Category Archives: Educational

Big firms—across industries—are spending $ on their own infrastructure due to a strong economy— Rani Molla


Ravel Valses nobles et sentimentales


Ravel Valses nobles et sentimentales

‘Capital punishment must end’ – Catholic publications unite in rare joint statement :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)


Washington D.C., Mar 5, 2015 / 04:02 am (CNA/EWTN News).- Four U.S. Catholic publications with a broad range of audiences have come together in a joint editorial citing Church leaders in calling for an end to the death penalty in the United States.

“Capital punishment must end,” stated a March 5 editorial by America magazine, the National Catholic Register, the National Catholic Reporter and Our Sunday Visitor.

The death penalty is both “abhorrent and unnecessary,” the publications said, arguing that the practice of capital punishment drains resources in court battles that would be “better deployed in preventing crime in the first place and working toward restorative justice for those who commit less heinous crimes.”

via ‘Capital punishment must end’ – Catholic publications unite in rare joint statement :: Catholic News Agency (CNA).

J.S. Bach – St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244 / Aria: “Erbarme dich, mein Gott”


J.S. Bach – St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244 / Aria: “Erbarme dich, mein Gott”

Suite No.4 in G major Op.61 Mozartiana


Suite No.4 in G major Op.61 Mozartiana

Saint of the Day for Thursday, March 5th, 2015: St. John Joseph of the Cross


Image of St. John Joseph of the Cross

St. John Joseph of the Cross

St. John Joseph of the Cross was born about the middle of the seventeenth century in the beautiful island of Ischia, near Naples. From his childhood he was the model of virtue, and in his sixteenth … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

Today In History. What Happened This Day In History


Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

March 5

1624   Class-based legislation is passed in the colony of Virginia, exempting the upper class from punishment by whipping.
1766   Antonio de Ulloa, the first Spanish governor of Louisiana, arrives in New Orleans.
1793   Austrian troops crush the French and recapture Liege.
1821   James Monroe becomes the first president to be inaugurated on March 5, only because the 4th was a Sunday.
1905   Russians begin to retreat from Mukden in Manchuria, China.
1912   The Italians become the first to use dirigibles for military purposes, using them for reconnaissance flights behind Turkish lines west of Tripoli.
1918   The Soviets move the capital of Russia from Petrograd to Moscow.
1928   Hitler’s National Socialists win the majority vote in Bavaria.
1933   Newly inaugurated President Franklin D. Roosevelt halts the trading of gold and declares a bank holiday.
1933   Hitler and Nationalist allies win the Reichstag majority. It will be the last free election in Germany until after World War II.
1943   In desperation due to war losses, fifteen and sixteen year olds are called up for military service in the German army.
1946   In Fulton, Missouri, Winston Churchill tells a crowd that “an iron curtain has descended on the Continent [of Europe].”
1956   The U.S. Supreme Court affirms the ban on segregation in public schools in Brown vs. Board of Education.
1969   Gustav Heinemann is elected West German President.
1976   Britain gives up on the Ulster talks and decides to retain rule in Northern Ireland indefinitely.
1984   The U.S. Supreme Court rules that cities have the right to display the Nativity scene as part of their Christmas display.
Born on March 5
1326   Louis I (the Great), King of Hungary.
1574   William Oughtred, mathematician and inventor of the slide rule.
1824   Elisha Harris, U.S. physician and founder of the American Public Health Association.
1824   James Merritt Ives, lithographer for Currier and Ives.
1853   Howard Pyle, writer and illustrator (The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood).
1870   Frank Norris, novelist (McTeague, The Octopus).
1887   Heitor Villa-Lobos, Brazillian composer.
1908   Rex Harrison, actor.
1938   Lynn Margulis, biologist.
1948   Leslie Marmon Silko, writer (Ceremony).

- See more at: http://www.historynet.com/today-in-history#sthash.ZdUi8cYV.dpuf

quotation: “Death is the only physician,…”, George Eliot


Death is the only physician, the shadow of his valley the only journeying that will cure us of age and the gathering fatigue of years.George Eliot (1819-1880) Discuss

today’s birthday: Rosa Luxemburg (1871)


Rosa Luxemburg (1871)

Luxemburg was a Polish-born German revolutionary and Marxist political theorist. She helped found the Polish Socialist party, was a leader in the German Social Democratic Party, and collaborated with Karl Liebknecht in founding the Spartacus League in 1916. Imprisoned during World War I for opposing the war, Luxemburg continued to secretly write politically inflammatory essays and had them illegally smuggled out of prison and published. How did she die? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Boston Massacre (1770)


Boston Massacre (1770)

Many Bostonians resented the heavy British military presence in their city during the late 1700s, and the soldiers’ enforcement of the unpopular Townshend Acts merely exacerbated the tense situation. On March 5, 1770, soldiers opened fire on an aggressive, rioting civilian mob, killing five men. The Boston Massacre, as it became known, fueled the anti-British sentiment that culminated in the American Revolutionary War. Which future US president served as the troops’ defense lawyer? More… Discuss

word: gelid


gelid

Definition: (adjective) Very cold; icy.
Synonyms: arctic, frigid, glacial, polar
Usage: After only a few minutes in the gelid wind, they were shivering too hard to speak. Discuss.

U.S. Appeals Court Overturns Gag Order In Mine Disaster Case — NPR News (@nprnews)


BBC – Culture – The world’s most beautiful markets


Before the industrial age, people shopped for food in their local areas – often in beautiful covered halls and markets. Jonathan Glancey describes the best.

When it comes to fresh food, there has long been a dividing line between Britain, the United States – or English-speaking countries – and much of the rest of the world. Early and rapid industrialisation in the former led to a divorce between great swathes of the population and the land they once farmed.

Refrigeration, railways, suburban growth and the car have given rise to the supermarket, with its shrink-wrapped food, sell-by dates, and the branding and advertising of what we eat. Driving to edge-of-town supermarkets has resulted in the closure of family shops, the de-valuing of high streets and a decline in interaction between buyers, growers and sellers of food.

The role of the supermarket was once played by covered markets in Britain and North America just as it is today in much of the world where people still want to look closely at the food they plan to buy, and to enjoy the incomparable buzz and the feast of all senses covered markets offer.

via BBC – Culture – The world’s most beautiful markets.

BBC – Culture – The Ajanta Caves: Discovering lost treasure


The Ajanta Caves, 30 spellbinding Buddhist prayer halls and monasteries carved, as if by sorcery, into a horseshoe-shaped rock face in a mountainous region of India’s Maharashtra state, 450km (280 miles) east of Mumbai, were ‘discovered’ by accident in 1819.

Unknown for more than 1,000 years except to wild animals, insects, flood waters, prodigious foliage and perhaps the local Bhil people, this magnificent work of art, architecture and contemplation, was abandoned by those who created it as long ago as AD 500. In 1983 it was designated a Unesco World Heritage Site.

John Smith, a young British cavalry officer, was on a tiger hunt when he spotted the mouth of a cave high above the Waghora (Tiger) River that could only have been man made. Scrambling up with his party, Smith entered the cave and, branding a flaming grass torch, encountered a great vaulted and colonnaded hall, its walls covered in faded paintings. Beneath a dome, a timeless praying Buddha fronted a mound-like shrine, or stupa

via BBC – Culture – The Ajanta Caves: Discovering lost treasure.

China’s version of ‘An Inconvenient Truth’ is going viral— msnbc (@msnbc)


From VATICAN: POPE FRANCIS PRAYS FOR THE PERSECUTED CHRISTIANS


Pope Francis prays for world’s persecuted Christians

Posted from WordPress for Android

Beethoven – Gilels Piano Sonata No. 2


Beethoven – Gilels Piano Sonata
No. 2

Cello Concerto in B flat Major, G.482 – I. Allegro moderato


Cello Concerto in B flat Major, G.482 – I. Allegro moderato

Niccolo Paganini Sonata No 2 Nikolas Pylarinos violin and Evangelos Nikolaides guitar


Niccolo Paganini Sonata No 2 Nikolas Pylarinos violin and Evangelos Nikolaides guitar

Would you recognize ‘Homeless Jesus’ on a park bench in DC? :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)


Washington D.C., Mar 4, 2015 / 04:18 am (CNA/EWTN News).- A statue of “Homeless Jesus” now sits just outside Catholic Charities in downtown Washington, D.C., with the organization’s president hoping it will spur passers-by to service.

“My hope is it would just remind us all that there’s a population out there that needs our help and assistance, and that we meet Jesus in them. We meet Jesus in those in need,” said the president and CEO of Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Washington, Monsignor John Enzler.

The statue was sculpted by Canadian artist Timothy P. Schmalz. Pope Francis blessed a small model of the statue back in November 2013.

via Would you recognize ‘Homeless Jesus’ on a park bench in DC? :: Catholic News Agency (CNA).

Today In History. What Happened This Day In History


Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

March 4

1152   Frederick Barbarossa is chosen as emperor and unites the two factions, which emerged in Germany after the death of Henry V.
1461   Henry VI is deposed and the Duke of York is proclaimed King Edward IV.
1634   Samuel Cole opens the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts.
1766   The British Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, the cause of bitter and violent opposition in the colonies
1789   The first Congress of the United States meets in New York and declares that the Constitution is in effect.
1791   Vermont is admitted as the 14th state. It is the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
1793   George Washington is inaugurated as President for the second time.
1797   Vice-President John Adams, elected President on December 7, to replace George Washington, is sworn in.
1801   Thomas Jefferson becomes the first President to be inaugurated in Washington, D.C.
1813   The Russians fighting against Napoleon reach Berlin. The French garrison evacuates the city without a fight.
1861   The Confederate States of America adopt the “Stars and Bars” flag.
1877   The Russian Imperial Ballet stages the first performance of “Swan Lake” in Moscow.
1901   William McKinley is inaugurated president for the second time. Theodore Roosevelt is inaugurated as vice president.
1904   Russian troops begin to retreat toward the Manchurian border as 100,000 Japanese advance in Korea.
1908   The New York board of education bans the act of whipping students in school.
1912   The French council of war unanimously votes a mandatory three-year military service.
1914   Doctor Fillatre of Paris, France successfully separates Siamese twins.
1921   Warren G. Harding is sworn in as America’s 29th President.
1933   Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated to his first term as president in Washington, D.C.
1944   Berlin is bombed by the American forces for the first time.
1952   North Korea accuses the United nations of using germ warfare.
1963   Six people get the death sentence in Paris plotting to kill President Charles de Gaulle.
1970   Fifty-seven people are killed as the French submarine Eurydice sinks in the Mediterranean Sea.
1975   Queen Elizabeth knights Charlie Chaplin.
1987   President Reagan takes full responsibility for the Iran-Contra affair in a national address.
Born on March 4
1394   Prince Henry the Navigator, sponsor of Portuguese voyages of discovery
1678   Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer and violinist.
1747   Casimir Pulaski, American Revolutionary War general.
1852   Lady (Isabella Augusta) Gregory, Irish playwright, helped found the Abbey Theatre.
1888   Knute Rockne, football player and coach for Notre Dame.
1901   Charles Goren, world expert on the game of bridge.
1904   Ding Ling, Chinese writer and women’s rights activist.
1928   Alan Sillitoe, novelist (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner).
1932   Miriam Makeba, South African singer.
1934   Jane Goodall, British anthropologist, known for her work with African chimpanzees.

- See more at: http://www.historynet.com/today-in-history#sthash.6XI5as8V.dpuf

today’s holiday: Omizutori Matsuri (2015)


Omizutori Matsuri (2015)

Omizutori Matsuri is marked by religious rites that have been observed for 12 centuries at the Buddhist Todaiji Temple in the city of Nara, Japan. During this period of meditative rituals in the first two weeks of March, the drone of recited sutras and the sound of blowing conchs echo from the temple. On March 12, young monks on the temple gallery brandish burning pine-branches, shaking off burning pieces. Spectators below try to catch the sparks, believing they have magic power against evil. On March 13, the ceremony of drawing water is observed to the accompaniment of ancient music. More… Discuss

quotation: “There is no religion without love…” Anna Sewell


There is no religion without love, and people may talk as much as they like about their religion, but if it does not teach them to be good and kind to man and beast, it is all a sham.Anna Sewell (1820-1878) Discuss

today’s birthday: Henry the Navigator (1394)


Henry the Navigator (1394)

Henry the Navigator, a Portuguese prince, figured strongly in Portugal’s early development as a colonial empire. Though not a navigator himself, Henry was a great patron of exploration and is credited with establishing a school for navigators and encouraging the study of navigational instruments and cartography. Under his patronage, Portuguese sailors explored and colonized Madeira, the Cape Verde Islands, and the Azores. Where did Henry get the money to fund these expeditions? More… Discuss

word: potentate


potentate

Definition: (noun) One who has the power and position to rule over others.
Synonyms: dictator
Usage: She was a potentate in her home, all her relatives being too cowed to protest her decisions. Discuss.

History of Palestine


History of Palestine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The history of Palestine is the study of the past in the region of Palestine, generally defined as a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands. Situated at a strategic location between Egypt, Syria and Arabia, and the birthplace of major Abrahamic religions[1] the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture, commerce, and politics. Palestine has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including the Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, Tjekker, Ancient Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, early Muslims (Umayads, Abbasids, Seljuqs, Fatimids), Crusaders, later Muslims (Ayyubids, Mameluks, Ottomans), the British, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1948–1967, on the “West Bank“) and Egyptian Republic (in Gaza), and modern Israelis and Palestinians. Other terms for the same area include Canaan, Zion, the Land of Israel, Southern Syria, Jund Filastin, Outremer, the Holy Land and the Southern Levant.

The region was among the earliest in the world to see human habitation, agricultural communities and civilization. During the Bronze Age, independent Canaanite city-states were established, and were influenced by the surrounding civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Minoan Crete, and Syria. During 1550–1400 BCE, the Canaanite cities became vassals to the Egyptian New Kingdom who held power until the 1178 BCE Battle of Djahy (Canaan) during the wider Bronze Age collapse. Modern archaeologists dispute parts of the Biblical tradition, the latest thinking being that the Israelites emerged from a dramatic social transformation that took place in the people of the central hill country of Canaan around 1200 BCE, with no signs of violent invasion or even of peaceful infiltration of a clearly defined ethnic group from elsewhere.[2] The Philistines, part of Sea Peoples of Southern Europe, arrived and mingled with the local population, and according to Biblical tradition, the United Kingdom of Israel was established in 1020 BCE and split within a century to form the northern Kingdom of Israel, and the southern Kingdom of Judah. The region became part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from c. 740 BCE, which was itself replaced by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in c. 627 BCE. A war with Egypt culminated in 586 BCE when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II and the local leaders were deported to Babylonia, only to be allowed to return under the Achaemenid Empire.

In the 330s BCE, Alexander the Great conquered the area now called Palestine, and the region changed hands numerous times during the wars of the Diadochi, ultimately joining the Seleucid Empire between 219 and 200 BCE. In 116 BCE, a Seleucid civil war resulted in the independence of certain regions including the minor Hasmonean principality in the Judean Mountains. From 110 BCE, the Hasmoneans extended their authority over much of the area, creating a JudeanSamaritanIdumaeanIturaeanGalilean alliance.[3] The Judean (Jewish, see Ioudaioi) control over the wider region resulted in it also becoming known as Judaea, a term that had previously only referred to the smaller region of the Judean Mountains. During 73–63 BCE, the Roman Republic extended its influence into the region in the Third Mithridatic War, conquering Judea in 63 BCE, and splitting the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts. In 70 CE, Titus sacked Jerusalem, resulting in the dispersal of the city’s Jews and Christians to Yavne and Pella. In 132 CE, Hadrian joined the province of Judaea with Galilee to form a new province and renamed it Syria Palaestina, and Jerusalem was renamed “Aelia Capitolina“. During 259–272, the region fell under the rule of Odaenathus as King of the Palmyrene Empire. Following the victory of Christian emperor Constantine in the Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy (306–324), the Christianization of the Roman Empire began, and in 326, Constantine‘s mother Saint Helena visited Jerusalem and began the construction of churches and shrines. Palestine became a center of Christianity, attracting numerous monks and religious scholars. The Samaritan Revolts during this period caused their near extinction.

Palestine was conquered by the Islamic Empire following the 636 CE Battle of Yarmouk during the Muslim conquest of Syria. In 661 CE, with the assassination of Ali, Muawiyah I became the uncontested Caliph of the Islamic World after being crowned in Jerusalem. In 691, the Dome of the Rock became the world’s first great work of Islamic architecture. The Umayyad were replaced by the Abbasids in 750. From 878 Palestine was ruled from Egypt by semi-autonomous rulers for almost a century, beginning with Ahmad ibn Tulun, and ending with the Ikhshidid rulers who were both buried in Jerusalem. The Fatimids conquered the region in 969. In 1073 Palestine was captured by the Great Seljuq Empire, only to be recaptured by the Fatimids in 1098, who then lost the region to the Crusaders in 1099. Their control of Jerusalem and most of Palestine lasted almost a century until defeat by Saladin‘s forces in 1187, after which most of Palestine was controlled by the Ayyubids. A rump Crusader state in the northern coastal cities survived for another century, but, despite seven further Crusades, the Crusaders were no longer a significant power in the region. The Mamluk Sultanate was indirectly created in Egypt as a result of the Seventh Crusade. The Mongol Empire reached Palestine for the first time in 1260, beginning with the Mongol raids into Palestine under Nestorian Christian general Kitbuqa and reaching an apex at the pivotal Battle of Ain Jalut. In 1486, hostilities broke out between the Mamluks and the Ottoman Turks and the Ottomans captured Palestine in 1516.

In 1832, the region was conquered by Muhammad Ali‘s Egypt, but, in 1840, Britain intervened and returned control of the Levant to the Ottomans in return for further capitulations.[citation needed] The turbulent period of Egyptian rule experienced two major revolts (the 1834 Arab Peasants revolt and 1838 Druze revolt) and a significant demographic change in coastal areas, populated by Egyptian Arab peasants and former soldiers of Ali. The end of the 19th century saw the beginning of Zionist immigration and the revival of the Hebrew language. Increasing Jewish immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries added considerably to the Jewish communities in Jerusalem, Safed, Tiberias and Jaffa.[4]

During World War I the British government issued the pro-Zionist Balfour Declaration of 1917. The British captured Jerusalem a month later. The League of Nations formally awarded Britain a mandate over Palestine in 1922. The land west of the Jordan River was under direct British administration until 1948, while the land east of the Jordan was a semi-autonomous region known as Transjordan, under the rule of the Hashemite family from the Hijaz, and gained independence in 1946. The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs against British colonial rule and mass Jewish immigration.

After the Nazi Holocaust, pressure grew for the international recognition of a Jewish state in Palestine. In 1947, the British Government announced its intention to terminate the Mandate. The United Nations General Assembly voted to partition Palestine into independent Arab and Jewish states, with a special international regime for Jerusalem. The Arabs rejected the partition of Palestine, but the Jews declared the independence of the State of Israel in May 1948. During the 1948 Palestine War, Israel overran far more territory than was proposed by the Partition Plan; Jordan captured the region today known as the West Bank, while in the Gaza Strip the All-Palestine Government was announced in September 1948. In what is known as the Nakba, or “Catastrophe”, hundreds of Palestinian villages and over 70,000 Palestinian homes were ruined and destroyed .[5] 700,000 Palestinians fled or were driven from their native land by the Israelis. The Palestinian refugees were unable to return following the Lausanne Conference, 1949.[citation needed] During and after the 1948 war, a wave of Jewish refugees from Arab countries arrived in Palestine, further exacerbating the situation for Palestinian Arabs. The question of the right to return of the refugeees and their descendants remains a source of dispute.[6] The All-Palestinian Government was later moved from Gaza to Cairo and eventually dissolved in 1959 by Egyptian President Nasser. Gaza was taken into Egyptian military administration.

The Palestinian national movement gradually regrouped in the West Bank and Gaza, and in refugee camps in neighbouring Arab states. The Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) emerged as its leading umbrella group. During the Six Day War in June 1967, Israel seized East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan and Gaza from Egypt, as well as the Golan Heights from Syria. Despite international objections and UN resolutions, Israel began a policy of establishing illegal Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories.[7] The PLO under Yasser Arafat gradually won international recognition as the representative of the Palestinian people. From 1987 to 1993, the First Palestinian Intifada against Israel took place, ending with the 1993 Oslo Peace Accords. These accords established a Palestinian National Authority (PNA – also referred to as the Palestinian Authority, or PA) as an interim body to run parts of Gaza and the West Bank (but not East Jerusalem) pending an agreed solution to the conflict.

During the Second Intifada (2000-2005), Israel withdrew from the Gaza Strip and began building the West Bank barrier. In 2006, Hamas won the Palestinian legislative elections and took control of the Gaza Strip in 2007, triggering the Israeli and Egyptian Blockade of the Gaza Strip (2007-the present). In 2008-09 and again in 2014, Israel bombed millitants in Gaza in response to rocket fire. These operations were however criticized for causing civilian deaths.[8][9]

In October 2011, UNESCO admitted the “State of Palestine” as a member in October. In November 2012, the State of Palestine was upgraded in the UN to non-member observer state status, a move that allows it to take part in General Assembly debates and improves its chances of joining other UN agencies.

Ancient period

Proto-Canaanite period

A dwelling unearthed at Tell es-Sultan, Jericho

The earliest human remains in Palestine were found in Ubeidiya, some 3 km south of the Sea of Galilee (Lake Tiberias), in the Jordan Rift Valley. The remains are dated to the Pleistocene, c. 1.5 million years ago. These are traces of the earliest migration of Homo erectus out of Africa. The site yielded hand axes of the Acheulean type.[10]

Wadi El Amud between Safed and the Sea of Galilee was the site of the first prehistoric dig in Palestine, in 1925. The discovery of Palestine Man in the Zuttiyeh Cave in Wadi Al-Amud near Safed in 1925 provided some clues to human development in the area.[11][12] Qafzeh is a paleoanthropological site south of Nazareth where eleven significant fossilised Homo sapiens skeletons have been found at the main rock shelter. These anatomically modern humans, both adult and infant, are now dated to about 90–100,000 years old, and many of the bones are stained with red ochre, which is conjectured to have been used in the burial process, a significant indicator of ritual behavior and thereby symbolic thought and intelligence. 71 pieces of unused red ochre also littered the site. Mount Carmel has yielded several important findings, among them Kebara Cave that was inhabited between 60,000–48,000 BP and where the most complete Neanderthal skeleton found to date. The Tabun cave was occupied intermittently during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic ages (500,000 to around 40,000 years ago). Excavations suggest that it features one of the longest sequences of human occupation in the Levant. In the nearby Es Skhul cave excavations revealed the first evidence of the late Epipalaeolithic Natufian culture, characterized by the presence of abundant microliths, human burials and ground stone tools. This also represents one area where Neanderthals—present in the region from 200,000 to 45,000 years ago—lived alongside modern humans dating to 100,000 years ago.[13] In the caves of Shuqba in Ramallah and Wadi Khareitun in Bethlehem, stone, wood and animal bone tools were found and attributed to the Natufian culture (c. 12,800–10,300 BCE). Other remains from this era have been found at Tel Abu Hureura, Ein Mallaha, Beidha and Jericho.[14]

Between 10,000 and 5000 BCE, agricultural communities were established. Evidence of such settlements were found at Tel es-Sultan in Jericho and consisted of a number of walls, a religious shrine, and a 23-foot (7.0 m) tower with an internal staircase[15][16] Jericho is believed to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world, with evidence of settlement dating back to 9000 BCE, providing important information about early human habitation in the Near East.[17] Along the Jericho–Dead SeaBir es-SabaGazaSinai route, a culture originating in Syria, marked by the use of copper and stone tools, brought new migrant groups to the region contributing to an increasingly urban fabric.[18][19][20]

By the early Bronze Age (3000–2200 BCE), independent Canaanite city-states situated in plains and coastal regions and surrounded by mud-brick defensive walls were established and most of these cities relied on nearby agricultural hamlets for their food needs.[18][21] Archaeological finds from the early Canaanite era have been found at Tel Megiddo, Jericho, Tel al-Far’a (Gaza), Bisan, and Ai (Deir Dibwan/Ramallah District), Tel an Nasbe (al-Bireh) and Jib (Jerusalem). The Canaanite city-states held trade and diplomatic relations with Egypt and Syria. Parts of the Canaanite urban civilization were destroyed around 2300 BCE, though there is no consensus as to why. Incursions by nomads from the east of the Jordan River who settled in the hills followed soon thereafter.[18][22]

In the Middle Bronze Age (2200–1500 BCE), Canaan was influenced by the surrounding civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Minoan Crete, and Syria. Diverse commercial ties and an agriculturally based economy led to the development of new pottery forms, the cultivation of grapes, and the extensive use of bronze.[18][23] Burial customs from this time seemed to be influenced by a belief in the afterlife.[18][24] The Middle Kingdom Egyptian Execration Texts attest to Canaanite trade with Egypt during this period.[25][26] The Minoan influence is apparent at Tel Kabri.[27]

New Kingdom Egyptian period

New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE

Map of the Ancient Near East during the Amarna Period, showing the great powers of the day: Egypt (orange), Hatti (blue), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (black), Middle Assyrian Empire (yellow), and Mitanni (brown). The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in purple.

During 1550–1400 BCE, the Canaanite cities became vassals to Egypt as the Egyptian New Kingdom reunited Egypt and expanded into the Levant under Ahmose I and Thutmose I. Political, commercial and military events towards the end of this period (1450–1350 BCE) were recorded by ambassadors and Canaanite proxy rulers for Egypt in 379 cuneiform tablets known as the Amarna Letters.[28] These refer to several local proxy rulers for Egypt such as Biridiya of Megiddo, Lib’ayu of Shechem and Abdi-Heba in Jerusalem. In the first year of his reign pharaoh Seti I (ca.1294-1290 BCE) waged a campaign to resubordinate Canaan to Egyptian rule, thrusting north as far as Beit Shean, and installing local vassals to administer the area in his name. A burial site yielding a scarab bearing his name, found within a Canaanite coffin excavated in the Jezreel Valley, attests to Egypt’s presence in the area.[29] Excavations have established that the late 13th, the 12th and the early 11th centuries BCE witnessed the foundation of perhaps hundreds of insignificant, unprotected village settlements, many in the mountains of Palestine.[30] From around the 11th century BCE, there was a reduction in the number of villages, though this was counterbalanced by the rise of certain settlements to the status of fortified townships.[30]

In 1178 BCE, the Battle of Djahy (Canaan) between Ramesses III and the Sea Peoples marked the beginning of the decline in power of the New Kingdom in the Levant during the wider Bronze Age collapse.[citation needed]

Independent Israelite, Philistine and Canaanite period

During the beginning of the Iron Age (c. 1175 BCE), the Philistines occupied the southern coast of Canaan, and mingled with the local population, losing their separate identity over several generations.[31][32] Pottery remains found in As, Gath (city), Ekron and Gaza decorated with stylized birds provided the first archaeological evidence for Philistine settlement in the region. The Philistines are credited with introducing iron weapons and chariots to the local population.[33]

Modern archaeologists dispute parts of the Biblical tradition.[34] In The Bible Unearthed Finkelstein and Silberman describe how, up until 1967, the Israelite heartland in the highlands of western Palestine was virtually an archaeological ‘terra incognita’. Since then the traditional territories of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh have been covered by intensive surveys. These surveys have revealed the sudden emergence of a new culture contrasting with the Philistine and Canaanite societies existing in Palestine during Iron Age I.[2] This new culture is characterised by the lack of pork remains (whereas pork formed 20% of the Philistine diet in places), an abandonment of the Philistines/Canaanite custom of having highly decorated pottery, and the practice of circumcision. According to Prof. Faust Avraham of Bar-Ilan University, the Israelite ethnic identity had been created, not from the Exodus and a subsequent conquest, but from a transformation of the existing Canaanite-Philistine cultures.[35]

Finkelstein and Silberman write: “These surveys revolutionized the study of early Israel. The discovery of the remains of a dense network of highland villages — all apparently established within the span of few generations — indicated that a dramatic social transformation had taken place in the central hill country of Canaan around 1200 BCE. There was no sign of violent invasion or even the infiltration of a clearly defined ethnic group. Instead, it seemed to be a revolution in lifestyle. In the formerly sparsely populated highlands from the Judean hills in the south to the hills of Samaria in the north, far from the Canaanite cities that were in the process of collapse and disintegration, about two-hundred fifty hilltop communities suddenly sprang up. Here were the first Israelites.”[36]

From then on, over a period of hundreds of years until after the return of the exiles from Babylon, the Canaanites were gradually absorbed by the Israelites until after the period of Ezra (~450 BCE) when there is no more biblical record of them.[37] Hebrew, a dialect of Canaanite became the language of the hill country and later the valleys and plains.[38]

The first use of grapheme-based writing originated in the area, probably among Canaanite peoples resident in Egypt. All modern alphabets are descended from this writing. Written evidence of the use of Classical Hebrew exists from about 1000 BCE. It was written using the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet.

According to the Hebrew Bible, the United Kingdom of Israel was established by the Israelite tribes with Saul as its first king in 1020 BCE.[39] In 1000 BCE, Jerusalem was made the capital of King David‘s kingdom and it is believed that the First Temple was constructed in this period by King Solomon.[39] By 930 BCE, the united kingdom split to form the northern Kingdom of Israel, and the southern Kingdom of Judah.[39] These kingdoms coexisted with several more kingdoms in the greater Palestine area, including Philistine town states on the Southwestern Mediterranean coast, Edom, to the South of Judah, and Moab and Ammon to the East of the river Jordan.[40] The socio-political system during this period was characterized by local patrons fighting other local patrons, lasting until around the mid-9th century BCE when some local chieftains were able to create large political structures that exceeded the boundaries of those present in the Late Bronze Age Levant.[30]

Archaeological evidence from this era is believed to corroborate some Biblical events. In 925 BCE, Pharaoh Sheshonk I of the Third Intermediate Period is recorded to have invaded Canaan following the Battle of Bitter Lakes, and is thought to be the same as Shishak, the first Pharaoh mentioned in the Bible who captured and pillaged Jerusalem. There was an at least partial Egyptian withdrawal from Palestine in this period, though it is likely that Bet Shean was an Egyptian garrison as late as the beginning of the 10th century BCE.[30] The Kurkh Monolith, dated c. 835 BCE, describes King Shalmaneser III of Assyria’s Battle of Qarqar, where he fought alongside the contingents of several kings, among them King Ahab and King Gindibu. The Mesha Stele, from c. 850 BCE, recounts the conquering of Moab, located East of the Dead Sea, by king Omri, and the successful revolt of Moabian king Mesha against Omri’s son, presumably King Ahab (and French scholar André Lemaire reported that line 31 of the Stele bears the phrase “the house of David” (in Biblical Archaeology Review [May/June 1994], pp. 30–37).[41]). Inscriptions at Tel Dan and Tell es-Safi record parts of the conquest of the region by Hazael of Aram Damascus in the 830s BCE.[citation needed]

The Levant c. 830 BCE

Developments in Palestine during this period have been the focus of debate between those who accept the version in the Hebrew Bible of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes, and those who reject it.[42] Niels Peter Lemche, of the Copenhagen School of Biblical Studies, submits that the biblical picture of ancient Israel “is contrary to any image of ancient Palestinian society that can be established on the basis of ancient sources from Palestine or referring to Palestine and that there is no way this image in the Bible can be reconciled with the historical past of the region”.[30] For example, according to Jon Schiller and Hermann Austel, among others, while in the past, the Bible story was seen as historical truth, “a growing number of archaeological scholars, particularly those of the minimalist school, are now insisting that Kings David and Solomon are ‘no more real than King Arthur,’ citing the lack of archaeological evidence attesting to the existence of the United Kingdom of Israel, and the unreliability of biblical texts, due to their being composed in a much later period.”[43][44]

Sites and artifacts, including the Large Stone Structure, Mount Ebal, the Merneptah, and Mesha stelae, among others, are subject to widely varying historical interpretations: the “conservative camp” reconstructs the history of Israel according to the biblical text and views archaeological evidence in that context, while scholars in the minimalist or deconstructionist school hold that there is no archaeological evidence supporting the idea of a United Monarchy (or Israelite nation) and the biblical account is a religious mythology created by Judean scribes in the Persian and Hellenistic periods; a third camp of centrist scholars acknowledges the value of some isolated elements of the Pentateuch and of Deuteronomonistic accounts as potentially valid history of monarchic times that can be in accord with the archaeological evidence, but argue that nevertheless the biblical narrative should be understood as highly ideological and adapted to the needs of the community at the time of its compilation.[45][46][47][48][49][50]

Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires period

Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent

Assyrian inscriptions from c. 740 BCE record the military victories of Tiglath Pileser III in the region, during which period the Neo-Assyrian Empire conquered most of the Levant. The Bible records the Israelite cities becoming vassals to the Neo-Assyrian Empire during this period. At around this time, the Siege of Gezer (c. 733 BCE), 20 miles (32 km) west of Jerusalem, is recorded on a stone relief at the Assyrian royal palace in Nimrud. Further military expeditions into the region are recorded in the annals of Sargon and Sennacherib, as well as in the bible. According to the bible, between 722 and 720 BCE the northern Kingdom of Israel was destroyed by the Assyrian Empire and the Israelite tribes—thereafter known as the Lost Tribes—were exiled.[39] The most important finding from the southern Kingdom of Judah is the Siloam Inscription, dated c. 700 BCE, which celebrates the successful encounter of diggers, digging from both sides of the Jerusalem wall to create the Hezekiah water tunnel and water pool, mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, in 2Kings 20:20.[51][52][53][54]

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was replaced with the Neo-Babylonian Empire in c. 627 BCE, following the death of Ashurbanipal and the successful revolt of Nabopolassar.[citation needed]

The region was controlled briefly by Pharaoh Necho II of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt between the Battle of Megiddo (609 BCE) and the Battle of Carchemish four years later, and further conflict between the Babylonians and the 26th dynasty of Egypt is recorded during 601–586 BCE. According to the bible, this culminated in 586 BCE when Jerusalem and the First Temple were destroyed by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II.[39] Most of the surviving Israelite leaders, and much of the other local population, were deported to Babylonia.[31][55]

Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period

Achaemenid Empire under Darius III
Main article: Yehud Medinata

Following King Cyrus the Great‘s defeat of the Neo-Babylonian Empire at the Battle of Opis, the region became part of the Eber-Nari satrapy or District number V (corresponding the regions of (Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine and Cyprus) according to Herodotus and Arrian, which included three administrative areas: Phoenicia, Judah and Samaria, and the Arabian tribes. The Phoenician cities of Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and Aradus were vassal states ruled by hereditary local kings who struck their own silver coins and whose power was limited by the Persian satrap and local popular assemblies. The economies of these cities were mainly based on maritime trade. During military operations, the Phoenicians were obliged to put their fleet at the disposal of the Persian kings. Judah and Samaria enjoyed considerable internal autonomy. Bullae and seal impressions of the end of the 6th and beginning of the 5th centuries mention the province of Judah. Its governors included Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel under Cyrus and Darius I; Nehemiah ; Bagohi, who succeeded Nehemiah and whose ethnicity is difficult to determine; and “Yehizkiyah the governor” and “Yohanan the priest”, known from coins struck in Judah in the 4th century BCE. From the second half of the 5th century the province of Samaria was governed by Sanballat and his descendants.[56][57][58][59]

According to the bible and implications from the Cyrus Cylinder, Jews were allowed to return to what their holy books had termed the Land of Israel, and having been granted some autonomy by the Persian administration, it was during this period that the Second Temple in Jerusalem was built.[31][60] Sebastia, near Nablus, was the northernmost province of the Persian administration in Palestine, and its southern borders were drawn at Hebron.[31][61] Some of the local population served as soldiers and lay people in the Persian administration, while others continued to agriculture. In 400 BCE, the Nabataeans made inroads into southern Palestine and built a separate civilization in the Negev that lasted until 160 BCE.[31][62] The end of the Persian period was marked by a number of revolts in the region, including a significant uprising against Artaxerxes III in 350 BCE, which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem.[citation needed]

Classical antiquity

Hellenic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic / Seleucid / Hasmonean) period

The Seleucid Empire in c. 200 BCE

Hasmonoen Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra

In the late 330s BCE, Alexander the Great conquered the region, during his six-year Macedonian conquest of the empire of Darius III of Persia. Alexander’s armies took Palestine without complication while traveling to Egypt after the Siege of Tyre, beginning an important period of Hellenistic influence in the land.[63][64]

During 323–301 BCE, the region changed hands numerous times during the wars of the Diadochi, with rulers including Laomedon of Mytilene, Ptolemy I Soter and Antigonus I Monophthalmus. In 312 BCE Ptolemy I Soter defeated Antigonus’ son Demetrius I at the Battle of Gaza, but withdrew from the region shortly thereafter. It is probable that Seleucus I Nicator, then an Admiral under Ptolemy’s command, took part in the battle, as following the battle he was given 800 infantry and 200 cavalry and immediately travelled to Babylon where he founded the Seleucid Empire. The region was finally re-captured by Ptolemy I Soter after Antigonus I Monophthalmus was killed at the Battle of Ipsus. Ptolemy had not taken part in the battle, and the victors Seleucus I Nicator and Lysimachus had carved up the Antigonid Empire between them, with Southern Syria intended to become part of the Seleucid Empire. Although Seleucus did not attempt to conquer the area he was due, Ptolemy’s pre-emptive move led to the Syrian Wars, which began in 274 BCE between the successors of the two leaders. The northern portion of Palestine ultimately fell into the hands of the Seleucid Empire in 219 through the betrayal of Governor Theodotus of Aetolia, who had held the province on behalf of Ptolemy IV Philopator. The Seleucids advanced on Egypt, but were defeated at the Battle of Raphia (Rafah) in 217. However, in 200 BCE Southern Palestine also fell under the control of the Seleucid Empire following the Battle of Panium (part of the Fifth Syrian War) in which Antiochus III the Great defeated the Ptolemies.[65]

The landscape during this period was markedly changed by extensive growth and development that included urban planning and the establishment of well-built fortified cities.[61][63] Hellenistic pottery was produced that absorbed Philistine traditions. Trade and commerce flourished, particularly in the most Hellenized areas, such as Ashkelon, Jaffa,[66] Jerusalem,[67] Gaza,[68] and ancient Nablus (Tell Balatah).[63][69]

The Persians had not interfered with the internal affairs of the various subject-peoples of the region, but the Greeks followed a policy of deliberate Hellenisation, encouraging, although not normally enforcing, Greek culture. Hellenisation took root first in the densely settled coastal and lowland areas, and only really began to impinge on more backward areas such as Judea in the early 2nd century. According to Josephus and the Books of the Maccabees, the continued Hellenization of Palestine by the Seleucids resulted in an uprising in the Judean Mountains, known as the Maccabean Revolt. Although the revolt was quelled in 160 BCE at the Battle of Elasa, the Seleucid Empire entered a period of rapid decline in 145–144 BCE, beginning with the overthrowing of King Alexander Balas at the Battle of Antioch (145 BCE) (the capital of the empire) by Demetrius II Nicator in alliance with Ptolemy VI Philometor of Egypt, as well as the capturing of Seleucia (the previous capital of the empire) by Mithradates I of Parthia. By 116 BCE, a civil war between Seleucid half-brothers Antiochus VIII Grypus and Antiochus IX Cyzicenus resulted in a breakup of the kingdom and the independence of certain principalities, including Judea.[70][71] This allowed Judean leader John Hyrcanus to carry out the first military conquests of the independent Hasmonean kingdom in 110 BCE, raising a mercenary army to capture Madaba and Schechem, significantly increasing the regional influence of Jerusalem[72][73] The Hasmoneans gradually extended their authority over much of the region, forcibly converting the populations of neighbouring regions, and creating a Judean-Samaritan-Idumaean-Ituraean-Galilean alliance in the process.[3] The Judean (Jewish, see Ioudaioi) control over the wider region resulted in it also becoming known as Judaea, a term that had previously only referred to the smaller region of the Judean Mountains.[74][75]

During 73–63 BCE, the Roman Republic extended its influence into the region in the Third Mithridatic War. During the war, Armenian King Tigranes the Great took control of Syria and prepared to invade Judea but retreated following an invasion of Armenia by Lucullus.[76][77] According to Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi writing in c. 482 CE, Tigranes captured Jerusalem and deported Hyrcanus to Armenia, however most scholars deem this account to be incorrect.[78][79]

Roman Iudaea period

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30 BCE – 6 CE

Following the Roman conquest of Judea led by Pompey in 63 BCE, Aulus Gabinius, proconsul of Syria, split the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts of legal and religious councils known as sanhedrin based at Jerusalem, Sepphoris (Galilee), Jericho, Amathus (Perea) and Gadara.[80][81] Roman rule was solidified when Herod, whose dynasty was of Idumean ancestry, was appointed as king.[63][82] Following a brief intervention by Pacorus I of Parthia, from 37 Iudaea under Herod I was a client kingdom of the Roman Empire.

Urban planning under the Romans was characterized by cities designed around the Forum—the central intersection of two main streets—the Cardo, running north-south and the Decumanus running east-west.[83] Cities were connected by an extensive road network developed for economic and military purposes. Among the most notable archaeological remnants from this era are Herodium (Tel al-Fureidis) to the south of Bethlehem,[84] Masada and Caesarea Maritima.[63][85] Herod arranged a renovation of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, with a massive expansion of the Temple Mount platform and major expansion of the Jewish Temple around 19 BCE. The Temple Mount’s natural plateau was extended by enclosing the area with four massive retaining walls and filling the voids. This artificial expansion resulted in a large flat expanse, which today forms the eastern section of the Old City of Jerusalem.[citation needed]

Around the time associated with the birth of Jesus, Roman Palestine was in a state of disarray and direct Roman rule was re-established.[63][86] In 6 CE, the Herodian governorate ended with the deposition of Herod Archelaus as the ethnarch of the Tetrarchy of Judea. The Herodian Dynasty was then replaced by Roman prefects and after 44 CE by procurators, beginning with Coponius. Herodians continued to rule elsewhere in Palestine. Senator Quirinius was appointed Legate of the Roman province of Syria (to which Judea had been “added” according to Josephus[87] though Ben-Sasson claims it was a “satellite of Syria” and not “legally part of Syria”[88]) and carried out the tax census of both Syria and Judea known as the Census of Quirinius. Caesarea Palaestina replaced Jerusalem as the administrative capital of the region.[89]

Most scholars agree that Jesus was a Galilean Jew, born around the beginning of the first century,[90][91] and hold that Jesus lived in Galilee and Judea and did not preach or study elsewhere.[92][93][94] Using the gospel accounts with historical data, most scholars arrive at a date of birth between 6 and 4 CE for Jesus,[95][96] but some propose estimates that lie in a wider range.[99] The general scholarly consensus is that Jesus was a contemporary of John the Baptist and was crucified by Roman governor Pontius Pilate.[100] Most scholars agree that his crucifixion was between 30 and 33 CE.[101][102]

As a result of the First Jewish-Roman War (66–73), Titus sacked Jerusalem (in 70 CE) destroying the Second Temple, leaving only supporting walls, including the Western Wall. According to Josephus, the estimated death toll was 250,000–1,100,000. Pharisee rabbi Yokhanan ben Zakai, a student of Hillel, fled during the siege of Jerusalem to negotiate with the Roman General Titus. Yokhanan obtained permission to reestablish a Sanhedrin in the coastal city of Iamnia (modern Yavne) (see also Council of Jamnia). He founded a school of Torah there that would eventually evolve, through the Mishna in around 200 CE, into Rabbinic Judaism. The region’s leading Christians (Jewish Christians) relocated to Pella. Other Jewish groups such as Sadducees and Essenes are no longer recorded as groups in history.[citation needed]

In 106 CE, the Nabatean territory was incorporated into the Roman province of Arabia.[103]

Roman Syria Palaestina period

The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 CE

In 132 CE, the Emperor Hadrian joined the province of Iudaea (comprising Samaria, Judea proper, and Idumea) with Galilee to form new province of Syria Palaestina. Hadrian probably chose a name that revived the ancient name of Philistia (Palestine), combining it with that of the neighboring province of Syria, in an attempt to suppress Jewish connection to the land.[104][105][106] However Cassius Dio, the Roman historian from whom we have the bulk of our understanding of the revolt, does not mention the change of name nor the reason behind it in his “Roman History”.[107] Jerusalem was renamed “Aelia Capitolina” and temples were built there to honor Roman gods, particularly Jupiter. In 135 CE, the victory in Bar Kokhba’s revolt by Hadrian resulted in 580,000 Jews killed (according to Cassius Dio) and destabilization of the region’s Jewish population.[108]

Jerusalem was re-established as the Roman military colony of Aelia Capitolina; a largely unsuccessful attempt was made to prevent Jews and Christians from living there. Many Jews and Christians left Palestine altogether for the Diaspora communities, and large numbers of prisoners of war were sold as slaves throughout the Empire. Christianity in particular was practiced in secret and the Hellenization of Palestine continued under Septimius Severus (193–211 CE).[63] New pagan cities were founded in Judea at Eleutheropolis (Bayt Jibrin), Diopolis (Lydd), and Nicopolis (Emmaus).[61][63] Some two hundred Jewish communities remained, as gradually certain religious freedoms were restored, such as exemption from the imperial cult and internal self-administration. The Romans made no such concession to the Samaritans, to whom religious liberties were denied, while their sanctuary on Mt.Gerizim was defiled by a pagan temple, as part of measures were taken to suppress the resurgence of Samaritan nationalism.[108]

A number of events with far-reaching consequences took place during this period, including further religious schisms between Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism such as a council held by the bishops of Palestine in Caesarea in 195 that decreed that Easter was to be always kept on a Sunday, and not with the Jewish Passover. The Romans destroyed the community of the Mother Church in Jerusalem, which had existed since the time of Jesus[109] The line of Jewish bishops in Jerusalem, which is claimed to have started with Jesus’s brother James the Righteous as its first bishop, ceased to exist, within the Empire. Hans Kung suggests that the Jewish Christians sought refuge in Arabia and he quotes with approval a view that this created a paradox of truly world-historical significance that while Jewish Christianity was swallowed up in the Christian church, it preserved itself in Islam.[110]

During 259–272, the region fell under the rule of Odaenathus as King of the Palmyrene Empire after the capture of Emperor Valerian by Shapur I at the Battle of Edessa caused the Roman Empire to splinter until Aurelian defeated the Palmyrenes at the Battle of Emesa (Homs).[citation needed]

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Johann Sebastian Bach – Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major, BWV 1050 – I. Allegro


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Today In History. What Happened This Day In History


Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

March 4

1152   Frederick Barbarossa is chosen as emperor and unites the two factions, which emerged in Germany after the death of Henry V.
1461   Henry VI is deposed and the Duke of York is proclaimed King Edward IV.
1634   Samuel Cole opens the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts.
1766   The British Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, the cause of bitter and violent opposition in the colonies
1789   The first Congress of the United States meets in New York and declares that the Constitution is in effect.
1791   Vermont is admitted as the 14th state. It is the first addition to the original 13 colonies.
1793   George Washington is inaugurated as President for the second time.
1797   Vice-President John Adams, elected President on December 7, to replace George Washington, is sworn in.
1801   Thomas Jefferson becomes the first President to be inaugurated in Washington, D.C.
1813   The Russians fighting against Napoleon reach Berlin. The French garrison evacuates the city without a fight.
1861   The Confederate States of America adopt the “Stars and Bars” flag.
1877   The Russian Imperial Ballet stages the first performance of “Swan Lake” in Moscow.
1901   William McKinley is inaugurated president for the second time. Theodore Roosevelt is inaugurated as vice president.
1904   Russian troops begin to retreat toward the Manchurian border as 100,000 Japanese advance in Korea.
1908   The New York board of education bans the act of whipping students in school.
1912   The French council of war unanimously votes a mandatory three-year military service.
1914   Doctor Fillatre of Paris, France successfully separates Siamese twins.
1921   Warren G. Harding is sworn in as America’s 29th President.
1933   Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated to his first term as president in Washington, D.C.
1944   Berlin is bombed by the American forces for the first time.
1952   North Korea accuses the United nations of using germ warfare.
1963   Six people get the death sentence in Paris plotting to kill President Charles de Gaulle.
1970   Fifty-seven people are killed as the French submarine Eurydice sinks in the Mediterranean Sea.
1975   Queen Elizabeth knights Charlie Chaplin.
1987   President Reagan takes full responsibility for the Iran-Contra affair in a national address.
Born on March 4
1394   Prince Henry the Navigator, sponsor of Portuguese voyages of discovery
1678   Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer and violinist.
1747   Casimir Pulaski, American Revolutionary War general.
1852   Lady (Isabella Augusta) Gregory, Irish playwright, helped found the Abbey Theatre.
1888   Knute Rockne, football player and coach for Notre Dame.
1901   Charles Goren, world expert on the game of bridge.
1904   Ding Ling, Chinese writer and women’s rights activist.
1928   Alan Sillitoe, novelist (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner).
1932   Miriam Makeba, South African singer.
1934   Jane Goodall, British anthropologist, known for her work with African chimpanzees.

- See more at: http://www.historynet.com/today-in-history#sthash.jOb7FTDK.dpuf

today’s holiday: Malawi Martyrs’ Day (2015)


Malawi Martyrs’ Day (2015)

March 3 is celebrated as a national holiday in Malawi honoring the political heroes who gave their lives in the struggle against British colonialism. On March 3, 1959, British forces arrested prominent Malawian nationalists and other dissidents, precipitating the deaths of more than 20 demonstrators. In total, 51 were killed, over 1,300 were detained, and many more were wounded. Malawians often attend church services on March 3 and offer prayers for departed freedom fighters. In addition, Radio Malawi plays tribute music to remember those martyred during the 1959 crisis in Central Africa. More… Discuss

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Nature is a mutable cloud which is always and never the same.

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this pressed: Boehner: U.S. is just “poking [ISIS] in the nose”|Info 24.us


Although he said he tries to support President Obama on foreign policy, House Speaker John Boehner, R-Ohio didn’t hold back on criticism of the president’s strategy to defeat the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) in an interview on CBS’ “Face the Nation” Sunday.

“These are barbarians. And we’re over there kind of poking them in the nose. We’re not really there to defeat and destroy,” Boehner said.

He said the U.S. needs “a robust strategy” to take on the group and that lawmakers should give the president an even broader authorization for military force than he requested last month.

The White House submitted a proposal to Congress in February for legislation that would authorize the president to fight ISIS for three years with no restriction on where U.S. forces can go. It bans “enduring offensive combat operations,” an ambiguous term that seeks to bridge the differences between Democrats who fear another prolonged ground war in the Middle East and Republicans who have urged the administration to do whatever it takes to destroy the group.

“I go out of my way to try to be supportive of the president’s foreign policy, when I think he’s right. When it comes to the issue of ISIS, the president said that he wants to destroy and eliminate ISIS. That’s what he said. That’s what the goal is,” Boehner said. “But then he outlines a strategy that nobody believes will accomplish the mission.”

via Boehner: U.S. is just “poking }[ISIS] in the nose”.

from EUZICASA: Henry and June Movie: soundtrack playlist: 17 videos


Lucienne Boyer – Parlez-Moi D’Amour [1930]

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just a thought: “Pirates worst day at work: No matter how much they hammered at those statues…the gold was not hidden in there!”


just a thought: “Pirates worst day at work: No matter how much they hammered at those statues…the gold was not hidden in there!”

this pressed for history: Iraq’s National Museum To Open For First Time Since 2003 Invasion : The Two-Way : NPR


A man looks at ancient Assyrian human-headed winged bull statues at the Iraqi National Museum in Baghdad on Saturday.

Days after video emerged showing self-declared Islamic State extremists taking sledge hammers to pre-Islamic antiquities inside the Mosul museum, the Iraqi government has reopened the country’s national museum, shuttered since the 2003 U.S. invasion of the country that toppled Saddam Hussein.

The National Museum’s reopening was moved up as a retort to the move by ISIS in Mosul, which has been almost universally condemned as a most uncivilized act in a part of the world widely considered the cradle of civilization.

“The events in Mosul led us to speed up our work and we wanted to open it today as a response to what the gangs of Daesh did,” Iraq’s Deputy Tourism Minister Qais Hussein Rashid said, using an Arabic acronym for ISIS.

The National Museum, which displays artifacts from the Mesopotamian era, was looted and then closed after the U.S. invasion. Agence France-Presse quotes Rashid as saying that around 4,300 of the roughly 15,000 looted pieces have been recovered in the past 12 years. Authorities are still tracking down more than 10,000 items in markets and auctions.

via Iraq’s National Museum To Open For First Time Since 2003 Invasion : The Two-Way : NPR.

Cultural Museum of Mosul


Cultural Museum of Mosul

this pressed for humanity: The Plight Of Mosul’s Museum: Iraqi Antiquities At Risk Of Ruin : NPR


July 09, 2014 4:11 PM ET

(As you can see the issue was known to the civilized world for many months! but nothing but meetings and comdemnations were issued, and nothing done to prevent the distruction of humanity’s historic treasures)

http://www.npr.org/v2/?i=330183802&m=330183803&t=audio
http://www.npr.org/v2/?i=330183802&m=330183803&t=audio
http://www.npr.org/2014/07/09/330183802/the-plight-of-mosuls-museum-iraqi-antiquities-at-risk-of-ruin

Christopher Dickey, foreign editor for the Daily Beast, speaks to Melissa Block about the dangers facing antiquities in a museum and other archaeological sites in the Iraqi city of Mosul.

Copyright © 2014 NPR. For personal, noncommercial use only. See Terms of Use. For other uses, prior permission required.

ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I’m Robert Siegel.

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

And I’m Melissa Block. As Sunni insurgents have swept through Iraq seizing cities, they’ve also begun destroying ancient artifacts. Shrines, tombs and statues that the group ISIS believes are against Islam. Present day Iraq was once Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and considered the cradle of civilization. Now there’s great concern that antiquities and archaeological sites will be wiped out. As Christopher Dickey writes in the Daily Beast, it’s a virtual certainty that irreplaceable history will be annihilated or sold into the netherworld of corrupt and cynical collectors. Mr. Dickey joins me not from Paris. Thanks for being with us.

CHRISTOPHER DICKEY: Sure thing Melissa.

BLOCK: And you write of particular concern about the province of Nineveh and the city of Mosul, in particular the Mosul Museum. Describe what’s there and the significance of these artifacts.

DICKEY: Well, what’s at risk are some beautiful monumental sculptures, these winged figures, lions and bulls, with the faces of bearded men – Kings, that clearly were idols in the time of the Assyrians. But that are now part and parcel of the history of Western civilization and biblical history especially. And then we’ve also got gorgeous gold jewelry which certainly will go onto the black market and all kinds of smaller pieces of sculpture, earthenware, the kinds of things that give you the texture as well as the beauty of life in that period. So it’s a rich museum but all of that collection is now in the hands of ISIS.

via The Plight Of Mosul’s Museum: Iraqi Antiquities At Risk Of Ruin : NPR.

euzicasa, o cugetare: despre dor, scoverzi, si Ioana Radu


Dor este in engleza “longing” , in franceza “désir”… apoi daca oamenii de pe acele meleaguri, sufera la fel de dor, asa cum suferim noi, sua daca sufera de dor de casa la fel cum sufera de dor de ibit sau iubita, daca sufera la fel la tinerete, asa cum sufera la batrineta, cred ca la urma urmei, dupa ce tot evestejit, si iarna nu mai pleaca…e dorul de soare si de ultima primavara care e cel mai puternic EUZICASA.
Am vazut niste scoverzi, aici, pe Facebook, si mi s-a facut dor din mai multe puncte de vedere: pentru ca stiu ca nimeni nu face scoverzi asa cum facea mama mare, deasemenea din cauza ca nu as putea sa le ating (din cauza zaharului) chiar daca erau aurite, si din cauza ca era o vreme cand puteam sa maninc cate as fi dorit, pana al refuz. Tot asa cum puteam sa mananc un borcan ce heciumpeci (pasta de macese), si cate si mai cate… spec ca nu am luat prea mult din poezia dorului, numai ca sa umplu spatiul virtual cu sentimente negative. ”
Format: MPEG4; Resolution: 1280×720(HD);…
youtube.com

this pressed from NEWSMAX: McCain, Graham: ‘Deeply Disturbing’ Centcom Revealed Mosul Battle Plan (or Counting your chicks before they hatched?)


McCain, Graham: Leaking of Mosul Battle Plan ‘Deeply Disturbing’

Image: McCain, Graham: Leaking of Mosul Battle Plan 'Deeply Disturbing' Kurdish Peshmerga fighters inspect an rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launcher as they take control of the area, on the outskirts of Mosul. (Stringer/Reuters/Landov)

Monday, 23 Feb 2015 01:22 PM

By John Blosser

Fears that the U.S. military’s Central Command, with the approval of the Obama administration, leaked too many details of the planned joint operation to retake the key Iraqi city of Mosul from Islamic State (ISIS) terrorists have bought a rapid and angry response from U.S. Sens. John McCain, R-Az., and Lindsey Graham, R-S.C. In a letter to the White House, McCain and Graham wrote: “It was deeply disturbing to read today that an official from U.S. Central Command, in an official briefing to the media, provided detailed operational information regarding coalition plans to retake Mosul from ISIL. Never in our memory can we recall an instance in which our military has knowingly briefed our own war plans to our enemies.“These disclosures not only risk the success of our mission, but could also cost the lives of U.S., Iraqi, and coalition forces. Given the serious impact of these disclosures, we want to know who at U.S. Central Command was responsible for this briefing, and whether they had prior approval from the White House to divulge this information.

“Those responsible have jeopardized our national security interests and must be held accountable,” McCain, chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, notes.

An official from Central Command, who was not identified, told reporters not only that the assault would involve up to 25,000 Kurdish and Iraqi troops, but also that it is planned to launch by April or May, giving ISIS forces plenty of time to prepare, The New York Times reports.

The Obama administration appeared to be distancing itself from the announcement, with National Security Council spokeswoman Bernadette Meehan commenting that “the U.S. military makes a judgment about what information is shared regarding their operations,” the Times reports.

quotation: People take more pains to be damned than to be saved.— French Culture


Stravinsky Divertimento from “The Fairy’s Kiss” (Muti-Philadelphia Orchestra with Maetro Mutti.)


Stravinsky Divertimento from “The Fairy’s Kiss” (Muti-Philadelphia Orch.)

this pressed for history of civilization: BBC News – Iraq country profile – overview


Cradle of civilisation

Ziggurat of Ur Iraq is home to several ancient sites, such as the Ziggurat of Ur, a temple thought to be 4,000 years old

Straddling the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and stretching from the Gulf to the Anti-Taurus Mountains, modern Iraq occupies roughly what was once ancient Mesopotamia, one of the cradles of human civilisation.

In the early Middle Ages, Iraq was the heartland of the Islamic Empire, but a brutal Mongol invasion in the 13th century destroyed its importance. Part of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th century, it came under British control after World War I, gaining independence in 1932.

The British-installed monarchy was toppled in 1958, and a coup in 1968 brought the Arab nationalist Ba’ath (Renaissance) party to power. Oil made the country rich and, when Saddam Hussein became president in 1979, petroleum made up 95% of its foreign exchange earnings.

But the 1980-88 war with Iran and the 1991 Gulf War, sparked by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, together with the subsequent imposition of international sanctions, had a devastating effect on its economy and society.

via BBC News – Iraq country profile – overview.