Madinah itself.[3] This project however was completed in the form of what is now known as the Suez Canal 1300 years later. Each year the caliph instructed a large amount of jizya to be used on the building and repairing of canals and bridges.[55] The Arabs remained in control of the country from this point until 1250, when it fell under the control of the Mamelukes.

En Argentina: Hallan hongo que mata al transmisor del dengue y del Chikungunya (Scientists find a fungus that kills the transmitter of dengue and Chikungunya): “Leptolegnia chapmanii”


In Argentina: Hallan fungus that kills the transmitter of dengue and Chikungunya

SALUD | En Argentina

Científicos hallan un hongo que mata al transmisor del dengue y Chikungunya

Un hongo denominado “Leptolegnia chapmanii” puede sobrevivir en aguas turbias o cristalinas de temperaturas variables y es cultivable a bajo costo, por lo que aparece como una prometedora arma para destruir las larvas de los mosquitos transmisores.

EL UNIVERSAL
miércoles 20 de agosto de 2014  04:01 PM

Buenos Aires.- Científicos argentinos hallaron un hongo, adaptable a múltiples hábitat, que destruye las larvas de los mosquitos transmisores del dengue y Chikungunya, dos epidemias virales sin vacunas comerciales y cuyo control se basa en la prevención.

Este hongo, denominado “Leptolegnia chapmanii”, puede sobrevivir en aguas turbias o cristalinas, con distintos PH, a temperaturas variables y es cultivable a bajo costo por lo que aparece como una prometedora arma biológica.

Su poder mortífero probó ser efectivo en larvas de 15 especies de mosquitos, entre ellas las del Aedes Aegypti y Aedes Albopistus, vectores del dengue, una enfermedad viral tropical que puede llegar a ser mortal en su variante hemorrágica y es endémica en muchos países. >>>>>>>>>>more HERE<<<<<<<<<<

Google Translator said:    https://translate.google.com/#auto/en/

HEALTH | In Argentina


Scientists find a fungus that kills the transmitter of dengue and Chikungunya
A fungus called “Leptolegnia chapmaniican survive in cloudy or clear waters of varying temperatures and is cultivated at low cost, so it appears as a promising weapon to destroy the larvae of mosquitoes.
EL UNIVERSAL
Wednesday August 20, 2014 4:01 PM
BUENOS AIRES Argentine scientists have found a fungus, adaptable to multiple habitat, which destroys the larvae of mosquitoes that carry dengue and Chikungunya, two viral epidemics no commercial vaccines and whose control is based on prevention.

This fungus, called “Leptolegnia chapmaniican survive in cloudy or clear waters with varying pH at varying temperatures and is cultivated at low cost so it appears as a promising biological weapon.

Its lethality proved effective in larvae of 15 species of mosquitoes, including Aedes aegypti and Aedes of Albopistus, vectors of dengue, a viral tropical disease that can be fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever and is endemic in many countries.

 

 

From BBC: First Ebola case linked to bat play


First Ebola case linked to bat play http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-30632453

JP2MRI Video Gallery Video Gallery for the John Paul II Medical Research Institute. (Nobody is in the center of the universe…yet each one of us dreams…)


Screenshot_4

JP2MRI Video Gallery Video Gallery for the John Paul II Medical Research Institute.

 

Tomorrow’s Saint

Image of St. Anthony the Hermit

St. Anthony the Hermit

Pilots Exposed to Increased Skin Cancer Risk


Pilots Exposed to Increased Skin Cancer Risk

Piloting a prop plane at 30,000 feet for an hour exposes pilots to as much ultraviolet radiation as 20 minutes in a tanning bed, according to a new study. A dermatologic research team at Mount Zion Cancer Research Center at the University of California, San Francisco, reports that the incidence of melanoma among pilots and their crews is about twice that of the general population. As part of the study, the researchers tested an airplane windshield and found that it only protected against UV-B radiation, not UV-A radiation, which penetrates skin more deeply. More… Discuss

THIS DAY IN THE YESTERYEAR: Indian Ocean Tsunami Strikes (2004)


Indian Ocean Tsunami Strikes (2004)

A tsunami is a series of massive waves generated when a body of water is rapidly displaced. The deadliest tsunami in recorded history, the Indian Ocean tsunami killed some 230,000 people in Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and other countries as far away as Somalia on the Horn of Africa. It was triggered by an undersea earthquake near Sumatra with a magnitude of between 9.1 and 9.3 and inundated coastal communities with waves up to 100 ft (30 m) high. How far away were the effects felt? More… Discuss

E-Cigarette Use Surpasses Smoking Among US Teens


E-Cigarette Use Surpasses Smoking Among US Teens

For the first time, more American teens are using electronic cigarettes than traditional tobacco cigarettes, according to the government’s annual drug use survey of more than 41,000 students. The report released by the National Institutes of Health noted that between 4 percent and 7 percent of students who reported trying e-cigarettes said they had never smoked a tobacco cigarette. Health officials have expressed concern about the trend, especially since 10 states allow e-cigarettes to be sold to minors. More… Discuss

From the BBC: Life choices ‘behind many cancers’


Life choices ‘behind more than four in 10 cancers’

unhealthy habits

Related Stories

More than four in 10 cancers – 600,000 in the UK alone – could be prevented if people led healthier lives, say experts.

Latest figures from Cancer Research UK show smoking is the biggest avoidable risk factor, followed by unhealthy diets.

The charity is urging people to consider their health when making New Year resolutions.

Life choices ‘behind many cancers’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-30589712

NHL Trying to Check Mumps Outbreak


NHL Trying to Check Mumps Outbreak

An outbreak of mumps is occurring in the US among a very specific population: members of the National Hockey League. More than two dozen players on multiple teams have tested positive for the disease in recent weeks, including superstar Sidney Crosby. Mumps is a contagious disease characterized by swelling of the salivary glands. Although nearly all children in the US are immunized against the disease, immunity can decrease with age. Teams are now providing booster shots to players, and all the affected players are expected to recover without any lasting effects. More… Discuss

What Is Organic Food? (I remember a time when all food was organic: Do you?)


What Is Organic Food?

Growing health consciousness has caused organic food to skyrocket in popularity. Proponents of organic farming claim that it yields more nutritious, safer, and tastier food because it is not prepared with the synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, medicated feed, and chemicals that are often used in food processing. Food whose ingredients are at least 95% organic by weight may carry the “USDA ORGANIC” label. Who is credited with coining the term “organic farming”? More… Discuss

this pressed for your safety: Christmas decorations that could kill you


Christmas decorations that could kill you

Christmas decorations that could kill you

Keep these potentially deadly decorations out of reach of pets and children… and very curious adults.

iStock

Let’s face it: even as an adult, shiny objects are pretty enticing. Now just imagine how wondrous they seem to children and animals. While tinsel isn’t toxic, it can cause problems if ingested, especially for pets, as the foreign object could twist and tangle up in their intestines.

iStock

Though they are less toxic to humans than once believed, poinsettias can cause extreme discomfort when ingested. If your toddler has a bite, it can cause a mild stomachache, diarrhea, and vomiting. It is likely that people with a latex allergy will be allergic to poinsettias as well, since they both share similar proteins, and a severe reaction shouldn’t be treated lightly. Animals that nibble on these plants will likely experience mouth and stomach irritation and occasional vomiting.

via Christmas decorations that could kill you.

Environment: Plastics Pervade Planet’s Oceans


Plastics Pervade Planet’s Oceans

The world’s oceans are clogged with 269,000 tons of plastic objects, according to a new report by a group of marine researchers. The estimate is based on data from 24 expeditions over six years, during which they studied gyres—regions with extremely strong currents—in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. When a large plastic object is introduced into the ocean, it often gets sucked into the whirling currents of a gyre. These objects are then eroded into “microplastics.” According to the researchers, these particles account for more than 90 percent of the plastic in the ocean. More… Discuss

this pressed: A medical student develops an illness she has been studying – The Washington Post


A patient’s worst nightmare

The first two years of medical school, the preclinical years, teach students about disease in the abstract, as testable material. We detach ourselves from reality as we memorize a constellation of symptoms and treatments presented from a podium or a textbook. I have been guilty of occasionally forgetting that what I am studying may be a patient’s worst nightmare.

“We ask patients to take on risks in order to heal,” Cherie Fathy writes, “but we should never forget how overwhelming it is to hear those risks or to play those odds.” (Courtesy of Cherie Fathy)

As students on the wards, we see mere snapshots of our patients’ illnesses. We are there as patients receive a diagnosis in the clinic or a treatment in the hospital. What we don’t see is a patient at home deciding whether that lump is even worth checking on or a mother dreading when to tell her children what she has, or how to even begin telling them.

via A medical student develops an illness she has been studying – The Washington Post.

Health: Mayo Clinic News Network — Headlines 12/11/14


Mayo Clinic News Network — Headlines 12/11/14 (click to access story at Mayo Clinic News Network)

Mayo Clinic News Network — Headlines 12/11/14 (click to access story at Mayo Clinic News Network)

 

Mayo Clinic News Network — Headlines 12/11/14

Downey Landing: “When The Dream Goes To Sleep”, by George-B (revisited December 12, 2014)



Did you know that the City of Downey had been until 1998 the hub of the American Avionics, and then that of the aeronautics, including the Space Shuttle Program? Are you curios to find out (now that dust starts Settling on the last of the Space Shuttles– Atlantis) what happened to the real estate where it all happened? Well now it is a …Mall, yes a shopping center, and a NASA Museum, and Downey Studios. No no more aeronautics in Downey, NASA can look for those cardboard boxes, to get their personal belongings (quite popular for the last decade throughout the land).  This never felt right to me, since I believe that the strength of any nation is in what it creates, not in what, and how much it consumes. I may be wrong though, it is harder and harder to make sense of many things: for instance I never understood what a service society ment for the longest, and still can’t wrap my way of thinking around it. May be because…I’m not a bush, a plant. The bush never spoke to me, not in a intelligible language.
So here are few photos I took of the place called Downey Landings, a modest and sincerely felt apology to the avionics community, here and elsewhere, who may miss Rockwell International and the contracts that allowed for the Avionics and Space Programs to become reality.

It’s so hard to build, but so easy to tear down. (Should this be the ending line of this story, I think it will be meaningful one)
As for the photos taken: I found about the insignia (or or as I like to call them symbolically “Headstones”- you know like in a hi-tech cemetery – by chance, because they sure are not standing either out, nor up, they are well hidden in plain view, but not that visible as to disrupt the shopping spree, at this useless outlets, present in every city, since they have nothing to do with avionics, or space exploration, or nothing of the kind: you can buy stuff for your next party, from Party city and dog food from PetsSmart, they have specials for beach torches, office supplies, and few fast, food restaurants: But nothing too fancy, you see…As far as the marvel of architecture, representing the sidewalk (which really cannot qualify for a sidewalk due to the construction and width of 3 feet) if you want to get a headache, or dizzy, that’s the place to be (that would be because one cannot walk streight on the winding sidewalk)  I wonder who filled they pockets charging for the design, execution and expensive overhead labor for this one? Nobody in the City Hall could give an aswer…Tough times, you see.

01-Downey_Landings_Space_for_Lease

02-Downey_Landing_South_Side

 This picture is an introduction to the ” In Memoriam” Project dedicated to the 90 years of uninterrupted avionics presence in Downey, California:03-Downey_Landing_Site_of_American_Avionics

03-Downey_Landing_Site_of_American_Avionics

Next there is the “Insignia” of some of the first half of the 20th century avionics companies:

05-Downey_Landing_Site_of_American_Avionics_Companies

Apollo 11(1969):

06-Downey_Landing_Appolo 11-1969

Apollo XIII (1970):

07-Downey_Landing_AppolloXIII_1970

Apollo 14 (1971):

08-Downey_Landing_Appollo 14-1971

Appollo 15 (1971):

09-Downey_Landing_Appollo15_1971

10-Downey_Landing_Enterprise_1977

12-Downey_Landing_Shuttle_Columbia_1981

12-Downey_Landing_Shuttle_Challenger-1983

13-The-Headache-Mile Starts at Stewart and Gray Ends At Imperial Hwy_Downey_Landing

15-Downey_Landing_Back_From_Space

16-Downey_Landing_In_Memoriam_Avionics & NASA

Sale at PArty Outdoor Torches_Downey_Landing What a steal

 
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thsi pressed for your health: Lower IQ seen after exposure to plastic chemicals — FRANCE 24 (@FRANCE24)


New evidence of health trouble linked to ​BPA in plastics, canned goods – CBS News


The chemical bisphenol A (BPA) can be found in some canned food liners and plastic containers. CBS News

Eating food from cans lined with the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) could raise your blood pressure, a new study suggests.

BPA previously has been linked to a variety of ills, including heart problems, developmental problems in children and high blood pressure. The chemical is widely used in products ranging from plastic bottles and food containers to dental fillings and cash register receipts. In cans, BPA is used as a lining, the researchers said.

“We found that drinking two canned beverages increased systolic blood pressure by 5 mm Hg,” said lead researcher Dr. Yun-Chul Hong, director of the Environmental Health Center at Seoul National University College of Medicine in Korea.

Putting that in perspective, he said a 20 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure doubles the risk for heart disease. The systolic blood pressure number is always the first of two numbers given in a blood pressure reading.

New evidence of health trouble linked to ​BPA in plastics, canned goods – CBS News.

this pressed for hope: Immune system reboot takes center stage | MLive.com


Sue-IMG_3013.JPG

Mlive.com file| photoSue Schroder

First, a word about what we have and who we are from the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, www.lls.org and the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Statistics Review:

Leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are types of cancer that can affect the bone marrow, the blood cells, the lymph nodes and other parts of the lymphatic system. Each is likely a result of changes to the DNA of a single stem cell.

By the numbers:

* Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma are expected to account for 9.4 percent of the estimated 1.6-plus million new cancer cases diagnosed in the U.S. this year;

An estimated 1.3 million in the U.S. are living with, or are in remission from, leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma or myeloma.

The immune system is at the center of one area of change.

A major reason blood cancers develop is a failure of the immune system to recognize malignant cells, Brinker said.

He talked about a study of Chimeric Antigen Receptor technology (CAR), at the University of Pennsylvania:

“B-cells are the bad cells in B-lymphocyte leukemias and lymphomas, which are the majority of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and lymphocytic leukemias.

“T-cells are like the military police, they regulate the B-cells.” In some lymphomas and leukemia, malfunctioning T-cells are the evildoers.

“We can put a virus into T-cells in a Petri dish and get them supercharged to specifically fight B-lymphocytes.

“The T-cells are then stimulated to reproduce,” and an army of killer T-cells is re-introduced into the body to destroy the cancer and stick around to take out new threats.

Via Immune system reboot takes center stage | MLive.com

http://www.mlive.com/health/index.ssf/2014/12/immune_system_reboot_takes_cen.html

EU Unveils Deal to Let Member States Ban GMO Crops


Democracy Now! U.S. and World News Headlines for Thursday, December 5

EU Unveils Deal to Let Member States Ban GMO Crops

The European Union has announced an agreement that would allow member states to ban cultivation of genetically modified crops. The legislation would let the 28 EU countries ban the crops even if EU regulators approve them. Environmentalists who are seeking to curb GMOs over potential health and ecological harms have voiced concern the measure could leave countries that ban GMOs vulnerable to legal retaliation from multinationals like Monsanto.

today’s birthday: Dennis Wilson (1944)


Dennis Wilson (1944)

In 1961, brothers Dennis, Brian, and Carl Wilson formed The Beach Boys, one of the most influential bands in rock and pop music history. Dennis, the group’s drummer, vocalist, sometime songwriter, and sex symbol, also had a successful solo career. His longtime battle with drug and alcohol abuse had a profound impact on his life, and, at age 39, Dennis died in an alcohol-related drowning. What was the nature of his relationship with cult leader and murderer Charles Manson? More… Discuss